Duncan II, King of Scots

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Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim, II

Also Known As: "Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim", "Duncan II mac Maíl Coluim", "King of Scotland", "Duncan MacMalcolm", "Duncan II"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Athol, Perth, Scotland
Death: Died in murdered by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns at Edinburgh, Scotland
Place of Burial: Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Malcolm III, 'Canmore', King of Scots and Ingibjörg Finnsdóttir
Husband of Æthelreda, of Northumbria
Father of Uilleam Earl of Moray mac Donnchada
Brother of Máel Coluim mac Máel Coluim and Donald
Half brother of Aethelred / Aedh, 1st Earl of Fife; Étgar King Of Scots, King of Scots; Edmund of Scotland mac Máel Coluim; Edward mac Máel Coluim; Alexander I, King of Scotland and 7 others

Occupation: King of Scotland (1094), King of Scotland
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Duncan II, King of Scots

Duncan II of Scotland, Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)[1] anglicised as Duncan II (before c. 1060 – 12 November 1094) was king of Scots. He was son of Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson.

Duncan was given into the keeping of William I of England in 1072 as a hostage, and spent many years at court, where he was exposed to the newly arrived Norman culture. His father, who had many sons, appears to have made no effort to obtain Duncan's return. By the reign of William II, Douncan was probably a member of the Norman court rather than a hostage, and he was knighted by the English King.

His father's chosen successor was Duncan's half-brother Edward, who died in the same combat during the invasion of Northumbria in 1093 as did Malcolm III. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada), who reigned as Donald III, and Malcolm's other sons joined their half-brother Duncan in England.

Duncan received William II's tacit support for the Scottish kingship, but the English king did not extend direct support as he planned a campaign in Normandy. It is probably in the period 1093–1094 that Duncan married Uchtreda of Northumbria, daughter of Gospatric, Earl of Dunbar and Northumbria, although an earlier betrothal has been proposed. Accompanied by his Anglo-Norman followers, and perhaps by the elder of his half-brothers, Duncan easily defeated Donalbane in the early summer of 1094, but appears to have had little support north of the Forth, being reliant on his Northumbrian, English and Norman allies.

A revolt later in 1094 was directed against Duncan's followers rather than the new king, but many of the Normans were killed and the rest sent away in order to settle the revolt. Donalbane's supporters appear to have rallied again, and Duncan was murdered late in 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.

His son by Uchtreda, William fitz Duncan, was a prominent figure during the reigns of Duncan's half-brothers Alexander and David.

References

^ Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim is the Mediaeval Gaelic form

Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1

Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8

Oram, Richard, David I: The King Who Made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud, 2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X

Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 40-22, 40-23, 40-24, 171-22

Medieval Lands

Duncan II of Scotland

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIIdied1094

King Malcolm III & [his first wife] had [two] children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). William of Malmesbury names Duncan as illegitimate son of King Malcolm, when recording that he was knighted by William II King of England[263].

There is no indication of the identity of Duncan's mother, as explained above. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a child when given as a hostage in 1072, which precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate, although there is no indication that he was thereby excluded from succession to the throne. "Dunecanus fili regii Malcolum constans hereditarie rex Scotie" donated property to the monks of St Cuthbert for the souls of his father, "fratri mei, uxore mea et infans mei" (all unnamed), by charter dated 1093, witnessed by "Eadgari, [Etheread], Aceard, Ulf, Malcolub[264], Hormer, Heming, Ælfric, Teodbold, Earnulf"[265]. The copy in Early Scottish Charters lists the witnesses in a different order, and adds "Grentonis…Vinget"[266]. He was given as a hostage to William I King of England at Abernethy in 1072 to guarantee his father's good behaviour[267].

The Annals of Ulster record that the "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage" in 1072[268], which presumably refers to Duncan as any of his half-brothers (if then born) would have been infants at the time. He was kept in Normandy. Florence of Worcester records that Robert III "Curthose" Duke of Normandy released "Ulfam Haroldi quondam regis Anglorum filium, Dunechaldumque regis Scottorum Malcolmi filium" from custody after his father's death in Sep 1087, knighted them and allowed them to leave Normandy[269]. He joined William II King of England and remained at his court in England[270]. Florence of Worcester records that Duncan served in the army of King William II, who supported his bid to depose his uncle, and to whom Duncan swore fealty before leaving for Scotland[271]. He deposed his uncle in 1094 and proclaimed himself DUNCAN II King of Scotland[272]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[273]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[274].

The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond" in 1094[275]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan was "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald"[276]. Florence of Worcester records that "Scotti regem…Dunechan" was killed in [1094][277]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donechat mac Malcolm" was killed "a Malpeder Mackcolm comite de Merns in Monacheden" through the treachery of "Donald mac Donehat"[278]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys…Malpetri, in Scottish, Malpedir, through the wiles of his uncle Donald" as was buried "in the island of Iona"[279].

m ([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife Ethelreda --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua”[280]. The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” was succeeded by “Alanus filius Waldevi”[281]. It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda´s first husband and Waltheof her second husband. She married secondly Waltheof.

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]). His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[282]. That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei". As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder. "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[283].

The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” was succeeded by “Alanus filius Waldevi”[284], suggesting that William was created Earl of Moray. Lord of Skipton and Craven, by right of his second wife.

--------------------

Links:

The Peerage: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10474.htm#i104735

Geneall: http://www.geneall.net/U/per_page.php?id=9429

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan_II_of_Scotland -------------------- Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim), anglicised as Duncan II (before c. 1060 – 12 November 1094), was king of Scots. He was son of Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson.

Early life:

Duncan was given into the keeping of William I of England in 1072 as a hostage, and spent many years at court, where he was exposed to the newly arrived Norman culture. His father, who had many sons, appears to have made no effort to obtain Duncan's return. By the reign of William II, Duncan was probably a member of the Norman court rather than a hostage, and he was knighted by the English King.

His father's chosen successor was Duncan's half-brother Edward, who died in the same combat during the invasion of Northumbria in 1093 as did Malcolm III. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada), who reigned as Donald III, and Malcolm's other sons joined their half-brother Duncan in England.

Rule:

Duncan received William II's tacit support for the Scottish kingship, but the English king did not extend direct support, as he planned a campaign in Normandy. It is probably in the period 1093–1094 that Duncan married Uchtreda of Northumbria, daughter of Gospatric, Earl of Dunbar and Northumbria, although an earlier betrothal has been proposed. Accompanied by his Anglo-Norman followers, and perhaps by the elder of his half-brothers, Duncan easily defeated Donalbane in the early summer of 1094, but appears to have had little support north of the Forth, being reliant on his Northumbrian, English and Norman allies.

Death:

A revolt later in 1094 was directed against Duncan's followers rather than the new king, but many of the Normans were killed and the rest sent away in order to settle the revolt. Donalbane's supporters appear to have rallied again, and Duncan was murdered late in 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.

Legacy:

His son by Uchtreda, William fitz Duncan, was a prominent figure during the reigns of Duncan's half-brothers Alexander and David.

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Duncan II, King of Scots's Timeline

1059
1059
Athol, Perth, Scotland
1090
1090
Age 31
Scotland
1094
May 1094
- November 1094
Age 35
Scotland
November 12, 1094
Age 35
murdered by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns at Edinburgh, Scotland
November 12, 1094
Age 35
Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland
1094
Age 35
Scotland
1894
February 20, 1894
Age 35
1895
February 20, 1895
Age 35
2010
March 7, 2010
Age 35
Hyrup, Danmark