Ernst David Bergmann

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Ernst David Bergmann

Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany
Death: Died in Haifa, Israel
Place of Burial: Jerusalem, Israel
Immediate Family:

Son of Yehuda Bergmann, Dr and Hedwigh Bergmann
Husband of Hani Bergmann and Ottilia Bergmann
Brother of Rosa Weiler; Felix Bergmann; Lotte Walter; <private> Bergmann; Arthur Bergmann and 2 others

Managed by: Private User
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Immediate Family

About Ernst David Bergmann

Ernst David Bergmann (Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎; born October 1903; died April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist. He is often considered the father of the Israeli nuclear program.

Life and Education

Bergmann was born in Germany to rabbi Judah Bergmann. He studied at the University of Berlin under Wilhelm Schlenk, where he received his Ph.D. in 1927. Bergmann continued to work at the university, and with Schlenk, wrote Ausführliches Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie, which was published in two volumes 1932 and later in 1939; however, the fact that Bergmann was Jewish caused his name to be removed from the title page of the 1939 edition.

Bergmann left for London in 1933 soon after the Nazis came to power, and began work with chemist and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann. He turned down an offer of a position at Oxford from Sir Robert Robinson, an event that Sir Robinson recalled years later with anger. Bergmann left Europe less than a year later, and arrived in The British Mandate of Palestine on January 1, 1934, to work at the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. During World War II he left to work on defense projects for the French, English, and Americans. Just a year after the war, Bergmann returned to the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, Israel, and continued there through its expansion in 1949 into the Weizmann Institute of Science.

IAEC Career and Chairmanship

During the next several years Bergmann, who had become famous through his work and connection with Weizmann, became close friends with David Ben-Gurion, and was appointed to several prominent government positions: chief of the Israel Defense Forces' science department in August 1948, science adviser to minister of defense on July 15, 1951, and director of research of the Division of Research and Infrastructure of the Ministry of Defense in early 1952. In June 1952, he was appointed by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), where he played a crucial role in leading the Israel nuclear program with Ben-Gurion and Defense Minister Shimon Peres.

That same year, he left the Weizmann Institute to become the chair of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and worked with graduate students for the next two years at Technion in Haifa. Around this same time, Bergmann's friendship with Weizmann ended when Bergmann married Weizmann's secretary Hani Itin. Weizmann's wife Vera had been close friends with Bergmann's previous wife before she died, and the new marriage to Itin along with rumors of other affairs caused her and her husband to effectively end their relationship with him.

Bergmann's work at the IAEC was shrouded in secrecy, and the agency itself was unknown to the public until he revealed its existence in 1954. Bergmann offered to resign in June 1964 after Ben-Gurion had been replaced by Levi Eshkol, but was convinced to remain for two more years. He resigned as chair of the IAEC and the two defense ministry posts on April 1, 1966.

During his lifetime Bergmann published more than 500 peer reviewed scientific papers in international journals, and made critical contributions to fluorine chemistry.

In 1968, Bergmann was awarded the Israel Prize in life sciences.

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-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_David_Bergmann

Ernst David Bergmann (Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎; born 1903; died April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist. He is often considered the father of the Israeli nuclear program.

Contents [show] Life and Education[edit] Bergmann was born in Germany to rabbi Judah Bergmann. He studied at the University of Berlin under Wilhelm Schlenk, where he received his Ph.D. in 1927. Bergmann continued to work at the university, and with Schlenk, wrote Ausführliches Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie, which was published in two volumes 1932 and later in 1939; however, the fact that Bergmann was Jewish caused his name to be removed from the title page of the 1939 edition.

Bergmann left for London in 1933 soon after the Nazis came to power, and began work with chemist and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann. He turned down an offer of a position at Oxford from Sir Robert Robinson,[1] an event that Sir Robinson recalled years later with anger. Bergmann left Europe less than a year later, and arrived in The British Mandate of Palestine on January 1, 1934, to work at the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. During World War II he left to work on defense projects for the French, English, and Americans. Just a year after the war, Bergmann returned to the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, Israel, and continued there through its expansion in 1949 into the Weizmann Institute of Science.

IAEC Career and Chairmanship[edit] During the next several years Bergmann, who had become famous through his work and connection with Weizmann,[2] became close friends with David Ben-Gurion, and was appointed to several prominent government positions: chief of the Israel Defense Forces' science department in August 1948, science adviser to minister of defense on July 15, 1951, and director of research of the Division of Research and Infrastructure of the Ministry of Defense in early 1952.[3] In June 1952, he was appointed by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), where he played a crucial role in leading the Israel nuclear program with Ben-Gurion and Defense Minister Shimon Peres.

That same year, he left the Weizmann Institute to become the chair of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and worked with graduate students for the next two years at Technion in Haifa. Around this same time, Bergmann's friendship with Weizmann ended when Bergmann married Weizmann's secretary Hani Itin.[citation needed] Weizmann's wife Vera had been close friends with Bergmann's previous wife before she died, and the new marriage to Itin along with rumors of other affairs caused her and her husband to effectively end their relationship with him.[citation needed]

Bergmann's work at the IAEC was shrouded in secrecy, and the agency itself was unknown to the public until he revealed its existence in 1954.[4] Bergmann offered to resign in June 1964 after Ben-Gurion had been replaced by Levi Eshkol, but was convinced to remain for two more years. He resigned as chair of the IAEC and the two defense ministry posts on April 1, 1966.[3][4]

During his lifetime Bergmann published more than 500 peer reviewed scientific papers in international journals, and made critical contributions to fluorine chemistry.[5][6]

Awards[edit] In 1968, Bergmann was awarded the Israel Prize in life sciences.[7]

About ארנסט דוד ברגמן (עברית)

ויקיפדיה

ארנסט דוד ברגמן (אוקטובר 1903 - 6 באפריל 1975), פרופסור לכימיה אורגנית וממקימי התשתית המדעית-ביטחונית בישראל. נחשב לאבי תוכנית הגרעין של ישראל. חתן פרס ישראל למדעי החיים

ביוגרפיה

נולד בגרמניה, בנו של הרב הראשי של ברלין. ב-1921 החל ללמוד כימיה באוניברסיטת ברלין ובגיל 21 כבר קיבל את הדוקטורט בהצטיינות, עבודת הדוקטורט שלו עסקה במחקר על הקשרים הכפולים בתרכובות אורגניות באמצעות שימוש במתכות. הוא שימש כעוזר מחקר של פרופסור וילהלם שלנק ולאחר ארבע שנים התמנה לפרופסור חבר במוסד. ב-1933 עלה לארץ ישראל לאחר שקיבל הצעה לעבוד עם חיים ויצמן בתכנון המכון על שם דניאל זיו ברחובות (לימים מכון ויצמן) ועם הקמתו היה המנהל המדעי הראשון של המכון. עם קום המדינה, היה בין מייסדי חיל המדע ומונה למנהל המדעי של מחלקת המדע במשרד הביטחון, כיועצו המדעי של שר הביטחון וראש הממשלה דאז, דוד בן-גוריון. מאוחר יותר כיהן כראש אגף מחקר ותכנון במשרד הביטחון, יו"ר ראשון של הוועדה לאנרגיה אטומית (1952–1966) ויו"ר המועצה הלאומית לחקר החלל. בשנת 1969 היה יושב ראש הוועדה לתכנון לטווח ארוך של לשכת המדען הראשי של מערכת הביטחון

ברגמן אחראי לכינונם של פרויקטים צבאיים רבים ובין היתר הוא נחשב לאבי תוכנית הגרעין של ישראל. היה ממקימי מכון ויצמן והוגי המכון לחקר המדבר בנגב והמכון למחקר ביולוגי בישראל בנס ציונה. אחד ממפעלי חברת רפאל קרוי על שמו - "מכון דוד". על פועלו זכה בפרסי ביטחון ישראל ב-1958 וב-1966. משנת 1953 הוא שימש פרופסור לכימיה אורגנית באוניברסיטה העברית, לאחר שיחסיו עם חיים ויצמן התערערו לאור קרבתו החדשה לדוד בן-גוריון. הוא כיהן אף כסגן נשיא האוניברסיטה

בשנת 1960 נבחר כחבר האקדמיה הלאומית הישראלית למדעים ובשנים 1968-1974 היה יו"ר החטיבה למדעי הטבע באקדמיה‏. ב־1968 זכה בפרס ישראל

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Ernst David Bergmann's Timeline

1903
October 18, 1903
Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany
1975
April 6, 1975
Age 71
Haifa, Israel
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Jerusalem, Israel