Feodor Nikitich Romanov Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Russia

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Feodor Nikitich Filaret Romanov

Russian: Feodor Nikitich Filaret Romanov, Патриархи Московские и всея Руси
Nicknames: "Патриарх Филарет", "Feodor Nikitich Romanov", "Patriarch Filaret"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Русия
Death: Died in Moscow, город Москва, Russia
Immediate Family:

Son of Nikita Romanovich Zakharyin, Boyar and Barbara Ionnovna Romanova
Husband of Kseniya Ivanovna Marfa Romanova
Father of Татяна Катирева-Ростовска; Борис Романов; Никита Романов; Mikhail I Fyodorovich Romanov Tsar of All Russia; Lev Romanov and 1 other
Brother of Ефимия Никитична Сицкая; Anna Nikitina Троекурова and Анастасия Никитична Романова-Юрьева
Half brother of Никита Романов; Александър боярин; Иван Каша Никитич Романов, Boyar; Михаил Никитич Романов; Василий Романов and 6 others

Occupation: патриарх Московский и Всея Руси (1554/1555-1633)
Managed by: Hannelore Caulk Scheu
Last Updated:

About Feodor Nikitich Romanov Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Russia

Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (Russian: Фёдор Никитич Романов) (1553 — October 1, 1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret (Russian: Филарет), and became de-facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich.

Life

Fyodor was born in Moscow the second son of the prominent boyar Nikita Romanovich and was the first to bear the Romanov surname. During the reign of his first cousin Feodor I (1584-1598), young Feodor Romanov distinguished himself both as a soldier and a diplomatist, fighting against the forces of John III of Sweden in 1590, and conducting negotiations with the ambassadors of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1593 to 1594. He was made a Boyar in 1583.

On the death of the childless tsar, he was the popular candidate for the vacant throne; but he acquiesced in the election of Boris Godunov, and shared the disgrace of his too-powerful family three years later, when Boris compelled both him and his wife, Xenia Shestova, to take monastic vows under the names of Philaret and Martha respectively.

Philaret was kept in the strictest confinement in the Antoniev Monastery of the Russian North, where he was exposed to every conceivable indignity; but when the False Dmitriy I overthrew the Godunovs, he released Philaret and made him metropolitan of Rostov (1605).

Philaret Romanov, a 19th-century painting.In 1609 Philaret fell into the hands of False Dmitriy II, who named him Patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor. From 1610 to 1618 he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III Vasa, whom he refused to acknowledge as tsar of Muscovy on being sent on an embassy to the Polish camp in 1610. He was released on the conclusion of the truce of Deulino (February 13, 1619), and on 2 June of the same year was canonically enthroned Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia.

Henceforth, till his death, the established government of Muscovy was a diarchy. From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Philaret. Theoretically they were co-regents, but Philaret frequently transacted affairs of state without consulting the tsar. He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes. His most important domestic measure was the chaining of the peasantry to the soil, a measure directed against the ever increasing migration of the down-trodden serfs to the steppes, where they became freebooters instead of tax-payers. The taxation of the tsar's military tenants was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes.

Philaret's zeal for the purity of orthodoxy sometimes led him into excesses but he encouraged the publication of theological works, formed the nucleus of the subsequently famous Patriarchal Library, and commanded that every archbishop should establish a seminary for the clergy, himself setting the example. Another great service rendered by Philaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers. His death in October 1633 put an end to the Russo-Polish War (1632-33), withdrawing the strongest prop from a tsar feeble enough even when supported by all the weight of his authority.

By his marriage he had: [1]

  1. Boris (d. 20 November/30 November 1592)
  2. Nikita (d. 29 November/9 December 1593)
  3. Lev (d. 21 September/1 October 1597)
  4. Tatiana (d. 4 November/14 November 1611), married to Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Katyrev-Rostovski (d. 1640)
  5. Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov
  6. Ivan (d. 7 June/17 June 1599)

[1]

--------------------

Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)

Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (1553 — October 1, 1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret, and became de-facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich.

Fyodor was born in Moscow the second son of the prominent boyar Nikita Romanovich and was the first to bear the Romanov surname. During the reign of his first cousin Feodor I (1584-1598), young Feodor Romanov distinguished himself both as a soldier and a diplomatist, fighting against the forces of John III of Sweden in 1590, and conducting negotiations with the ambassadors of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1593 to 1594. He was made a Boyar in 1583.

On the death of the childless tsar, he was the popular candidate for the vacant throne; but he acquiesced in the election of Boris Godunov, and shared the disgrace of his too-powerful family three years later, when Boris compelled both him and his wife, Xenia Shestova, to take monastic vows under the names of Philaret and Martha respectively.

Philaret was kept in the strictest confinement in the Antoniev Monastery of the Russian North, where he was exposed to every conceivable indignity; but when the False Dmitriy I overthrew the Godunovs, he released Philaret and made him metropolitan of Rostov (1605).

In 1609 Philaret fell into the hands of False Dmitriy II, who named him Patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor. From 1610 to 1618 he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III Vasa, whom he refused to acknowledge as tsar of Muscovy on being sent on an embassy to the Polish camp in 1610. He was released on the conclusion of the truce of Deulino (February 13, 1619), and on 2 June of the same year was canonically enthroned Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia.

Henceforth, till his death, the established government of Muscovy was a diarchy. From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Philaret. Theoretically they were co-regents, but Philaret frequently transacted affairs of state without consulting the tsar. He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes. His most important domestic measure was the chaining of the peasantry to the soil, a measure directed against the ever increasing migration of the down-trodden serfs to the steppes, where they became freebooters instead of tax-payers. The taxation of the tsar's military tenants was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes.

Philaret's zeal for the purity of orthodoxy sometimes led him into excesses but he encouraged the publication of theological works, formed the nucleus of the subsequently famous Patriarchal Library, and commanded that every archbishop should establish a seminary for the clergy, himself setting the example. Another great service rendered by Philaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers. His death in October 1633 put an end to the Russo-Polish War (1632-33), withdrawing the strongest prop from a tsar feeble enough even when supported by all the weight of his authority.

By his marriage he had:

Boris (d. 20 November/30 November 1592)

Nikita (d. 29 November/9 December 1593)

Lev (d. 21 September/1 October 1597)

Tatiana (d. 4 November/14 November 1611), married to Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Katyrev-Rostovski (d. 1640)

Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov

Ivan (d. 7 June/17 June 1599) -------------------- Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (Russian: Фёдор Никитич Романов) (1553 — 1 October 1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret (Russian: Филарет), and became de-facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich.

[edit]Life

Fyodor was born in Moscow the second son of the prominent boyar Nikita Romanovich and was the first to bear the Romanov surname. During the reign of his first cousin Feodor I (1584-1598), young Feodor Romanov distinguished himself both as a soldier and a diplomatist, fighting against the forces of John III of Sweden in 1590, and conducting negotiations with the ambassadors of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1593 to 1594. He was made a Boyar in 1583.

On the death of the childless tsar, he was the popular candidate for the vacant throne; but he acquiesced in the election of Boris Godunov, and shared the disgrace of his too-powerful family three years later, when Boris compelled both him and his wife, Xenia Shestova, to take monastic vows under the names of Filaret and Martha respectively.

Filaret was kept in the strictest confinement in the Antoniev Monastery of the Russian North, where he was exposed to every conceivable indignity; but when the False Dmitriy I overthrew the Godunovs, he released Filaret and made him metropolitan of Rostov (1605).

In 1609 Filaret fell into the hands of False Dmitriy II, who named him Patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor. From 1610 to 1618 he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III Vasa, whom he refused to acknowledge as tsar of Muscovy on being sent on an embassy to the Polish camp in 1610. He was released on the conclusion of the truce of Deulino (13 February 1619), and on 2 June of the same year was canonically enthroned Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia.

Thenceforth, until his death, the established government of Muscovy was a diarchy. From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Filaret. Theoretically they were co-regents, but Filaret frequently transacted affairs of state without consulting the tsar. He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes. His most important domestic measure was the chaining of the peasantry to the soil, a measure directed against the ever increasing migration of the down-trodden serfs to the steppes, where they became freebooters instead of taxpayers. The taxation of the tsar's military tenants was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes.

Filaret's zeal for the purity of orthodoxy sometimes led him into excesses but he encouraged the publication of theological works, formed the nucleus of the subsequently famous Patriarchal Library, and commanded that every archbishop should establish a seminary for the clergy, himself setting the example. Another great service rendered by Filaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers. His death in October 1633 put an end to the Russo-Polish War (1632-33), withdrawing the strongest prop from a tsar feeble enough even when supported by all the weight of his authority.

By his marriage he had: [1]

Boris (d. 20 November/30 November 1592)

Nikita (d. 29 November/9 December 1593)

Lev (d. 21 September/1 October 1597)

Tatiana (d. 4 November/14 November 1611), married to Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Katyrev-Rostovski (d. 1640)

Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov

Ivan (d. 7 June/17 June 1599)

[edit]Notes

^ The first date is of Russian Orthodox Calendar.

[edit]References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. --------------------

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%82_%28%D0%9F%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%85_%D0%9C%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

Родители

♂ w Никита Романович Захарьин-Юрьев [Захарьины-Юрьевы] ум. 23 апрель 1585

♀ Евдокия Александровна Горбатая-Шуйская (Романова) [Шуйские] ум. 4 апрель 1581?

Вики-страница wikipedia:ru:Филарет (Патриарх Московский)

События

1553? рождение:

рождение ребёнка: ♂ Борис Федорович Романов [Романовы] ум. 30 ноябрь 1592

рождение ребёнка: ♂ Никита Федорович Романов [Романовы] ум. 29 ноябрь 1593 ? 9 декабрь 1593

рождение ребёнка: ♂ Лев Федорович Романов [Романовы] ум. 21 сентябрь 1597 ? 1 октябрь 1597

рождение ребёнка: ♂ Иван Федорович Романов [Романовы] ум. 17 июнь 1599

1585 брак: ♀ # Ксения Ивановна Шестова (Романова) [Шестовы] ум. 26 январь 1637

1586 профессия: наместник Нижегородский

1586 титул: боярин

12 июль 1596 рождение ребёнка: Москва, Россия, ♂ # Михаил Фёдорович Романов [Романовы] р. 12 июль 1596 ум. 13 июль 1645

1601 ...: монашество

14 ноябрь 1611 рождение ребёнка: ♀ Татьяна Федоровна Романова [Романовы] р. 14 ноябрь 1611

29 июнь 1619 титул: Патриарх Московский и Всея Руси

1 октябрь 1633 смерть:

Патриарх Филарет (в миру — Феодор Никитич Романов; ок. 1554 — 1 октября 1633) — церковный и политический деятель Смутного времени и последующей эпохи; Патриарх Московский и всея России (1619—1633). Первый из рода Романовых, носивший именно эту фамилию, двоюродный брат Царя Феодора Иоанновича.

В ранние годы Фёдор Романов не помышлял о монашестве и духовной карьере. Боярин (c 1586), один из первых щёголей в Москве, сын влиятельного Никиты Захарьина-Юрьева, племянник царицы Анастасии, первой жены Ивана IV Грозного, он считался возможным соперником Бориса Годунова в борьбе за власть после смерти Фёдора Иоанновича в 1598 году. В 1590-е годы занимал ряд государственных и военных постов: был псковским наместником, участвовал в переговорах с послом императора Рудольфа II, служил воеводой в ряде полков.

Вместе с другими Романовыми, подвергшимися опале при Борисе Годунове, который рассматривал их как своих соперников в притязаниях на московский престол, в 1600 был сослан. Он сам и его жена Ксения Ивановна Шестова были насильно пострижены в монахи под именами «Филарет» и «Марфа», что должно было лишить их прав на престол. Единственный выживший их ребёнок — Михаил Фёдорович — впоследствии был, после окончания Смутного времени, избран в 1613 году царём.

До того успел пережить новые взлёты и падения: освобождённый как «родственник» из Антониево-Сийского монастыря Лжедмитрием I в 1605 и занявший важный церковный пост (митрополит Ростовский), Филарет остался в оппозиции свергнувшему Лжедмитрия Василию Шуйскому и с 1608 играл роль «нареченного патриарха» в Тушинском лагере нового самозванца, Лжедмитрия II; его юрисдикция распространялась на территории, контролируемые тушинцами, при этом он представлял себя перед врагами самозванца как его «пленник» и не настаивал на своём патриаршем сане.

В 1610 году он был отбит («отполонён») у тушинцев, вскоре принял участие в свержении Василия Шуйского и стал активным сторонником семибоярщины. Как и патриарх Гермоген, он в принципе не возражал против избрания царём Владислава Сигизмундовича, но требовал, чтобы тот принял православие. Участвуя в переговорах с отцом Владислава, польским королём Сигизмундом III под Смоленском и отказавшись подписать подготовленный польской стороной окончательный вариант договора, он был арестован поляками (1611).

1 июня 1619 был освобождён (в порядке обмена пленными) в соответствии с условиями Деулинского перемирия 1618 года, и был торжественно встречен сыном.

Прибыл в Москву 14 июня 1619; 24 июня его интронизацию по чину поставления первого Московского Патриарха совершил бывший в Москве Иерусалимский Патриарх Феофан IV.

Будучи родителем государя, до конца жизни официально был его соправителем. Использовал титул «Великий государь» и совершенно необычное сочетание монашеского имени «Филарет» с отчеством «Никитич»; фактически руководил московской политикой.

По воспитанию и характеру был человек светский; в собственно церковно-богословских делах разбирался слабо и по спорным вопросам (как-то, сканадальное разбирательство из-за слов «и огнем» в молитве на освящение воды в Потребнике) сносился с Вселенским Патриархом и испрашивал определения о том Собора Восточных Патриархов.

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Feodor Nikitich Romanov Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Russia's Timeline

1553
1553
Русия
1585
1585
Age 32
X-Unknown
1586
1586
- present
Age 33
1586
- present
Age 33
1591
1591
Age 38
1592
1592
Age 39
1593
1593
Age 40
1596
1596
Age 43
St. Petersburg, Peter and Paul Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Russia, Preußen
1597
1597
Age 44
1599
1599
Age 46