Felipe II 'el Prudente' de España, rey de España y Portugal (1527 - 1598) MP

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Nicknames: "Phillip /De Spain/ II", "King Tutor Of Spain /Philip/", "/Phillip/ II", "Felipe II King Of Spain And /Portugal/", "Philip The Prudent"
Birthplace: Valladolid, Valladolid, Castille and Leon, Spain
Death: Died in Escorial, Community of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Occupation: KingI of Spain (1556-98), King of Naples (1554-98), Duc de Brabant et Duc de Limbourg, Comte de Flandre, Comte de Hainaut (1555-98), Comte de Bourgogne et Comte de Charolais (1556-98), King of Portugal (1580-98), "Philip the Catholic", king of spain
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Felipe II 'el Prudente' de España, rey de España y Portugal

http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000297&tree=LEO

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Spain (English)

Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España1

b. 21 May 1527, d. 13 September 1598

King Philip II of Spain

Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España was born on 21 May 1527 at Valladolid, Castile, Spain.
He was the son of Karl V von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal.
He married, firstly, Maria de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal, daughter of João III de Aviz, Rei de Portugal and Katherina von Habsburg, on 12 November 1543 at Salamanca, Spain.
He married, secondly, Mary I Tudor, Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and Catarina de Aragón, Infanta de Aragón, on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England.
He married, thirdly, Elizabeth de Valois, Princesse de France, daughter of Henri II, Roi de France and Catherine de Medici, in 1559 at Palacio del Infantado, Guadalajara, Spain.
He married, fourthly, Anna Erzherzogin von Österreich, daughter of Maximilian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria von Habsburg, Infanta de España, on 12 November 1570 at Segovia, Spain.
He died on 13 September 1598 at age 71 at El Escorial Palace, Madrid, Spain.
He was buried at El Escorial Palace, Madrid, Spain.
    Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España gained the title of Erzherzog von Österreich.
He succeeded to the title of Rey Felipe II de España on 16 January 1544.
He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 24 April 1554.
He was deposed as King of Spain in 1558. 

He gained the title of Rei Felipe I de Portugal in 1580.


    Philip, who was styled King of Naples and King of Jerusalem by his father, was given the title King of England. However, he hated everything about England - the climate, the food and the people.
A little over a year after the marriage to Mary, he left and returned to Spain. Mary saw him only once more, for a few weeks, in 1557.
In 1588 as King of Spain, he organised the Spanish Armada with two objectives in mind - to re-establish Roman Catholicism in his former wife's Kingdom and in Holland, and to protect Spanish trade with America. 

On 28th July, a Spanish Armada (fleet) of 130 vessels sailed up the Channel. The English fleet had faster ships and guns with longer range and defeated the Spanish.

Child of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Maria de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal

1.Don Carlos von Habsburg, Principe das Asturias b. 1545, d. 1568

Children of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Elizabeth de Valois, Princesse de France

1.unnamed daughter1 Habsburg b. 1564

2.unnamed daughter2 Habsburg b. 1564

3.Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg+ b. 1566, d. 1633

4.Catalina Micaela von Habsburg+8 b. 10 Oct 1567, d. 6 Nov 1597

5.unnamed daughter3 Habsburg b. 1568, d. 1568

Children of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Anna Erzherzogin von Österreich

1.Mary Habsburg

2.Fernando von Habsburg b. 1571, d. 1578

3.Carlos von Habsburg b. 1573, d. 1575

4.Diago von Habsburg b. 1575, d. 1582

5.Edward Habsburg b. 1575, d. 1582

6.Felipe III von Habsburg, Rey de España+4 b. 14 Apr 1578, d. 31 Mar 1621

7.Maria von Habsburg b. 1580, d. 1583

http://thepeerage.com/p10152.htm#i101515

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Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count) from 1556 until 1581, King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I) from 1580 until 1598 and King of Chile from 1554 until 1556.

Philip was born in Valladolid on the 21st of May 1527 and was the only legitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.

[edit] Marriage and issue

His first marriage (1543) was to his cousin Princess Maria of Portugal, who provided him with a son, Don Carlos (1545–1568). Maria died in 1545.

Philip sought an alliance with the Kingdom of England, marrying the Catholic Queen Mary I of England in 1554. On occasion of the marriage, he received the Kingdom of Naples and the title of King of Jerusalem which came with it. Under the terms of the marriage, Philip became king consort during the lifetime of his spouse. The marriage was unpopular with her subjects, and was a purely political alliance as far as Philip was concerned, though the aging Mary believed it to be a passionate love-match. On January 16, 1556, Philip succeeded to the throne of Spain, as a result of his father's abdication, but he did not choose to reside in the country until his father's death two years later. After Mary died childless in 1558, Philip showed an interest in marrying her Protestant younger half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but this plan fell through, for a number of reasons.

In 1559 the 60-year war with France ended with the signing of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. A key element in the peace negotiations was Philip's marriage to Princess Elisabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, who had originally been promised to Philip's son, Carlos. Philip and Carlos were never particularly close, and when Carlos made plans to leave Spain, he had him imprisoned in his room. When the prince died shortly thereafter, from starving himself to death in protest, Philip's enemies accused him of having ordered Carlos's murder. Elisabeth (1545-1568) did not provide Philip with a son, but did give him two daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela.

Philip's fourth marriage was to his niece Anna, daughter of the great emperor Maximilian II, who provided him with an heir, Philip III in 1578.

--------------------

Felipe II de Austria (o Habsburgo), llamado El Prudente (Valladolid, 21 de mayo de 1527 – El Escorial, 13 de septiembre de 1598), fue Rey de España[1] desde el 15 de enero de 1556 hasta su muerte, de Nápoles y Sicilia desde 1554 y de Portugal y los Algarves (como Felipe I) desde 1580, realizando una ansiada Unión Ibérica que duró 60 años. Fue asimismo Rey de Inglaterra, por su matrimonio con María I, entre 1554 y 1558.

Hijo y heredero de Carlos I de España e Isabel de Portugal, era nieto por vía paterna de Juana I de Castilla y Felipe I y de Manuel I de Portugal y María de Castilla por vía materna.

Desde su muerte fue presentado por sus defensores como arquetipo de virtudes, y como un monstruo fanático y despótico por sus enemigos. Esta dicotomía entre la Leyenda Negra y la Leyenda Rosa fue favorecida por el propio Rey Prudente, que se negó a que se publicaran biografías suyas en vida y ordenó la destrucción de su correspondencia personal con su confesor.

Tabla de contenidos

1 Extensión de la Monarquía

1.1 Duque de Milán

1.2 Rey de Nápoles

1.3 Rey de Inglaterra

1.4 Soberano de los Países Bajos y Duque de Borgoña

1.5 Rey de España, Sicilia y las Indias

1.6 Rey de Portugal

2 Política interior

2.1 El príncipe Carlos (1545 a 1568) y el problema dinástico

2.2 La rebelión en las Alpujarras (1568 a 1571)

2.3 La crisis de Aragón (1590 a 1591) y Antonio Pérez

2.4 Reformas administrativas

2.5 Finanzas

3 Política exterior

3.1 Guerras con Francia

3.2 Conflictos con los Países Bajos

3.3 Problemas con Inglaterra

3.4 Expansión por el Atlántico y el Pacífico

4 Antecesores

5 Matrimonio e hijos

6 Semblanza

7 Véase también

8 Filmografía

9 Referencias

9.1 Bibliografía

9.2 Notas

10 Enlaces externos


Extensión de la Monarquía 
Duque de Milán  

Tras la muerte, el 1 de noviembre de 1535, de Francisco II, último Sforza, el Ducado de Milán quedó sin soberano. Los reyes de Francia, emparentados con la familia Visconti, reclamaban el ducado. Esta fue una de las causas de las sucesivas guerras italianas. Francisco I vio en la muerte del duque de Milán una nueva oportunidad para hacerse con el territorio, originando una tercera guerra contra Carlos I de España, que acabó con la Tregua de Niza en 1538.

En 1540 el ducado seguía sin soberano, estando a cargo de un gobernador. En un primer momento, el propio Carlos I pensó nombrarse a sí mismo duque, ya que Milán era un Estado feudatario del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico y, el emperador tenía potestad para conceder el título. Pero esto podría ser considerado un casus belli en Francia, y además, dañaría su imagen de libertador y no conquistador. Entonces decidió conceder el título al príncipe Felipe. El 11 de octubre de 1540 fue investido Felipe como duque de Milán. La ceremonia fue secreta y no se consultó con los príncipes electores para evitar problemas internacionales.

En 1542 estalló una nueva guerra entre Francia y España. Entre las condiciones de la Paz de Crépy, que puso fin a las hostilidades en 1544, se encontraba la boda de Carlos, duque de Orleans e hijo de Francisco I, con la hija de Carlos I, María de Habsburgo (y los Países Bajos y el Franco-Condado como dote), o con la hija del Rey de Romanos Fernando, Ana de Habsburgo (y Milán como dote). La elección fue Milán, pero en 1445 la muerte del duque de Orleans dejó sin validez los acuerdos. Nuevamente de forma secreta el príncipe Felipe fue investido Duque el 5 de julio de 1546.

En 1550 se hizo finalmente público el nombramiento de Felipe y, el 10 de febrero del mismo año, Ferrante Gonzaga, gobernador de Milán, le prestó juramento de fidelidad en su nombre y en el de la ciudad.

Rey de Nápoles  

A finales de 1553 se anunció la boda de Felipe con su tía segunda María I de Inglaterra. Pero el problema era que Felipe era únicamente príncipe y duque, y era impensable el matrimonio de la reina con alguien de rango inferior. La solución de Carlos I fue renunciar al Reino de Nápoles en favor de su hijo.

El 24 de julio de 1554 Juan de Figueroa, enviado especial de Carlos I y Regente de Nápoles, llegó a Inglaterra con la investidura formal de Felipe como Rey de Nápoles y Duque de Milán. Al día siguiente se celebraron los esponsales.

Rey de Inglaterra  

El 25 de julio de 1554 Felipe se casó con la reina María I de Inglaterra. Al final de la ceremonia fueron proclamados:

Felipe y María, por la gracia de Dios, Rey y Reina de Inglaterra, Francia, Nápoles, Jerusalén, Irlanda, Defensores de la Fe, Príncipes de España y Sicilia, Archiduques de Austria, Duques de Milán, Borgoña y Brabante, Condes de Habsburgo, Flandes y el Tirol, en el primero y segundo año de su reinado.

Las cláusulas matrimoniales eran muy rígidas (equiparables a las de los Reyes Católicos) para garantizar la total independencia del Reino de Inglaterra.

Felipe tenía que respetar las leyes y los derechos y privilegios del pueblo inglés. España no podía pedir a Inglaterra ayuda bélica o económica. Además, se pedía expresamente que se intentara mantener la paz con Francia.

Si el matrimonio tenía un hijo, se convertiría en heredero de Inglaterra, los Países Bajos y Borgoña. Si María muriese siendo el heredero menor de edad, la educación correría a cargo de los ingleses. Si Felipe moría, María recibiría una pensión de 60.000 libras al año, pero si fuera María la primera en morir, Felipe debía abandonar Inglaterra renunciando a todos sus derechos sobre el trono.

Felipe, único Consorte Real con título de Rey en la historia de Inglaterra, actuó conforme a lo estipulado en el contrato matrimonial y no se entrometió en el gobierno de su esposa. Durante gran parte de su reinado estuvo ausente, especialmente a partir de 1556 cuando su padre abdicó en él la Corona de España.

El 17 de noviembre de 1558 María murió sin descendencia, dejando Felipe de ser Rey de Inglaterra.

Soberano de los Países Bajos y Duque de Borgoña 

Escudo de Felipe IIEn 1555 Carlos I, anciano y cansado decidió renunciar a más territorios en favor de su hijo Felipe. El 22 de octubre del mismo año, Carlos abdicó en Bruselas como Soberano Gran Maestre de la Orden del Toisón de Oro. Tres días después, en una grandiosa y ostentosa ceremonia ante decenas de invitados, se produjo la abdicación como Duque de Borgoña y Soberano de la Países Bajos.

Carlos pensó que España defendiese desde esos territorios al Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, más débil que Francia. A diferencia de Castilla, Aragón, Nápoles y Sicilia, los Países Bajos no eran parte de la herencia de los Reyes Católicos, y veían al monarca como un rey extranjero y lejano [cita requerida].

Los Estados del norte pronto se convirtieron en un gran campo de batalla, ayudados por Francia e Inglaterra, que explotaron la situación de rebelión constante de Flandes para debilitar a la Corona Hispánica.

Rey de España, Sicilia y las Indias  

El 16 de enero de 1556, Carlos I en sus habitaciones privadas y sin ninguna ceremonia, cedió a Felipe la Corona de los Reinos Hispánicos, Sicilia y las Indias.

Aunque durante su juventud vivió 12 años fuera de España en Suiza, Inglaterra, Flandes, Portugal, etc. Una vez convertido en Rey de España fijó su residencia en Madrid y potenció el papel de esta ciudad como capital de todos sus reinos.

En 1587 incorporó a la Corona la Orden de Montesa.

Rey de Portugal  

El 4 de agosto de 1578, tras la muerte sin descendientes del rey Sebastián I de Portugal en la batalla de Alcazarquivir, heredó el trono su tío abuelo, el cardenal Enrique. A la muerte de este en 1580, Felipe II se convirtió en candidato al trono portugués como hijo de Isabel de Avis.

Tras una rápida campaña militar del duque de Alba fue reconocido como rey, con el nombre de Felipe I de Portugal, por las Cortes de Tomar el 15 de abril de 1581. Con ello incorporó una gran extensión de territorios a sus dominios, presentes en los cinco continentes. De ahí que se afirmase que en sus dominios «nunca se ponía el sol».

Política interior  

Durante su reinado hizo frente a muchos problemas internos entre los cuales caben destacar: su hijo Carlos, su secretario Antonio Pérez y la guerra de las Alpujarras. También acabó con los focos protestantes en España, localizados principalmente en Valladolid y Sevilla.

El príncipe Carlos (1545 a 1568) y el problema dinástico  

El príncipe Carlos nació en 1545, hijo de su primera esposa María de Portugal con la que se casó dos años antes y la cual murió en el parto. Caracterizado por su desequilibrio mental, de muy posible origen genético pues tenía cuatro bisabuelos (en lugar de los ocho naturales) y seis tatarabuelos (en lugar de dieciséis), tuvo una complexión débil y enfermiza. Fue educado en la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares junto al hermanastro del rey, don Juan de Austria. Conspiró con poco disimulo con los rebeldes flamencos contra su padre. Tras asombrosos escándalos relacionados con esto, como el intento de acuchillar en público al Duque de Alba, fue detenido por su propio padre, procesado y encerrado en sus aposentos. Posteriormente fue trasladado al Castillo de Arévalo donde murió de inanición (se negaba a comer) y en total delirio 1568. Este terrible hecho marcó profundamente, y de por vida, la personalidad del monarca.

De su segundo matrimonio con María Tudor no hubo hijos, pero de su tercer matrimonio con Isabel de Valois tuvo dos hijas, con lo que al morir en 1568 Isabel de Valois y su primogénito Carlos, Felipe II se encontró con 41 años, viudo y sin descendencia masculina. Éste fue uno de los peores años para Felipe II: a la tragedia personal se unían la rebelión en los Países Bajos y las Alpujarras, el avance imparable de la herejía protestante y calvinista en Francia y Europa Central, la piratería berberisca y el resurgir de la amenaza otomana tras el fracaso del Sitio de Malta y la muerte de Solimán el Magnífico.

En 1570, Felipe II se casa por cuarta vez, con Ana de Austria, hija de su primo el emperador Maximiliano II, con quien tuvo cuatro hijos, de cuales sólo uno, Felipe (14 de abril de 1578 – 31 de marzo de 1621), futuro Felipe III, llegó a la edad adulta.

Quedando finalmente resuelto el problema de la descendencia, Ana de Austria moriría en 1580. Felipe II no volvería a casarse.

La rebelión en las Alpujarras (1568 a 1571)  [editar]En 1567 Pedro de Deza, presidente de la Audiencia de Granada, proclama la Pragmática bajo orden de Felipe II. El edicto limita las libertades religiosas, lingüísticas y culturales de la población morisca.

Esto provoca una rebelión de los moriscos de las Alpujarras que Juan de Austria reduce militarmente.

Artículo principal: Rebelión de las Alpujarras

La crisis de Aragón (1590 a 1591) y Antonio Pérez  [editar]Antonio Pérez, aragonés, fue el secretario del rey hasta 1579, Fue arrestado por el asesinato de Escobedo (hombre de confianza de don Juan de Austria) y por abusar de la confianza real al conspirar contra el rey.

La relación entre Aragón y la corona estaba algo deteriorada desde 1588 por el pleito del virrey extranjero y los problemas en el condado estratégico de Ribagorza. Cuando Antonio Pérez escapa a Zaragoza y se ampara en la protección de los fueros aragoneses, Felipe II intenta enjuiciar a Antonio Pérez mediante el tribunal de la Inquisición para evitar la justicia aragonesa. Este hecho provoca una revuelta en Zaragoza, que Felipe II reduce usando la fuerza.

Artículo principal: Turbaciones de Aragón

Artículo principal: Antonio Pérez

Reformas administrativas  

Su padre Carlos I había gobernado como un emperador, y como tal, España y principalmente Castilla habían sido fuente de recursos militares y económicos para unas guerras lejanas, de naturaleza estratégica, difíciles de justificar localmente puesto que respondían a su ambición personal (y aun más, a las ambiciones de la Casa de Austria) y que se habían convertido en carísimas con las innovaciones tecnológicas bélicas. Todo mantenido con los fondos castellanos y con las riquezas americanas, que llegaban a ir directamente desde América a los banqueros holandeses, alemanes y genoveses sin pasar por España.


Felipe II como su padre, fue un rey absolutista, continuó con las instituciones heredadas de Carlos I, y con la misma estructura de su imperio y autonomía de sus componentes. Pero gobernó como un rey nacional, España y especialmente Castilla eran ahora el centro del imperio, con su administración localizada en Madrid. Felipe II no visitó apenas sus territorios de fuera de la península y los administró a través de oficiales y virreyes quizá porque temía caer en el error de su padre, Carlos I, ausente de España durante los años de las rebeliones comuneras; quizá porque, a diferencia de su padre (que aprendió muy mayor el castellano) Felipe II se sentía profundamente español.

Convirtió España en el primer reino moderno, realizó reformas hidráulicas (presa del Monnegre) y una reforma de la red de caminos, con posadas, con una administración (y una burocracia) desconocida hasta entonces, los administrativos de Felipe II solían tener estudios universitarios, principalmente de las universidades de Alcalá y Salamanca, la nobleza también ocupaba puestos, aunque en menor cantidad. Ejemplos reseñables de su meticulosa administración son:

La Grande y Felicísima Armada, de la que se conocía hasta el nombre del ínfimo grumete, mientras que los ingleses no tienen noticia cierta ni siquiera de todos los barcos que participaron.

Felipe II se comunicaba casi diariamente con sus embajadores, virreyes y oficiales repartidos por el imperio mediante un sistema de mensajeros que tardaba menos de tres días en llegar a cualquier parte de la península o unos ocho días en llegar a los Países Bajos.

En 1567 Felipe II encargó a Jerónimo Zurita y Castro reunir los documentos de Estado de Aragón e Italia y juntarlos con los de Castilla en el castillo de Simancas, creando uno de los mayores archivos nacionales de su tiempo.

El gobierno mediante Consejos instaurado por su padre seguía siendo la columna vertebral de su manera de dirigir el estado. El más importante era el Consejo de Estado del cual el rey era el presidente. El rey se comunicaba con sus Consejos principalmente mediante la consulta, un documento con la opinión del Consejo sobre un tema solicitado por el rey. Asimismo existían seis Consejos regionales: el de Castilla, de Aragón, de Portugal, de Indias, de Italia y de Países Bajos y ejercían labores legislativas, judiciales y ejecutivas.


Felipe II también gustaba de contar con la opinión de un grupo selecto de consejeros, formado por el catalán Luis de Requesens, el castellano duque de Alba, el vasco Juan de Idiáquez, el cardenal borgoñés Antonio Perrenot de Granvela y los portugueses Ruy Gómez de Silva y Cristóbal de Moura repartidos por diferentes oficinas o siendo miembros del Consejo de Estado.

Felipe II y su secretario se encargaban directamente de los asuntos más importantes, otro grupo de secretarios se dedicaba a asuntos cotidianos. Con Felipe II la figura de secretario del rey alcanzó una gran importancia, entre sus secretarios destacan Gonzalo Pérez, su hijo Antonio Pérez, el cardenal Granvela y Mateo Vázquez de Leca.

En 1586 se crea la Junta Grande, formada por oficiales y controlada por secretarios. Otras juntas dependientes de ésta, eran la de Milicia, de Población, de Cortes, de Arbitrios y de Presidentes.

Finanzas  

Durante su reinado, la Hacienda Real se declaró en bancarrota tres veces (1557, 1575 y 1596), aunque, en realidad, eran suspensiones de pagos, técnicamente muy bien elaboradas según la economía moderna, pero completamente desconocidas por entonces.

Felipe II heredó una deuda de su padre de unos veinte millones de ducados, y dejó a su sucesor una cantidad que quintuplicaba esta deuda. En 1557, al poco de entrar al poder, la Corona hubo de suspender los pagos de sus deudas. Pero los ingresos de la Corona se doblaron al poco de llegar Felipe II al poder, y al final de su reinado eran cuatro veces mayor que cuando comenzó a reinar, pues la carga fiscal sobre Castilla se cuadruplicó y la riqueza procedente de América alcanzó valores históricos. Al igual que con su predecesor, la riqueza del Imperio recaía principalmente en Castilla, y dependía de los avances a gran interés de banqueros holandeses y genoveses. Por otra parte, también eran importantes los ingresos procedentes de América, los cuales suponían entre un 10% y un 20% anual de la riqueza de la Corona. Los mayores consumidores de ingresos fueron los problemas en los Países Bajos y la política en el Mediterráneo, juntos, unos seis millones de ducados al año.


Felipe II, por Alonso Sánchez Coello.El estado de las finanzas dependía totalmente de la situación económica castellana. Así entrando Castilla en recesión en 1575, en ese mismo año se produjo una segunda suspensión de pagos. En 1577 se llegó un acuerdo con banqueros genoveses para seguir adelantando dinero a la Corona, pero a un precio muy alto para Castilla, que agravó su recesión. Entre 1576 y 1588 usó la intermediación financiera de Simón Ruiz, que le facilitaba pagos, cobros y préstamos a través de letras de cambio.

Anteriormente a Felipe II ya existían diversos impuestos: La alcabala, impuesto de aduanas; la cruzada impuesto eclesiástico; el subsidio, impuesto sobre rentas y tierras; y las tercias reales, impuestos a órdenes militares. Felipe II además de subir estos durante su reinado, implantó otros, entre ellos el excusado en 1567, impuestos sobre parroquias. De la Iglesia Felipe II consiguió recaudar hasta el 20% de la riqueza de la Corona, lo que supuso la crítica de algunos eclesiásticos.

En 1590 se aprueban en las Cortes los millones, consistentes en ocho millones de ducados al año para los seis siguientes años, éstos se dedicaron para construir una nueva Armada y para la sangrante política militar, esto terminó por arruinar a las ciudades castellanas y fulminar con los ya débiles intentos de industrialización que quedaban. En 1596 se produjo una nueva suspensión de pagos.

A la ya malparada situación económica en Castilla que recibió de Carlos I, Felipe II dejó España al borde de la crisis. La vida de los españoles del tiempo era dura: La población soportaba una inflación brutal, p.ej. el precio del grano subió un 50% entre los últimos cuatro años del siglo; la carga fiscal tanto en productores como en consumidores era excesiva. Debido a la inflación y la carga fiscal, cada vez existían menos negocios, mercaderes y empresarios dejaban sus negocios en cuanto podían adquirir un título nobiliario (con su baja carga fiscal). En las últimas Cortes, los diputados protestaron efusivamente ante otra demanda de más dinero por parte del rey, urgiendo por una retirada de los ejércitos de Flandes, buscar la paz con Francia e Inglaterra y concentrar su formidable poder militar y marítimo en la defensa de España y su Imperio. En 1598, Felipe II firmó la paz con Francia, con Flandes no consiguió un acuerdo e Inglaterra no ponía las cosas fáciles con su constante piratería y hostilidad hacia España. La situación se agravaría con Felipe III debido a la reducción de ingresos procedentes de América y se comenzarían a oír aún más voces acerca de que Castilla no podía seguir soportando la carga de tantas guerras y de que el resto de miembros debían también contribuir al bien común.

La presión fiscal en la Corona de Aragón sin ser tan brutal a la de Castilla, no era mucho menor. Pero en este caso, la mayor parte de lo recaudado no iba a formar parte de la Corona española, sino que gracias a la protección de los fueros, pasaban a formar parte de la riqueza de la oligarquía y de la nobleza de esos reinos. El comercio en el Mediterráneo para Aragón (especialmente Cataluña) seguía muy dañado por el dominio turco y la competencia de genoveses y venecianos.

Los ingresos procedentes de otras partes del imperio: Países Bajos, Nápoles, Milán, Sicilia se gastaban en sus propias necesidades. La anexión de Portugal fue económicamente un gran esfuerzo para Castilla, pues pasó a costear la defensa marítima de su extenso Imperio sin aportar Portugal nada al conjunto.

La mayoría de historiadores coincide en subrayar que la situación de pobreza que sumió al país al final de su reino está directamente relacionada por la carga del Imperio y su papel de defensor de la cristiandad. Durante el reinado de Felipe II apenas hubo un respiro en el esfuerzo militar. Hubo de compaginar dos durante la mayor parte de su reino: el Mediterráneo contra el poder turco y los Países Bajos contra los rebeldes. Al final de su reino contaba con tres frentes simultáneos: Los Países Bajos, Inglaterra y Francia. La única potencia capaz de soportar esta carga en el siglo XVI era España, pero con unos beneficios discutibles y a un precio muy alto para sus habitantes.

Política exterior  

Sitio de Gravelinas, donde se produjo la Batalla de Gravelinas, con una victoria española sobre las tropas francesas que obligó al rey francés a firmar la paz, y desistir de su invasión de Italia. Esta batalla se produjo después de la batalla de San Quintín, y en honor a esta victoria, el rey Felipe II mandó construir el Monasterio del Escorial.Caracterizada por sus guerras contra: Francia, los Países Bajos, el Imperio turco e Inglaterra.

Guerras con Francia  

Mantuvo las guerras con Francia, por el apoyo francés a los rebeldes flamencos, obteniendo grandes victorias en San Quintín y Gravelinas (1558). La primera de ellas ocurrió el 10 de agosto de 1557, festividad de San Lorenzo, en recuerdo de lo cual hizo edificar el Monasterio de El Escorial, edificio con planta en forma de parrilla (1563–1584). En este monumental edificio, el más grande de su tiempo (y llamado entonces la octava maravilla del mundo), están enterrados desde entonces casi todos los reyes españoles.

En la Paz de Cateau-Cambrésis de 1559, Francia reconoció la supremacía hispánica, los intereses españoles en Italia se vieron favorecidos y se pactó el matrimonio con Isabel de Valois. Los problemas continuaron a partir de 1568 por el apoyo a los rebeldes flamencos de los hugonotes franceses.

Conflictos con los Países Bajos  

Los Países Bajos fueron dejados a Felipe II en herencia por su padre, Carlos I, en unión del Franco Condado, para que España, la nación más poderosa del mundo, defendiera al Imperio de Francia. Por esta razón, era un punto a la vez estratégico y de debilidad para Felipe II. Estratégico pues a mediados del siglo XVI Amberes era el puerto más importante de Europa del norte, que servía como base de operaciones a la Armada española, y un centro donde se comerciaba con bienes de toda Europa y se vendía la lana castellana. Lana, de oveja merina, procesada en los Países Bajos que, vendida a precios razonables, llegaría manufacturada a España, con el correspondiente valor añadido, pero menor que si hubiera sido manufacturada en la península puesto que allí la mano de obra era más barata.

Una debilidad, pues para los Países Bajos no sólo supuso un cambio de rey sino también un cambio de «dueño», pasaron de formar parte de un imperio a formar parte del reino más poderoso de la época. A diferencia de Castilla, Aragón y Nápoles, los Países Bajos no eran parte de la herencia de los Reyes Católicos, y veían a España como un país extranjero. Así lo sentían los propios ciudadanos de los Países Bajos, pues veían, a diferencia de Carlos I a un Rey extranjero (nacido en Valladolid, con la Corte en Madrid, nunca vivía en aquellos territorios y delegaba su gobierno). A esto hay que añadir el choque religioso que se estaba gestando dentro de Flandes, y que sería azuzado por la posición de Felipe II en el plano religioso, las guerras de religión volvían al corazón de Europa después de la Guerra de los Treinta Años.

Gobernados por su hermana Margarita de Parma desde 1559, se encaró a los nobles rebeldes que pedían una mayor autonomía y a los protestantes que exigían el respeto a su religión dando inicio a la Guerra de los Ochenta Años. Sin embargo, Felipe II era de otra opinión. El Rey quería aplicar los acuerdos tridentinos, como había exigido a Catalina de Médicis en Francia contra la nobleza hugonota francesa.

Al conocer en los Países Bajos la decisión de aplicar los acuerdos tridentinos, las mismas autoridades civiles se mostraron reacias a aplicar las penas dictadas por los inquisidores y, fruto de un gran malestar, comenzó un ambiente de revolución. La baja nobleza se concentró en Bruselas el 5 de abril de 1566 en el palacio de la gobernadora, siendo despreciada como mendigos, adjetivo que tomarían los siguientes nobles en sus reivindicaciones, vistiéndose como tales. Los miembros del compromiso de Breda mandan a Madrid a Floris de Montmorency, Barón de Montigny, y luego al Marqués de Berghes, que ya no volverían.

Tras aumentar la tensión y los conflictos en Amberes, la gobernadora pidió al Guillermo de Orange que pusiera orden, aceptando éste de mala gana pero pacificando la ciudad.

El Príncipe de Orange, el Conde de Egmont y el Conde de Horn volvieron a pedir a Margarita de Parma más libertad. Ella se lo hizo saber a su hermano, pero Felipe II no cambiaba de opinión y avisaba de sus intenciones al Papa:

... podéis asegurar a Su Santidad que antes de sufrir la menor cosa en perjuicio de la religión o del servicio de Dios, perdería todos mis Estados y cien vidas que tuviese, pues no pienso, ni quiero ser señor de herejes...

Antes de que llegaran estas noticias, el 14 de agosto un grupo de incontrolados calvinistas asaltó la principal iglesia de Saint-Omer. Le siguió una rebelión generalizada en Ypres, Courtrai, Valenciennes, Tournai y Amberes.

Felipe II recibió a Montigny y le prometió convocar al Consejo de Estado. El 29 de octubre de 1566, el Rey convocó a los consejeros más allegados: Éboli, Alba, Feria, el Cardenas Espinosa, don Juan Manrique y el conde de Chinchón, junto con los secretarios de Estado Antonio Pérez y Gabriel Zayas. El acuerdo fue proceder de manera urgente, y, pese a las diferencias en la forma, el monarca optó por la fuerza. Así se acordó mandar al Tercer Duque de Alba a sofocar las rebeliones. Este hecho propició un enfrentamiento entre el Príncipe Don Carlos y el Duque de Alba, puesto que el heredero se veía desplazado de sus asuntos.

El 28 de agosto el Duque de Alba llega a Bruselas. El Duque de Alba —al frente del ejército— efectuó rápidamente una durísima represión ajusticiando a los nobles rebeldes, lo que propició la dimisión de Margarita de Parma como gobernadora de los Países Bajos, dimisión al punto aceptada por su hermano el Rey. Además, el 9 de septiembre, Egmont y Horn fueron prendidos, y degollados el 5 de junio de 1568.

Felipe II buscó soluciones con los nombramientos de Luis de Requesens, Juan de Austria (fallecido en 1578) y Alejandro Farnesio que consiguió el sometimiento de las provincias católicas del sur en la Unión de Arras. Ante esto los protestantes formaron la Unión de Utrecht.

El 26 de julio de 1581, las provincias de Brabante, Güeldres, Zutphen, Holanda, Zelanda, Frisia, Malinas y Utrech,[2] anularon en los Estados Generales, su vinculación con el Rey de España, por el Acta de abjuración, y eligieron como soberano a Francisco de Anjou.[3]

Pero Felipe II no renunció a esos territorios, y el gobernador de los Países Bajos Alejandro Farnesio, inició la contraofensiva y recuperó a la obediencia del rey de España de gran parte del territorio, especialmente tras el asedio de Amberes, pero se parte de ellos se volvieron a perder tras la campaña de Mauricio de Nassau.

Antes de la muerte del Rey de España, el territorio de los Países Bajos, en teoría las diecisiete provincias, pasó conjuntamente a su hija Isabel Clara Eugenia y su yerno el archiduque Alberto de Austria por el Acta de Cesión de 6 de mayo de 1598.[4] [5]

Problemas con Inglaterra  

Luchó contra la corona inglesa por motivos religiosos, por el apoyo que ofrecían a los rebeldes flamencos y por los problemas que suponían los corsarios ingleses que robaban la mercancía americana a los galeones españoles en la zona del Caribe.

La ejecución de la reina católica de Escocia, María Estuardo, le decidió a enviar la llamada Grande y Felicísima Armada (en la Leyenda Negra, Armada Invencible) en 1588, la cual fracasó. El fracaso posibilitó una mayor libertad al comercio inglés y holandés, un mayor número de ataques a los puertos españoles —como el de Cádiz que fue incendiado por una flota inglesa en 1596— y, asimismo, la colonización inglesa de Norteamérica.

Expansión por el Atlántico y el Pacífico  

Continuó con la expansión en tierras americanas e incluso se agregaron a la Corona las islas Filipinas (Miguel López de Legazpi, 1565–1569), denominadas así en su honor.

Antecesores  

Antecesores de Felipe II Felipe II de España Padre:

Carlos I de España Abuelo paterno:

Felipe I de Castilla Bisabuelo paterno:

Maximiliano I de Habsburgo

Bisabuela paterna:

María de Borgoña

Abuela paterna:

Juana I de Castilla Bisabuelo paterno:

Fernando II de Aragón

Bisabuela paterna:

Isabel I de Castilla

Madre:

Isabel de Avis Abuelo materno:

Manuel I de Portugal Bisabuelo materno:

Fernando de Avis

Bisabuela materna:

Beatriz de Aveiro

Abuela materna:

María de Aragón y Castilla Bisabuelo materno:

Fernando II de Aragón

Bisabuela materna:

Isabel I de Castilla

Matrimonio e hijos  

Casó en primeras nupcias con María de Portugal (1527-1545) el 15 de noviembre de 1543. Tuvieron un único hijo:

Carlos de Austria (1545 - 68), Príncipe de Asturias.

Casó en segundas nupcias con María I de Inglaterra (1516-1558), en Winchester el 25 de julio de 1554. No tuvieron hijos.

Su tercer matrimonio con Isabel de Valois (1545-1568) tuvo lugar el 22 de junio de 1559. Tuvieron dos hijas:

Isabel Clara Eugenia (1566 – 1633), casada con su primo hermano, el Archiduque Alberto de Austria.

Catalina Micaela (1567 – 1597), casada con Carlos Manuel I, Duque de Saboya.

Casó en cuartas nupcias con Ana de Austria (1549-1580), el 12 de noviembre de 1570. Tuvieron cuatro hijos y una hija:

Fernando (4 de diciembre de 1571 – 18 de octubre de 1578), Príncipe de Asturias.

Carlos Lorenzo (12 de agosto de 1573 – 30 de junio de 1575).

Diego Félix (15 de agosto de 1575 – 21 de noviembre de 1582), Príncipe de Asturias.

Felipe (14 de abril de 1578 – 31 de marzo de 1621), Príncipe de Asturias, futuro rey de España como Felipe III.

María (14 de febrero de 1580 – 5 de agosto de 1583).

Semblanza  

En 1554, según el observador escocés John Elder, Felipe II era de estatura media, más bien pequeña, y continúa:

...de rostro es bien parecido, con frente ancha y ojos grises, de nariz recta y de talante varonil. Desde la frente a la punta de la barbilla su rostro se empequeñece; su modo de andar es digno de un príncipe, y su porte tan derecho y recto que no pierde una pulgada de altura; con la cabeza y la barba amarillas. y así, para concluir, es tan bien proporcionado de cuerpo, brazo y pierna, y lo mismo todos los demás miembros, que la naturaleza no puede labrar un modelo más perfecto.

Desde el annus horribilis de 1568, el monarca renacentista acentuó su severidad, y con el tiempo se fue asimilando al estereotipo de la Leyenda Negra, tan grave de gesto como de palabra. Era de carácter taciturno, prudente, sosegado, constante y considerado, y muy religioso, aunque sin caer en el fanatismo del que le acusaban sus enemigos. En 1577 se lo describe así:

...de estatura mediocre, pero muy bien proporcionado; sus rubios cabellos empiezan a blanquear; su rostro es bello y agradable; su humor es melancólico (...) Se ocupa de los asuntos sin descanso y en ello se toma un trabajo extremado porque quiere saberlo todo y verlo todo. Se levanta muy temprano y trabaja o escribe hasta el mediodía. Come entonces, siempre a la misma hora y casi siempre de la misma calidad y la misma cantidad de platos. Bebe en un vaso de cristal de tamaño mediocre y lo vacía dos veces y media. (...) Sufre algunas veces de debilidad de estómago, pero poco o nada de la gota. Una media hora después de la comida despacha todos los documentos en los que debe poner su firma. Hecho esto, tres o cuatro veces por semana va en carroza al campo para cazar con ballesta el ciervo o el conejo.

La mayor parte de su vida su salud fue delicada. Padeció numerosas enfermedades, y durante sus diez últimos años de vida la gota le tuvo postrado.

Sus mayores pasiones eran los libros, la pintura y el coleccionismo de obras de arte, relojes, armas, curiosidades y rarezas.

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King of Spain, Portugal, and Naples, King consort of England and Ireland, Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, Duke of Milan, King of Chile

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Philip II, (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England, as husband of Mary I, from 1554 to 1558, lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories, such as duke or count; and King of Portugal and the Algarves as Philip I from 1580. He also ruled a vast empire in the Americas, including New Spain and Peru.

Philip's policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervor and dynastic self-interest. He considered himself by default the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation. He singlehandedly pursued his war against non-Catholics (Dutch & German Protestants, Turks, Moriscos, etc.) preferring to fight on every front within & beyond his territories.[2] These territories included his patrimony in the Flanders and Netherlands, where the Reformed Churches had taken deep root. Following the Revolt of the Netherlands in 1568, Philip waged a long war for control of the Netherlands, which dragged in the English and the French and lasted for the rest of his life. In 1588, the Spanish Armada was destroyed by a tempest off the southern cost of Ireland, thus thwarting his planned invasion of England. Concerned with the growing Ottoman power in the Mediterranean, Philip achieved a victory against the Turks at the Lepanto in 1571, where the fleet of the Holy League was commanded by his illegitimate brother John of Austria. He also successfully secured his succession to the throne of Portugal after occupying this country in 1580.

After basing himself in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip returned to the Peninsula in 1559 and never left it again. Unlike his father, Charles V, Philip was thoroughly Spanish, a native speaker who chose to rule from Spain rather than to travel constantly around his states. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority. Spain was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate realms, each jealously guarding its own rights against those of the Crown of Castile. In practice, Philip often found his authority overruled by local assemblies, and his word less authoritarian than British or French historians have always tried to characterize. The Kingdom of Aragon, where Philip was obliged to put down a rebellion in 1591–92, was particularly unruly. He also grappled with the intractable problem of the large Morisco population in Spain, persuaded to convert to Christianity by his predecessors. In 1568, a Morisco Revolt broke out in the southern province of Granada in defiance of attempts to suppress Moorish customs; and Philip wisely decided the expulsion of the Moriscos from Granada and their dispersal to other provinces.

Despite its immense dominions, Spain itself was an arid country with a sparse population that yielded a limited income to the crown. Philip faced major difficulties in raising taxes, the collection of which was largely farmed out to local lords. He was able to finance his military campaigns not only by taxing the local resources of his empire, but also the flow of income from the New World proved vital to his militant foreign policy. Incessant warfare especially in Flanders & the Netherlands continuously drained these new found resources forcing Spanish treasury to declare periodic bankruptcies. Continuous flood of the precious metals of the New World also created first modern worldwide monetary inflation phenomenon. However, Philip's reign saw an extraordinary flourishing of cultural excellence in Spain, part of what is called the Golden Age, creating a lasting legacy in literature, music, and the visual arts.

Spain was subject to separate assemblies: the Cortes in Castille along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited when they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions difficult to rule. However, while France was divided by regional states, it had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervention as the final arbiter. To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carrying-out crown instructions. Philip felt it necessary to pit bureaucrats against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that managed state affairs in an inefficient manner, sometimes damaging state business, such as the Perez affair. Calls to move the capital to Lisbon from the Castilian stronghold of Madrid — the new capital Philip established following the move from Valladolid — could have led to a degree of decentralization, but Philip opposed such efforts. As in all contemporary countries, industry was overburdened by government regulations. The dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada - motivated by the fear they might support an Ottoman invasion - had serious negative economic effects, particularly in that region.

Philip's regime neglected arable farming in favor of sheep ranching, thus forcing Spain to import large amounts of grain and other foods by the mid-1560s. Overseeing a divided conservative class structure, the Church and the upper classes were exempt from normal taxation (although the wealthy usually paid tithes to the Church, and the Church and clergy were often taxed, usually following a series of agreements with the Pope while the tax burden fell disproportionately on the classes engaged in trade, commerce, and industry.

Inflation throughout Europe in the sixteenth century was a broad and complex phenomenon, with the flood of bullion from the Americas arguably being the main cause of it in Spain, along with population growth, and government spending. Under Philip's reign, Spain saw a fivefold increase in prices. Due to inflation and a high tax burden for Spanish manufacturers and merchants, Spanish industry was harmed and much of Spain’s wealth was spent on imported manufactured goods by an opulent, status-oriented aristocracy and wars. Increasingly the country became dependent on the revenues flowing in from the mercantile empire in the Americas, leading to Spain's first bankruptcy (moratorium) in 1557 due to rising military costs. Dependent on sales taxes from Castille and the Netherlands, Spain's tax base, was too narrow to support Philip's plans. Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. By the end of his reign, interest payments on these loans alone accounted for 40% of state revenue.

In the early part of his reign, Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Ottoman domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.

In 1558 Turkish admiral Piyale Paşa captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people.

In 1560 Philip II organized a Holy League between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, who had lost three major battles against the Turks in 1538, 1541 and 1552.

On March 12, 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on May 9, 1560. The battle lasted until May 14, 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. The Holy League lost 60 ships (30 galleys) and 20,000 men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria could barely escape with a small vessel. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Alvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a small relief force, which drove the Ottoman army, exhausted from the siege effort, away from the island.

The grave threat posed to Christendom by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. A fleet sent by Philip, again commanded by Don Juan, reconquered Tunis from the Ottomans in 1573. However, the Turks soon rebuilt their fleet and in 1574 Uluç Ali Reis managed to recapture Tunis with a force of 250 galleys and a siege which lasted 40 days. However Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of complete Ottoman control of that sea.

In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans.


Philip's rule in the seventeen separate provinces known collectively as the Netherlands faced many difficulties, which led to open warfare in 1572. Philip insisted on direct control over events in the Netherlands despite being over a fortnight ride away in Madrid. There was discontent in the Netherlands about Philip's taxation demands. In 1566, Protestant preachers sparked anti-clerical riots known as the Iconoclast Fury; in response to growing 'heresy', the Duke of Alba's army invaded, further alienating the local aristocracy. In 1572 a prominent member of Dutch aristocracy, William the Silent invaded the Netherlands, but only succeeded in holding two provinces, Holland and Zeeland. The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Act of Abjuration, meaning that they no longer recognised Philip as their king. The southern Netherlands (what is now Belgium) remained under Spanish rule. The rebel leader, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) was assassinated in 1584 by Balthasar Gérard, after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed him, calling him a "pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race". The Dutch forces continued to fight on under Orange's son Maurice of Nassau, who received help from Queen Elizabeth I in 1585. The Dutch gained an advantage over Spanish due to their growing economic strength, in contrast to Philip's burgeoning economic troubles.

In 1580, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family ended when Sebastian of Portugal died following a disastrous campaign in Morocco. Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugal and was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar. Philip spoke Portuguese mostly until his mother died. He kept the throne as a personal union for sixty years.

Philip famously remarked upon his acquisition of the Portuguese throne, "I inherited, I bought, I conquered", a variation on Julius Caesar's "Veni, Vidi, Vici." Thus, Philip added to his possessions a vast overseas empire in Africa, Brazil, and the East Indies, seeing a flood of new revenues coming to the Habsburg crown; and the success of colonizing all around his empire improved his financial position, enabling him to show greater aggression towards his enemies.

Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation received a clear boost in 1554 when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. However, they had no children; Queen Mary, or "Bloody Mary" as she came to be known in English Protestant lore, died in 1558 before the union could revitalize the Catholic Church in England.

The throne went to Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics who did not recognize Henry's divorce and who claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great-niece of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne.

The execution of Mary in 1587 ended Philip's hopes of placing a Catholic on the English throne. He turned instead to more direct plans to return England to Catholicism by invasion. His opportunity came when England provided support for the Dutch rebels. In 1588, he sent a fleet, the Spanish Armada, to lead an invasion. The fleet was to rendezvous with the Duke of Parma's army and escort it across the English Channel. However, the operation had little chance of success from the beginning, with lengthy delays, lack of communication between Philip II and his two commanders and the lack of a deep bay for the fleet. It was by no means a slaughter; it was a tightly fought battle, but the Spanish were forced into retreat.

Eventually, three more Armadas were assembled; two were sent to England, in 1596 and 1597, but both also failed; the third (1599) was diverted to the Azores and Canary Islands to fend off raids. This Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604) would be fought to a grinding end, but not until both Philip II (d. 1598) and Elizabeth I (d. 1603) were dead.

The stunning destruction of the Spanish Armada by a sea tempest gave great heart to the Protestant cause across Europe. The storm was seen by many of Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Many Spaniards blamed the admiral of the armada for its failure, but Philip, despite his complaint that he had sent his ships to fight the English, not the elements, was not among them. A little over a year later, in a chat with a monk working in his garden, Philip remarked that:

“ "It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride, Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it." ”

The Spanish navy was rebuilt, and intelligence networks were improved. A measure of the character of Philip can be gathered by the fact that he personally saw to it that the wounded men of the Armada were treated and received pensions, and that the families of those who died were compensated for their loss; all highly unusual for the time.

While the invasion had been averted, England was unable to take advantage of this success. An attempt to use her newfound advantage at sea with a counter armada the following year failed disastrously. Likewise, English buccaneering and attempts to seize territories in the Caribbean were defeated by Spain's rebuilt navy and her improved intelligence networks (although Cadiz was destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch force after a failed attempt to seize the treasure fleet.)

Even though Philip was bankrupt by 1596 (for the fourth time, after France had declared war on Spain), in the last decade of his life, more silver and gold were shipped safely to Spain than ever before. This allowed Spain to continue its military efforts, but led to an increased dependency on the precious metals.

From 1590 to 1598, Philip was also at war against Henry IV of France, joining with the Papacy and the Duke of Guise in the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion. Philip's interventions in the fighting - sending Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, to relieve the siege of Paris in 1590 – and again into Rouen in 1592 - to aid the Catholic faction, resulted in refortifying the French defenses. Henry IV of France was also able to use his propagandists to identify the Catholic faction with a foreign enemy (Philip and Spain). In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; this caused most French Catholics to rally to his side against the Spanish forces. In June 1595 the redoubtable French king defeated the Spanish-supported Catholic League in Fontaine-Française in Burgundy and reconquered Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. The 1598 Treaty of Vervins was largely a restatement of the 1559 Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis; meanwhile, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which offered a high degree of religious toleration for French Protestants. The military intervention in France thus ended in disappointing fashion for Philip, as it failed to either oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France. However, the conversion of Henry ensured that Catholicism would remain France's majority faith.

Under Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power, but also met its limits. Having nearly reconquered the rebellious Netherlands, Philip's unyielding attitude led to their loss, this time permanently, as his wars expanded in scope and complexity. So in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. Early in his reign, the Dutch might have laid down their weapons if he had desisted in trying to suppress Protestantism, but his devotion to Catholicism and the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, as laid down by his father, would not permit him to do so. He was a devout Catholic and exhibited the typical 16th century disdain for religious heterodoxy.

One of the long-term consequences of his striving to enforce Catholic orthodoxy through an intensification of the Inquisition was the gradual smothering of Spain's intellectual life. Students were barred from studying elsewhere and books printed by Spaniards outside the kingdom were banned. Even a churchman, Archbishop Carranza, was jailed by the Inquisition for seventeen years for publishing ideas that seemed sympathetic in some degree to Protestantism. Such strict enforcement of orthodox belief was successful and Spain avoided the religiously inspired strife tearing apart other European dominions, but this came at a heavy price in the long run, as her great academic institutions were reduced to third rate status under Philip's successors. t|El Escorial (Madrid), Philip II's residence. However, Philip II's reign can hardly be characterized as a failure. He consolidated Spain's overseas empire, succeeded in massively increasing the importation of silver in the face of English, Dutch and French privateers, and ended the major threat posed to Europe by the Ottoman navy (though peripheral clashes would be ongoing). He succeeded in uniting Portugal and Spain through personal union. He dealt successfully with a crisis that could have led to the secession of Aragon. His efforts also contributed substantially to the success of the Catholic Counter-Reformation in checking the religious tide of Protestantism in Northern Europe.

Anglo-American societies have generally held a very low opinion of Philip II. The traditional approach is perhaps epitomized by James Johonnot's Ten Great Events in History, in which he describes Philip II as a "vain, bigoted, and ambitious" monarch who "had no scruples in regard to means... placed freedom of thought under a ban, and put an end to the intellectual progress of the country" The defense of the Catholic Church and the defeat and destruction of the Protestantism was one of his most important goals. He didn't totally accomplish this; England broke with Rome after the death of Mary, the Holy Roman Empire remained partly Protestant and the revolt in Holland continued. Nevertheless, he prevented Protestantism from gaining a grip in Spain and Portugal and the colonies in the New World. Philip successfully reestablished Catholicism in the reconquered southern half of the Low Countries and forced the French monarchy to abandon Protestantism.

Philip was a complex man. Cool natured, even cold, in his official dealings with others, he was generous to those who served him. He was suspicious of his court, noblemen and generals; but he was not the cruel tyrant painted by his opponents and subsequent histories. Though something of a meddlesome micro-manager, he took great care and responsibility in administering his empire. His dominions were vast, yet he was known to intervene personally on behalf of the humblest of his subjects.

Philip II died in 1598 of an unspecified, painful cancer, at El Escorial, (near Madrid) and was succeeded by his son, Philip III. The Philippines, a former Spanish colony was named in his honor.

--------------------

Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España (1)

M, #101515, b. 21 May 1527, d. 13 September 1598

Last Edited=29 Jul 2009

Consanguinity Index=10.76%

Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España was born on 21 May 1527 at Valladolid, Castile, Spain. (5) He was the son of Karl V von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal. (4) He married, firstly, Maria de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal, daughter of João III de Aviz, Rei de Portugal and Katherina von Habsburg, on 12 November 1543 at Salamanca, Spain. (5) He married, secondly, Mary I Tudor, Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and Catarina de Aragón, Infanta de Aragón, on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England. (5) He married, thirdly, Elizabeth de Valois, Princesse de France, daughter of Henri II, Roi de France and Catherine de Medici, in 1559 at Palacio del Infantado, Guadalajara, Spain.6 He married, fourthly, Anna Erzherzogin von Österreich, daughter of Maximilian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria von Habsburg, Infanta de España, on 12 November 1570 at Segovia, Spain. (7), (4)

He died on 13 September 1598 at age 71 at El Escorial Palace, Madrid, Spain. (7) He was buried at El Escorial Palace, Madrid, Spain. (7)

    Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España gained the title of Erzherzog von Österreich. He succeeded to the title of Rey Felipe II de España on 16 January 1544. (7) He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 24 April 1554. (7) He was deposed as King of Spain in 1558. He gained the title of Rei Felipe I de Portugal in 1580. (7) 
    Philip, who was styled King of Naples and King of Jerusalem by his father, was given the title King of England. However, he hated everything about England - the climate, the food and the people. A little over a year after the marriage to Mary, he left and returned to Spain. Mary saw him only once more, for a few weeks, in 1557. In 1588 as King of Spain, he organised the Spanish Armada with two objectives in mind - to re-establish Roman Catholicism in his former wife's Kingdom and in Holland, and to protect Spanish trade with America. On 28th July, a Spanish Armada (fleet) of 130 vessels sailed up the Channel. The English fleet had faster ships and guns with longer range and defeated the Spanish.

Child of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Maria de Aviz, Infanta de Portugal

-1. Don Carlos von Habsburg, Principe das Asturias b. 1545, d. 1568

Children of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Elizabeth de Valois, Princesse de France

-1. unnamed daughter1 Habsburg b. 1564

-2. unnamed daughter2 Habsburg b. 1564

-3. Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg+ b. 1566, d. 1633

-4. Catalina Micaela von Habsburg+8 b. 10 Oct 1567, d. 6 Nov 1597

-5. unnamed daughter3 Habsburg b. 1568, d. 1568

Children of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Anna Erzherzogin von Österreich

-1. Mary Habsburg

-2. Fernando von Habsburg b. 1571, d. 1578

-3. Carlos von Habsburg b. 1573, d. 1575

-4. Diago von Habsburg b. 1575, d. 1582

-5. Edward Habsburg b. 1575, d. 1582

-6. Felipe III von Habsburg, Rey de España+4 b. 14 Apr 1578, d. 31 Mar 1621

-7. Maria von Habsburg b. 1580, d. 1583

Forrás / Source:

http://thepeerage.com/p10152.htm#i101515

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Philip II of Spain

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Philip II

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Spain

King of Naples

Reign 25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598 (44 years, &50 days)

Predecessor Charles V

Successor Philip III

King of England jure uxoris (more...)

Reign 25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558 (&0000000000000004.0000004 years, &0000000000000115.000000115 days)

Co-monarch Mary I

King of Spain

Successor Philip III

King of Portugal

Reign 1581 – 13 September 1598

Predecessor António

Successor Philip II


Spouse Maria Manuela of Portugal

Mary I of England

Elizabeth of Valois

Anna of Austria

moreIssue

Charles, Prince of Asturias

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Archduchess of Austria

Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy

Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias

Diego, Prince of Asturias

Philip III of Spain

House House of Habsburg

Father Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Mother Isabella of Portugal

Born 21 May 1527(1527-05-21)

Valladolid, Spain

Died 13 September 1598 (aged 71)

Madrid, Spain

Burial El Escorial

Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; Portuguese: Filipe I; Catalan: Felip I ; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain (kingdoms of Castile, Navarra, this one disputed by the French and the Crown of Aragon) and Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland.[1][2] He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as Duke or Count.

He ruled one of the world's largest empires which included territories in every continent then known to Europeans.During his father's time,but even more during his rule,it was when the first global saying, The empire on which the sun never sets was coined.

Philip was born in Valladolid, the son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (who also reigned as Charles I of Spain) and his consort Isabella of Portugal. During his reign, Spain was the foremost Western European power. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories in all the known continents.

He was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and roundfaced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive." The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious."[3]

Contents [hide]

1 Domestic policy

2 Economy

3 Foreign policy

4 Ottoman-Habsburg conflict

5 Revolt in the Netherlands

6 King of Portugal

7 Relations with England and Ireland

7.1 King of England and Ireland

7.2 After Mary I's death

8 War with France

9 Legacy

10 Family

11 Ancestry

12 Historical assessment

13 See also

14 Notes

15 Sources

16 External links


[edit] Domestic policy


'The Baptism of Phillip II' in Valladolid, Spain. Historical ceiling preserved in Prado Museum.After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign,[4] Philip II decided to return to Spain. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority.

Spain was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate realms, each jealously guarding its own rights against those of the Crown of Castile. In practice, Philip often found his authority overruled by local assemblies, and his word less effective than that of local lords.[5] The Kingdom of Aragon, where Philip was obliged to put down a rebellion in 1591–92, was particularly unruly.

He also grappled with the problem of the large Morisco population in Spain, forcibly converted to Christianity by his predecessors. In 1569, the Morisco Revolt broke out in the southern province of Granada in defiance of attempts to suppress Moorish customs; and Philip ordered the expulsion of the Moriscos from Granada and their dispersal to other provinces.

Despite its immense dominions, Spain was a poor country with a sparse population that yielded a limited income to the crown. Philip faced major difficulties in raising taxes, the collection of which was largely farmed out to local lords. He was able to finance his military campaigns only by taxing and exploiting the local resources of his empire. The flow of income from the New World proved vital to his militant foreign policy, but nonetheless his exchequer several times faced bankruptcy.

Philip's reign saw a flourishing of cultural excellence in Spain, the beginning of what is called the Golden Age, creating a lasting legacy in literature, music, and the visual arts.

[edit] Economy


Titian's portrait of Philip as prince, aged about twenty-four dressed in a magnificent, lavishly decorated set of armour. The whiteness of his skin corresponds to his white stockings and the greenish golden sheen on his armour. In this way, the prince's pale complexion appears more distinguished.Charles V had left Philip with a debt of about 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats. Aside from reducing state revenues for overseas expeditions, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain, and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline.[citation needed]

Spain was subject to different assemblies: the Cortes in Castile along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited when they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions difficult to rule, unlike France which, while divided by regional states, had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervention as the final arbiter. To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carrying-out crown instructions. Philip felt it necessary to be involved in the detail and presided over specialized councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition. He played royal bureaucrats against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that managed affairs in an inefficient manner, sometimes damaging state business, such as the Perez affair. Calls to move the capital to Lisbon from the Castilian stronghold of Madrid — the new capital Philip established following the move from Valladolid — could have led to a degree of decentralization, but Philip opposed such efforts. Because of the inefficiencies of the Spanish state, industry was overburdened by government regulations, though this was common to many contemporary countries. The dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada - motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim invasion - had serious negative economic effects, particularly in that region.

Inflation throughout Europe in the sixteenth century was a broad and complex phenomenon, with the flood of bullion from the Americas arguably being the main cause of it in Spain, along with population growth, and government spending.[6][7] Under Philip's reign, Spain saw a fivefold increase in prices.[citation needed] Because of inflation and a high tax burden for Spanish manufacturers and merchants, Spanish industry was harmed and much of Spain’s wealth was spent on imported manufactured goods by an opulent, status-oriented aristocracy and wars. Increasingly the country became dependent on the revenues flowing in from the mercantile empire in the Americas, leading to Spain's first bankruptcy (moratorium) in 1557 due to rising military costs. Dependence on sales taxes from Castile and the Netherlands, Spain's tax base, was too narrow to support Philip's plans. Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. By the end of his reign, interest payments on these loans alone accounted for 40% of state revenue.

[edit] Foreign policy

Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic self-interest. He considered himself by default the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces to fight on every front at whatever cost rather than countenance freedom of worship within his territories.[8] These territories included his patrimony in the Netherlands, where Protestantism had taken deep root. Following the Revolt of the Netherlands in 1568, Philip waged a bitter campaign against Dutch heresy and secession. It dragged in the English and the French and expanded into the German Rhineland, with the devastating Cologne War and lasted for the rest of his life.

In 1588 the English defeated Philip's Spanish Armada, thwarting his planned invasion of the country. But the war would continue for the next sixteen years, and itself be linked to a complex series of struggles that included France, Ireland and the main battle zone, the Low Countries. It would not end until all the leading protagonists, including himself, had died. Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto in 1571, with the allied fleet of the Holy League, which he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria. He also successfully secured his succession to the throne of Portugal.

[edit] Ottoman-Habsburg conflict

Further information: Ottoman-Habsburg wars


Flag of spanish armies under Philip II.In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.

In 1558 Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people.

In 1560 Philip II organized a Holy League between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria.

On 12 March 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 9 May 1560. The battle lasted until 14 May 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. The Holy League lost 60 ships (30 galleys) and 20,000 men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria could barely escape with a small vessel. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Alvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a small relief force, which drove the Ottoman army, exhausted from a long siege, away from the island.

The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. A fleet sent by Philip, again commanded by Don John, reconquered Tunis from the Ottomans in 1573. However, the Turks soon rebuilt their fleet and in 1574 Uluç Ali Reis managed to recapture Tunis with a force of 250 galleys and a siege which lasted 40 days. However, Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of complete Ottoman control of that sea.

In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans.

[edit] Revolt in the Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Revolt

Philip's rule in the seventeen separate provinces known collectively as the Netherlands faced many difficulties; this led to open warfare in 1568.

Philip insisted on direct control over events in the Netherlands despite being over a fortnight ride away in Madrid. There was discontent in the Netherlands about Philip's taxation demands. In 1566, Protestant preachers sparked anti-clerical riots known as the Iconoclast Fury; in response to growing heresy, the Duke of Alba's army went offensive, further alienating the local aristocracy. In 1572 a prominent member of the Dutch aristocracy, William the Silent, invaded the Netherlands, but he only succeeded in holding two provinces, Holland and Zeeland.

The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Act of Abjuration declaring that they no longer recognized Philip as their king. The southern Netherlands (what is now Belgium and Luxembourg) remained under Spanish rule.

The rebel leader, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) was assassinated in 1584 by Balthasar Gérard, after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed him, calling him a "pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race".

The Dutch forces continued to fight on under Orange's son Maurice of Nassau, who received help from Queen Elizabeth I in 1585. The Dutch gained an advantage over the Spanish because of their growing economic strength, in contrast to Philip's burgeoning economic troubles

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Philip II of Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de España; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count) from 1556 until 1581, King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I) from 1580 until 1598 and King of Chile from 1554 until 1556. Philip II is considered one of the greatest sovereigns in the History of Spain. During his time the Spanish Empire led global exploration and colonial expansion across the Atlantic and the Pacific, and became for a time the foremost global power.

Marriage and issue

Philip's first marriage (1543) was to his cousin Princess Maria of Portugal, who bore him a son, Don Carlos (1545–1568). Maria died in 1545.

Philip sought an alliance with the Kingdom of England, marrying his first cousin once removed, the Catholic Queen Mary I of England, the daughter of his great-aunt Catherine of Aragon, in 1554. On occasion of the marriage, he received the Kingdom of Naples and the title of King of Jerusalem which came with it. Under the terms of the marriage, Philip became king consort during the lifetime of his spouse. The marriage, unpopular with Mary's subjects, was a purely political alliance as far as Philip was concerned, though the older Mary believed it to be a passionate love-match. On January 16, 1556, Philip succeeded to the throne of Spain, as a result of his father's abdication, but he did not choose to reside in the country until his father's death two years later. After Mary died childless in 1558, Philip showed an interest in marrying her Protestant younger half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but this plan fell through for a number of reasons.

In 1559 the 60-year war with France ended with the signing of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. A key element in the peace negotiations was Philip's marriage to Princess Elisabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, who had originally been promised to Philip's son, Carlos. Philip and Carlos were never particularly close, or not at all close. When Carlos made plans to leave Spain, Philip had him imprisoned in his room. When the prince died shortly thereafter, from starving himself to death in protest, Philip's enemies accused him of having ordered Carlos's murder. Elisabeth (1545-1568) did not bear Philip a son, but did give him two daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela.

Philip's fourth marriage was to his niece Anna, daughter of Emperor Maximilian II, who bore him an heir, Philip III in 1578.

Although under his reign global expansion and trade flourished this was not necessarily a good thing because it led to inflation and a massive amount of debt.

Revolt in the Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Revolt

The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Oath of Abjuration of their Spanish-based king, who was also Sovereign over the Netherlands, in 1581. The Netherlands at this time had been a personal union under King Philip since the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549; he was lord of each separate Dutch Province (e.g., Duke of Guelders and Count of Holland). The rebel leader, William I, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) was outlawed by Philip, and assassinated in 1584 by a Catholic fanatic after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed William the Silent, calling him a 'pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race'. Nevertheless, the Dutch forces continued to fight on, and increasingly used their substantial naval resources to plunder Spanish ships and blockade the Spanish-controlled southern provinces.

Economic troubles

Aside from draining state revenues for failed overseas adventurism, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain, and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline. However, Charles V had left Philip with a debt of 36 million ducats and a deficit of 1 million ducats a year. For one, far too much power was concentrated in Philip's hands. Spain was subject to separate assemblies: the Cortes in Castile along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which jealously guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited from the time they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions cumbersome to rule. While France was divided by regional states, it had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to a great deal of power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervention as the final arbiter. To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carried out instructions of the crown. Philip, a compulsive micro-manager, presided over specialized councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition. A distrustful sovereign, Philip played royal bureaucrats against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that would manage state affairs in a very inefficient manner, sometimes damaging state business (leading to the Perez affair - see Antonio Perez). Calls to move the capital to Lisbon from the Castilian stronghold of Madrid — the new capital Philip established following the move from Valladolid — could have perhaps led to a degree of decentralization, but Philip adamantly opposed such efforts.

Philip's regime severely neglected farming in favor of sheep ranching, thus forcing Spain to import large amounts of grain and other foods by the mid-1560s. Presiding over a sharply divided conservative class structure, the Church and the upper classes were exempt from taxation (to be expected, considering their lack of parliamentary powers) while the tax burden fell disproportionately on the classes engaged in trade, commerce, and industry.

Due to the inefficiencies of the Spanish state structure, industry was also greatly over-burdened by government regulations, though this was the common defect of all governments of the times. The dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada (motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim invasion) had serious negative economic effects, particularly in the region it affected.

Inflation throughout Europe in the sixteenth century was a broad and complex phenomenon, but the flood of bullion from the Americas was the main cause of it in Spain. Under Philip's reign, Spain saw a fivefold increase in prices. Due to inflation and a high tax burden for Spanish manufacturers and merchants Spanish industry was harmed and Spain’s riches were frittered away on imported manufactured goods by an opulent, status-obsessed aristocracy and Philip's wars. Increasingly the country became dependent on the revenues flowing in from the mercantile empire in the Americas, leading to Spain's first bankruptcy (moratorium) in 1557 due to the rising costs of military efforts. Dependent on sales taxes from Castile and the Netherlands, Spain's tax base, which excluded the nobility and the wealthy church, was far too narrow to support Philip's grand plans. Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. By the end of his reign, interest payments on these loans alone accounted for 40% of state revenue.

Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugal and was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar.

In 1580, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family had ended when Sebastian of Portugal died following a disastrous campaign in Morocco. Philip spoke Portuguese mostly until his mother died. His power helped him to seize the throne, which would be kept as a personal union for sixty years.

Philip famously remarked upon his acquisition of the Portuguese throne: "I inherited, I bought, I conquered", a variation on Julius Caesar and Veni, Vidi, Vici. Thus, Philip added to his possessions a vast colonial empire in Africa, Brazil, and the East Indies, seeing a flood of new revenues coming to the Habsburg crown; and the success of colonization all around his empire improved his financial position, enabling him to show greater aggression towards his enemies.

[edit]Turkish threat in the Mediterranean

Further information: Ottoman-Habsburg wars

In the early part of his reign, Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.

In 1558 Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people.

In 1560 Philip II organized a Holy League between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria who had lost three major battles against the Turks in 1538, 1541 and 1552.

On March 12, 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on May 9, 1560. The battle lasted until May 14, 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. The Holy League lost 60 ships (30 galleys) and 20,000 men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria could barely escape with a small vessel. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Alvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a relief force, which drove the Ottomans, exhausted from a long siege, away from the island.

The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. A fleet sent by Philip, again commanded by Don John, reconquered Tunis from the Ottomans in 1573. However, the Turks soon rebuilt their fleet and in 1574 Uluç Ali Reis managed to recapture Tunis with a force of 250 galleys and a siege which lasted 40 days. However Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of complete Ottoman control of that sea.

In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans.

[edit]War with England

Further information: Anglo-Spanish War (1585)

Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation achieved a clear boost in 1554, when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. However, they had no children; Queen Mary, or "Bloody Mary" as she came to be known in English Protestant lore, died in 1558 before the union could revitalize the Catholic Church in England.

The throne went to Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics, who did not recognize divorce and who claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great-granddaughter of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne.

The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587 ended Philip's hopes of placing a Catholic on the English throne. He turned instead to more direct plans to return England to Catholicism by invasion. His opportunity came when England provided support for the Dutch rebels. In 1588 he sent a fleet of vessels, the Spanish Armada, to lead an invasion. The fact that the Spanish fleet had no deep bay in which it could deploy its main fleet meant that it was unable to land and was vulnerable to the smaller English ships. The absence of a backup from the troop carrying ships that were unable to link up with the Armada meant that they were isolated and open to the English fire ships and close range artillery. It was by no means a slaughter; it was a tightly fought battle, but the Spanish were caught in an awkward position and were forced back into retreat. Nonetheless, the operation had little chance of success from the beginning with huge delays, lack of communication between Philip II and his two commanders and of course the obvious lack of a deep bay. Eventually, three more Armadas were deployed; two were sent to England (1596 and 1597), both of which also failed; the third (1599) was diverted to the Azores and Canary Islands to fend off raids there. This Anglo-Spanish war (1585-1604) would be fought to a grinding end, but not until both Philip II (d. 1598) and Elizabeth I (d. 1603) were dead.

The stunning defeat of the Spanish Armada gave great heart to the Protestant cause across Europe. The storm that smashed the retreating armada was seen by many of Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Many Spaniards blamed the admiral of the armada for its failure, but Philip, despite his complaint that he had sent his ships to fight the English, not the elements, was not among them. A little over a year later, in a chat with a monk working in his garden, Philip remarked that:

“ "It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride, Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it." ”

The Spanish navy was rebuilt, and intelligence networks were improved. An example of the character of Philip II can be given by the fact that he personally saw that the wounded of the Armada were treated and received a pension, which was unusual for the time.

While the invasion had been averted, England was unable to take advantage of this success. An attempt to use her newfound advantage at sea with a counter armada the following year failed disastrously. Likewise, English buccaneering and attempts to seize territories in the Caribbean were defeated by Spain's rebuilt navy and her intelligence networks (although Cadiz was destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch force after a failed attempt to seize the treasure fleet.)

Even though Philip was bankrupt by 1596 (for the fourth time, after France had declared war on Spain), in the last decade of his life more silver and gold were shipped safely to Spain than ever before. This allowed Spain to continue its military efforts, but led to an increased dependency on the precious metals.

[edit]War with France

From 1590 to 1598 Philip was also at war against Henry IV of France, joining with the Papacy and the Duke of Guise in the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion. Philip's interventions in the fighting - sending Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma to relieve the siege of Paris in 1590 – and again into Rouen in 1592 - to aid the Catholic faction, resulted in refortifying the French defenses. Henry IV of France was also able to use his propagandists to identify the Catholic faction with a foreign enemy (Philip and Spain). In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; this caused most French Catholics to rally to his side against the Spanish forces. In June 1595 the redoubtable French king defeated the Spanish-supported Holy League in Fontaine-Française in Burgundy and reconquered Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. The 1598 Treaty of Vervins was largely a restatement of the 1559 Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis; meanwhile, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which offered a high degree of religious toleration for French Protestants. The military intervention in France thus ended in a disappointing fashion for Philip, as it failed to either oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France. However, the conversion of Henry ensured that Catholicism would remain France's majority faith.

Legacy

Under Philip II Spain reached the peak of its power but also met its limits. Having nearly reconquered the rebellious Netherlands, Philip's unyielding attitude led to their loss, this time permanently, as his wars expanded in scope and complexity. So in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. Early in his reign the Dutch might have laid down their weapons if he had desisted in trying to suppress Protestantism, but his devotion to Roman Catholicism and the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, as laid down by his father, would not permit him. He was a fervent Roman Catholic, and exhibited the typical 16th century disdain for religious heterodoxy.

One of the long term consequences of his striving to enforce Catholic orthodoxy through an intensification of the Inquisition was the gradual smothering of Spain's intellectual life. Students were barred from studying elsewhere and books printed by Spaniards outside the kingdom were banned. Even a highly respected churchman like Archbishop Carranza, was jailed by the Inquisition for seventeen years merely for ideas that seemed sympathetic in some degree to Protestant reformism. Such strict enforcement of orthodox belief was successful and Spain avoided the religiously inspired strife tearing apart other European dominions, but this came at a heavy price in the long run, as her great academic institutions were reduced to third rate status under Philip's successors.

Philip's wars against what he perceived to be heresies led not only to the persecution of Protestants, but also to the harsh treatment of the Moriscos, causing a massive local uprising in 1568. The damage of these endless wars would ultimately undermine the Spanish Habsburg empire after his passing. His endless meddling in details, his inability to prioritise, and his failure to effectively delegate authority hamstrung his government and led to the creation of a cumbersome and overly centralised bureaucracy. Under the weak leadership of his successors the Spanish ship of state would drift towards disaster. Yet such was the strength of the system he and his father had built that this did not start to become clearly apparent until a generation after his death.

However, Philip II's reign can hardly be characterized as a failure. He consolidated Spain's overseas empire, succeeded in massively increasing the importation of silver in the face of English, Dutch and French privateering, and ended the major threat posed to Europe by the Ottoman navy (though peripheral clashes would be ongoing). He succeeded in uniting Portugal and Spain through personal union. He dealt successfully with a crisis that could have led to the secession of Aragon. His efforts also contributed substantially to the success of the Catholic Counter-Reformation in checking the religious tide of Protestantism in Northern Europe. Philip was a complex man, and though given to suspicion of members of his court, was not the cruel tyrant that he has been painted by his opponents. Philip was known to intervene personally on behalf of the humblest of his subjects. Above all a man of duty, he was also trapped by it.

Anglo-American societies have generally held a very low opinion of Philip II. The traditional approach is perhaps epitomized by James Johonnot's Ten Great Events in History, in which he describes Philip II as a "vain, bigoted, and ambitious" monarch who "had no scruples in regard to means... placed freedom of thought under a ban, and put an end to the intellectual progress of the country" [1] Spanish apologists generally classify this analysis as part of the Black Legend.

The defense of the Roman Catholic Church and the defeat and destruction of the Protestantism was one of his most important goals. He didn't totally accomplish this; England broke with Rome after the death of Mary, the Holy Roman Empire remained partly Protestant and the revolt in Holland continued. Nevertheless, he prevented Protestantism from gaining a grip in Spain and Portugal and the colonies in the New World, successfully reimposed Catholicism in the reconquered southern half of the Low Countries and forced the French monarchy to abandon Protestantism.

Philip II died in 1598 due to an unspecified type of cancer in El Escorial, (near Madrid) and was succeeded by his son, King Philip III. He is remembered in the name of The Philippines, a former Spanish colony.

Philip becomes King of Portugal

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Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de España; Portuguese: Filipe I; May 21, 1527 - September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England, as husband of Mary I, from 1554 to 1558, lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count; and King of Portugal and the Algarves as Philip I from 1581. He ruled the largest global empire the world had ever seen which included territories in every continent except Antarctica. Philip's dominions further included the Kingdom of Sicily, the Duchy of Milan, and Franche Comté, a strategically important territory on the eastern borders of the kingdom of France.

During his reign, Spain was the foremost European and global power. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power.

Biography

Philip was born in Valladolid, the eldest son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and his consort Isabella of Por

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Felipe II el Prudente, rey de España y Portugal's Timeline

1527
May 21, 1527
Valladolid, Valladolid, Castille and Leon, Spain
1543
November 12, 1543
Age 16
Salamanca, Castilla-Leon, Spain
1545
July 8, 1545
Age 18
Yuste, Spain
1553
October 1, 1553
Age 26
Westminster Abbey, London, England
1554
July 25, 1554
Age 27
Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom
July 25, 1554
Age 27
Winchester, London, England
July 25, 1554
- September 13, 1598
Age 27
Spain
1558
1558
Age 30
Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Spain
1564
1564
Age 36
1566
August 12, 1566
Age 39
Segovia, Castilla-Leon, Spain