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About Eva Henriette Sachs
Eva Sachs, 1882-1936, who was a brilliant classical scholar but died in a mental institution in Vienna.
Margarete Bieber was a cousin of Eva Sachs
The older generation Lachmann family ten children, among them Louis, Vera and Nina's father; Henriette Lachmann Maas, Rosi's mother; amd Minna Lachmann Sachs.
Käthe Sachs (Berlin 1883--Salt Lake City 1962) was the daughter of Immanuel Sachs and Minna Lachmann Sachs (sister of Louis Lachmann). Their other children were Eva Sachs, 1882-1936, who was a brilliant classical scholar but died in a mental institution in Vienna, and Hans Sachs, a physician (no dates).
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Eva Sachs on Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendoiff
William M. Calder, HI 207
Mathematik auf Platon zu erkennen, ist jedenfalls sehr fruchtbar."'^ The book is dedicated to no one. At the end of the preface there is a mysterious sentence (viii): "Zu eigen ist dieses Buch, auch ohne Widmung, meinem Lehrer Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff."
This mystery was solved when about 1974 I was able to interview at the home of Margarete Bieber the cousin of Eva Sachs. Professor Vera Regina Lachmann (1904-1985) then professor of classics at Brooklyn College. I published the substance of this interview in 1978.'"' I reprint it here:
A brilliant Jewess, Assistentin to Wilamowitz, she helped much for Platon (see Platon I. v). She was in love with Wilamowitz. Forbidden by Marie Mommsen to enter the house, she dared not even dedicate her book to him, as male students did . . . She was ugly and went mad, ending her days in an insane asylum, speaking ancient Greek and believing "she could save Socrates if she got there in time."
WILLIAM M. CALDER, III I. Introduction
Theodor Klauser in his exemplary life of Henri Leclerq (1869-1945) remarks at its beginning the rapidity with which the details of a scholar's life are scattered and forgotten soon after his decease: â€¢
Schon wenige Jahre nach dem Tode eines prominenten Mannes von heute sind seine Lebensumstande nur dann noch feststellbar, wenn sie in irgendwelchen wohlbehUteten Personalakten nachzulesen sind. Wer keinem Verband angehort hat, der solche Personalakten fijhrt, ist bald nach seinem Tode nur noch ein blasser Schatten; es fehlen alle deutlichen Konturen.
Only three women of great age are alive today who knew Eva Sachs (1882- 1936). The one who could say most will say nothing. Eva Sachs' name has been forgotten by all except the most specialized of Platonists and historians of ancient mathematics. Even for them, it is but a name on a title-page. She wrote her dissertation with the greatest Hellenist of modem times. Her work was praised by the highest authority and its contribution to knowledge is agreed to be a permanent one. Her unselfish aid eased the publication of one of the three or four most influential books on Plato of this century. Of classical philologists of the golden age who were women she has only one rival â€” the editor of Suidas, the Danish Jewess, Ada Adler.^ The discovery of two new documents that cast light on the brief and unhappy life of this brilliant woman, one of which reveals much about her great teacher, have caused me to gather what can be known still and seek to restore contours to the pale shadow.
' Theodor Klauser, "Henri Leclerq 1869-1945: vom Autodidakten zura Kompilator grosser) Svls," JahrbuchfUr Antike und Chrislentum Ergdmungsband 5 (Miinster 1977) 10.
^For Ada Adler (1878-1946) see Per Kranip and Hans Raeder, Dansk Biografisk Leksikon 1 (Copenhagen 1979) 55, a reference I owe Dr. J. Mejer (Copenhagen). Her letters to Wilamowitz
204 lUinois Classical Studies, XHI. 1
n. A Forgotten Life
Two published documents survive concerning the life of Eva Sachs (1882- 1936). The first is a brief Latin autobiography that ends her dissertation. Because of its importance, brevity, and the difficulty in obtaining it,^ I republish it here rather than paraphrasing it ."
Nata sum Eva Henrica Sachs Id. Apr. a. 1882, Berolini patre Emanuelo, matre Minna e gente Lachmann, quos praematura morte mihi abreptos esse doleo. Fidei addicta sum iudaicae. Inde ab anno 1889 usque ad annum 1898 ludum puellarum frequentavi, cui nomen est "Charlottenschule" et qui tum regente Carolo Goldbeck+ florebat. Litterarum elementis imbutam Carolus Goldbeck, vir humanissimus, sunamo antiquorum litterarum amore inflammatus, a recentiorum temporum studio ad antiquorum revocavit. Qui vir summus non solum magister venerandus sed etiam amicus cams mihi meisque extitit.
Proximis annis in instituto, quod dicebatur "Victoria Lyceum" historicis studiis me dedi. Inde ab anno 1902 privatis curis instnicta gymnasium pueUarum, cui praefuit J. Wychgramm, frequentavi, ubi mihi contigit, ut scholis Guilelmi Moeller interessem, viri vere philologi.
Vere 1904 maturitatis testimonium adepta universitatem Berolinensem adii, ut studiis historicis et philologis, imprimisque Platonicis me darem.
Docuerunt me viri doctissimi: Cassirer, Diels, Hamack, Helm, Hirschfeld, Imelmann, Lehmann-Haupt, Mewald, Eduardus Meyer, Munch+, Norden, Paulsen+, Riehl, Simmel, M.P.C. Schmidt, Guilelmus Schulze, Stumpf, Wentzel, de Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Winnefeld, Woelfflin.
Sodalis fui proseminarii philologici per tria, seminarii per tria, seminarii historici regente Ottone Hirschfeld per unum, moderante Eduardo Meyer per sex semestria.
Ad exercitationes historicas me admisit C. Lehmann-Haupt, ad epigraphicas Winnefeld, ad philosophicas Cassirer.
Quibus omnibus viris gratiam habeo quam maximam, praeter ceteros Hermanno Diels, Eduardo Meyer, Eduardo Norden, e quibus Dielesius etiam in hac dissertatione perpolienda liberalissime me adiuvit.
Udalrico de Wilamowitz-Moellendorff gratias non ago: eorum quae ab eo dona accepi, â€” ^rouxcov Geoiai XP^ noXviivT\czo\/ xÂ«Piv
' I cite the copy in the Qassical Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I am grateful to Professor David Sansone, who aided me in tracking it down.
"* Eva Sachs, De Theaeleto Atheniensi Mathematico: DLssertalio inauguralis quam ad ' summos in philosophia honores rite capessendos consensu et auctoritate amplissimi philosophorum ordinis in alma litterarum universitate Friderica Guilelma Berolinensi (Diss. Berlin 1914) 71.
^ A. Ag. 821-22, long a favorite play of WUamowitz, who had edited it with translation in 1885 and published a famous revised translation in 1900. He translates these verses:
WiUiam M. Calder, HI 205
She was early orphaned and avoided the easy way of Protestant baptism, taken by so many assimilated Jews of the period. 1898-1902 she attended the famous Victoria-Lyzeum, the leading girls-school in Berlin. There she may have met Adelheid Mommsen, who with her father's permission was studying to become a school-teacher.* Perhaps she would have heard Wilamowitz, who had lectured there regularly since his appointment to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in 1897. In 1904, already determined to study Plato, she matriculated at that university. She received the finest classical education available in the history of the discipline. One should note that she did not confine herself to philology in the narrow sense. The breadth of her interests was extraordinary; and she took her time. She defended her dissertation 29th April 1914. During ten years at the university she heard besides the great classical scholars: the young philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945);Â« the church historian Adolf Hamack (1851-1930); the Roman historian Otto Hirschfeld (1843-1922);' the universal historian Eduard Meyer (1855-1930); the historian of higher education Friedrich Paulsen (1846-1908); the neo-Kantian Georg Simmel; the linguist Wilhelm Schulze (1863-1935); the psychologist and musicologist Carl Stumpf (1848-1936) and the art-historian Heinrich WolffUn (1864-1945).i<'
The great mentor was always Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848-1931). The courses he offered during her time at Berlin are known.^i He was particularly interested in Plato at this period. His Platon would have appeared sooner had it not been for the war. Between 1904 and 1914
Des Dankes fiir der Goner Beistand diirfen wir niemals vergessen. See Ulrich von Wilamowitz-MoeUendorff, Griechische Tragoedien, 2 (Berlin 1900) 78-79.
- Adelheid Mommsen, Theodor Mommsen im Kreise der Seinen (Berlin 1936) 63.
See Ulrich von WUamowitz-MoeUendorff, Erinnerungen 1848-1914. ed. 2 (Leipzig 1929) 247 and for the foolishness of some of the girls ib. , 226.
' See David R. Lipton, Ernst Cassirer: the Dilemma of a Liberal Intellectual in Germany 1914-1933 (Toronto 1978).
' For Otto Hirschfeld see Emst Komemann, BiogJahr 202 (1924) 104-1 16. He was victim of the violent antisemitism of Kari Julius Beloch (1854-1929): see Kari Christ, Von Gibbon zu Rostovtzeff: Leben undWerkfiihrender Althistoriker der Neuzeit (Darmstadt 1972; repr. 1979) 265, n. 65.
'" For the lectures he delivered at Berlin 1901-1912 see Meinhold Lurz, "Heinrich Wolfflin: Biographic einer Kunsttheorie," Heidelberger Kunstgeschichtliche Abhandlungen NF 17 (Worms 1981)381-82.
" F. Frhr. Hiller v. Gaetringen and Giinther Klaffenbach, Wilarru}witz-B ibliographie 1868 bis 7929 (Berlin 1919) 79-81.