Emperor Lothar I (Carolingian)

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Lothar Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches von Lothringen, King of the Franks, Kaiser des HRR (Holy Roman Emperor)

Nicknames: "Lothair I", "Lothar der Franken", "der Karolingers", "Emperor of the Romans", "King of Italy", "Lothair I of Bavaria", "von Bayern", "van Beieren", "Lothaire", "Lotario", "van Italie", "Lothair I"", ""Lothar der Franken"", ""der Karolingers"", ""Emperor of the Romans"", ""King of I..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Altdorf bei Nürnberg, Bayern, Deutschland
Death: Died in Prüm, (Present Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm), (Present Rheinland-Pfalz), Frankish Empire (Present Germany)
Cause of death: Death followed a serious illness
Place of Burial: Kloster Prum
Immediate Family:

Son of Emperor Louis I 'The Pious', son of Charlemagne & Hildegard; Louis I le Pieux, Empereurs du Saint Empire Romain Germanique Empereur d' Occident; Ermengarde de Hesbaye and Ermengarde Empereur d' Occident
Husband of Ermengarde von Germanie and Ermengarde de Tours
Partner of Doda concubine of Lothar I
Father of Ermengarde de Lorraine; Charles of Provence; Louis II "le Jeune", Emperor of Italy and of the Franks; princess Helletrude (Hiltrude) d´Italy (de Lorraine; Lothaire II, roi de Lorraine and 6 others
Brother of Pépin I, Roi d'Aquitaine; Rotrude, daughter of Louis I the Pious and Ermengard; Louis II, 'The German'; Berte, daughter ot Louis I the Pious and Ermengard; Adélaïs (Adelaide, Aélis) de Aquitane, abbesse de Saint-Pierre and 1 other
Half brother of Gisela of Cysoing, daughter of Louis and Judith; Charles II "the Bald", Western Emperor; Arnoul (Arnulf) de Sens and Alpaïs de Paris, Abbesse de St-Pierre de Reims

Occupation: Emperor of the Romans, Empereur d'Occident, Keizer van het Roomse Rijk (833-834, 840-855), King of Bavaria (815-817), King of Italy, Roi d'Italie, Koning der Lombarden (Italie) (818-855), King of Middle Francia/Lotharingia, Roi de Lorraine, (843-855)
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Lothar Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches von Lothringen, King of the Franks, Kaiser des HRR (Holy Roman Emperor)

* Wikipedia English: Lothair I

* Wikipedia Français: Lothaire Ier

* Wikipedia Nederlands: Lotharius I

Lothair I Emperor of the Romans

(Ben M. Angel reminds yet again - the entity that became the Holy Roman Empire did not exist before 962, therefore there was no Holy Roman Emperor nor Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire before that date. This individual predates the existence of the Holy Roman Empire by almost two centuries. Please review the English Wikipedia article on the Holy Roman Empire before attempting to change this yet again. This and other Frankish Empire rulers are on my watch list.)

son of Louis I "the Pious" and his wife Ermengard

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Lotharingia

LOTHAIRE, son of Emperor LOUIS I "der Fromme/le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengard (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" sons of Emperor Louis I & his wife Ermengard[8].

His father sent him to govern Bavaria in [Aug] 814[9].

He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father.

He was sent to Italy in 822, where he established his court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan.

The Annales Xantenses record that "Ludewicus imperator" gave "filio suo Lothario regnum Langobardorum" in 822[10]. Einhard's Annales record that the emperor sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum"[11].

He was again crowned Emperor, at Rome 5 Apr 823 by Pope Pascal I.

The rivalry with his father and brothers was exacerbated by the unexpected birth of his half-brother Charles in 823. Tension was increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing Lothaire's territory to Italy.

Lothaire and his brothers rebelled in Mar 830, captured their father at Compiègne, and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817. However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, and deprived Lothaire of the imperial title and relegated him once more to Italy.

A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.

Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 Jun 833, but was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was restored 1 Mar 834, crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835.

Lothaire captured Chalon-sur-Saône, but was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy. His father pardoned him and sent him back to Italy as king.

Emperor Louis proposed yet another partition in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aachen in 837, which was implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, the former taking all land east of the River Meuse, the latter everything to the west, and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin.

Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor on his father’s death 20 Jun 840. He sought to extend his power base northwards from Italy across the Alps, and deprive his half-brother Charles. The latter allied himself with his half-brother Louis, and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841.

After retreating to Aachen, Lothaire was forced out to Lyon in Apr 842 by his brothers, who declared him incapable of governing the empire. Preliminary peace proposals signed on an island in the Saône, near Mâcon 15 Jun 842 led to the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, under which the territory of the empire was divided between the three brothers.

Lothaire retained the imperial title and was also installed as LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, the new country being named after him. He established his seat of government at Aachen, and installed his son Louis as King of Italy. Over the following 10 years, a series of meetings aimed to maintain peace between the three brothers, with varying success.

After a serious illness, Emperor Lothaire abdicated in Sep 855 at Kloster Schüller, near Prüm, and divided his territories between his sons Louis II, Lothaire II and Charles. The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire entered "monasterium Proneæ in Arduenna", was tonsured, died "IV Kal Oct" and was buried in the monastery[12]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "855 III Kal Oct" of "Lotharius imperator"[13].

m (Thionville, Moselle mid-Oct 821) ERMENGARDE [de Tours], daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] [Etichonen] & his wife Ava --- (-20 Mar 851, bur Kloster Erstein, near Strasbourg).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris refers to the wife of Emperor Lothaire as "filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih" and in the following paragraph names her "Irmingarda"[14]. The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 821 of "Ludewicus imperator…filio suo Lothario" and "Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum"[15].

She founded Kloster Erstein in Alsace in 849. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 851 of "imperatrix…Irmingard, coniunx Lotharii imperatoris"[16].

The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 851 of "Irmingard regina"[17].

Mistress (1): DODA, daughter of --- (-after 9 Jul 855). The Annales Bertiniani records that "Lotharius imperator" took "duas sibi ancillas ex villa regia", of whom Doda gave birth to "filium…Karlomannum"[18].

Emperor Lothaire & his wife had eight children:

1. LOUIS "le Jeune" ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).

  • Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[19].
  • He was sent to Italy as king in 844, crowned in Rome in 844 as LOUIS King of Italy by Pope Sergius II.
  • He was crowned joint Emperor LOUIS II, reigning jointly with his father, at Rome in Apr 850 by Pope Leo IV. * He was sole emperor in 855 after the death of his father.

2. HILTRUDE ([826]-after [865/66]).

  • Pope Nicholas I names "Helletrude Berengarii Comitis quondam relicta" in an undated letter which refers to her as "Lothario sorore sua"[20].

m BERENGAR, son of --- (-[865/66]).

3. daughter ([825/30]-).

  • The Gesta Francorum records that "Gisalbertus, vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and took her to Aquitaine where they were married[21]. The Annales Fuldenses also record that "Gisalbertus vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and married her in Aquitaine in 846[22]. The Annales Mettenses also date this event in 846[23]. Settipani states that the emperor recognised the marriage in 849[24].
  • Rösch says that this daughter is often named Ermengarde in secondary sources but that there is no contemporary proof that this is correct[25].

m (Aquitaine 846) GISELBERT Graf von Maasgau, son of --- (-after 14 Jun 877).

4. BERTA ([830]-after 7 May 852, maybe after [877]).

  • A letter from Hincmar Archbishop of Reims to "Irmingardi augustæ", included by Flodoard in the Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, names "Bertæ, ipsius imperatricis filiæ" referring to her activities at "Avennaci monasterii", a later passage confirming that she was "abbatissæ Avennaci monasterii"[26]. A poem by Sedulius is addressed to "Berta…proles…Lothari…Ermingardis matris"[27].
  • Abbess of Avenay before 847.
  • Maybe Abbess of Faremoutiers 852-after 877.
  • m ([Worms autumn 841]) ---.
  • Berta was married, as shown by a second poem by Sedulius addressed to "Berta" which names "Ermingardis Cæsareumque" as her mother and refers to Bertha's "earthly spouse…now in heaven"[28]. It is possible that she was the daughter "Hlotharius…filiæ suæ" whose marriage is referred to at Worms in Autumn 841 in the Annals of Fulda [29]. Berta's husband has not been identified.

5. GISELA ([830]-860). The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Imperator Lotharius tradidit filiam suam domnam Gislam"[30]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 851-860. "Hludwicus…imperator augustus" made grants to San Salvatore in memory of "Gisla soror nostra defuncta" by charter dated 12 Jan [861][31].

6. LOTHAIRE ([835]-Piacenza 8 Aug 869, bur Convent of San Antonio near Piacenza).

  • Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[32]. "Lothario rege" is named "filio imperatoris Lotharii" by Folcuin[33]. The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855[34].
  • He succeeded his father in 855 as LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, with Aachen as his capital. He attempted to annul his marriage to marry his mistress of many years, but was opposed by Hincmar Archbishop of Reims, and later Pope Nicholas I who ordered him to return to his wife 15 Aug 865.
  • He was negotiating with Pope Hadrian II for a new decision when he died of malaria[35]. On his death, his lands were divided between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, instead of passing to his brother Emperor Louis despite the latter's objections. The necrology of Prüm records the death "869 Kal Iul" of "Lotharius rex filius eius [=Lotharius imperator]"[36].
  • m ([855], separated 857, repudiated 860) TEUTBERGA, daughter of BOSO "l'Ancien" Comte d’Arles & his wife --- (-Metz before 25 Nov 875, bur Metz, Abbaye de Sainte-Glossinde).
  • The Annales Lobienses name "Tietberga, sorore Hucberti abbatis" as lawful wife of "Lotharius"[37]. The Annales Bertiniani name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]"[38].
  • The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Thieberga regina legitima uxore [Lotharii]", specifying that she relied on the advice of "Bosonis comitis" at the time of her repudiation, although her relationship to him is not specified[39]. Herimannus names "Tiohtpirga uxore legitima" of King Lothaire II when recording his repudiation of her[40].
  • She protected the wife of Boso Count in Italy after she deserted her husband. She was repudiated on the grounds of her alleged incest with her brother Hugobert[41]. Her husband kept her prisoner after separating from her.
  • The Annales Bertiniani record that "uxor Lotharii" fled to "fratrem suum Hucbertum in regno Karli" in 860[42]. She escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" who gave her the abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims. The Annales Bertiniani records that "uxore [Lothario]" gave support to "uxori Bosonis et Balduino qui filiam eius [=Karoli regis] furatus fuerat in uxorem"[43].
  • Abbess of Sainte Glossinde at Metz 869. "Heccardus comes" names "…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][44]. It is not certain that this refers to the separated wife of King Lothar II, but no other "Teutberga/Lothaire" couple has been identified at the time. If this identification is correct, it suggests a family relationship between Teutberga and Ecchard, which has not yet been identified.
  • Mistress (1): (from [855]) WALDRADA, daughter of --- (-9 Apr after 868).
  • The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope[45].
  • The Annales Novesienses record that “Guntherus episcopus Coloniensis” had “sororem…Vastradam…aliis Waldradam” whom “dux Lotharingiæ Lotharius…superdixit” after her brother approved his divorce from “legitima uxore Tyberga”[46].
  • According to Baron Ernouf[47], Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.
  • The Annales Bertiniani names "Hlotharius Waldradam concubinam" when recording that Lothaire purported to marry her in 862 and crowned her with the support of "Liutfrido avunculo suo et Waltario"[48]. Waldrada was also related to the Etichonen Grafen im Nordgau (ALSACE), as shown by the Vita Sancti Deicoli which names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis"[49], but the precise relationship is not known.
  • Folcuin records King Lothaire's excommunication after repudiating his wife for Waldrada[50].
  • King Lothaire purported to marry Waldrada in [Aug/Sep] 862 and crowned her as Queen, but this was not recognised by the church[51].
  • She became a nun at Remiremont.

King Lothaire II had four illegitimate children by Mistress (1).

7. ROTRUDE (chr Pavia [835/40]-). The baptism of Rotrudis daughter of Lothaire is recorded at Pavia in [835/40][74]. [same person as…? ROTRUDE . "Witbertus…comes" donated property at Ornois to the abbey of Tournus, for the souls of "Lanberti genitoris mei necnon et Rutrudis genetricis meæ", by charter dated 28 Jan 870[75]. Hlawitschka suggests that she was the daughter of Emperor Lothaire I, as her son's charter dated 28 Jan 870 records that the property he donated to the abbey of Tournus had been granted to his father by Emperor Lothaire[76]. However, the copy of the charter reproduced in the Histoire de Tournus, cited above, states that the property had been donated to Wicbert by "senioris mei Hlotharii Regis". m ([850/51]) LAMBERT Comte et Marquis de Nantes, son of LAMBERT [I] Comte et Marquis de Nantes [Guidonen] & his wife [--- of Italy] (-killed in battle 1 May 852).]

8. CHARLES ([845]-Lyon 25 Jan 863, bur Lyon, Saint-Pierre). Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[77]. His father invested him in Sep 855 with Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy.

Emperor Lothaire I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

9. CARLOMAN ([853]-). The Annales Bertiniani name "Karlomannum" as the son of "Lotharius imperator" and his mistress Doda[78].

References:

[8] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. [9] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 814, p. 97. [10] Annales Xantenses 822, MGH SS II, p. 224. [11] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS, p. 209. [12] Annales Bertiniani II 855. [13] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. [14] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 28 and 29, MGH SS II, p. 597. [15] Annales Xantenses 821, MGH SS II, p. 224. [16] Annales Xantenses 851, MGH SS II, p. 229. [17] Annales Formoselenses 851, MGH SS V, p. 35. [18] Annales Bertiniani II 853. [19] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. [20] Epistola XLII, RHGF VII, p. 438. [21] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 846, MGH SS I, p. 364. [22] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 846, MGH SS I, p. 364. [23] Annales Mettenses, RCGF 7, p. 186. [24] Settipani (1993), p. 264. [25] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 89. [26] Flodoardi Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III 27, MGH SS XIII, pp. 547 and 548. [27] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 61, MGH Poetæ latini ævi Carolini III, p. 217. [28] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 78, MGH Poetæ latini ævi Carolini III, p. 228, which reads "Terrenum sponsum cælestis nunc capit aula". [29] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales 841, MGH SS I, p. 363. [30] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XIV, col. 106. [31] MGH Diplomata, IV, 33, p. 133. [32] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. [33] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 13, MGH SS IV, p. 61. [34] Annales Bertiniani II 855. [35] Settipani (1993), p. 271. [36] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. [37] Annales Lobienses 870, MGH SS XIII, p. 232. [38] Annales Bertiniani III 869. [39] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 861, MGH SS XXIII, p. 737. [40] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 862, MHG SS V, p. 105. [41] Settipani (1993), p. 271 footnote 549. [42] Annales Bertiniani II 860. [43] Annales Bertiniani III 862. [44] Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, XXV, p. 59. [45] Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus Archiepiscopum Coloniensium 94-1230, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 272. [46] Annales Novesienses, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 537. [47] Baron Ernouf (1858) Histoire de Waldrade, de Lother II et de leurs descendants (Paris), p. 5. [48] Annales Bertiniani III 862. [49] Vita Sancti Deicoli 13, MGH SS XV.2, p. 678. [50] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 13, MGH SS IV, p. 61. [51] Settipani (1993), pp. 271-2. [52] Annales Bertiniani III 867. [74] Settipani (1993), p. 265 footnote 504, citing Agnellus Liber pontificalis ecclesiæ Ravennatis c. 171, MGH SRL, p. 388 (without specifying the volume). [75] Chifflet, P. F. (1644) Histoire de l´abbaye royale et de la ville de Tournus (Dijon), Preuves, p. 212. [76] Settipani (1993), p. 265, citing Hlawitschka, E. 'Waren die Kaiser Wido und Lambert Nachkommen Karls des Grossen?', Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 49 (1969), pp. 366-86. [77] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. [78] Annales Bertiniani II 853.

-----------------------------

From the English Wikipedia on Lothaire I: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothair_I

Lothair I or Lothar I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Emperor of the Romans (817–55), co-ruling with his father until 840, and the King of Bavaria (815–17), Italy (818–55) and Middle Francia (840–55). The territory of Lothringen (Lorraine in French and English) is named after him.

Life

Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. He led his full-brothers Pippin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father on several occasions, in protest against his attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains.

Upon the death of the father, Charles and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three year civil war (840-843), the struggles between the brothers leading directly to the break up of the great Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne, and would lay the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany.

Little is known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne. Shortly after the accession of his father, he was sent to govern Bavaria.

He first comes to historical attention in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir, to whom his younger brothers Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his cousin Bernard of Italy, would be subject after the death of their father; he would also inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair was then crowned joint emperor by his father at Aix-la-Chapelle.

At the same time, Aquitaine and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis respectively as subsidiary kingdoms.

Following the murder of Bernard, King of Italy, by Louis the Pious, Lothair also received the Kingdom of Italy.

In 821, he married Ermengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugh, count of Tours. In 822, he assumed the government of Italy, and at Easter, 5 April 823, he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I, this time at Rome.

In November 824, he promulgated a statute, the Constitutio Romana, concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, and he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.

On his return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme which was carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, however, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alternately master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced.

The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father, whom they deposed. In 831, he was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to the young Charles.

The second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan, in 833, and again Louis was deposed and reinstated the next year (834). Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and later reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.

When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, who, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom armed to resist this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841, when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen.

With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong for him, and taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned to them his capital. He met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and then the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years.

Peace negotiations began, and in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône, and agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun signed in August 843. By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean, essentially along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone.

He soon left Italy to his eldest son, Louis, and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen (as Vikings were known in Frankish writings) and the Saracens.

In 855, he became seriously ill and, despairing of recovery, renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons (the Treaty of Prüm), and on September 23, entered the monastery of Prüm, where he died six days later. He was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860.

His kingdom was divided among his three sons — the eldest, Louis II, received Italy and the title of Emperor; the second, Lothair II, received Lotharingia; while the youngest, Charles, received Provence.

Family

He married Ermengarde of Tours, who died in 851. The last of his nine children is illegitimate.

1. Louis II (825-875) 2. Hiltrude (826-865) 3. Bertha (c.830-852) 4. Irmgard (c.830-849) 5. Gisela (c.830-856) 6. Lothair II (835-869) 7. Rotrude (c.840) 8. Charles (845-863) 9. Carloman (853)

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lothair of France: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lothair_of_France

Annales Fuldenses

Nithard, Historiarum Libri, both in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, Bände i. and ii. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.) http://www.mgh.de/

E. Mühlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881)

E. Dümmler, Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887–1888)

B. Simson, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Ludwig dem Frommen (Leipzig, 1874–1876)

Emperor Lothair I of the Carolingian Dynasty Died: 29 September 855 Regnal titles:

King of Italy 818 - 23 September 855 (with Emperor Louis II 844–855) Preceded by Bernard of Italy Succeeded by Emperor Louis II

Roman Emperor 817 – 23 September 855 (with Louis the Pious 817–840, and Emperor Louis II 850–855) Preceded by Louis the Pious (as Emperor and King of the Franks) Succeeded by Emperor Louis II

King of Middle Francia 843 – 23 September 855 Preceded by Louis the Pious (as Emperor and King of the Franks) Succeeded by Lothair II as King of Lotharingia Succeeded by Charles as King of Provence

Reign As Emperor: 817–855; As King of Italy: 818–855 As King of Middle Francia: 843–855

Coronation By his father: 817, Aix-la-Chapelle; By Pope Paschal I: 5 April 823, Rome

Born 795 Died 29 September 855 (aged 59–60) - Prüm Buried Prüm

Consort Ermengarde of Tours

Offspring 1. Louis II, 2. Lothair II, 3. Charles of Provence

Royal House: Carolingian Dynasty Father Louis the Pious Mother Ermengarde of Hesbaye ------------------------------ From the Dutch Wikipedia page on Lotharius I: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotharius_I

Lotharius I (Aquitanië, 795 - Prüm, 29 september 855) was de oudste zoon van Lodewijk de Vrome en Ermengarde van Haspengouw, en keizer van het Heilige Roomse Rijk. Hij probeerde om als keizer het oppergezag over het gehele Frankische Rijk te behouden maar moest na de dood van zijn vader uiteindelijk instemmen in een deling met zijn broers.

Bestuurder onder zijn vader

In 815 werd Lotharius benoemd tot gouverneur van Beieren. Bij de Ordinatio Imperii van 817 werd hij benoemd tot medekeizer van zijn vader en eerste erfgenaam. Onder het keizerlijk gezag werden zijn broers Pepijn en Lodewijk benoemd tot koningen van Aquitanië en Beieren. Hun neef Bernard was al koning van Italië. Na de mislukte opstand van Bernard in 818 werd Lotharius ook koning van Italië. Hij hervormde het bestuur in zijn koninkrijk en werd in 823 opnieuw gekroond door paus Paschalis. In 824 verklaarde Lotharius dat hij als keizer boven de paus stond. [bewerken]Opstand en burgeroorlog

Na de dood van de moeder van Lotharius, was Lodewijk de Vrome op aandrang van zijn hofhouding hertrouwd met Judith van Beieren. Op haar aandringen wees Lodewijk hun zoon Karel in 829 ook een eigen gebied toe. Lotharius en zijn broers zagen hierin een inbreuk op de Ordinatio Imperii en zagen hierin bovendien een teken van de toenemende macht van Judith en haar gunstelingen in het hof. Opgestookt door hun ooms en neven die allemaal grieven hadden tegen Lodewijk en door een aantal ontevreden edelen, besloten ze om een greep naar de macht te doen:

831: Nadat Lodewijk de Duitser en Pepijn hun vader gevangen hebben genomen, trekt Lotharius met een groot leger naar het noorden en roept een rijksdag bijeen in Nijmegen. Maar Lodewijk de Vrome heeft Pepijn en Lodewijk de Duitser een groter deel in de erfenis beloofd en ook de lokale edelen zijn trouw aan Lodewijk de Vrome. Op de rijksdag moeten de zoons hun vader weer als koning erkennen. Lotharius wordt begenadigd maar houdt alleen Italië over, en gaat daar in ballingschap. 832: Na conflicten met Lodewijk de Duitser en Pepijn, benoemt Lodewijk de Vrome Karel de Kale tot koning van Aquitanië en wijst de rest van het keizerrijk aan Lotharius toe. 833: Lotharius kiest voor een machtsgreep en marcheert naar het noorden. De legers van Lodewijk de Vrome aan de ene kant en de drie opstandige broers aan de andere kant, ontmoeten elkaar bij Colmar. Er wordt dagenlang onderhandeld maar ondertussen hebben de broers, met hulp van de paus, een deel van het leger van Lodewijk omgekocht of overgehaald om hun kant te kiezen. Lodewijk beveelt zijn resterende troepen dan om niet meer te vechten en Lodewijk wordt gevangengenomen. Uit boosheid over het gedrag van Lotharius en de vernederingen die de broers Lodwijk de Vrome laten ondergaan, kiezen steeds meer edelen in Neustrië en Austrasië de kant van Lodewijk de Vrome. Lotharius wordt gedwongen om zich terug te trekken op Bourgondië. 834: Lotharius wilt in onderhandelingen met zijn broers de situatie van de Ordinatio Imperii herstellen, waarbij hij als keizer dus boven zijn broers zal staan. Pepijn en Lodewijk zijn hier niet van gediend want zijn willen hun toegezegde koninkrijken van 831 behouden en als zelfstandige koningen regeren. Lotharius moet zich in Blois onderwerpen, Pepijn en Lodewijk verdrijven Lotharius naar Italië en maken hun vader weer keizer. 835: De belangrijkste partijgangers van Lotharius verliezen hun functies of overlijden in Italië tijdens een epidemie. 839: Lotharius kiest door bemiddeling van Judith nu de kant van Lodewijk de Vrome 840: Lotharius erkent Karel als koning van Aquitanië. Het keizerrijk wordt ruwweg verdeeld in een oostelijk deel (met Italië) voor Lotharius, en een westelijk deel voor Karel. Lodewijk de Duitser houdt alleen de macht in Beieren. Lodewijk de Vrome zendt op zijn sterfbed de keizerlijke tekenen van waardigheid aan Lotharius, die daarna het keizerschap over het hele rijk opeist. 841: Karel en Lodewijk sluiten een bondgenootschap tegen Lotharius (eed van Straatsburg). Lotharius verbindt zich met zijn neef Pepijn II van Aquitanië, die ondanks het koningschap van Karel de feitelijke machthebber in Aquitanië is. Op 25 juni worden Lotharius en Pepijn echter verslagen bij Fontenay in Bourgondië. Lotharius vlucht naar Aken en onderneemt vandaaruit rooftochten maar moet ook Aken opgeven. Lotharius verbindt zich daarop met de Saksische boeren maar hun verzet wordt door Lodewijk en de Saksische adel onderdrukt. Uiteindelijk trekt Lotharius zich terug op Lyon. In dit jaar geeft hij Walcheren in leen aan de Vikingen om zo nieuwe bondgenoten te werven, dit leidt tot een langdurige aanwezigheid van de Vikingen in Friesland. 842: begin van onderhandelingen (door delegaties) bij Mâcon op een eiland in de Saône 843: vredesverdrag: het Verdrag van Verdun. Deze deling betekent het einde van het Frankische Rijk en legt de basis voor het ontstaan van Frankrijk, Duitsland en Italië. Ook de kortstondige hereniging onder Karel de Dikke kon deze ontwikkeling niet tegenhouden.

Keizer van het Middenrijk

Bij het verdrag van Verdun heeft Lotharius zijn broers op bijna alle punten moeten toegeven. Maar aan de andere kant had hij nog wel de keizerstitel en alle gebieden die daarmee verband hadden zoals de hoofdstad Aken, de dalen van de Maas en de Moezel waar de bezittingen van zijn voorouders lagen, en Italië met de controle over de paus en de associatie met het oude Rome. In 844 benoemt hij zijn zoon Lodewijk tot koning van Italië en in 850 maakt hij hem medekeizer. In het noorden is hij gedwongen om meer gebieden aan de Vikingen in leen te geven. In 855 roept hij zijn zoons bij zich in de abdij van Prüm en verdeelt zijn rijk onder hen: 1. Lodewijk krijgt Italië 2. Karel het grootste deel van Bourgondië en de Provence 3. Lotharius II het noordelijke deel van Bourgondië en de rest van het Middenrijk, dat later naar hem Lotharingen zal worden genoemd

Daarna wordt Lotharius monnik in de abdij en sterft 6 dagen later.

Graf

Het graf van Lotharius is in 1860 ontdekt in de abdij van Prüm. Prüm lag toen in het koninkrijk Pruisen en met financiële steun van koning Wilhelm I werd een nieuwe graftombe voor Lotharius gebouwd waarin hij nu nog begraven is.

Huwelijk en kinderen

Lotharius was 15 november 821 in de palts van Thionville getrouwd met Irmgard (circa 800-851), de dochter van zijn trouwe medestander Hugo van Tours. Zij kregen de volgende kinderen:

1. Lodewijk 2. Hiltrude (geb. ca. 826) onbekende dochter (mogelijk Ermengarde) (geb. ca. 830), geschaakt door Giselbert I van Maasgouw die in 846 met haar trouwde in Aquitanië 3. Berta (ca. 830). Jong weduwe van een onbekende echtgenoot, daarna abdis van Avenay tot 852, mogelijk daarna abdis van Faremoutiers tot 877 4. Gisela (ca. 830 - 860), 851 abdis van San Salvatore te Brescia 5. Lotharius II 6. Rotrude, getrouwd met Lambert II van Nantes 7. Karel van Provence

Naast zijn huwelijk had hij tenminste een bijvrouw, Doda. Lotharius en Doda hadden een zoon Karloman (geb. 853). Na de dood van Irmgard weigerde Lotharius opnieuw te trouwen.

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties:

Voor de revisie van het artikel in september 2009 is gebruikt gemaakt van de Engelstalige, Franstalige en Duitstalige versies van dit artikel in Wikipedia.

Lotharius in Genealogie der Mittelalter http://www.mittelalter-genealogie.de/mittelalter/koenige/frankenreich/lothar_1_frankenkoenig_855.html

Lotharius in Foundation for Medieval Genealogy http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB -------------------- Ben M. Angel public service announcement: He was not associated with the Holy Roman Empire. The entity that became the Holy Roman Empire did not exist until 2 February 962. Please review: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_roman_empire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I_the_Great

And remember, friends do not let friends become "Holy Roman Empire (HRE) monkeys" --------------------------- From Darryl Lundy's Peerage page (error on title included: Forrás / Source): http://www.thepeerage.com/p10320.htm#i103199

Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor (1) M, #103199, b. 795, d. 29 September 855 Last Edited=13 Mar 2007

Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor was born in 795. He was the son of Louis I, Roi de France and Irmengard of Hesbain. (1)

He married Irmengard, Comtesse de Tours.

He died on 29 September 855 at Pruem, Rheinland, Germany. (2)

Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 817. (1) He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 823. (1) He succeeded to the title of Emperor Lothair I of the Holy Roman Empire in 840. (1)

(Ben M. Angel again repeats: The Holy Roman Empire was not in existence until 962. All instances of Holy Roman Emperor should be replaced with Emperor of the Romans.)

Children of Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor and Irmengard, Comtesse de Tours -1. Charles, Roi de Provence d. 863 -2. Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor+ b. c 822, d. 875 (1) -3. Lothar II, King of Lothuringia+ b. c 826, d. 8 Aug 869

Citations 1. [S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 122. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World. 2. [S1916] Tim Boyle, "re: Boyle Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 16 September 2006. Hereinafter cited as "re: Boyle Family."

(Ben M. Angel notes: Both are secondary sources, at best.) ---------------------------- From the Hungarian Wikipedia page on I. Lothár frank császár: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._Loth%C3%A1r_frank_cs%C3%A1sz%C3%A1r

I. Lothár (németül: Lothar) (795 – 855. szeptember 29.) Itália királya (818 – 855), I. Jámbor Lajos és Hesbaye-i Ermengarde, Ingerman hesbaniai gróf (ma Belgium, Liège) és Bajor Hedvig lányának, legidősebb fia volt. Ő örökölte apjától az egész Frank Birodalmat a császári címmel együtt, de később kénytelen volt megosztani azt öccseivel, Kopasz Károllyal és Német Lajossal, mint királyokkal, a 843-as Verduni szerződés értelmében, amely három részre osztotta a birodalmat. Kopasz Károly megszerezte a Nyugati Frank Királyságot, a későbbi Franciaországot, Német Lajos pedig a Keleti Frank Királyságot, a későbbi Németországot. Lothárnak csak a belső középső frank területek maradtak (Itália, Burgundia és Lotaringia).

Élete Jámbor Lajos császársága

Korai éveiről keveset tudunk, bár valószínűleg nagyapja, Nagy Károly udvarában teltek 815-ig, amikor is trónra lépő apja kinevezte őt bajor királlyá. Amikor 817-ben Jámbor Lajos jelképesen felosztotta fiai között az örökségét 817-ben Lothárt császárrá koronáztatta Aachenben (francia nevén Aix-la-Chapelle-ben) és megadta neki a főhatalmat öccsei, Pipin és Német Lajos felett, akik Aquitániát és Bajorországot örökölték. Lothár fejére tették Lombardia vaskoronáját is, melyet eddig apai unokatestvére Bernárd viselt. Amikor Bernárd meghalt Lothár szerezte meg a hatalmat az itáliai királyságban. 821-ben elvette Tours-i Ermengarde-t (?-851), Hugó tours-i gróf lányát. 822-ben ténylegesen kezébe vette Itália kormányzását, és 823. április 5-én I. Paszkál pápa ismét császárrá koronázta Rómában. 824 novemberében kihirdette, hogy a császár a pápával egyenrangú egyházi vezető, így jogot formált Itália püspökeinek kinevezésére.

Amikor visszatért apja udvarába, mostohaanyja, Welf Judith elnyerte a támogatását azon terveire, hogy királyságot szerezzen fiának, az újszülött Kopasz Károlynak, a cselszövésre, amelyet 829-ben hajtottak végre, amikor a kis herceg Alemannia királya lett. Lothár azonban hamarosan megváltoztatta terveit, és seregekkel indult apja ellen, hogy meghódítsa az egész birodalmat. Váltakozva volt a birodalom ura, mígnem száműzték Itáliába és megfosztották minden egyéb birtokától. Hamarosan azonban ismét fegyvert fogott, és testvéreivel szövetségben apjuk ellen támadt.

Az első lázadás 830-ban kezdődött. Mind a három testvér Jámbor Lajos ellen fordult, aki azonban legyőzte őket. 831-ben Jámbor Lajos visszaszerezte trónját, és megfosztotta Lothárt császári rangjától. Ezen felül Itáliát is Kopasz Károlynak adta. A második felkelést 833-ban II. Angilber milánói érsek is támogatta, de Lajos ismét győzött, és a következő évben (834) megbosszulta sérelmeit. Lothár visszatért Lombardiába és a császári címet meghagyta az apjának.

Önálló császársága

Amikor Jámbor Lajos 840-ben meghalt, Lothárra hagyta a császári jelképeket, aki így az egész birodalmat örökölte. Testvéreivel, Lajossal és Károllyal folytatott tárgyalásai, akik mindketten fegyverrel indultak ellene, egy szövetséget eredményezett a fiatalabb testvérek között Lothár ellen. A döntő csatát Fontenay-en-Puisaye-nél vívták 841. június 25-én, ahol Lothár és unokaöccse, II. Pipin aquitániai király bátorsága ellenére seregeik vesztettek és a császár Aachenbe szorult vissza. Új sereget szervezett és egy fosztogató hadjáratot indított, de Károly és Lajos seregei túl erősnek bizonyultak. A háború odáig fajult hogy Lothár kénytelen volt elhagyni fővárosát.

Hamarosan megkezdődtek a béketárgyalások és 842 júniusában a fivérek Saône szigetén találkoztak és megkötöttek egy megállapodást, mely a 843. augusztusi Verduni szerződéshez vezetett. Lothár megőrizte császári címét és egy földsávot Németalföld és Észak-Itália között, nagyjából a Rajna és a Rhone mentén. Hamarosan legidősebb fiára, Lajosra, hagyta Itáliát és az új királyságába ment, hogy fivéreivel kibékülve harcoljon közös ellenségeik a vikingek és a szaracénok ellen, akik földjeiket fenyegették.

855-ben súlyosan megbetegedett. A felgyógyulás reménytelensége miatt felosztotta királyságát három fia között és szeptember 23-án visszavonult Prüm kolostorába, ahol hat nap múlva elhunyt. Maradványait 1860-ban találták meg Prümben.

Királyságát fiai felosztották. A legidősebb, Lajos kapta Itáliát és a császári címet. A második, Lothár, kapta Lotaringiát, a legkisebb Károly Provence-t.

Címei

bajor király (815-817) itáliai király (818-) középső frank király (843-) római császár (817-855) (egyedül 840-től)

Családja

I. Lothár 821-ben vette el Tours-i Ermengarde-t. Kilenc gyermekük született:

1. II. Lajos (825-875) 2. Hiltrude (826-865) 3. Bertha (kb.830-852) 4. Irmgard (kb.830-849) 5. Gisela (kb.830-856) 6. II. Lothár (835-869) 7. Rotrude (kb.840) 8. Provence-i Károly (845-863) 9. Carloman (853) illegitim.

Jegyzetek

Frank király, bajor: 815-817 Következő uralkodó: II. Német Lajos

Frank király, középső: 768-814 Előző uralkodó: Jámbor Lajos Következő uralkodó: Itália: II. Ifjabb Lajos Lotaringia: II. Lothár Provence: Provence-i Károly

itáliai király, 818-855 Előző uralkodó: Bernárd Következő uralkodó: II. Ifjabb Lajos

római császár, 817-855 Előző uralkodó: I. Jámbor Lajos Következő uralkodó: II. Ifjabb Lajos

Középső frank király

Uralkodási ideje: 843. augusztus 11. – 855. szeptember 29.

Életrajzi adatok

Született 795 - Altdorf Elhunyt 855. szeptember 29. (60 évesen) - Prümi kolostor Temetése Prüm

Édesapja I. Lajos frank császár Édesanyja Hesbayei Ermengard

(No sources listed - presumed to be a direct translation.) -------------------- Unattributed, no sources listed, incorrect empire titled:

  1. Name: Lothaire I HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
  2. Given Name: Lothaire I
  3. Surname: Holy Roman Empire
  4. Sex: M
  5. Birth: 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria, Germany
  6. Death: 29 Sep 855 in Abbey Of Pruem, Rheinland, Prussia
  7. Burial: St Sauveur

Father: Louis I The Pious FRANCE b: Aug 778 in Chasseneuil, Lot Et Garonne Near Poitiers, Aquitaine, France Mother: Ermengarde De HESBAYE b: 778 in Hesbaye, Liege, Belgiu

Marriage 1 Ermengarde De TOURS b: Abt 805 in Tours, Indre Et Loire, Touraine Centre, France

Children

1. Louis II HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE b: Abt 825 in Alsace, Lorraine, France 2. Helletrude ITALY b: Abt 825 in Alsace, Lorraine, France 3. Lothaire II LORRAINE b: Abt 830 in Alsace, Lorraine, France 4. Ermengarde MOSELLE b: Abt 832 in Alsace, Lorraine, France

Married: 15 Oct 821 in Thionville, Moselle, France -------------------- From the German Geneall page on Lothar I, Kaiser: http://www.geneall.net/D/per_page.php?id=33168

Lothar I., Kaiser c. 0795 + 29.09.0855

Eltern Vater: Louis I le Pieux, Empereur d' Occident * 16.04.0778 Mutter: Ermengarda de Hesbaye * c. 0780

Heiraten Ermengarde de Tours * c. 0800

Kinder 1. Ludwig II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches * c. 0825 Engelberga de Spoletto 2. Hiltrud * c. 0826 Berenguer de Spoletto 3. Berta * c. 0830 4. Irmengarde von Germanie * c. 0830 Giselbert, Graf im Maasgau und Darnau 5. Gisela * c. 0830 6. Lothaire II de Germanie, roi de Lotharingie * c. 0835 Teutberga d' Arles Waldrade de Wormsgau 7. Rotrud da Alemanha * c. 0840 Lambert III de Nantes Otto von Lebarten 8. Charles, roi de Provence * c. 0845

Titel Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (3)

Ben M. Engel Staatsdienst Ankündigung: Er wurde mit dem Heiligen römischen Reich nicht verbunden. Das Wesen, das das Heilige römische Reich geworden ist, hat bis 2 Februar 962 nicht existiert. Bitte überprüfen Sie:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heiliges_R%C3%B6misches_Reich http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I._(HRR)

Und erinnern Sie sich daran, dass Freunde ihre Freunde nicht „Heiliges römisches reich (HRR) affen“ bekommen lassen. -------------------- From the Finnish Wikipedia page on Lothar I: http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothar_I

Lothar I (795 – 29. syyskuuta 855 Prümin luostarissa) oli yksi frankkien kuninkaan Ludvig Hurskaan kolmesta pojasta. Hän peri vuonna 843 Verdunin sopimuksella keskiosan isänsä valtakunnasta. Hänen osakseen tuli Lothringen, jonka nimi on kehittynyt sanoista Lotharii regnum, 'Lotharin valta-alue'; samoista sanoista muodostuivat myös nimet Lotharingia ja nykyranskan Lorraine.

Lothar oli naimisissa Ermengarden kanssa ja jäi leskeksi 851. Hänelle syntyi yhdeksän lasta, joista nuorin aviottomana vuonna 853. Valtakunta jaettiin kolmen pojan kesken. Vanhin lapsista, Ludvig, peri Italian ja keisarin arvonimen. Toiseksi vanhin, Lothar II, sai Lothringenin, ja nuorin, Kaarle, sai Provencen.

Tämä kuninkaalliseen henkilöön liittyvä artikkeli on tynkä. Voit auttaa Wikipediaa laajentamalla artikkelia tai muita samantapaisia artikkeleita.

(No sources noted - very basic informational "stub".) -------------------- born 795 died Sept. 29, 855, Abbey of Prüm, Germany

Frankish emperor whose attempt to gain sole rule over the Frankish territories was checked by his brothers.

The eldest son of the emperor Louis I. (778-840) the Pious and a grandson of Charlemagne (742-814), Lothair was made king in Bavaria after Louis succeeded Charlemagne in 814, and in 817 he was made joint emperor. Under the Ordinatio imperii, a decree issued by Louis in 817 to provide for the unity of the empire after his death, Lothair's younger brothers, Pippin (d. 838) and Louis (later called the German), were to receive their own kingdoms, Aquitaine and Bavaria, but were to remain under the general suzerainty of Lothair.

Ruler in Italy from 822, Lothair was crowned emperor by Pope Paschal I. (d. 824) in 823. He issued the Constitutio Romana (824), affirming imperial sovereignty over Rome and demanding an oath of fealty from the pope. When in 829 Louis I., under the influence of his second wife, Judith, revised the Ordinatio imperii to grant part of the empire previously granted to Lothair to his son by Judith, Charles (later called the Bald), Lothair broke with the imperial government. A palace revolution forced his reappointment as coemperor in 830, but he was again deposed shortly afterward.

In 833 discontent with the rule of Louis I. the Pious ended in a revolt of the three elder sons, led by Lothair, and Lothair replaced the deposed Louis. Louis was restored to power the following year, however, and Lothair's rule was restricted to Italy.

When Pippin died in December 838, Louis I. drew up a new partition scheme, dividing the empire, aside from Bavaria and neighbouring areas, which were left to Louis the German, between Lothair and Charles II the Bald, with Lothair taking the eastern portion. Lothair was to have the title of emperor but without the suzerainty over the other princes that had been granted by the Ordinatio imperii of 817.

On Louis I's death (840), Lothair again claimed his rights under the Ordinatio of 817, but his brothers, Louis and Charles, defeated him at the Battle of Fontenoy (841). The Treaty of Verdun (August 843) left Lothair the Middle Realm of the Frankish dominions, from the North Sea to Italy, while Louis received the eastern and Charles the western territory. The imperial title fell to Lothair.

After granting the government of Italy to his eldest son, Louis II, as early as 844, Lothair partitioned his realm between Louis (emperor from 850) and his two other sons, Lothair and Charles, in 855. Then he abdicated and became a monk.

Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- From the German Wikipedia page on Lothar I: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothar_I._%28Frankenreich%29 Lothar I. (Frankenreich)

Lothar I. (* 795; † 29. September 855 in der Abtei Prüm, Prüm) war von 814 bis 817 Herzog von Bayern, von 817/823 bis 855 römischer Kaiser (bis 840 als Mitkaiser), von 822 bis 855 (Unter-)König von Italien (König der Langobarden) und von 843 bis 855 König des fränkischen Lotharii Regnum („Mittelreich“).

Leben

Lothar war der älteste Sohn Ludwigs des Frommen und dessen Ehefrau Irmingard. Seit August 814 regierte er das Herzogtum Bayern und im Juli 817 wurde er bei der Teilung des Reichs Karls des Großen Mitkaiser. Mitte Oktober 821 vermählte er sich in Diedenhofen (Thionville) mit Irmingard von Tours, Tochter des Grafen Hugo von Tours. 822 erhielt er auch Italien und ein Jahr später, zu Ostern am 5. April 823, von Papst Paschalis I. die Kaiserkrone.[1]

Im November 824 erließ er die Konstitution Lothars, welche die Rechte des Kaisers und des Papstes in Rom und im Kirchenstaat festsetzte. Als aber Ludwig der Fromme dem von seiner zweiten Gemahlin Judith geborenen Sohn Karl dem Kahlen im August 829 auf dem Reichstag zu Worms Alemannien zubestimmte, empörten sich die drei Söhne aus erster Ehe gegen den Vater und setzten ihn 830 ab. 831 wurde Ludwig jedoch wieder befreit und Lothar verlor die Regentschaft.

Bei einer neuen Empörung 833 standen sich die Parteien Ende Juni auf dem Rotfeld bei Colmar gegenüber, bis Ludwig alle Unterstützung verloren hatte und am 30. Juni gezwungen war, sich zu ergeben und faktisch abzudanken. Es folgte ein öffentliches Schuldbekenntnis und die Verbannung Judiths und deren Sohnes Karl in ein Kloster. Das Colmarer Rotfeld wurde aufgrund der geschlossenen und gebrochenen Eide bald nur noch als „Lügenfeld“ bezeichnet.

Lothar wähnte nun seine Herrschaft über das Gesamtreich gesichert, doch nun verbündeten sich seine Brüder mit ihrem abgesetzten Vater Ludwig und holten diesen auf den Thron zurück. Ludwig der Fromme wurde am 1. März 834 in Saint-Denis wieder eingesetzt; Lothar, der nach Burgund geflohen war, musste sich im Juni 834 in Blois unterwerfen; er behielt lediglich Italien als Unterkönigreich, welches er ohne Zustimmung Ludwigs nicht mehr verlassen durfte. Bei der neuen Teilung des Reichs nach Pippins Tod wurde Lothar wieder zu Gnaden angenommen und bekam außer Italien Austrasien ohne Bayern (Juni 839). Nach des Vaters Tod (Juni 840) beanspruchte Lothar die volle Anerkennung als Kaiser. Allein Ludwig und Karl schlugen ihn bei Fontenoy in Burgund am 25. Juni 841. Im Vertrag von Verdun vom 10. August 843 behielt Lothar außer der Kaiserwürde und Italien Burgund und die Länder zwischen Rhein, Maas und Schelde bis an die Nordsee mit den beiden Hauptstädten Rom und Aachen, das sogenannte „Mittelreich“.

Während Lothar zur Festigung seiner Macht in Aachen blieb, verwüsteten die Araber 848 seine italienischen Provinzen, plünderten die Normannen die Küsten der Nordsee. Der hohe Klerus errang eine selbstständige Stellung und die großen Vasallen übten nach Lothars Vorbild Willkür und Gewaltherrschaft.

Bereits schwer erkrankt, teilte Lothar I. am 19. September 855 in der Teilung von Prüm sein Reich unter seine Söhne:

1. Ludwig II. († 875) erhielt die Kaiserwürde und Italien 2. Karl von der Provence († 863) erhielt die Provence und den zum Mittelreich gehörenden, größeren Teil Burgunds (der kleinere Teil, die heutzutage „Burgund“ („Bourgogne“) genannte Region im Zentrum des heutigen Frankreichs, war bereits seit 843 Teil des Westfrankenreiches) 3. Lothar II. († 869) erhielt den nach ihm benannten Nordteil des Reiches (Lotharingien)

Nach der Abdankung zog er sich in die Abtei Prüm in der Eifel zurück, wo er wenige Tage später, am 29. September 855, verstarb und auch bestattet wurde.

Nachleben

Hochgrab Kaiser Lothars I. in der Kirche der Abtei Prüm Lothars Gebeine wurden 1721 beim Neubau der Abteikirche in den neuen Hochaltar umgebettet und 1860 wiedergefunden. 1874 wurde mit finanzieller Unterstützung Kaiser Wilhelms I. ein neues Grabmal geschaffen. In die Grabplatte wurde die Grabinschrift von Hrabanus Maurus eingemeißelt:

„Continet hic tumulus memorandi Caesaris ossa, Hlotharii, magni principis atque pii. Qui Francis, Italis, Romanis praefuit ipsis, Omnia sed sprevit, pauper et hinc abiit. Nam bis tricenos monachus sic attigit annos, Et se mutavit, ac bene post obiit. III. Cal. Octob.“

„Es birgt dieses Grab die Gebeine des unvergesslichen Kaisers, Lothars, des großen und gottesfürchtigen Herrschers. Der über Franken, Italier, selbst Römer gebot. Verschmähte doch alles und ging dann als Armer hinweg. Als Mönch erreichte er ja gerade die Sechzig. Wandelte sich und schied danach selig dahin am 29. September [855].“

Auf Lothar geht der Spruch Tempora mutantur zurück.

Rezeption

In den erzählenden Quellen wird Lothar meist als von Ehrgeiz getrieben und ohne jegliche Staatsräson geschildert. Dieser ausgesprochen negative Ruf wird auch von zahlreichen wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen aufgegriffen und wiedergegeben. Dabei ist jedoch zu bedenken, dass die Hauptquellen zu jener Zeit allesamt aus dem Umfeld von Lothars Brüdern Karl und Ludwig stammen. Ein Geschichtswerk aus seinem eigenen Umfeld, worin er zweifellos in einem positiveren Licht geschildert worden wäre, ist entweder nicht entstanden oder nicht überliefert. Das traditionell negative Bild dieses Herrschers dürfte ihm daher nicht gerecht werden. Eine dies berücksichtigende neuere Darstellung seiner Person und Herrschaft fehlt bisher.

Nachkommen

Aus seiner Ehe mit Irmingard hatte Lothar neun Kinder: 1. Ludwig II. (* wohl 825; † 875), Mitkaiser 2. Helletrud (Hiltrud) (* wohl 826; † nach 865/866), ∞ Graf Berengar († vor 865/866) 3. Bertha (* wohl 830; † nach 7. Mai 852, wohl 877), vor 847 Äbtissin von Avenay, vielleicht Äbtissin von Faremoutiers 4. Ermengarde (Irmgard) (* wohl 826/830), 846 entführt, ∞ Giselbert, Graf im Maasgau (Reginare), 866 Graf im Lommegau, Ehe 849 anerkannt 5. Gisla (* wohl 830; † 860), 851–860 Äbtissin von San Salvatore in Brescia 6. Lothar II. (* wohl 835; † 869), König von Lothringen, ∞ I 855 Teutberga, Tochter des Grafen Boso von Arles (Bosoniden) 7. Rotrud (getauft 835/840 in Pavia), ∞ um 850/851 Lambert Graf der Bretonischen Mark, Graf von Nantes (Widonen), X 1. Mai 852 8. Karl (* wohl 845; † 25. Januar 863 im Kloster St-Pierre-les-Nonnains, heute Lyon), König in Burgund 9. Karlmann (* 853)

Literatur

Hans-Werner Goetz: Lothar I. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Bd. 5 (1989) Sp. 1223f.

Geschichtsverein Prümer Land e.V. (Hrsg.): Lothar I., Kaiser und Mönch in Prüm – Zum 1150. Jahr seines Todes. Prüm 2005, ISBN 3-931478-19-X.

Weblinks

Literatur von und über Lothar I. im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek https://portal.d-nb.de/opac.htm?query=Woe%3D118780514&method=simpleSearch

Anmerkungen

1. ↑ "New Advent" katholische enzyklopädie paginieren von Papst Paschal I: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11514a.htm

Herzog von Bayern 814–817 Vorgänger: Karl der Große Nachfolger: Ludwig der Fromme Römischer Kaiser 817/823–855 (bis 840 als Mitkaiser) Vorgänger: Ludwig der Fromme Nachfolger: Ludwig II.

(Unter-)König von Italien / König der Langobarden 822–855 Vorgänger: Bernhard von Italien Nachfolger: Ludwig II.

König des fränkischen Lotharii Regnum 843–855 Nachfolger: Lothar II. (Lotharingien), Karl von der Provence (Provence und Burgund), Ludwig II. (Italien)

(No sources noted, presumably a direct translation from the English page.) -------------------- Unattributed information:

795–855, emperor of the West (840–55), son and successor of Louis I Louis I or Louis the Pious, Fr. Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire. In 817 his father crowned him coemperor. He was recrowned (823) at Rome by the pope and issued (824) a constitution, proclaiming his right to confirm papal elections. He twice (830, 833) revolted against his father, who favored Lothair's half brother Charles (Charles the Bald, later Charles II Charles II or Charles the Bald, 823–77, emperor of the West (875–77) and king of the West Franks (843–77); son of Emperor Louis at his elder son's expense, and in 833, with his brothers Pepin and Louis the German Louis the German, c.804–876, king of the East Franks (817–76). When his father, Emperor of the West Louis I , partitioned the empire in 817, Louis received, he succeeded in temporarily deposing Louis I. However, his brothers deserted him and restored Louis. Lothair retained only Italy. He later was reconciled with his father, who in 838 allotted him almost the whole eastern half of the empire, the west (France) going to Charles. After Louis's death Charles and Louis the German made war on their brother Lothair, who tried to reunite the whole empire under his sole rule. The battle of Fontenoy (841), although indecisive, checked Lothair. Renewing their alliance in 842, Charles and Louis the German forced (843) Lothair to sign the fateful Treaty of Verdun (the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I , emperor of the West, which partitioned the empire of Charlemagne among the three brothers; Lothair retained the imperial title. He subdivided his domains among his sons Louis II Louis II, d. 875, emperor of the West (855–75), king of Italy (844–75), son of Emperor of the West Lothair I., who was crowned emperor at Rome in 850, Lothair Lothair, sometimes called Lothair II, d. 869, king of Lotharingia (855–69), second son of Emperor of the West Lothair I. king of Lotharingia, and Charles. In 855 he abdicated and became a monk. -------------------- Unattributed Norwegian information on Lothar I:

Bild:Bilden visar Lothar I avbildad på ett relikskrin. Han kröntes till kejsare år 823. Då han efter sin faders, Ludvig 'den fromme', död år 840 sökte hävda sin rätt till hela det frankiska riket besegrades han av sina bröder i slaget vid Fontenoy år 841, vilket ledde till rikets delning genom fördraget i Verdun år 843. Källa: Bra Böcker -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Familj med Ermengard av Tours (800 - 851) Vigsel: 821 1)

Barn: Lothar II av Frankerna (826 - 869) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Noteringar Lothar I blev år 817 sin faders medregent, men kom med sina bröder Karl den skallige och Ludvig den tyske i motsättning till fadern. Efter dennes död tvingades Lothar av sin bröder till fördraget i Verdun år 843, då riket delades mellan bröderna. Själv behöll Lothar Italien och en remsa mellan Frankrike och Tyskland. Före sin död delade han riket mellan sönerna Karl, Ludvig och Lothar. Källa: Bra Böcker -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Källor

1)  Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, Hull, England 

-------------------- Occupation: Holy Roman Emperor --------------------

The Houston Circle for the Study of

Early Modern PhilosophyLothair I.

(795-855)

King of Italy (818-855)

Holy Roman Emperor (840-855)

born 795

died Sept. 29, 855, Abbey of Prüm, Germany

Frankish emperor whose attempt to gain sole rule over the Frankish territories was checked by his brothers.

The eldest son of the emperor Louis I. (778-840) the Pious and a grandson of Charlemagne (742-814), Lothair was made king in Bavaria after Louis succeeded Charlemagne in 814, and in 817 he was made joint emperor. Under the Ordinatio imperii, a decree issued by Louis in 817 to provide for the unity of the empire after his death, Lothair's younger brothers, Pippin (d. 838) and Louis (later called the German), were to receive their own kingdoms, Aquitaine and Bavaria, but were to remain under the general suzerainty of Lothair.

Ruler in Italy from 822, Lothair was crowned emperor by Pope Paschal I. (d. 824) in 823. He issued the Constitutio Romana (824), affirming imperial sovereignty over Rome and demanding an oath of fealty from the pope. When in 829 Louis I., under the influence of his second wife, Judith, revised the Ordinatio imperii to grant part of the empire previously granted to Lothair to his son by Judith, Charles (later called the Bald), Lothair broke with the imperial government. A palace revolution forced his reappointment as coemperor in 830, but he was again deposed shortly afterward.

In 833 discontent with the rule of Louis I. the Pious ended in a revolt of the three elder sons, led by Lothair, and Lothair replaced the deposed Louis. Louis was restored to power the following year, however, and Lothair's rule was restricted to Italy.

When Pippin died in December 838, Louis I. drew up a new partition scheme, dividing the empire, aside from Bavaria and neighbouring areas, which were left to Louis the German, between Lothair and Charles II the Bald, with Lothair taking the eastern portion. Lothair was to have the title of emperor but without the suzerainty over the other princes that had been granted by the Ordinatio imperii of 817.

On Louis I's death (840), Lothair again claimed his rights under the Ordinatio of 817, but his brothers, Louis and Charles, defeated him at the Battle of Fontenoy (841). The Treaty of Verdun (August 843) left Lothair the Middle Realm of the Frankish dominions, from the North Sea to Italy, while Louis received the eastern and Charles the western territory. The imperial title fell to Lothair.

After granting the government of Italy to his eldest son, Louis II, as early as 844, Lothair partitioned his realm between Louis (emperor from 850) and his two other sons, Lothair and Charles, in 855. Then he abdicated and became a monk.

Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

-------------------- Immediate Family:

Son of Ludwig I (~778-840) and *-*Ermengard von Haspengau Husband of Ermengarde de Tours and Ermengarde de Tours Father of Lothar II. König von Lothringen and Lothar II. König von Lothringen

-------------------- LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard, married firstly: 1. Ermengard ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[189], bur Angers). With her he had six childrenthree sons and three daughters:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1. 1 Lothaire(795-855) [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[200]. He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I, jointly with his father, in Jul 817 at Aix-la-Chapelle. Lothair (795–855), king of Middle Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1.2 Pepin (797-838) PEPIN ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[201]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became PEPIN I King of Aquitaine. Pepin (797–838), king of Aquitaine:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1.3 Rotrude (800-) HROTRUD [Rotrude] ([800]-). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[202]. Rotrude (b. 800), married Gerard:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1.4 Berta or Adelaide BERTA Settipani cites charters which name Berta as the daughter of Emperor Louis[203]. Note; Wikipaedia doesn’t mention a Berta, and has an Adelaide instead. Adelaide (b. c. 799) :[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious Note Charles Cawley’s Medlands doesn’t mention Adelaide, and has a Berta instead.

1.5 Hildegrard (c802-857) HILDEGARD ([802/04]-857, or maybe after [23 Aug 860]). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[204]. Hildegard is named as sister of Charles by Nithard[205]. Abbess of Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon. She supported her brother Lothaire against her half-brother Charles and, in Oct 841, imprisoned Adalgar at Laon. After Laon was besieged, she surrendered Adalgar but was herself released by her half-brother205. The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 857 of "Hildegard, Lothawici regis filia"[206], corroborated in the Annales Alemannici[207]. Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802), married Gerard, Count of Auvergne:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1.6 Louis (806-876) LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I and his wife Ermengardis[208]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became King of Bavaria and Carinthia. Under the partition of territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "le Germanique/der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. Louis the German (c. 805–875), king of East Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

-------------------- Bilden visar Lothar I avbildad på ett relikskrin. Han kröntes till kejsare år 823. Då han efter sin faders, Ludvig 'den fromme', död år 840 sökte hävda sin rätt till hela det frankiska riket besegrades han av sina bröder i slaget vid Fontenoy år 841, vilket ledde till rikets delning genom fördraget i Verdun år 843 -------------------- Disconnected from http://www.geni.com/people/P%C3%A9pin-I/348101875910005782?through=6000000002061622981 as father Jan 2014 -------------------- Lothair I Emperor of the Romans 795 – 29 September 855 was the Emperor of the Romans (817–855), co-ruling with his father emperor Louis the Pious turn King of the Franks until 840 he is the brother of Louis II King of Bavaria from 817 Lothair married Ermengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugh the Count of Tours descent from the Merovingian kings Lothair and Ermengarde had nine children Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor (c. 825–875 Helletrud (Hiltrud) (c. 826–after 865/866) m. Count Berengar (d. before 865/866) Bertha (c. 830–after 7 May 852, probably 877), became before 847 Abbess of Avenay, perhaps Äbtissin of Faremoutiers Ermengarde Duchess Moselle(b. probably 826/830), kidnapped 846, m. Giselbert, Count of Maasgau (Reginare) Gisla (c. 830–860) 851–860 Abbess of San Salvatore in Brescia

Lothair II of Lotharingia (c. 835–869) king of Lorraine 

Rotrud (baptized 835/840 in Pavia Charles of Provence (c. 845–25 January 863 in the monastery St-Pierre-les-Nonnains, modern Lyon), King in Burgundy and Carloman (b. 853)

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothair_I http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothaire_Ier

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Emperor Lothar I (Carolingian)'s Timeline

795
795
Altdorf bei Nürnberg, Bayern, Deutschland
795
795
815
815
- 817
Age 20
818
818
- 855
Age 23
821
October 821
Age 26
Thionville, Moselle, Lorraine, France
823
823
Age 28
825
November 1, 825
Age 30
Austrasia, Frankish Empire
825
Age 30
826
826
Age 31
Alsace-Lorraine, France