Fernando III el Santo, rey de Castilla

Is your surname de Castilla y León?

Research the de Castilla y León family

Fernando III el Santo, rey de Castilla's Geni Profile

Records for Fernando III de Castilla y León

17,352 Records

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Fernando III 'el Santo' de Castilla y León, rey de Castilla

Nicknames: "o Santo", "The Saint", "El Santo", "'St /Ferdinand'/", "The /Saint/", "Ferdinand King /Castile/", "Ferdinand III /King of Castile & León/", "King of Spain", "Ferdinand III // King of Castile", "Ferdinane I", "King of Castile", "T", "Saint of Castile and Leon", "ROI de Castile....."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Salamanca, Castilla-León, España
Death: Died in Seville, Andalusia, Spain
Place of Burial: Catedral de Santa María, Seville, Andalusia, Spain
Immediate Family:

Son of Alfonso IX el Baboso, rey de León y Galicia and Berenguela I la Grande, reina de Castilla
Husband of Beatriz de Suabia, reina consorte de Castilla y León and Juana de Danmartín, reina consorte de Castilla
Father of Eléonore Plantagenet D'anjou; Manuel de Castilla, señor de Escalona; Enrique el Senador, infante de Castilla; Alfonso X el Sabio, rey de Castilla y León; Berenguela, infanta de Castilla y León and 10 others
Brother of Leonor, infanta de León; Constanza, infanta de León; Alfonso de León, señor de Molina y Mesa and Berenguela de León, emperatriz consorte de Constantinopla
Half brother of Sancha, infanta de León; Fernando, infante de León; Dulce de León, señora de Valdeorras; Pedro Alfonso de León, I señor de Tenorio; Urraca de León, señora consorte de Vizcaya and 10 others

Occupation: Rey de Castilla y León, King of Castile and Leon, Roi de Castille et de Lâeon, KING OF LEON AND CASTILE, 'THE SAINT', Ferdinand's armies took Cordoba+Seville back from the Moors, Made Saint by Pope Clement X, King of Castile, Canonized, Kung I Kastilien
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Fernando III 'el Santo' de Castilla y León, rey de Castilla

Excellent bio and breakdown of complicated family: http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.co.uk/2009/07/spanish-warrior-saint.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

Fernando III de Castilla y León

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_III_de_Castilla_y_Le%C3%B3n


Fernando III de Castilla y de León, llamado el Santo (Peleas de Arriba, o Bolaños de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, c. 5 de agosto de 1199 – Sevilla, 30 de mayo 1252), fue Rey de Castilla (1217 – 1252) y de León (1230 – 1252). Es también conocido como Santo Rey Don Fernando, que fue canonizado por la Iglesia Católica en 1671, siendo Papa Clemente X. Asimismo fue el fundador de la villa de La Rinconada.

Hijo del rey Alfonso IX de León y de Berenguela de Castilla, el Papa Inocencio III declaró nulo en 1204 el matrimonio alegando el parentesco de los cónyuges, tras lo cual Berenguela volvió a la corte de su padre (el rey de Castilla) con todos sus hijos.

En 1219 casó con Elisabeth Hohenstaufen (Beatriz de Suabia) con la que tuvo diez hijos:

1) Alfonso, su sucesor
2) Fadrique
3) Fernando (1225–1243/1248)
4) Leonor (nacida 1227), muerta joven
5) Berenguela (1228–1288/89)
6) Enrique
7) Felipe (1231–1274)
8) Sancho, Arzobispo de Toledo y Sevilla (1233–1261)
9) Manuel, Señor de Villena

10) María, muerta en la infancia

Tras quedar viudo, casa en 1237 con Juana de Danmartín y tienen cinco hijos:

1) Fernando (1239–1269), conde de Aumale

2) Leonor, casada con Eduardo I de Inglaterra

3) Luis (1243–1269), casado con Juana Gómez de Manzanedo

4) Jimeno (1244), muerto joven y enterrado en un monasterio de Toledo

5) Juan (1245), muerto joven y enterrado en la catedral de Córdoba

Tras la temprana muerte del rey de Castilla Enrique I, hermano menor de su madre y la abdicación de ésta, obtiene en 1217 el reino de Castilla, en un acto realizado en la Plaza Mayor de Valladolid. Una vez nombrado rey, tuvo que enfrentarse a la casa de los Lara por una revuelta nobiliaria, fomentada por el vecino Reino de León. Contrae matrimonio con Beatriz de Suabia (1219). A partir de 1224, aprovechando las discordias surgidas entre los almohades a la muerte de Abu Yacub Yusuf, dedicó su esfuerzo a dirigir las campañas de conquista de los territorios dominados por los musulmanes, combinando hábilmente las acciones diplomáticas con beneficiosas intervenciones bélicas que se valían de las discordias existentes en los distintos reinos musulmanes. Así, entre 1225 y 1227 las tropas castellanas se hacen con Andújar, Martos y Baeza, lugares clave para la conquista de Andalucía.

A la muerte de su padre Alfonso IX en 1230, rey de León, los partidarios de Fernando no respetaron su testamento, reivindicando el trono de León, que el rey, su padre, había legado a Sancha y Dulce, hijas de su matrimonio con Teresa de Portugal. Tras una reunión entre las dos princesas, Teresa de Portugal y Berenguela de Castilla, se firma el Tratado de Valencia de Don Juan, en el que se declara la inviabilidad del testamento de Alfonso IX y el traspaso de la corona de León a Fernando a cambio de una compensación económica a Dulce y Sancha, que incluía la cesión de tierras que se reincorporarían a Castilla cuando éstas murieran. De ese modo se unieron dinásticamente -siguieron conservando Cortes, leyes e instituciones diferentes- León y Castilla en la persona de Fernando.

Tras lograr la unión de sus reinos, se dedica de manera sistemática a la conquista del valle del Guadalquivir. En 1231 tomó el pueblo de Cazorla en Jaén, junto al arzobispo de Toledo, Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada. Las fuerzas reales se adueñan posteriormente de la campiña cordobesa y de forma inesperada se apoderan de la capital cordobesa en 1236. En 1243, el rey del taifa de Murcia se sometió a vasallaje y poco después su hijo, el Infante Alfonso, ocupó el reino murciano de forma pacífica. En 1244, se establecen las fronteras con el Reino de Aragón en el Tratado de Almizra, asignando al reino de Castilla las plazas de Orihuela, Elche y Alicante.

Desde entonces fue avanzando por el Guadalquivir. Jaén es conquistada tras años de ataques en 1246, y en noviembre del año 1248 se apodera de Sevilla, tras quince meses de asedio y con el auxilio del marino Ramón de Bonifaz, a quien el rey había encargado en 1247 la formación de una flota con naves procedentes del Cantábrico y con la que habría de remontar el río Guadalquivir y completar el cerco sobre la ciudad. A la toma de Sevilla siguió la de Medina Sidonia y Arcos de la Frontera, entre otras. Cuando falleció en 1252, preparaba una expedición contra el norte de África, tratando de evitar las posibles amenazas que pudieran proceder de esa zona.

--------------------

Ferdinand III King of Castille (M)

b. circa 1200, d. 30 May 1252, #474

    Ferdinand III King of Castille married Joan (?), daughter of Simon Dammartin Count of Aumale & Ponthieu and Mary (?). Ferdinand III King of Castille was born circa 1200. He was the son of Alphonso IX King of Leon and Castile and Berengia (?) Queen of Castile. Ferdinand III King of Castille died on 30 May 1252.
    Child of Ferdinand III King of Castille and Joan (?):
   Eleanor (?)+   b. c 1244, d. 29 Nov 1290 

--------------------

Ferdinand III of Castile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saint Ferdinand III

Born July 30 or August 5, 1199, monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora)

Died May 30, 1252, Sevilla, Spain

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church

Canonized 1271, Rome by Pope Clement X

Major shrine Cathedral of Sevilla

Feast May 30

Patronage University of Salamanca; Lucena City Cathedral of Burgos; Lucena Cathedral ; Cathedral of Sevilla; of friars (Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian)

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.


United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used.The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church. On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of Galicia and Leon from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and Galicia-León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity.

Marriages and family

Statue of Ferdinand III by G.D. Olivieri (1753, Madrid).

In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

  1. Alfonso X, his successor
  2. Fadrique
  3. Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)
  4. Eleanor (born 1227), died young
  5. Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas
  6. Henry
  7. Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.
  8. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)
  9. Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena
 10. Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he was widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

  1. Ferdinand (1239–1260), Count of Aumale
  2. Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England
  3. Louis (1243–1269)
  4. Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
  5. John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

References

   * González, Julio. Reinado y Diplomas de Fernando III, i: Estudio. 1980.
   * Menocal, María Rosa. The Ornament of the World. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 2002. ISBN 0316168718
   * Edwards, John. Christian Córdoba: The City and its Region in the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press: 1982.

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Madre to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[2] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[3] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[4]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[5] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[6] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

1. Alfonso X, his successor

2. Fadrique

3. Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

4. Eleanor (born 1227), died young

5. Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

6. Henry

7. Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

8. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

9. Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

10. Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

1. Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

2. Eleanor, married Edward I of England

3. Louis (1243–1269)

4. Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

5. John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

--------------------

This person and their pedigree are currently documented from "The Royal Lineage of Our Noble and Gentle Families together with Their Paternal Ancestry" Compiled by Joseph Foster, 1885

[Source: http://www.archive.org/details/royallineageofou02fost ]

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

Ferdinand III (30 July or 5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint, was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonised in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Spain. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the military orders, the Church, and the nobility, whom he enfeoffed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.


United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used.The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Madre to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[2] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[3] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the church: that of friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[4]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[5] He was buried within the Great Mosque of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[6] Ferdinand was canonised by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

[edit] Marriages and family


Monument to Ferdinand III of Castile, patron saint of San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela.In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor

Fadrique

Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

Eleanor (born 1227), died young

Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

Henry

Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Christine, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

Eleanor, married Edward I of England

Louis (1243–1269)

Jimeno (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Madre to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated. Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city. Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.

On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests. He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian. St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

Marriages and family

In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

1. Alfonso X, his successor

2. Fadrique

3. Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

4. Eleanor (born 1227), died young

5. Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

6. Henry

7. Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his fathers that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

8. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

9. Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

10. Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

1. Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

2. Eleanor, married Edward I of England

3. Louis (1243–1269)

4. Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

5. John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

References

González, Julio. Reinado y Diplomas de Fernando III, i: Estudio. 1980.

Menocal, María Rosa. The Ornament of the World. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 2002. ISBN 0316168718

Edwards, John. Christian Córdoba: The City and its Region in the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press: 1982.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

King Fernando - In 1217 Ferdinand became King of Castile, which crown his mother renounced in his favour, and in 1230 he succeeded to the crown of Leon, though not without civil strife, since many were opposed to the union of the two kingdoms. He took as his counsellors the wisest men in the State, saw to the strict administration of justice, and took the greatest care not to overburden his subjects with taxation, fearing, as he said, the curse of one poor woman more than a whole army of Saracens.


The greatest joys of his life were the conquests of Cordova (1236) and Seville (1248). He turned the great mosques of these places into cathedrals, dedicating them to the Blessed Virgin. He watched over the conduct of his soldiers, confiding more in their virtue than in their valour, fasted strictly himself, wore a rough hairshirt, and often spent his nights in prayer, especially before battles.

--------------------

See link:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

Fernando "the Saint" was crowned King of Castile in 1217 and King of Leon in 1230.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Ferdinand

--------------------

King of Castile

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of Galicia and Leon from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and Galicia-León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey.

--------------------

Ferdinand III of Castile was the son of Alfonso IX, King of Leon, and Berengaria, daughter of Alfonso III, King of Castile (Spain). He was declared king of Castile at age eighteen. Ferdinand was born near Salamanca; proclaimed king of Palencia, Valladolid, and Burgos; his mother advised and assisted him during his young reign. He married Princess Beatrice, daughter of Philip of Suabia, King of Germany and they had seven sons and three daughters. His father (the king of Leon) turned against him and tried to take over his rule. The two reconciled later, and fought successfully against the Moors. In 1225, he held back Islamic invaders; prayed and fasted to prepare for the war; extremely devoted to the Blessed Virgin. Between 1234-36, Ferdinand conquered the city of Cordoba from the Moors. Queen Beatrice died in 1236, and he overtook Seville shortly thereafter. He founded the Cathedral of Burgos and the University of Salamanca; married Joan of Ponthieu after the death of Beatrice. He died on May 30th after a prolonged illness, and buried in the habit of his secular Franciscan Order. His remains are preserved in the Cathedral of Seville and was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Ferdinand was a great administrator and a man of deep faith. He founded hospitals and bishoprics, monasteries, chuches, and cathedrals during his reign. Her also compiled and reformed a code of laws which were used until the modern era. Ferdinand rebuilt the Cathedral of Burgos and changed the mosque in Seville into a Cathedral. He was a just ruler, frequently pardoning former offenders to his throne. His feast day is May 30th.

--------------------

Ferdinand III (30 July or 5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint, was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonised in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Spain. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the military orders, the Church, and the nobility, whom he enfeoffed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Madre to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[2] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[3] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the church: that of friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[4]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[5] He was buried within the Great Mosque of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[6] Ferdinand was canonised by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.


United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used.The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[2] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[3]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera.

Contents [hide]

1 Marriages and family

2 Notes

3 References

4 External links


[edit] Marriages and family


Statue of Ferdinand III by G.D. Olivieri (1753, Madrid).In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor

Fadrique

Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

Eleanor (born 1227), died young

Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

Henry

Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England

Louis (1243–1269)

Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

--------------------

Ferdinand III of Castile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand III (30 July or 5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint, was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonised in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the military orders, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Madre to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[2] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[3] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the church: that of friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[4]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[5] He was buried within the Great Mosque of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[6] Ferdinand was canonised by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

Marriages and family

In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor

Fadrique

Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

Eleanor (born 1227), died young

Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

Henry

Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

Eleanor, married Edward I of England

Louis (1243–1269)

Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors, acconpanied by his knights. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

--------------------

Fernando III el Santo (Monasterio de Valparaíso -Peleas de Arriba-, Zamora, 1198/99 - Sevilla, 1252). Rey de Castilla (1217 - 1252) y de León (1230- 1252). Es también conocido como Santo Rey Don Fernando. Fue hijo de Alfonso IX de León y de Berenguela de Castilla.

Tras la temprana muerte de Enrique I y la abdicación de su madre, obtiene en 1217 el reino de Castilla. Tuvo que enfrentarse a la casa de los Lara por una revuelta nobiliaria. Tras casarse con Beatriz de Suabia (1219), se dedicó preferentemente a dirigir las campañas conquistadoras, combinando hábilmente las acciones diplomáticas con beneficiosas intervenciones bélicas que se valían de las discordias existentes en los distintos reinos musulmanes.

A la muerte de su padre Alfonso IX en 1230, tuvo que luchar por el trono de León, ya que éste legó su reino a Sancha y Dulce, hijas de su primer matrimonio con Teresa de Portugal. Gracias a la persuasión y algún pago heredó el reino de León, pasando a ser Rey de Castilla y León, y anexionándose el reino taifa de Murcia (1243). Por otra parte, estableció las fronteras con Aragón en el Tratado de Almizra (1244) y repartió las nuevas tierras conquistadas entre las órdenes militares, la Iglesia y los nobles, lo que dio lugar a la formación de grandes latifundios.

Fundó las catedrales góticas de Burgos y León.

Asimismo, reconquistó todo el territorio de la actual comunidad autónoma de Andalucía, exceptuando el Reino de Granada, siendo importantes las tomas de ciudades como Baeza (1227), Úbeda (1233), Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1245) y Sevilla (1248).

El Papa Clemente X lo canoniza en 1671 siendo el primer rey español que es elevado a la santidad. Su hijo Alfonso le sucedió en el trono como Alfonso X, apodado el Sabio.

--------------------

From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps03/ps03_433.htm

Also called SAINT FERDINAND, Spanish SAN FERNANDO, king of Castile from 1217 to 1252 and of Leon from 1230 to 1252 and conqueror of the Muslim cities of Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246), and Seville (1248). During his campaigns, Murcia submitted to his son Alfonso (later Alfonso X), and the Muslim kingdom of Granada became his vassal.

Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of Leon and Berenguela, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. When born, he was the heir to Leon, but his uncle, Henry I of Castile, died young, and his mother inherited the crown of Castile, which she conferred on him. His father, like many Leonese, opposed the union, and Ferdinand found himself at war with him. By his will Alfonso IX tried to disinherit his son, but the will was set aside, and Castile and Leon were permanently united in 1230.

Ferdinand married Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor, a title that Ferdinand's son Alfonso X was to claim. His conquest of Lower Andalusia was the result of the disintegration of the Almohad state. The Castilians and other conquerors occupied the cities, driving out the Muslims and taking over vast estates.

Ferdinand's second wife was Joan of Ponthieu, whom he married in 1237; their daughter Eleanor married the future Edward I of England in 1254. Ferdinand settled in Seville, where he is buried.

Ferdinand was canonized Feb 4, 1671 for his orthodoxy and his crusading against the Moors. He m. (1) Beatrice, dau. of Emperor Philip (of Hohenstaufen). He united Castile & Leon in 1231 on death of his father. Persecuted the Albigenses. His son reigned as Alfonso X "the Wise", King of Castile & Leon (1252-84). Ferdinand had Archbishop Ximenes as Chancellor and founded the University of Salamanca (1243). He rebuilt the cathedral of Burgos and converted the mosque in Seville to a church. His feast is May 30.

King of Castile, León, Toledo, Extremadura, Galicia, Seville, Jaén & Cordoba. Lord of Biscay. He united deffinitively the

kingdoms of Castile and León, and conquered the lands of western Andalusia (cities of Jaen, Cordoba and Seville).

References: [AR7],[PlantagenetA],[Moncreiffe]

--------------------

Saint

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church

Canonized 1671, Rome by Pope Clement X

Major shrine Cathedral of Sevilla;

Feast May 30

Patronage University of Salamanca; Lucena City;Lucena Cathedral; Cathedral of Burgos; Lucena Cathedral; Cathedral of Sevilla; of friars (Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian); City of San Fernando, Pampanga; Metropolitan Cathedral of San Fernando

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III_of_Castile

--------------------

Fernando III "el Santo", rey de Castilla y León nació el 19-VIII-1201, en el monasterio de Santa María de Bellofonte, llamado luego de Valparaiso, en el término municipal de Peleas de Arriba, provincia de Zamora. Fue rey de Castilla de 1217 a 1252, y rey de León de 1229 a 1252. Casó en primeras nupcias con Beatriz de Suabia (hija de Felipe de Suabia y nieta del emperador Federico Barbarroja, de la Casa de Suabia-Hohensatufen). De este matrimonio tuvo diez hijos: Alfonso X (rey de Castilla de 1252 a 1284, que caso con Violante de Aragón, y tuvo por hijo y sucesor a Sancho IV), Fadrique, Fernando, Enrique, Felipe, Sancho, Manuel (ver Casas de Manuel y Múgica), Leonor, Berenguela y María. Casó en segundas nupcias con Juana de Ponthieu Montreueil. De este segundo matrimonio tuvo por hijos a Fernando, Leonor y Luis. Murió en Sevilla, el 30-V-1252, y está sepultado en la Catedral de Sevilla.

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors, acconpanied by his knights. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

--------------------

Christened Aug. 19, 1201. Also, of Lbeon, Lbeon, Spain. Sainthood in 1671.

Sources: many ~ see Ancestors/Descendants

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III, Fernando el Santo, San Fernando, San Fernando Rey. Ferdinand III founded the Cathedral of Burgos, Dominican, Franciscan, Frintarian and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, he was credited with substaining the Convivencia in Andulsia. He was Camonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. His tomb is inscribed with four (4) languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latian and early incornation of Castilian.

--------------------

In 1217 his uncle Henry, King of Castile, died. His mother inherited the throne and ceded it to Ferdinand. In 1230, his father died, and he became King of Leon as well .

Fought Moors, expanding power in southern Spain.

Founded Cathedral of Burgos and several monestaries.

First wife, Elisabeth of Hohenstaugen, died in 1235

--------------------

Saint Ferdinand III (5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of Galicia and Leon from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and Galicia-León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Reign

3 First marriage

4 Second marriage

5 Notes

6 References

7 External links


[edit] Early life

Ferdinand was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198-99.

His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but immediately surrendered it to her son, Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight Alfonso's heirs, Sancha and Dulce, daughters of his first wife, for it. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms following the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

[edit] Reign

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage as a tributory state to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.


United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used.The capture of Córdoba was the result of a well planned and executed process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[2] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[3]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera.

[edit] First marriage


Statue of Ferdinand III by G.D. Olivieri (1753, Madrid)In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor

Fadrique

Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

Eleanor (born 1227), died young

Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

Henry

Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

Maria, died an infant in November 1235

[edit] Second marriage

After he was widowed, he married Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1260), Count of Aumale

Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England

Louis (1243–1269)

Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

[edit] Notes

^ a b Edwards, 6.

^ Edwards, 7.

^ Edwards, 182.

^ Edwards, 1.

^ Menocal, 47.

[edit] References

González, Julio. Reinado y Diplomas de Fernando III, i: Estudio. 1980.

Menocal, María Rosa. The Ornament of the World. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 2002. ISBN 0316168718

Edwards, John. Christian Córdoba: The City and its Region in the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press: 1982.

-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: He conquered Cordoba & Seville from the Moors. He and Edward I 'Longshanks'

Plantagenet, King of England

History: Ferdinand III (of Castile and León), called The Saint (1199-1252), king of Castile (1217-52) and of León (1230-52); was the son of King Alfonso IX of León and Castile. In 1217 Ferdinand's mother, Berengaria, renounced her title to the Castilian throne in favor of her son. Alfonso, who had himself expected to acquire Castile, was angered at his wife's action, and, aided by a group of Castilian nobles favorable to his claim, made war upon his newly crowned son. Ferdinand, however, with the wise counsel of his mother, proved more than a military match for Alfonso, who at length was forced to abandon his plan of conquering Castile. Through the good offices of Berengaria, Ferdinand was able to effect the peaceful union of León and Castile upon the death of his father in 1230. Ferdinand devoted his energies to prosecuting the war against the Moors, conquering Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248. He was rigorous in his suppression of the heretical Albigenses, a fact largely responsible for his canonization more than two centuries later. In 1242 Ferdinand reestablished at Salamanca, the university originally founded by his grandfather.

 

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. --------------------

Durante su reinado se unificaron definitivamente las coronas de Castilla y León, que habían permanecido divididas desde la época de Alfonso VII el Emperador, quien a su muerte las repartió entre sus hijos, los infantes Fernando y Sancho.

Durante su reinado fueron conquistadas y arrebatadas a los musulmanes, en el marco de la Reconquista, entre otras plazas, las ciudades de Córdoba, Sevilla, Jaén y Murcia, obligando con ello a retroceder a los reinos musulmanes, que, al finalizar el reinado de Fernando III el Santo, únicamente poseían en la Península Ibérica las actuales provincias de Huelva, Cádiz, Málaga, Granada y Almería.

Fue canonizado en 1671, siendo papa Clemente X, y reinando en España Carlos II.

-------------------- Alfonso III of Leon and Galicia (August 15, 1171 – September 23 or 24, 1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, was the king of León from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun, he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.

Alfonso was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal. Though he took a part in the work of the reconquest, this king is chiefly remembered for the difficulties into which his successive marriages led him with the Pope. He was first married in 1191 to his cousin Teresa of Portugal, who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young.

He married Eleanor, Queen of Castile & Princess of England. The marriage was declared null by the Pope; however, Alfonso paid no attention until he was presumably tired of his wife. His next step was to marry his second cousin, Berenguela of Castile, in 1197. For this act of contumacy, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict.

The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy. Eleanor left him after the birth of five children, and the king then returned to Teresa, to whose daughters he left his kingdom in his will.

Alfonso's children by Teresa of Portugal were:

Fernando (ca. 1192-August 1214), unmarried and without issue

Blessed Sancha (ca. 1193-1270) Dulce, also called Aldonza (1194/ca. 1195-ca./aft. 1243), unmarried and without issue

His eldest daughter, Sancha, was engaged to her cousin King Henry I of Castile, but Henry died in 1217 before the marriage could be solemnized. Wanting to disinherit his eldest son, Fernando, King Alfonso invited John of Brienne to marry his daughter Sancha and thus inherit the Leonese throne. However, Queen Berenguela convinced John of Brienne to marry one of her daughters instead. Though she was the nominal heiress on her father's death in 1230, Sancha was easily set aside by Berenguela and Fernando. Sancha became a nun at Cozollos, where she died in 1270; she was later beatified. Her sister Dulce-Aldonza spent her life with their mother in Portugal.

Alfonso's children by Berenguela of Castile were:

Leonor (1198/1199-October 31, 1210)

King Fernando III the Saint (1200-1252)

Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203-1272)

Berenguela of Leon (1204-1237), married John of Brienne

Constanza (May 1, 1200 or 1205-September 7, 1242), became a nun at Las Huelgas, Burgos, where she died

Alfonso also fathered many illegitimate children:

Alfonso's children by Aldonza Martínez da Silva (daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva & Urraca Rodrigues and subsequently wife with issue of Diego Froilaz, Conde de Cifuentes, had issue):

Pedro Alfonso of León, 1st Lord of Tenorio (ca. 1196/ca. 1200-1226), Grand Master of Santiago, married N de Villarmayor, and had issue

Alfonso Alfonso of León, died yong

Fernando Alfonso of León, died young

Rodrigo Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-ca. 1267), 1st Lord of Aliger and Governor of Zamora, married ca. 1240 to Inés Rodriguez de Cabrera (ca. 1200-), and had issue


Teresa Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-), wife of Nuno Gonzalez de Lara, el Bueno, señor de Lara

Aldonza Alonso of León (ca. 1212/ca. 1215-1266), wife of Diego Ramírez Froilaz, nephew of her stepfather, without issue, and of Pedro Ponce de Cabrera (ca. 1210-), and had issue, ancestors of the Ponce de León

Alfonso's child by Inés Iñíguez de Mendoza (ca. 1180-) (daughter of Lope Iñiguez de Mendoza, 1st Lord of Mendoza (ca. 1140-1189) and wife Teresa Ximénez de los Cameros (ca. 1150-)):

Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/ca. 1197-), first wife ca. 1230 of Lopo III Díaz de Haro (1192-December 15, 1236), 11th Sovereign Lord of Viscaya, and had issue

Alfonso's child by Estefánia Pérez de Limia, daughter of Pedro Arias de Limia and wife, subsequently wife of Rodrigo Suárez, Merino mayor of Galicia, had issue):

Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1211-), died young

Alfonso's children by Maua, of unknown origin:

Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1215/1218/1220-Salamanca, 1278/1279), Archdean of Santiago, married to Aldara de Ulloa and had issue


Alfonso's children by Dona Teresa Gil de Soverosa (ca. 1170-) (daughter of Dom Gil Vasques de Soverosa & first wife Maria Aires de Fornelos):

María Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/1200/1222-aft. 1252), married as his second wife Soeiro Aires de Valadares (ca. 1140-) and had issue and Álvaro Fernández de Lara (ca. 1200-) and had female issue, later mistress of her nephew Alfonso X of Castile

Sancha Alfonso of León (1210/ca. 1210-1270), a Nun after divorcing without issue Simón Ruíz, Lord of Los Cameros.

Martín Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/ca. 1225-1274/ca. 1275)

Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/1228-aft.1252, married twice, first to García Romeu of Tormos, without issue, then Pedro Núñez de Guzmán

Alfonso's other illegitimate child, mother unknown:

Mayor Alfonso de León, married Rodrigo Gómez de Trava, without issue

Alfonso IX was the first King in Western Europe who summoned the citizens to the Parliament (León's Cortes of 1188). He also founded the University of Salamanca in 1208.

-------------------- Ferdinand III of Castile

Born July 30 or August 5, 1199, monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora)


Died May 30, 1252, Sevilla, Spain

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church

Canonized 1271, Rome by Pope Clement X

Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5, 1199 – May 30, 1252), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.

St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora) in 1198 or 1199. His parents were divorced by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated. Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city. Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church. On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests. He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian. St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.


In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor

Fadrique

Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)

Eleanor (born 1227), died young

Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas

Henry

Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.

Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)

Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena

Maria, died an infant in November 1235


After he widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1269), Count of Aumale

Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England

Louis (1243–1269)

Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo

John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

-------------------- Portrait of St. Ferdinand III in a 13th century miniature

Saint Ferdinand III (5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252) was the King of Castile from 1217 and León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey.

Ferdinand was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, in what is now the province of Zamora) in 1198-99.

His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but immediately surrendered it to her son, Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight Alfonso's heirs, Sancha and Dulce, daughters of his first wife, for it. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms following the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage as a tributary state to Ferdinand in 1238. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.

United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used.The capture of Córdoba was the result of a well planned and executed process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[2] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[3]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.

The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera.

First marriage Statue of Ferdinand III by G.D. Olivieri (1753, Madrid)In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

Alfonso X, his successor Fadrique Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248) Eleanor (born 1227), died young Berenguela (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas Henry Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers. that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261) Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena Maria, died an infant in November 1235

Second marriage: After he was widowed, he married Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

Ferdinand (1239–1260), Count of Aumale Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England Louis (1243–1269) Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

Notes:

a b Edwards, 6. 

^ Edwards, 7. ^ Edwards, 182. ^ Edwards, 1. ^ Menocal, 47.

References:

González, Julio. Reinado y Diplomas de Fernando III, i: Estudio. 1980. Menocal, María Rosa. The Ornament of the World. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 2002. ISBN 0316168718 Edwards, John. Christian Córdoba: The City and its Region in the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press: 1982. [edit] External linksCatholic Encyclopedia: St. Ferdinand III Ferdinand at Patron Saints Index

-------------------- Ferdinand III, ou saint Ferdinand de Castille, fut roi de Castille de 1217 à 1230, et roi de Castille et de León de 1230 à 1252. Né probablement en 1199 au monastère de Valparaíso, à Peleas de Arribadans, dans l'actuelle province de Zamora, Ferdinand III était le fils d'Alphonse IX de León, et de Bérangère de Castille.

Ferdinand III a profondément marqué l'histoire de l'Espagne médiévale. Politiquement tout d'abord, en étant parvenu à unir de manière définitive les royaumes de Castille et de León, en 1230. Militairement ensuite, car Ferdinand III a procédé à la reconquête du sud de la péninsule ibérique, l'actuelle Andalousie. Son action contre l'Infidèle lui valut d'être canonisé au XVIIe siècle, en 1671 plus précisément.

-------------------- Saint Ferdinand III, T.O.S.F., (5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252) was the King of Castile from 1217 and León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista. In 1231, he permanently united Castile and León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish, he is Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey.

Ferdinand was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, in what is now the Province of Zamora) in 1198-99.


His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berengaria took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but immediately surrendered it to her son, Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight Alfonso's heirs, Sancha and Dulce, daughters of his first wife, for it. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms following the death of Alfonso VII in 1157. Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).


Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors. Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over the southern Iberian peninsula. He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada, whose king nevertheless did homage as a tributary state to Ferdinand in 1238. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian.


The capture of Córdoba was the result of a well-planned and executed process whereby parts of the city (the Ajarquía) first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as to the Church.[2] On 10 March 1241, Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.


On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current cathedral of Burgos. He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church, that of the friars. Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up until then, Ferdinand founded Dominican, Franciscan, Trinitarian, and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[3] He himself joined the Third Order of St. Francis, and is honored in that Order.


The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand said to his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals — more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried in the cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X. His tomb is inscribed in four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire.


The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera

First marriage


In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:

1.Alfonso X, his successor
2.Frederick
3.Ferdinand (1225–1243/1248)
4.Eleanor (born 1227), died young
5.Berengaria (1228–1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas
6.Henry
7.Philip (1231–1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Christina of Norway, daughter of Haakon IV of Norway, who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.
8.Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233–1261)
9.John Manuel, Lord of Villena
10.Maria, died an infant in November 1235

[edit] Second marriage


After he was widowed, he married Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:

1.Ferdinand (1239–1260), Count of Aumale
2.Eleanor (c.1241–1290), married Edward I of England
3.Louis (1243–1269)
4.Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
5.John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba

-------------------- Despves que el Rey don Fernando vuo ganado a los Moros todo lo reftante del Andaluzia, y hecho la paz con el Rey de Granada fu vafallo, queriendo paffar a Africa a conquiftar la Berveria. Fue nueftro Señor fervido, de llevarle a fu Sãcto Reyno, para darle el premio, que fus gloriofas y catolicas obras merecian. Y aviendo recibido el cuerpo de nueftro Redentor de mano de dõ Raymundo Arçobifpo de Sevilla, ceñida vna foga al cuello, hincado de rodillas, befando la Sanctifsima Cruz, hiriendofe en los pechos, pidiendo a Dios perdon de fus culpas, eftando en fu prefencia la Reyna doña Iuana fu muger, y el Infante don Alonfo fu hijo mayor y heredero; y los Infante don Fadrique, don Phelipe, don Enrique, y don Manuel hijos de la Reyna doña Beatriz fu primera muger. Y los Infantes don Fernando, doña Leonor, y dõ Luys fus hijos y de la Reyna doña Iuana. Y el Infante dõ Alonfo Señor de Molina fu hermano, y los Ricos hõbres del Reyno, alçãdo los ojos al cielo dixo. Señor difteme Reyno, y hõra, y poder, mas q yo merecia, agora te lo entrego, con aquel acrecentamiento q yo pude hazer por la tu gracia, ofrezcotelo con mi alma, y demando perdon a mis peublos, y a quãtos aqui fon. Y rezãdo el Arçobifpo y clerigos las Letanias dio fu anima al Criador en 30 de Mayo Iueves del año 1252 en la ciudad de Sevilla. Efcriviente defte Rey en la general hiftoria grãdes alabãças, cuyas palabras me parecio trafladar aqui. Alli dize. Todos fus vaffallos lloraron mucho la fu muerte, por el amor tan grande que le avien, ê el a ellos. Ca les nunca defpechò, nin tomô de fus algos, aunque tantas guerras tovo, è por el erã temidos, è recelados, è dudados entre todas las gentes. Effo mefmo por fu grã buen afortunamiento que le Dios dava como fu amado cierto, ca nunca en el fu tiempo vieron mal año de mortandades, ni fambres, nin de otro contrallo en Caftiella ni en Leon, finon todo muy abaftado y cumprido. Efcrivefe en relaciones antiguas, que quando fue puefto fu cuerpo en la fepultura fe oyeron bozes Angelicales en el lugar de fu fepulcro. Y efte bienaventurado Principe es tenido por Sancto, aunque no efã canonizado, y affi es llamado de todos los hiftoriadores antiguos y modernos el Sancto Rey don Fernando. Cuya fanctidad de vida es conocida y reverenciada por muchos milagros. Defpues defto el Sabado figuiete primero de Iunio fue enterrado cõ Reales obfequias en la Iglefia mayor de la mifma ciudad, donde le fue hecho vn Sepulcro alto de piedra con quatro infcripciones en fu memoria efcriptas cõ letras relevadas en quatro lenguas. Caftellana. Latina. Hebrea. Y Araviga. Las quales oy fe veen en la Capilla nueva Real de la Sancta Iglefia de Sevilla, onde fue fu cuerpo trafladado, que por referir todas quatro vna mifma cofa, trafladare aqui la Latina, y Caftellana:

HIC IACET ILLVSTRISSMVS REX FERRAN DVS CASTELLAE. ET TOLETI. LEGIONIS GALICIAE. SIBILLIAE. CORDVBAE. MVR- CIAE. ET IAHENI. QVI TOTÃ HISPANIAM CONQVISIVIT. FIDELISSIMVS. V ERA CISSI- MVS COSTÃTISSIMVS. IVSTISSIMVS. STRE NVISSIMVS. DE TENTISSIMVS LIBERALISI- MVS. PATIENTISSIMVS. PIISIMVS. HVMILIS SIMVS. IN TIMORE ET SERVITIO DEI EFFI CACISSIMVS. QVI CONTRIVIT ET EXTER MINAVIT PENITVS HOSTIV SVORVM PRO TERVIAM. QVISVBLIMAVIT ET EXALTA VIT OMNES AMICOS SVOS. QVI CIVITA TEM HISPALENSEM. QVAE CAPVT EST ET METROPOLIS TOTIVS HISPANIAE. DE MA NIBVS ERIPVIT PAGANORVM ET CVLTVI RESTITVIT CHRISTIANO. VBI SOLVENS NATVRAE DEBITVM. AD DOMINVM TRANS MIGRAVIT VLTIMA DIE MAII. ANNO AB IN CARNATIONE DOMINI M.IC.LII.

AQVI YACE EL REY MUY ONDRADO DON FERRANDO SEÑOR DE CASTIELLA. E DE TOLEDO. DE LEON. DE GALIZIA. DE SEVI- LLA. DE CORDOVA. DE MVRCIA. ET DE IA- HEN. EL QVE CONQVISO TODA ESPANA. EL MAS LEAL. E EL MAS VERDADERO. E EL MAS FRC. E EL MAS ESFORÇADO. E EL MAS APVESTO. E EL MAS GRANADO. E EL MAS SOFRIDO. E EL MAS OMILDOSO. E EL QVE MAS TEMIE A DIOS. E EL QVE MAS LE FAZIA SERVICIO. E EL QVE QVEBRANTO E DES- TRVYO A TODOS SVS ENEMIGOS. E EL QVE ALÇO E ONDRO A TODOS SVS AMI- GOS. E CONQUVISO LA CIVDAD DE SEVILLA. QVE ES CABEÇA DE TODA ESPAÑA. E PAS SOS HI EL POSTRIMERO DIA DE MAYO EN

       LA ERA DE M.CC.XC

Hazele la Sancta Iglefia de Sevilla cada año el dia de la Sanctifsima Trinidad en la tarde y el dia figuiente Aniverfario con Real Tumulo, al qual afsifte la Real Audiencia de Sevilla con el Afisiftente y Cabildo de la ciudad. Mueftraffe cada año en la mifma Sancta iglefia en fu Capilla el dia de Sã Clemete (en que le fue entrada por los Moros efta ciudad) el Retrato del mifmo Rey debulto y veftido de Brocado con fu mifma efpada en la mano, y a fus lados la Reyna doña Beatriz fu primera muger, y el Rey don Alõfo fu hijo. Y alli llega el Afsiftente de Sevilla, a quien con pleyto omenaje fe le entrega el efpada de el Sancto Rey. La qual trae en procefsion, y la buelve al mifmo lugar llevando tambien vn Cavallero de los mas principales en la procefsion el Pendon del Sãcto Rey. Por efte Retrato parece aver fido de mediana eftatura, de hermofo y amable roftro, con grande ferenidad y mageftad digna de tan efclarecido Principe, cuyo fancto cuerpo fue trafladado a fu Real Capilla en Domingo (a catorze de Iunio) dia de la Sãctifsima Trinidad año de 1579. A cuya devocion hize el figuiente Elogio. NOBLEZA DEL ANDALVZIA Por Gonçalo Argote de Molina, Sevilla 1588. Libro Primero. El Sancto Rey Don Fernando Da fu anima al Criador, y relacion de fu Sepultura y Letreros della. Cap. CXXI. Pág. 131 y 132 -------------------- See http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/25067072/person/12794562610 -------------------- Fernando III de Castilla (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora o Bolaños de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, c. 5 de agosto de 1199 – Sevilla, 30 de mayo de 1252), llamado el Santo, rey de Castilla2 (1217 – 1252) y de León2 (1230 – 1252). Hijo de Berenguela I, reina de Castilla, y de Alfonso IX, rey de León. Durante su reinado se unificaron definitivamente las coronas de Castilla y León, que habían permanecido divididas desde la época de Alfonso VII el Emperador, quien a su muerte las repartió entre sus hijos, los infantes Sancho y Fernando.


Durante su reinado fueron conquistadas y arrebatadas a los musulmanes, en el marco de la Reconquista, entre otras plazas, las ciudades de Córdoba, Sevilla, Jaén y Murcia, obligando con ello a retroceder a los reinos musulmanes, que, al finalizar el reinado de Fernando III el Santo, únicamente poseían en la Península Ibérica las actuales provincias de Huelva, Cádiz, Málaga, Granada y Almería.


Fue canonizado en 1671, siendo papa Clemente X, y reinando en España Carlos II.

--------------------

canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X

King of Castile, King of Leon -------------------- Saint Ferdinand III, T.O.S.F., (5 August 1199 – 30 May 1252) was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but also masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet. By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand III greatly expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, and establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. Ferdinand was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. Places like San Fernando, La Union, San Fernando, Pampanga and San Fernando Valley, California are named in honour of his local cult and patronage.

Early life

Ferdinand was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, in what is now the Province of Zamora) in 1198-99. His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father, Alfonso VIII of Castile. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but immediately surrendered it to her son, Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. Unification of Castile-León When his father, Alfonso IX of León, died in 1230, his will delivered the kingdom to his older daughters Sancha and Dulce, from his first marriage to Theresa of Portugal. But Ferdinand contested the will, and claimed the inheritance for himself. At length, an agreement was reached, negotiated primarily between their mothers, Berengaria and Theresa, and signed at Benavente on December 11, 1230, by which Ferdinand would receive the Kingdom of León, in return for a substantial compensation in cash and lands for his half-sisters, Sancha and Dulce. Ferdinand thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157. Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. Conquest of al-Andalus

Since the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 halted the advance of the Almohads in Spain, a series of truces had kept Castile and the Almohad dominions of al-Andalus more-or-less at peace. However, a crisis of succession in the Almohad Caliphate after the death of Yusuf II in 1224 opened to Ferdinand III an opportunity for intervention. The Andalusian-based claimant, Abdallah al-Adil, began to ship the bulk of Almohad arms and men across the straits to Morocco to contest the succeession with his rival there, leaving al-Andalus relatively undefended. Al-Adil's rebellious cousin, Abdallah al-Bayyasi (the Baezan), appealed to Ferdinand III for military assistance against the usurper. In 1225, a Castilian army accompanied al-Bayyasi in a campaign, ravaging the regions of Jaén, vega de Granada and, before the end of the year, had successfully installed al-Bayyasi in Córdoba. In payment, al-Bayyasi gave Ferdinand the strategic frontier strongholds of Baños de la Encina, Salvatierra (the old Order of Calatrava fortress near Ciudad Real) and Capilla (the last of which had to be taken by siege). When al-Bayyasi was rejected and killed by a popular uprising in Cordoba shortly after, the Castilians remained in occupation of al-Bayyasi's holdings in Andújar, Baeza and Martos. The crisis in the Almohad Caliphate, however, remained unresolved. In 1228, a new Almohad pretender, Abd al-Ala Idris I 'al-Ma'mun', decided to abandon Spain, and left with the last remnant of the Almohad forces for Morocco. Al-Andalus was left fragmented in the hands of local strongmen, only loosely led by Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami. Seeing the opportunity, the Christian kings of the north - Ferdinand III of Castile, Alfonso IX of León, James I of Aragon and Sancho II of Portugal - immediately launched a series of raids on al-Andalus, renewed almost every year. There were no great battle encounters - Ibn Hud's makeshift Andalusian army was destroyed early on, while attempting to stop the Leonese at Alange in 1230. The Christian armies romped through the south virtually unopposed in the field. Individual Andalusian cities were left to resist or negotiate their capitulation by themselves, with little or no prospect of rescue from Morocco or anywhere else. The twenty years from 1228 to 1248 saw the most massive advance in the Christian reconquista yet. In this great sweep, most of the great old citadels of al-Andalus fell one by one. Ferdinand III took the lion's share of the spoils - Badajoz and Mérida (which had fallen to the Leonese), were promptly inherited by Ferdinand in 1230; then by his own effort, Cazorla in 1231, Úbeda in 1233, the old Umayyad capital of Córdoba in 1236, Niebla and Huelva in 1238, Écija and Lucena in 1240, Orihuela and Murcia in 1243 (by the famous 'pact of Alcaraz'), Arjona, Mula and Lorca in 1244, Cartagena in 1245, Jaén in 1246, Alicante in 1248 and finally, on December 22, 1248, Ferdinand III entered as a conqueror in Seville, the greatest of Andalusian cities. At the end of this twenty-year onslaught, only a rump Andalusian state, the Emirate of Granada, remained unconquered (and even so, Ferdinand III managed to extract a tributary arrangement from Granada in 1238). Ferdinand III annexed some of his conquests directly into the Crown of Castile, and others were initially received and organized as vassal states under Muslim governors (e.g. Alicante, Niebla, Murcia), although they too were eventually permanently occupied and absorbed into Castile before the end of the century (Niebla in 1262, Murcia in 1264, Alicante in 1266). Outside of these vassal states, Christian rule could be heavy-handed on the new Muslim subjects. This would eventually lead to the mudéjar uprisings of 1264-66, which resulted in mass expulsions of the Muslim populations. The range of Castilian conquests also sometimes transgressed into the spheres of interest of other conquerors. Thus, along the way, Ferdinand III took care to carefully negotiate with the other Christian kings to avoid conflict, e.g. the treaty of Almizra (26 March 1244) which delineated the Murcian boundary with James I of Aragon. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights, the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias. When he took Córdoba, he o

view all 65

Fernando III el Santo, rey de Castilla's Timeline

1199
August 5, 1199
Castilla-León, España
1201
August 5, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
Mombuey, Castille and Leon, Spain
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2
August 19, 1201
Age 2