Earl Godwin, Earl of Wessex (c.1001 - 1053)

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About Earl Godwin, Earl of Wessex

Godwin, Earl of Wessex From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Godwin of Wessex Reign 1019–1053 Spouse Thyra Sveinsdóttir Gytha Thorkelsdóttir Issue Sweyn, Earl of Herefordshire Harold II, King of England Tostig, Earl of Northumbria Edith, Queen of England Gyrth, Earl of East Anglia Gunhilda Ælfgifu Leofwine, Earl of Kent Wulfnoth House House of Godwin Born 990 Died 15 April 1053

Godwin of Wessex (Old English: Gōdwine) (990 – 15 April 1053), was one of the most powerful lords in England under the Danish king Cnut the Great and his successors. Cnut made him the first Earl of Wessex. Godwin was the father of King Harold Godwinson and Edith of Wessex, wife of King Edward the Confessor. Contents

   * 1 Rise: support of Edmund, then Cnut
   * 2 Height of power: support of Harold
   * 3 Later conflicts, decline, and death
   * 4 Children
         o 4.1 Family Trees
   * 5 In popular culture
   * 6 Sources
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 External links

Rise: support of Edmund, then Cnut

Godwin's father was possibly Wulfnoth Cild who was a thegn of Sussex, although later documents describe his father as a churl.[1] Wulfnoth led a section of the royal fleet into piracy and as a consequence had his lands forfeited, and was exiled. In his day, Earl Godwin was seen as very much of a new man, who had been "made" by two advantageous marriages to Danish noblewomen.

Godwin was a major supporter of Edmund Ironside, the son of King Æthelred the Unready. While Edmund was in rebellion against his father, Cnut and his army invaded England. Edmund was killed, along with many of his supporters, but Godwin survived and pledged his loyalty to Cnut.

By 1018 he was an earl, probably of eastern Wessex, and then by around 1020 of all Wessex.[2] Between 1019 and 1023 he accompanied Cnut on an expedition to Denmark, where he distinguished himself, and shortly afterwards married Gytha, the sister of the Danish earl, Ulf, who was married to Cnut's sister, Estrid.[3]

Height of power: support of Harold

On 12 November 1035, Cnut died. His kingdoms were divided among three rival rulers. Harold Harefoot, Cnut's illegitimate son with Ælfgifu of Northampton, seized the throne of England. Harthacnut, Cnut's legitimate son with Emma of Normandy, reigned in Denmark. Norway rebelled under Magnus the Noble. In 1035, the throne of England was reportedly claimed by Alfred Ætheling, younger son of Emma of Normandy and Æthelred the Unready, and half-brother of Harthacnut. Godwin is reported to have either captured Alfred himself or to have deceived him by pretending to be his ally and then surrendering him to the forces of Harold Harefoot. Either way Alfred was blinded and soon died at Ely.

In 1040, Harold Harefoot died and Godwin supported the accession of his half-brother Harthacnut to the throne of England. When Harthacnut himself died in 1042 Godwin finally supported the claim of his half-brother Edward the Confessor to the throne. Edward was another son of Emma and Æthelred, having spent most of the previous thirty years in Normandy. His reign restored the native royal house of Wessex to the throne of England.

Later conflicts, decline, and death

Despite his alleged responsibility for the death of Edward's brother Alfred, Godwin secured the marriage of his daughter Edith (Eadgyth) to Edward in 1045. As Edward drew advisors, nobles and priests from his former place of refuge in a bid to develop his own power base, Godwin soon became the leader of opposition to growing Norman influence. After a violent clash between the people of Dover and the visiting Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, Edward's brother-in-law, Godwin was ordered to punish the people of Dover (as he and Leofric, Earl of Mercia had done in Worcester, in Leofric's own earldom). This time, however, Godwin refused, choosing to champion his own countrymen against a (visiting) foreign ruler and his own king. Edward rightly saw this as a test of power, and managed to enlist the support of Siward, Earl of Northumbria and Earl Leofric. Godwin and his sons were exiled from the kingdom in September 1051. However, they returned the following year with an armed force, which gained the support of the navy, burghers, and peasants, so compelling Edward to restore his earldom. This however set a precedent to be followed by a rival earl some years later, and then by Godwin's own son in 1066.

On 15 April 1053 Godwin died suddenly, after collapsing during a royal banquet at Winchester. Some colourful accounts claim that he choked on a piece of bread while denying any disloyalty to the king.[4] However this appears to be later Norman propaganda. Contemporary accounts indicate that he just had a sudden illness, possibly a stroke.[5]

His son Harold succeeded him as Earl of Wessex, an area then covering roughly the southernmost third of England. With the death of Earl Siward (1055) and later Earl Ælfgar (1062), the children of Godwin were poised to assume sole control. Tostig was helped into the earldom of Northumbria, thus controlling the north. The Mercian earl was sidelined, especially after Harold and Tostig broke the Welsh-Mercian alliance in 1063. Harold later succeeded Edward the Confessor and became King of England in his own right. At this point, both Harold's remaining brothers in England were earls in their own right, Harold was himself king and in control of Wessex, and he had married the sister of Earl Edwin of Mercia and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria (who had succeeded his brother Tostig). Godwin's family looked set to inaugurate a new royal dynasty.

Children

  1. Sweyn Godwinson, Earl of Herefordshire (c. 1023-1052). At some point he declared himself an illegitimate son of Cnut the Great but this is considered to be a false claim.
  2. Harold II of England (c. 1022-14 October 1066)
  3. Tostig Godwinson, Earl of Northumbria (c. 1026-25 September 1066)
  4. Edith of Wessex, (c. 1030-19 December 1075), queen consort of Edward the Confessor
  5. Gyrth Godwinson (c. 1030-14 October 1066)
  6. Gunhilda of Wessex, a nun (c. 1035-1080)
  7. Ælfgifu of Wessex (c. 1035)
  8. Leofwine Godwinson, Earl of Kent (c. 1035-14 October 1066)
  9. Wulfnoth Godwinson (c. 1040)
Family Trees
   * House of Wessex family tree
   * Godwin family tree
   * Cnut's family tree

In popular culture

Godwin has been portrayed by Torin Thatcher in the film Lady Godiva of Coventry (1955) and by Bill Wallis in an episode of the British educational TV series Historyonics entitled "1066" (2004). Lewis Collins is set to portray him in upcoming movie 1066 (2011). Godwin is also the lead character of Justin Hill's novel, Shieldwall (2011).

Sources:

   * Mason, Emma. The House of Godwine: The History of Dynasty. Hambledon Press, 2003.
   * Stenton, F.M. Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford History of England), 2001.
   * Thorne, J.O. and Collocott, T.C. Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Revised Edition. (Edinburgh: Chambers, 1984) ISBN 0-550-16010-8
   * Walker, Ian. Harold: The Last Anglo-Saxon King, 1997.

Peerage of England New title Earl of Wessex c. 1019–1053 Succeeded by Harold Godwinson New title Earl of Kent 1020–1053 Succeeded by Leofwine Godwinson

Notes

  1. ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, page 569
  2. ^ Ann Williams, Godwine, Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
  3. ^ Pauline Stafford, 'Edith, Edward's Wife and Queen', in Richard Mortimer ed., Edward the Confessor: The Man and the Legend, The Boydell Press, 2009, p. 121
  4. ^ According to Three Men in a Boat: "Old Windsor (sic) is a famous spot in its way. Edward the Confessor had a palace here, and here the great Earl Godwin was proved guilty by the justice of that age of having encompassed the death of the King's brother. Earl Godwin broke a piece of bread and held it in his hand. 'If I am guilty,' said the Earl, 'may this bread choke me when I eat it!' Then he put the bread into his mouth and swallowed it, and it choked him, and he died."
  5. ^ According to the Abingdon version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: "1053: In this year the king was at Winchester at Easter, and with him earl Godwin and earl Harold, his son, and Tostig. When on the second day of Easter he (i.e. Godwin) sat at table with the king, he suddenly sank down against the footstool, speechless and helpless: he was carried into the king's chamber and it was thought it would pass off, but it was not to be; yet he lingered on like this, unable to speak and helpless, until the Thursday, and then gave up his life.

External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Godwin, Earl of Wessex

   * Godwin, Earl of Wessex at Genealogics
   * Discussion on soc.genealogy medieval of Godwin's genealogy and possible descent from Alfred the Great's brother.
   * Regia Anglorum Kingmakers - the story of the House of Godwin

Persondata Name Godwin, Earl Of Wessex Alternative names Short description Date of birth Place of birth Date of death 15 April 1053 Place of death

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin,_Earl_of_Wessex" Categories: House of Godwin | Anglo-Norse people | Anglo-Saxon people | Earls of Wessex | Norman conquest of England | 1000s births | 1053 deaths | Burials at Winchester Cathedral | 11th-century English people

House of Godwin

         Ealhmund of Kent
         King of Kent (784)
                      I
                      I
         Egbert of Wessex (c. 770–839)
         King of Wessex (802–839) ------------------------- Redburga
                                                                        I
                                                                        I            
                                                                        I
                                                                        I
               Ethelwulf of Wessex (also called Aethelwulf) I 
                                             (c. 800–858)                            I-------------Osburga (810–855)
                                              King of Wessex (839–858)  I       I
                                                                                                         I 
                                                                                                         I

I------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I I I-------- Æthelbald (c. 834–860) I Ethelbert (c. 835–865) I I I---------Ethelbert (c. 835–865) I King of Wessex (860–865) I I I----------Ethelred (also called Aethelred I) (c. 837–871) I King of Wessex (865–871) I I---------- Alfred the Great (c. 849–899) I King of Wessex (871–899) (from 878 as King of England) I I----------- Ealhswith (c. 852–905)

         Æthelwold 	

Æthelhelm (c. 859–898), Ealdorman of Wiltshire


Æthelgyth of Mercia

      Æthelfrith (c. 900–927), Ealdorman of Wessex 	

Elfleda of Wessex (c. 890–918)


Edward the Elder (c. 874–924)

       King of England (899–924)

Eadric of Washington, Wessex

      Ælfweard (904–924)
      King of Wessex (924)

      Æthelweard (historian)

Athelmar Cild


Wulfnoth Cild (c. 983–1015), Thegn of Sussex


Godwin (c. 1001–1053)


Gytha Thorkelsdóttir


Sweyn Godwinson


Edith Swannesha


Harold Godwinson


Aldith of Mercia


Tostig Godwinson


Edith of Wessex


Edward the Confessor

       (c. 1004–1066)
       King of England (1042–1066)

        Godwine (b. 1049) 	

Edmund (b. 1049)


Magnus (b. 1051)


Gunhild (1055–1097)


Gytha of Wessex (1053–1098)


Harold (1067–1098)


Ulf (1067–1087)

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