About Yehudah Ya'ish ben Yahudah ibn Yaḥyā, Lord of Aldeia dos Negros
According to Pinsker (sec. 1, p. 5), Yaḥyā is the usual Arabic praenomen equivalent of Judah, whereas ibn Zakarīyā’ represents a not infrequently attested scribal confusion of bin/ibn for Abū, the latter (i.e., Abū Zakarīyā’) being in fact the usual kunya for Judah (see Judah b. Joseph of Qayrawān).
Pinsker, Simcha. Liqquṭe Qadmoniyot (Zur Geschichte des Karaismus und der karäischen Literatur), Vienna, 1860.
Reference: "Divrei ha-Yamim le-Bnei Yahya,( דברי הימים לבני יחייא )", by Eliakim Carmoly, Printed in Frankfort am Main/Rodelheim, Published by: Isak Kaufman, 1850. Genealogy of, and biographical work on, the Yahya family by Eliakim Carmoly. There is an introduction from Carmoly, in which he informs that the Yahya family is one of distinction from the time of Maimonides. Originally achieving greatness in Portugal and Spain, they after settled in Italy and Turkey. The text is preceded by a chart of the family, beginning with the Nasi, Don Yahya, and concluding with Don Gedalia. The text, in seven chapters, is set in a single column, primarily in rabbinic type although there are instances of vocalized square letters, and is accompanied by extensive footnotes. The final page is an announcement of the forthcoming publication of seven minor Yerushalmi tractates by Carmoli. The text of this book was compared to the "bin Yahya Family Tapestry", currently stored in the antiquity archives of Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City, by Abraham Greenstein - grandson of Abraham Gindi HaKohen. The text matches the Tapestry.
We know of the exploits of Ya'ish ibn Yahya as a result of four (4) texts:
- De expugnatione Scalabis" (em português: The Capture of Santarem - written between the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century, by a monk of the Monastery of Santa Cruz of Coimbra.) The text can be found here: http://www.univ-ab.pt/bad/20/62.html
- De expugnatione Lyxbonensi (em português: The capture of Lisbon - written by a crusader who participated in the siege and conquest of Lisbon in 1147 during the Second Crusade . ) The manuscript of the Latin letter is preserved today in Corpus Christi College of Cambridge University in England.
- Divrei ha-Yamim le-Bnei Yahya (( דברי הימים לבני יחייא )", by Eliakim Carmoly, Printed in Frankfort am Main/Rodelheim, Published by: Isak Kaufman, 1850)
- The Livro de Linhagens do Conde D. Pedro (Lineage Book of Count Pedro) is a compilation of lineage data from the previous Livros de Linhagens , and a revised version of the Navarrese Liber regum and the lost Crónica Portuguesa de Espanha e Portugal . These sources are a mixture of family memories and fiction (mythical, legendary, traditional and epic materials). The text begins with a survey of the major lineages of the world, from Adam on, where the allusions to Arthurian legends (via Geoffrey of Monmouth) are particularly noteworthy. The main Portuguese families are set in their Iberian context and the narrative is enriched by several appealing family myths, such as the origin narratives of Dama Pé de Cabra (the Goat Foot Lady) and Dona Marinha (the Sea Lady), as well as examples of shrewdness (adventures of King Ramiro while trying to rescue his wife from Muslim captivity) and heroic exploits, such as the feats of Rodrigo Forjaz, vassal of King Garcia of Galicia, against the Cid. This Lineage Book also conveys the epic deeds of the first Portuguese king, Afonso Henriques and of his preceptor, here named Soeiro Mendes, as well as other local heroes such as Gonçalo Mendes da Maia and battles such as Salado. The book exists only in a version of 228 fols. which incorporates two revisions. It was first compiled in 1340-4 and reworked in 1360-5 and 1380-3, this last time to praise the Pereira family. This work was very popular in the Iberian Peninsula, with over 60 manuscripts in Portuguese and Castilian translations still extant. The Portuguese manuscripts date mainly from the 16th and 17th century. The two oldest manuscripts have illuminations: A1 is known as Nobiliário da Ajuda or Nobiliário do Colégio dos Nobres:Lisbon, Biblioteca da Ajuda, Códice reservado. It dates from the end of the 14th century and might have been a work text used by the reviser of 1380-3. T1 is known as Nobiliário da Torre do Tombo: Lisbon, Torre do Tombo, 1764, late 15th or early 16th century.
Lord of Aldeia dos Negros -- 1st Chief Rabbi of Portugal.
Before that he was a military leader known as Mohammed and, when necessary in Christian lands "Mem Ramires" [in latin his name was "menendo ramiride" a/k/a "Menendes Ramires" in Portuguese]. see "De expugnatione Scalabis" (em português: Da conquista de Santarém') The text was written between the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth century, by a monk of the Monastery of Santa Cruz of Coimbra.
It is from "Menendo Ramiride" that the "House of Mendes" originates...Mendes is a contraction of latin "Menendo" into Portuguese "Menendes"...then Mendes.
The manuscript is titled " sit quomodo captures sanctaren civitas governs alfonso comitis Henrici Filio "(in Portuguese," How was captured the city of Santarem by King Alfonso, son of Count Henry "). After a short prologue there are two parts narrated as having been written in first person by the king himself, with the subtitle " Ab Hinc rex "(" Tell the King ") and" Oration milites recorded ad "(" King's Speech to the military " .)
The name " De expugnatione Scalabis , "for which the manuscript is now known, was assigned by Alexandre Herculaneum , which has included in his collection of medieval Portuguese texts " Portugaliae Monumenta Historica, scripters "(see I), published in 1854 .
ibn Yachya, was a military leader for an Andalusian Muslim leader in Morocco, then for Alfonso 1st King of Portugal, who made him Lord of Unhos Freitas Aldeia dos Negros: Don Yachya ibn Yachya.
Before 1147 , there were several settlements between Leiria and Lisbon. Where Yaish lived, in Lisbon, was a large nucleus of Jews , with synagogues and infrastructure to support Jewish life. Dom Afonso Henriques appointed Yaisch as steward and knight-mor (of the Spanish Order of Santiago [St James]) , was rewarded for services rendered in the fight against the Moors , and granted the Village of Blacks. (A dos Negros); this donation refers to the taking of Obidos (near Aldeia dos Negros) in 1148. In the Register of Population of the Kingdom, made by King Juan III, in 1527 , the Village of Blacks had about 90 inhabitants).
The Synagogue of Obidos is located in the old Jewish Quarter and dates to the 7th Century C.E where a Jewish community was re-established after the Visigoths seized the village in 5th Century C.E.. Obidos was liberated in 1148, by the Jewish vizier, Yaish ibn Yahya; in return for its liberation King Afonso Henriques I rewarded Yaish ibn Yahya with a nearby town and annointed him "Lord of Unhos, Frielas and Aldeia dos Negros". The synagogue of Obidos is not generally referenced in history books as the oldest known Synagogue in Europe - but it is...by many centuries...
Being Jewish Yaish ibn Yahya, refused to wear the symbol of the cross, wear wear a white tunic, or shiny armor, he nontheless patina'd his armor black, wore a black tunic - hence the nickname “el Negro” - whether this is the origin of lore concerning “The Black Knight” is open to speculation. Regardless, “The Village of Blacks” therefore, has nothing to do with the African Negro Moors (Amazigh people, the Moorish Berbers), with only the name given to a nearby village of Óbidos, "colonized" by the Jewish warriors who followed Yaish ibn Yahya and fought alongside the Christians, alongside their Portuguese brothers.
Don Yahya has at least two (2) sons – Yaish and Yosef; Yosef dies in the Conquest of Silves in 1189 which was outside the present-day city of Faro, Portugal. Under Muslim rule, Silves prospered to the point of being called the Baghdad of the West. The town was finally taken from the last Muslim king Ibn Afan by Paio Peres Correia, Grand-Master of the Knights of the Order of Santaigo (St James) in 1242, after the Alentejo (the southern 1/3 of Portugal) and most of the coast had already fallen in 1238.
The great mosque was changed into Silves Cathedral (Sé Catedral). In 1491 the town was given to queen Leonora by King João. The town of Silves dates back to the Arab invasion of the Peninsula in the mid-700's. Yahia Ben Bakr, a descendant of Yahya Ibn Yaish and convert to Christianity, held political office and executed important construction in the city of Faro. He is credited with constructing the city wall, as well as its iron gates, around the perimeter of the city. Faro was the very last town of the Reconquista.
Ya'ish was the son or grandson of Chiya al Daudi, who was a direct descendent of the last Exilarchs of Babylon - David ben Zakkai and Hezekiah. The Exilarchs of Babylon traced their ancestry to King David and based their power on that claim. So, by the way, does Queen Elizabeth.
Wikipedia entry: "Descendants of the house of exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became extinct. A descendant of Hezekiah, Hiyya al-Daudi, Gaon of Andalucia, died in 1154 in Castile (according to Abraham ibn Daud)." -------------------- Yahia Ben Yahi III
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yahia Ben Yahi III, also known as Jahia Negro Ibn Ya'isch, was a Sephardi Jew born in Cordoba in 1115 to Yahia Ben Rabbi, also known as Yahya Ha-Nasi, Yahya Ibn Yaish or Don Yahia "El Negro", (known as Lord of the Aldeia dos Negros, Portugal - English: Village of the Blacks), the son of Yahia Ben Rabbi and said to be a direct descendent of the Exilarchs of Babylon.
King Afonso I of Portugal entrusted Yahia Ben Yahi III with the post of supervisor of tax collection and nominated him the first Chief-Rabbi of Portugal. King Sancho I of Portugal continued his father's policy, making Jose Ben Yahia, the grandson of Yahia Ben Rabbi, High Steward of the Realm. The clergy, however, invoking the restrictions of the Fourth Council of the Lateran, brought considerable pressure to bear against the Jews during the reign of King Dinis I of Portugal, but the monarch maintained a conciliatory position. Yahia ben Yahi III died in 1185 in Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal.
At some point, some of Yahia Ben Yahi III's descendants seem to have converted to Christianity. Amongs these, no longer Jews, but Mozarabs (Iberian Christians living under Muslim domination), would be Yahia Ben Bakr, Bakr Ben Yahia and Aloandro Ben Bekar, all Governors of the city of Faro, in the Algarve. The latter would become father to Madragana, who would become a mistress to king Afonso III of Portugal, and ancestor of many celebrities.