Elizabeth Naomi Friedan (Goldstein) (1921 - 2006) MP

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Nicknames: "Bettye Goldstein"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Peoria, Ill.
Death: Died
Occupation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betty_Friedan
Managed by: Shirley Saban
Last Updated:
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About Elizabeth Naomi Friedan (Goldstein)

Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 - February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist.

A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the twentieth century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".

In 1970, after stepping down as NOW's first president, Friedan organized the nation-wide Women's Strike for Equality on August 26, the 50th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution granting women the right to vote. The national strike was successful beyond expectations in broadening the feminist movement; the march led by Friedan in New York City alone attracted over 50,000 women and men. In 1971, Friedan joined other leading feminists to establish the National Women's Political Caucus. Friedan was also a strong supporter of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution that passed the United States House of Representatives (by a vote of 354-24) and Senate (84-8) following intense pressure by women's groups led by NOW in the early 1970s. Following Congressional passage of the amendment Friedan advocated for ratification of the amendment in the states and supported other women's rights reforms. Friedan was a strong proponent of the repeal of abortion laws, founding the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws but was later critical of the abortion-centered, politicized tactics of many liberal and radical feminists.

Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second Stage, critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of some feminists who could be broadly classified as gender feminists.

Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Writing career
         o 2.1 Before 1963
         o 2.2 The Feminine Mystique
         o 2.3 Other works
  • 3 Activism in the Women's Movement
         o 3.1 National Organization for Women
         o 3.2 Women's Strike for Equality
         o 3.3 National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws
         o 3.4 Politics
         o 3.5 Movement image and unity
         o 3.6 Related issues
               + 3.6.1 Lesbian politics
               + 3.6.2 Abortion choice
               + 3.6.3 Pornography
               + 3.6.4 War
  • 4 Influence
  • 5 Personality
  • 6 Personal life
  • 7 Bibliography
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 Obituaries
  • 12 External links

Early life

Freidan was born Bettye Naomi Goldstein[1][2][3] on February 4, 1921 in Peoria, Illinois,[4] to Harry and Miriam Goldstein. Harry owned a jewelry store in Peoria, and Miriam wrote for the society page of a newspaper when Friedan's father fell ill. Her mother's new life outside the home seemed much more gratifying.

As a young girl, Friedan was active in Marxist and Jewish circles; she later wrote how she felt isolated from the community at times, and felt her "passion against injustice...originated from my feelings of the injustice of anti-Semitism".[5] She attended Peoria High School where she became involved in the school newspaper. When she was turned down for a column, she and six other friends launched a literary magazine called Tide. In this magazine, Friedan and her friends talked about home life as opposed to school life.

She attended the all-female Smith College in 1938. She won a scholarship prize in her first year for outstanding academic performance. In her second year, she became interested in poetry, and had many poems published in campus publications. In 1941, she became editor-in-chief of the college newspaper. The editorials became more political under her leadership, taking a strong anti-war stance and occasionally causing controversy.[5] She graduated summa cum laude in 1942, majoring in psychology.

In 1943, she spent a year at the University of California, Berkeley having won a fellowship to undertake graduate work in psychology with Erik Erikson[6] . She became more politically active, continuing to mix with Marxists (many of her friends were investigated by the FBI[5]). Friedan claims in her memoirs that her boyfriend at the time pressured her into turning down a Ph.D fellowship for further study and abandoning her academic career.

Writing career

Before 1963

After leaving Berkeley, Friedan became a journalist for leftist and union publications. Between 1943-46 she wrote for The Federated Press and between 1946-52 she worked for the United Electrical Workers' UE News. One of her assignments was to report on the House Un-American Activities Committee.[6]

Friedan was dismissed from the union newspaper UE News in 1952, because she was pregnant with her second child.[7] After leaving UE News, she became a freelance writer, and wrote for various magazines, including Cosmopolitan.[6]

The Feminine Mystique

[link to] Main article: The Feminine Mystique

For her 15th college reunion in 1957, Friedan conducted a survey of College graduates, focusing on their education, their subsequent experiences and satisfaction with their current lives. She started publishing articles about what she called "the problem that has no name," and got passionate responses from many housewives grateful that they were not alone in experiencing this problem.

Friedan then decided to rework and expand this topic into a book, The Feminine Mystique. Published in 1963, it depicted the roles of women in industrial societies, especially the full-time homemaker role, which Friedan deemed stifling. Friedan speaks of her own 'terror' at being alone, and observes in her life never once seeing a positive female role-model who worked and also kept a family. She provides numerous accounts of housewives who feel similarly trapped. With her psychology background, Friedan offers a critique of Freud's penis envy theory, noting a lot of paradoxes in his work. And she attempts to offer some answers to women who wish to pursue an education.

The "Problem That Has No Name" was described by Friedan in the beginning of the book:

"The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning [that is, a longing] that women suffered in the middle of the 20th century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries … she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — 'Is this all?"

Friedan noted that women are as capable as men to do any type of work or follow any career path, and the mass media, educators, and psychologists argued to the contrary.[8] The restrictions of the 1950s, and the trapped, imprisoned, feeling of many women forced into these roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of oppressive laws and social views that restricted women.

The book became a bestseller, which many historians believe was the impetus for the "second wave" of the Women's Movement, and significantly shaped national and world events.[9] .

Other works

Friedan published six books. Her other books include The Second Stage, It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement, Beyond Gender, and The Fountain of Age. Her autobiography, Life so Far, was published in 2000.

Activism in the Women's Movement

National Organization for Women

In 1966 Friedan co-founded, and became the first president of, the National Organization for Women. She, with Pauli Murray, the first black female Episcopal priest, wrote its mission statement.[10] Friedan stepped down as president in 1969.[11]

Under Friedan, NOW advocated fiercely for the legal equality of women and men. They lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same Affirmative Action granted to blacks to women and a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme Court. NOW was vocal in support of the legalization of abortion, something that divided some feminists. Also divisive in the 1960s among women was the Equal Rights Amendment, which NOW fully endorsed; by the 1970s the women and labor unions opposed to ERA warmed up to it and began to fully support it. NOW also lobbied for national day-care.[12]

In 1973, Friedan founded the First Women's Bank and Trust Company.

Women's Strike for Equality

In 1970, NOW, with Friedan leading the cause, was instrumental in bringing down the nomination of G. Harrold Carswell, who had opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act which granted women and men workplace equality, to the Supreme Court. On August 26, 1970, the 50th anniversary of the Women's Suffrage Amendment to the Constitution, Friedan organized the national Women's Strike for Equality, and led a march of 50,000 women in New York City. Unbelievably successful, the march expanded the movement widely, to Friedan's delight.

[7] [8] [10]

Friedan spoke about the Strike for Equality:

"All kinds of women's groups all over the country will be using this week on August 26 particularly, to point out those areas in women's life which are still not addressed. For example, a question of equality before the law; we are interested in the equal rights amendment. The question of child care centers which are totally inadequate in the society, and which women require, if they are going to assume their rightful position in terms of helping in decisions of the society. The question of a women's right to control her own reproductive processes, that is, laws prohibiting abortion in the state or putting them into criminal statutes; I think that would be a statute that we would addressing ourselves to.

"So I think individual women will react differently; some will not cook that day, some will engage in dialog with their husband, some will be out at the rallies and demonstrations that will be taking place all over the country. Others will be writing things that will help them to define where they want to go. Some will be pressuring their Senators and their Congressmen to pass legislations that affect women. I don't think you can come up with any one point, women will be doing their own thing in their own way."[13]

National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws

Friedan founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws, renamed National Abortion Rights Action League after the Supreme Court legalized abortion in 1973. Politics

In 1971 Friedan, along with countless other leading women's movement leaders, including Gloria Steinem, with whom she had a legendary rivalry, founded the National Women's Political Caucus.

In 1970 Friedan led other feminists in derailing the nomination of Supreme Court nominee G. Harold Carswell whose record of racial discrimination and antifeminism made him unacceptable and unfit to sit on the highest court in the land to many in the civil rights and feminist movements. Friedan's empassioned testimony before the Senate helped sink Carswell's nomination.[14]

In 1972, Friedan unsuccessfully ran as a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention in support of Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm. That year at the DNC Friedan played a very prominent role and addressed the convention, though she clashed with other women, notably Steinem, on what should be done there, and how.[15]

Movement image and unity

One of the most influential feminists of 20th century, Friedan opposed equating feminism with lesbianism. As early as 1964, very early in the movement, and only a year after the publication of The Feminine Mystique, Friedan appeared on television to address the fact the media was, at that point, trying to dismiss the movement as a joke and centering argument and debate around whether or not to wear bras and other issues considered ridiculous.[16] In 1982, during the second wave, she wrote a book for the post-feminist 1980s called The Second Stage, about family life, premised on women having conquered social and legal obstacles.[10][16][17]

She pushed the feminist movement to focus on economic issues, especially equality in employment and business and provision for child care and other means by which women and men could balance family and work. She tried to lessen the focus on abortion, as an issue already won, and rape and pornography, which she believed most women did not consider to be high priorities.[18]

Related issues

Lesbian politics

When she grew up in Peoria, Ill., she knew one gay man. She said, "the whole idea of homosexuality made me profoundly uneasy."[19] She later acknowledged that she had been very square and was uncomfortable about homosexuality. "The women's movement was not about sex, but about equal opportunity in jobs and all the rest of it. Yes, I suppose you have to say that freedom of sexual choice is part of that, but it shouldn't be the main issue . . . ."[20] She ignored Lesbians in the National Organization for Women (NOW) initially but objected to what she saw as demands for equal time.[19] "'Homosexuality . . . is not, in my opinion, what the women's movement is all about.'"[21] While opposing all repression, she wrote, she refused to wear a purple armband or self-identify as a Lesbian (although heterosexual) as an act of political solidarity, considering it not part of the mainstream issues of abortion and child care.[22] In 1977, at the National Women's Conference, she seconded a Lesbian rights resolution "which everyone thought I would oppose" in order to "preempt any debate" and move on to other issues she believed were more important and less divisive in the effort to add the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution.[23] She accepted Lesbian sexuality ("'Enjoy!'"), albeit not its politicization.[24] In 1995, at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, in Beijing, China, she found Chinese advice to taxi drivers that naked Lesbians would be "cavorting" in their cars and so drivers should hang sheets and that Lesbians would have AIDS and so drivers should have disinfectants to be "ridiculous", "incredibly stupid", and "insulting".[25] In 1997, she wrote that "children . . . will ideally come from mother and father."[26] She wrote in 2000, "I'm more relaxed about the whole issue now[.]"[27]

Abortion choice

She supported the concept that abortion is a woman's choice, that it shouldn't be a crime or exclusively a doctor's choice, and helped form NARAL (now NARAL Pro-Choice America) at a time when Planned Parenthood wasn't yet in support.[28] Death threats against her speaking on abortion led to two events being canceled, although subsequently one of the host institutions, Loyola College, invited her back to speak on abortion and other issues and she spoke then.[29] Her draft of NOW's first statement of purpose included an abortion plank but NOW didn't include it until the next year.[30] In 1980, she believed abortion should be in the context of "'the choice to have children'", a formulation supported by the Roman Catholic priest organizing Catholic participation in the White House Conference on Families of that year,[31] although perhaps not by the bishops above him.[32] A resolution embodying the formulation passed at the conference by 460 to 114, whereas a resolution addressing abortion, ERA, and "'sexual preference'" passed by only 292–291 and that only after 50 anti-abortion advocates had walked out and so hadn't voted on it.[33] She disagreed with a resolution that framed abortion in more feminist terms that was introduced in the Minneapolis regional conference of the same White House Conference on Families, believing it to be more polarizing, while the drafters apparently thought Friedan's formulation too conservative.[34] As of 2000, she wrote, referring to "NOW and the other women's organizations" as seeming to be in a "time warp", "To my mind, there is far too much focus on abortion. . . . [I]n recent years I've gotten a little uneasy about the movement's narrow focus on abortion as if it were the single, all-important issue for women when it's not"[35] She asked, "Why don't we join forces with all who have true reverence for life, including Catholics who oppose abortion, and fight for the choice to have children?"[36] Pornography

She joined nearly 200 others in Feminists for Free Expression in opposing the Pornography Victims' Compensation Act. "'[T]o suppress free speech in the name of protecting women is dangerous and wrong,' says Friedan. 'Even some blue-jean ads are insulting and denigrating. I'm not adverse to a boycott but I don't think they should be suppressed.'"[37] War

In 1968, Friedan signed the “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.[38]

Influence

Friedan is credited for starting the contemporary feminist movement and writing one of the cornerstones of American feminism.[39] Her activist work and her book The Feminine Mystique have been a critical influence to authors, educators, writers, anthropologists, journalists, activists, organizations, unions, and everyday women taking part in the feminist movement.[40] Allan Wolf, in The Mystique of Betty Friedan writes: “She helped to change not only the thinking but the lives of many American women, but recent books throw into question the intellectual and personal sources of her work.”[39] Although there have been some debates on Friedan’s work in The Feminine Mystique since its publication, there is no doubt that her work for equality for women was sincere and committed.

Judith Hennessee (Betty Friedan: Her Life)and Daniel Horowitz, a professor of American Studies at Smith College, have also written about Friedan. Horowitz explored Friedan’s engagement with the women's movement before she began to work on her book, The Feminine Mystique[41] and argues that Friedan’s feminism did not start in the 1950s but rather before that in the 1940s.[41] Focusing his study on Friedan’s ideas in feminism rather than on her personal life[41] Horowitz’s book connects Friedan to the history of American feminism.[41]

Justine Blau was also greatly influenced by Friedan. In Betty Friedan: Feminist Blau writes about the personal and professional life of Friedan through the feminist movement.[42] Lisa Fredenksen Bohannon in Woman’s work: The story of Betty Friedan goes deep into Friedan’s personal life and writes about her relationship with her mother.[43] Sandra Henry and Emily Taitz (Betty Friedan, Fighter for Woman’s Rights) and Susan Taylor Boyd (Betty Friedan: Voice of Woman’s Right, Advocates of Human Rights), wrote biographies on Friedan’s life and works. Journalist Janann Sheman wrote a book called Interviews with Betty Friedan containing interviews with Friedan for the New York Times, Working Women, and Playboy, among others. Focusing on interviews that relate to Friedan's views on men, women and the American Family Sheman traces Friedan's life and explores The Feminine Mystique.[44] Betty Friedan has influenced many individuals into writing about her and topics about women's rights and equality.

Personality

The New York Times obituary for Friedan noted that she was "famously abrasive" and that she could be "thin-skinned and imperious, subject to screaming fits of temperament." And in February 2006, shortly after Friedan's death, the feminist writer Germaine Greer published an article in The Guardian,[45] in which she described Friedan as pompous and egotistic, somewhat demanding, and sometimes selfish, as evidenced by repeated incidents during a tour of Iran in 1972.[46]

Betty Friedan "changed the course of human history almost single-handedly." Her ex-husband, Carl Friedan, believes this; Betty believed it too. This belief was the key to a good deal of Betty's behavior; she would become breathless with outrage if she didn't get the deference she thought she deserved. Though her behavior was often tiresome, I figured that she had a point. Women don't get the respect they deserve unless they are wielding male-shaped power; if they represent women they will be called "love" and expected to clear up after themselves. Betty wanted to change that forever.

– Germaine Greer, "The Betty I Knew," The Guardian (February 7, 2006)

Indeed, Carl Friedan had been quoted as saying "She changed the course of history almost singlehandedly. It took a driven, super aggressive, egocentric, almost lunatic dynamo to rock the world the way she did. Unfortunately, she was that same person at home, where that kind of conduct doesn't work. She simply never understood this."[47]

Writer Camille Paglia, who had been denounced by Friedan in a Playboy interview, wrote a brief obituary for her in Entertainment Weekly:

Betty Friedan wasn't afraid to be called abrasive. She pursued her feminist principles with a flamboyant pugnacity that has become all too rare in these yuppified times. She hated girliness and bourgeois decorum and never lost her earthly ethnicity.

– Camille Paglia, December 29, 2006/January 5, 2007 double End of the Year issue,[citation needed] section Farewell, pg. 94

The truth is that I've always been a bad-tempered bitch. Some people say that I have mellowed some. I don't know. . . .

– Betty Friedan, Life So Far[48]

Personal life

She married Carl Friedan, a theatre-producer, in 1947 while working at UE News. Friedan continued to work after marriage, first as a paid employee and, after 1952, as a freelance journalist. The couple divorced in May 1969. Betty claimed in her memoir, Life So Far (2000), that Carl had beaten her during their marriage; friends such as Dolores Alexander recalled having to cover up black eyes from Carl's abuse in time for press conferences (Brownmiller 1999, p. 70). Carl Friedan denied abusing her in an interview with Time magazine shortly after the book was published, describing the claim as a "complete fabrication".[49] She later said, on Good Morning America, "I almost wish I hadn't even written about it, because it's been sensationalized out of context. My husband was not a wife-beater, and I was no passive victim of a wife-beater. We fought a lot, and he was bigger than me." Carl Friedan died in December 2005.

The Friedans had three children: Emily, Daniel and Jonathan. One of their sons, Daniel Friedan, is a noted theoretical physicist.

Friedan died of congestive heart failure at her home in Washington, D.C., on February 4, 2006, her 85th birthday.[46]

Bibliography

  • The Feminine Mystique (1963)
  • It Changed My Life (1976)
  • The Second Stage (1981)
  • The Fountain of Age (1993)
  • Beyond Gender (1997)
  • Life So Far (2000)

See also Biography portal

  • American philosophy
  • List of American philosophers

References

  1. ^ Fox, Margalit (Feb. 5, 2006). Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85. N.Y. Times, as accessed Feb. 2, 2010.
  2. ^ Sweet, Corinne (Feb. 7, 2006). Ground-Breaking Author of 'The Feminine Mystique' Who Sparked Feminism's Second Wave. The (London, Eng., U.K.) Independent (obit), as accessed Feb. 2, 2010.
  3. ^ Betty Friedan, in 300 Women Who Changed the World. Encyclopædia Britannica, as accessed Feb. 2, 2010.
  4. ^ Wing Katie Loves Jason, Liz (Summer 2006). "NOW Mourns Foremothers of Feminist, Civil Rights Movements". National Organization for Women. http://www.now.org/nnt/summer-2006/foremothers.html. Retrieved February 19, 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c h[citation needed] (sampling of History suggests 1st appearance in Wikipedia was as it is now)
  6. ^ a b c Henderson, Margaret (July 2007). "Betty Friedan 1921–2006". Australian Feminist Studies 22 (53): 163–166. doi:10.1080/08164640701361725. 
  7. ^ a b Betty Friedan Biography - Biography.com
  8. ^ a b Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/national/05friedan.html?ex=1296795600&en=30472e5004a66ea3&ei=5090. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  9. ^ Davis, Flora (1991). Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 50–53. 
 10. ^ a b c Betty Friedan Biography - life, family, children, name, wife, mother, young, book, information, born, college, husband, house, year
 11. ^ NOW statement on Friedan's death
 12. ^ Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/national/05friedan.html?pagewanted=3&ei=5090&en=30472e5004a66ea3&ex=1296795600. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
 13. ^ http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1970/Apollo-13/12303235577467-2/#title "50th Anniversary of Women's Suffrage: 1970 Year in Review, UPI.com"
 14. ^ Gifts of Speech - Betty Friedan
 15. ^ Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. http://www.uic.edu/orgs/cwluherstory/jofreeman/polhistory/chisholm.htm. 
 16. ^ a b YouTube CBCtv interview of Betty Friedan (the video is, according to YouTube, from CBCtv (Canadian television))
 17. ^ Hulu - PBS Indies: Sisters of '77 - Watch the full episode now
 18. ^ Friedan, Betty; ed. Brigid O'Farrell. Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Work and Family. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Ctr. Press (Woodrow Wilson Ctr. Spec. Studies ser.), cloth, (ISBN 0-943875-84-6) [1st printing?] 1997. E.g., pp. 8–9.
 19. ^ a b Friedan, Betty. Life So Far: A Memoir. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone Book), © 2000, pbk., 1st Touchstone ed. (ISBN 0-7432-0024-1) [1st printing?] 2001. Page 221.
 20. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 223.
 21. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 222.
 22. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Pp. 248–249.
 23. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 295.
 24. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage: With a New Introduction. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, © 1981 1986 1991 1998, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. ed. (ISBN 0-674-79655-1) 1998. Pp. 307–308.
 25. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 365.
 26. ^ Friedan, Betty. Beyond Gender, op. cit. Page 91.
 27. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 249.
 28. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Pp. 212–216.
 29. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 219.
 30. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 176.
 31. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit. Pp. 94–95.
 32. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit. Page 98.
 33. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit. Pp. 95–96.
 34. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit. Pp. 97–98.
 35. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 377.
 36. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit. Pp. 246–248, esp. p. 247.
 37. ^ Bill Holds Porn Producers Liable For Sex Crimes, by Maria Puente, in USA Today, Apr. 15, 1992, p. 09A (Final ed.) (ProQuest), as accessed Jan. 24, 2010, or alternative link.
 38. ^ “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” January 30, 1968 New York Post
 39. ^ a b Wolf, Allan. The Mystique of Betty Friedan. http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99sep/9909friedan.htm
 40. ^ National Organization for Women. Tributes to Betty Friedan. http://www.now.org/history/friedan-tribute-compilation.html
 41. ^ a b c d Daniel Horowitz. Betty Friedan and the Making of "The Feminine Mystique". University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.
 42. ^ Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist. Chelsea House Publications 1990.
 43. ^ Bohannon, Lisa Fredenksen. Woman’s work: The story of Betty Friedan. Morgan Reynolds Publishing 2004.
 44. ^ Sheman, Janann. Interviews with Betty Friedan. University Press of Mississippi 2002.
 45. ^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/gender/story/0,,1703933,00.html. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
 46. ^ a b Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause In 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/national/05friedan.html. Retrieved 2008-03-31. "Betty Friedan, the feminist crusader and author whose searing first book, The Feminine Mystique, ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world, died yesterday, her 85th birthday, at her home in Washington. The cause was congestive heart failure, said Emily Bazelon, a family spokeswoman. ... For decades a familiar presence on television and the lecture circuit, Ms. Friedan, with her short stature and deeply hooded eyes, looked for much of her adult life like a 'combination of Hermione Gingold and Bette Davis,' as Judy Klemesrud wrote in The New York Times Magazine in 1970." 
 47. ^ Ginsberg L., "Ex-hubby fires back at feminist icon Betty," New York Post, 5 July 2000
 48. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit. Page 379.
 49. ^ Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/national/05friedan.html?pagewanted=3&ei=5090&en=30472e5004a66ea3&ex=1296795600. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 

Further reading

   * Blau, Justine. ''Betty Friedan: Feminist'' (Women of Achievement), Paperback Edition, Chelsea House Publications 1990, ISBN 1-55546-653-2
   * Bohannon, Lisa Frederikson. ''Women's Work: The Story of Betty Friedan'', Hardcover Edition, Morgan Reynolds Publishing 2004, ISBN 1-931798-41-9
   * Brownmiller, Susan. ''In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution'' The Dial Press 1999, ISBN 0-385-31486-8
   * Friedan, Betty. ''Fountain of Age'', Paperback Edition, Simon and Schuster 1994, ISBN 0-671-89853-1
   * Friedan, Betty. ''It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement'', Hardcover Edition, Random House Inc. 1978, ISBN 0-394-46398-6
   * Friedan, Betty. ''Life So Far'', Paperback Edition, Simon and Schuster 2000, ISBN 0-684-80789-0
   * Friedan, Betty. ''The Feminine Mystique'', Hardcover Edition, W.W. Norton and Company Inc. 1963, ISBN 0-393-08436-1
   * Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, Paperback Edition, Abacus 1983, ASIN B000BGRCRC
   * Horowitz, Daniel. "Rethinking Betty Friedan and The Feminine Mystique: Labor Union Radicalism and Feminism in Cold War America" American Quarterly, Volume 48, Number 1, March 1996, pp. 1–42
   * Horowitz, Daniel. "Betty Friedan and the Making of "The Feminine Mystique", University of Massachusetts Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55849-168-6
   * Hennessee, Judith. Betty Friedan: Her Life, Hardcover Edition, Random House 1999, ISBN 0-679-43203-5
   * Henry, Sondra. Taitz, Emily. ''Betty Friedan: Fighter For Women's Rights'', Hardcover Edition, Enslow Publishers 1990, ISBN 0-89490-292-X
   * Meltzer, Milton. ''Betty Friedan: A Voice For Women's Rights'', Hardcover Edition, Viking Press 1985, ISBN 0-670-80786-9
   * Sherman, Janann. ''Interviews With Betty Friedan'', Paperback Edition, University Press of Mississippi 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5
   * Taylor-Boyd, Susan. ''Betty Friedan: Voice For Women's Rights, Advocate of Human Rights'', Hardcover Edition, Gareth Stevens Publishing 1990, ISBN 0-8368-0104-0

Obituaries

   * Betty Friedan, philosopher of modern-day feminism, dies - CNN, February 4, 2006.
   * Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 - The New York Times, February 5, 2006.
   * Sullivan, Patricia (February 5, 2006). "Voice of Feminism's 'Second Wave'". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/04/AR2006020401385.html. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
   * Woo, Elaine (February 4, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Philosopher Of Modern-day Feminism, Dies". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-me-friedan5feb05,0,2296445.story. 
   * Woo, Elaine (February 5, 2006). "Catalyst of Feminist Revolution". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-friedan5feb05,0,2472152.story. 
   * Feeney, Mark (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, feminist visionary, dies at 85". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/obituaries/articles/2006/02/05/betty_friedan_feminist_visionary_dies_at_85/. 
   * "Betty Friedan, 1921–2006". The Nation. February 9, 2006. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060227/pollitt. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Betty Friedan Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Betty Friedan

   * National Women's Hall of Fame: Betty Friedan
   * American Writers: Betty Friedan
   * Betty Friedan's Biography from The Encyclopaedia Judaica
   * The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund Freud (chapter 5 of The Feminine Mystique)
   * Booknotes interview with Friedan on Fountain of Age, November 28, 1993.
   * First Measured Century: Interview: Betty Friedan
   * Betty Friedan: Late Bloomer.
   * Find a Grave: Betty Friedan
   * Cheerless Fantasies, A Corrective Catalogue of Errors in Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique
   * Anything you can do, Icon do better — Germaine Greer remembers Betty Friedan
   * After a Life of Telling It Like It Is: Betty Friedan Dies at Age 85, Lys Anzia, Moondance magazine Spring 2006
   * "Betty Friedan". Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=13223958. Retrieved August 11, 2010.

Source: Downloaded May 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betty_Friedan

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Betty Friedan's Timeline

1921
February 4, 1921
Peoria, Ill.
1947
1947
Age 25
X-Unknown
1969
1969
Age 47
X-Unknown
2006
February 6, 2006
Age 85
????
Founder of the National Organization of Women
????
Author of "The Feminine Mystique"