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About Federico II de Aragón, rey de Sicilia
Federico King of Sicily
Born: 1272 - Of, Valencia, Valencia, Spain Died: 25 Jun 1337 - , Palermo, Sicily, Italy
Frederick III of Sicily
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Frederick II or III (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death. He was the third son of Peter III of Aragon and served in the War of the Sicilian Vespers on behalf of his father and brothers, Alfonso and James. He was confirmed as King of Trinacria (another name for the island of Sicily) by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. His reign saw important constitutional reforms: the Constitutiones regales, Capitula alia, and Ordinationes generales.
Although the second Frederick of Sicily, he chose to call himself "Frederick III" (being one of the rare medieval monarchs who actually used a regnal number) — presumably because only some fifty years before, his well-known and remembered great-grandfather had reigned Sicily and also used an official ordinal: Fridericus secundus, imperator etc. Thus, Fridericus tertius was better in line with the precedent of his ancestor's ordinal. However, an anecdote attributes Frederick's choice of numeral to him being the third son of Peter. The next man called Frederick to occupy the Sicilian throne was dubbed by later generations of historians as Frederick III: Frederick III the Simple, though he himself did not use an ordinal.
Frederick was born in Barcelona to Peter III of Aragon and Constantia of Sicily, daughter of King Manfred of Sicily.
When his father died in 1285, he left the Kingdom of Aragon to his eldest son, Alfonso, and that of Sicily to his second son, James. When Alfonso died in 1291, James became king of Aragon and left Frederick as regent in Sicily. The war between the Angevins, who contested the title to Sicily from their peninsular possessions centred around Naples (the so-called Kingdom of Naples), and the Aragonese for the possession of the island was still in progress, and although the Aragonese were successful in Italy, James’ position in Spain became very insecure due to internal troubles and French attacks. Peace negotiations were begun with Charles II of Naples, but were interrupted by the successive deaths of two popes. At last, under the auspices of Pope Boniface VIII, James concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to be held by the Angevins (Treaty of Anagni, 10 June 1295). The Sicilians refused to be made over once more to the hated French they had expelled in 1282 (in the Sicilian Vespers), and found a national leader in the regent Frederick. In vain the pope tried to bribe him with promises and dignities; he was determined to stand by his subjects, and was crowned king by the nobles at Palermo in 1296. Young, brave, and handsome, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided them through long years of storm and stress with wisdom and ability.
When Frederick heard that James was preparing to go to war with him, he sent a messenger, Montaner Pérez de Sosa, to Catalonia in an effort to stir up the barons and cities against James in 1298. Montaner carried with him an Occitan poem, Ges per guerra no.m chal aver consir, intended as a communication with his supporters in Catalonia. This communiqué seems to have had in mind Ponç Hug as a recipient, for the count penned a response (under the title con d'Enpuria), A l'onrat rei Frederic terz vai dir, in which he praised Frederick's tact and diplomacy, but told him bluntly that he would not abandon his sovereign. This poetic transaction is usually dated to January–March, Spring, or August 1296, but Gerónimo Zurita in the seventeenth century specifically dated the embassy of Montaner to 1298.
Frederick reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates, and the representatives of the towns.
His refusal to comply with the pope's injunctions led to a renewal of the war. Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Boniface. In the meanwhile James, who received many favours from the Church, married his sister Yolanda to Robert, the third son of Charles II. Unfortunately for Frederick, a part of the Aragonese nobles of Sicily favoured King James, and both John of Procida and Roger of Lauria, the heroes of the war of the Vespers, went over to the Angevins, and the latter completely defeated the Sicilian fleet off Cape Orlando. Charles’s sons Robert and Philip landed in Sicily, but after capturing Catania were defeated by Frederick, Philip being taken prisoner (1299), while several Calabrian towns were captured by the Sicilians.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleanor of Anjou, daughter of Charles II of Naples and Maria Arpad of Hungary; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles’s face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere. Boniface tried to induce King Charles to break the treaty, but the latter was only too anxious for peace, and finally in May 1303 the pope ratified it (with changes and additions), Frederick agreeing to pay him a tribute.
For a few years Sicily enjoyed peace, and the kingdom was reorganized. But on the descent of the emperor Henry VII, Frederick entered into an alliance with him, and in violation of the pact of Caltabellotta made war on the Angevins again (1313) and captured Reggio. He set sail for Tuscany to cooperate with the emperor, but on the latter’s death he returned to Sicily. Robert, who had succeeded Charles II in 1309, made several raids into the island, which suffered much material injury. A truce was concluded in 1317, but as the Sicilians helped the north Italian Ghibellines in the attack on Genoa, and Frederick seized some Church revenues for military purposes, Pope John XXII excommunicated him and placed the island under an interdict (1321) which lasted until 1335. An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the Bavarian distracted their attention. The election of Pope Benedict XII (1334), who was friendly to Frederick, promised a respite; but after fruitless negotiations the war broke out once more, and Chiaramonte went over to Robert, owing to a private feud. In 1337 Frederick died at Paternò, and in spite of the peace of Caltabellotta his son Peter II of Sicily succeeded. Frederick’s great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians into a united people.
“ . . . Io son Manfredi,
nipote di Costanza imperadrice;
ond’io ti priego che, quando tu riedi,
vada a mia bella figlia, genitrice
de l’onor di Cicilia e d’Aragona,
e dichi ‘l vero a lei, s’altro si dice. . . .
— Dante Alighieri, probably referring to Frederick, Divina Commedia: Purgatorio, III, 103-145.
From his marriage (1303) with Eleanor of Anjou were born:
Constance (1304), married in 1317 to Henry II of Cyprus; on December 29, 1331 to Leo V of Armenia; and in 1343 to John of Lusignan, brother of Peter I of Cyprus. She didn't have children from any of her marriages.
Peter (1305 – 1342), successor
Manfred (1306 – 1317), Duke of Athens and Neopatria
Roger, died young
Elisabeth,(1310 – 1349), married (1328) Stephen II of Bavaria
William (1312 – 1338), Prince of Taranto, Duke of Athens and Neopatria
John (1317 – 1348), Duke of Randazzo, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Regent of Sicily (from 1338)
Catherine (1320 – 1342)
Margaret (1331 – 1360), married (1348) Rudolf II of the Palatainate
To his mistress Sibilla Sormella were born:
Alfonso Frederick, (1294 – 1334), regent of Athens and Neopatria
Roland (1296 – 1361)
Elisabeth (or Isabella) di Sicilia (1297 – 1341)
Sancho (1300 – 1334)
Eleanor (born 1298)
^ a b Riquer, 1687–1688.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Bozzo, S.V. Note storiche siciliano del secolo XIV. Palermo, 1882.
Riquer, Martín de. Los trovadores: historia literaria y textos. 3 vol. Barcelona: Planeta, 1975.
D2. [2m.] King PEDRO III "el Grande" of Aragon (1276-85/6) etc, King of Sicily (1282-85), (to which he was welcomed after the Angevins were expelled), *1239, +Villafranca del Penedes 11.11.1285; m.Montpellier 13.6.1262 Constance von Hohenstaufen (*1249 +Barcelona 9.4.1302), dau.of King Manfredo of Sicily
- E3. King FEDERIGO II of Sicily (1299-1337), *1272, +Panterno, nr Catania 25.7.1337; m.Messina 27.5.1303 Eleonore d´Anjou (*VIII.1289, +monastery of San Nicola d'Arena 9.8.1341/43), dau.of Charles II King of Sicily; for his descendants see HERE
King FEDERIGO of Sicily (1299-1337), born Infant Fadrique of Aragon, *1272, Panterno, nr Catania 25.6.1337, bur Catania; m.Messina 17.5.1302 Eleonore d´Anjou (*VIII.1289, +Monasterio de San Nicola, Arene 9.8.1341, bur Catania), dau.of Charles II King of Sicily; had issue:
- A1. King PIETRO II of Sicily (1337-42), *1304, +Calataxibeta 15.8.1342; m.23.4.1322 Elisabeth of Carinthia (*ca 1298 +after 1347), dau.of Gf Otto II von Tirol
- A14. Leonor de Aragon; m.Juan de Chiarmonte, Cde de Modica
-------------------- From the "SICILY/naples, counts & kings" the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy site.
FEDERIGO I 1285-1337
Infante don FADRIQUE de Aragón, son of don PEDRO III "el Grande" King of Aragon & his wife Constanza of Sicily [Hohenstaufen] (1272-Palermo or near Pamplona 25 Jun 1337). His brother appointed him Viceroy in Sicily after succeeding to the crown of Aragon in 1291. Ignoring the peace agreement signed between his brother and Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], Infante don Fadrique occupied Sicily. As a condition of his betrothal to Catherine de Courtenay in [Jul] 1295, he promised to renounce his rights to Sicily and give help to reconquer the Latin Empire of Constantinople, but this proposal was opposed by Philippe IV King of France and the betrothal was terminated. He was proclaimed Lord at Palermo 12 Dec 1295, and recognised as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily by the Parliament-General at Catania 15 Jan 1296, crowned at Palermo 25 Mar 1296. During the negotiations for his marriage in 1302, his future father-in-law, jointly with Charles de France Comte de Valois and the Pope, proposed that he should renounce his rights to the kingdom of Sicily in return for the kingdom of Albania (which was non-existent at the time) or the kingdom of Cyprus (whose ruling house of Lusignan would have been dispossessed had Federigo accepted the proposal). He refused, but a compromise was agreed at Caltabellotta in Aug 1302 whereby Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] gave Sicily as dowry to his daughter Eléonore, Federigo was confirmed with the title "King of Trinacria" (taken from the ancient name for Sicily which was derived from the triangular shape of the island) for his life, after which the kingdom would return to the house of Anjou. In 1311, the Catalan Company invited King Federigo to become its suzerain in the duchy of Athens, following its capture of the territory after defeating Gauthier de Brienne Duke of Athens in battle at the Kephissos River. The king named his son Manfred as titular Duke of Athens, with his illegitimate son, don Alfonso Fadrique de Aragón, as Captain-General. War broke out again with the Angevins of Naples in 1313. King Federigo had the Sicilian parliament recognise his son Pietro as his successor 12 Jun 1314, and he readopted the title "King of Sicily" 9 Aug 1314. Sicily renewed its allegiance to King Federigo’s son Pietro in 1322. "Fredericus…rex Trinacrie…cum…domina Elyonora…regina Trinacrie…consorte nostra…[et] rege Petro secundo primogenitor cum consorte eius" wrote to "domino infanti Alfonos…domini regis Aragonum primogenitor…comiti Urgellensi" dated 20 May .
Betrothed ([Jun] 1295) to CATHERINE de Courtenay, daughter of PHILIPPE de Courtenay Titular Emperor of Constantinople & his wife Beatrice of Sicily (1274-Paris 3 Jan 1308, bur Paris).
m (Messina May 1303) as her second husband, ELEONORE of Sicily, former wife of PHILIPPE de Toucy titular Prince of Antioch Signor di Terza, daughter of CHARLES II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Maria of Hungary (1289-Monastery of San Nicolo di Arena 9 Aug 1341, bur Catania, Franciscan monastery). Her second marriage was arranged by the Treaty of Caltabellotta 31 Aug 1302, under which her father gave her Sicily as dowry during her husband’s life, after which the kingdom would return to her father King Charles II and his heirs. "Fredericus…rex Trinacrie…cum…domina Elyonora…regina Trinacrie…consorte nostra…[et] rege Petro secundo primogenitor cum consorte eius" wrote to "domino infanti Alfonos…domini regis Aragonum primogenitor…comiti Urgellensi" dated 20 May .
Mistress (1): SIBILLA Sormella, daughter of ---.
King Federigo & his wife had nine children:
1. PIETRO of Sicily (1304-Calataxibeta 15 Aug 1342). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "el primero…Don Pedro…et el otro Don Johan…el tercero Guillem" as the three sons of Federigo King of Sicily. He succeeded his father in 1338 as PIETRO II King of Sicily.
- see below.
2. RUGGIERO of Sicily (-young).
3. CONSTANZA of Sicily (-after 19 Jun 1344). "Petrus secundus…rex Sicilie…domini Friderici…patris sui regis eiusdem regni in ipsius administratione" wrote to Jaime King of Aragon "frater [patris nostris]" concerning the potential remarriage of "domine Constancie…regine Jerusalem et Cipris, sororis nostre" dated 16 Dec . The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage of "le roi d'Arménie Léon" and "[la] fille du roi de Sicile Frédéric II" in [29 Dec 1330/28 Dec 1331], which was accompanied by a grant of commercial privileges by her husband to his father-in-law. The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Leo married "dame Constance, vefve de feu Henry, roy de Cyppre" stating that she was daughter of "Fredric, roy de Sezille". The Lignages d'Outremer name "la regina Costanza" as first wife of "Joanne, l'altro figliolo de re Hugo…principe d'Antiochia e contestabile de Cypro". Betrothed (Oct 1306) to ROBERT de France, son of PHILIPPE IV "le Bel" King of France & his wife doña Juana I Queen of Navarre (1297-Saint-Germain-en-Laye Aug 1307, bur Priory of Poissy, église de Saint Louis). m firstly (Nicosia 16 Oct 1317) HENRI II King of Cyprus, son of HUGUES III King of Cyprus [Poitiers-Lusignan] & his wife Isabelle d'Ibelin (1271-Strovilo 31 Aug 1324). No issue. m secondly (Papal Dispensation 29 Dec 1331) as his second wife, LEO IV King of Armenia, son of OSHIN King of Armenia & his first wife Zabel of Korikos (before 4 Sep 1309-28 Aug 1341). m thirdly (1343 after 16 Apr) as his first wife, JEAN de Lusignan, son of HUGUES IV King of Cyprus & his second wife Alice d'Ibelin ([1329/30]-murdered 1375). Titular Pr of Antioch 1345-1375. Regent of Cyprus 1362-1365, 1366, and 1369-1375.
4. MANFREDO of Sicily (-Trapani 9 Nov 1317, bur Trapani). His father named him Duke of Athens in 1312, after the Catalan Company invited King Federigo to be their suzerain following their conquest of the territory. Berenguer Estañol, a knight of Ampurias, was appointed as Governor. Manfredo never visited his duchy.
5. ISABELLA of Sicily (-Landshut 21 Mar 1349, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau). The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XII Kal Apr 1349" of "domina Elisabeth ducissa Bawarie filia regis Sycilie". m (27 Jun 1328) as his first wife, STEFAN von Bayern, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV "der Bayer" King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his first wife Beatrix von Schweidnitz [Piast] (Autumn 1319-Landshut 19 May 1375, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau). He succeeded his father in 1347 as STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" Duke of Bavaria.
6. GUGLIELMO of Sicily (1312-Valencia 22 Aug 1338, bur Palermo). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "el primero…Don Pedro…et el otro Don Johan…el tercero Guillem" as the three sons of Federigo King of Sicily, stating that Guglielmo died "sin alguna dignidat". Principe di Tarento. He succeeded his brother Manfredo in 1317 as Duke of Athens, although he never visited the territory. He added the title Duke of Neopatras in 1319, after his half-brother Alfonso Fadrique captured the town and large parts of Thessaly. m (1335) as her first husband, doña MARÍA Álvarez de Ejérica, daughter of don JAIME II de Aragón Barón de Ejérica & his wife doña Beatriz de Lauria Señora de Cocentaina (-before 1364). She married secondly Infante don Ramón Berenguer de Aragón Conde de Prades, later Conde de Ampurias.
7. GIOVANNI of Sicily (Apr/May 1317-Catania 3 Apr 1348). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "el primero…Don Pedro…et el otro Don Johan…el tercero Guillem" as the three sons of Federigo King of Sicily, stating that Giovanni was "Duch de Atenas". Marchese di Randazzo. He succeeded his brother 1338 as Duke of Athens and Neopatras, although he never visited the territory. Regent of Sicily 1338-1348. He died of the plague. m CESARINA [Cesarea] Lancia, daughter of PIETRO Lancia Signor di Delia, Conte di Caltanissetta & his wife --- d'Alagón. Giovanni & his wife had three children:
a) FEDERIGO de Aragón (-11 Jul 1355, bur Santa Agata Palermo). He succeeded his father in 1348 as Duke of Athens and Neopatras.
b) LEONOR de Aragón (-after 1369). m GUILLÉN de Peralta Conde de Castelbellotta.
c) CONSTANZA de Aragón.
8. CATERINA of Sicily (-). Abbess of Santa Chiara at Messina.
9. MARGHERITA of Sicily (1331-Neustadt 1377, bur Neustadt St Aegidius). m ([Neustadt 14 Dec 1344] or 1348) as his second wife, RUDOLF II "der Blinde" Elector Palatine, son of RUDOLF I Joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and Joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his wife Mechtild von Nassau (Wolfratshausen 8 Aug 1306-Neustadt 4 Oct 1353, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).
King Federigo I had five illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
10. don ALFONSO Fadrique de Aragón (-[20 Dec 1335/4 Mar 1339]). He became Lord of Salona in 1319, and Conte di Malta e Gozo in 1330, under the suzerainty of the Kings of Sicily.
- LORDS of SALONA.
11. doña ISABEL de Aragón (-1341). m firstly (1313) PONCE VI Maugalin Conde de Ampurias, son of PONCE V Conde de Ampurias & his wife doña Marquesa de Cabrera 18th Vizcondesa de Cabrera (-1322). m secondly (1322) as his second wife, RAIMONDO di Peralta Conte di Caltabellota, son of FILIPPO di Saluzzo & his first wife Sibilla di Peralta (-1348).
12. LEONOR de Aragón. m don JUAN de Chiaramonte Conde de Módica, son of ---.
13. SANCHO de Aragón (-). Barone de Militello. m MACALDA Polizzi, Signora di Cammarata, daughter of ---. Sancho & his wife had one child:
a) FEDERIGO de Aragón (-). Barone di Militello. m ---. The name of Federigo's wife is not known. Federigo & his wife had one child:
i) VINCIGUERRA de Aragón. Barone di Militello. m ---. The name of Vinciguerra's wife is not known. Vinciguerra & his wife had one child:
(a) FEDERIGO de Aragón. Barone di Militello.
14. ORLANDO de Aragón (1296-killed in battle at Caltanissetta 1361). Barone di Avola.
- BARONI DI AVOLA.
Federigo II di Aragona, re di Sicilia's Timeline
December 13, 1272
May 17, 1302
Catania, Catania, Italy
Palermo, Palermi, Sicily