Flavia Galla (c.373 - 394) MP

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Nicknames: "Roman Empress", "Aelia Flavia /Flaccilla/"
Birthplace: Cauca,,,Spain
Death: Died in Roma, Lazio, Rome, Italy
Occupation: Empress of Rome
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Flavia Galla

Flavia Galla (died 394) was a Princess of the Western Roman Empire and an Empress of the Roman Empire. She was the second Empress consort of Theodosius I.

Family

Galla was a daughter of Valentinian I and his second wife Justina. She is listed as one of four children of the marriage by Jordanes. Her father was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 364 to his death on 17 November 375. Her paternal uncle Valens was Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 364 to his death in the Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378).

Her father was previously married to Marina Severa. The only known child to come from this marriage was Gratian, Western Roman Emperor from 375 to his assassination on 25 August 383. Her mother was previously married to Magnentius, a Roman usurper from 350 to 353. [1][2] However both Zosimus and the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648[3] report that Justina was too young at the time of her first marriage to have children. [4]. Galla thus had no known maternal half-siblings.

Galla had three full-siblings. Her only brother was Valentinian II. He was at first co-emperor with Gratian from 375 and the only legitimate Western Roman Emperor from 383 to his death by hanging on 15 May 392. His death was officially reported as a suicide but Arbogast, his magister militum was suspected to have had a hand in it. The accusation can be found in the writings of Socrates of Constantinople, Orosius, and Zosimus. Sozomen was less certain and mentioned both versions of how Valentinian II died. [5]

Her two sisters were Grata and Justa. [5] According to Socrates both remained unmarried. They were probably still alive in 392 but not mentioned afterwards. [6]

[edit] Marriage

Little is known on Galla and her full name is unknown. Galla is the female cognomen for Gallus. In Latin, Gallus could mean both an inhabitant of Gaul and a rooster. The association through word play would much later inspire the Gallic rooster, a national symbol of France. [7]

She was cast into a role of significance because of conflict between three Roman emperors in the 380s. In 383, Gratian had died while facing a major revolt under Magnus Maximus. Maximus proceeded to establish his control of a portion of the Roman Empire including Britain, Gaul, Hispania and the Diocese of Africa. [8] He ruled from his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) and was able to negotiate his recognition by Valentinian II and Theodosius I, starting from 384. The area of Valentinian II had effectively been limited to Italia, ruling from Mediolanum (modern Milan). [5]

In 387, the truce between Valentinian II and Maximus ended. The latter crossed the Alps into the Po Valley and threatened Milan. Valentinian and Justina fled their capital for Thessaloniki, capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and at the time chosen residence of Theodosius. Galla had accompanied them. Theodosius was at the time a widower, his first wife Aelia Flaccilla having died in 385 or 386.

Theodosius granted refuge to the fugitives. According to the account of Zosimus, Justina arranged for Galla to appear in tears before Theodosius and appeal to his compassion. Galla was reportedly a beautiful woman and Theodosius was soon smitten with her, requesting to marry her. Justina used this to her advantage, setting a condition for the marriage agreement to be sealed. Under her condition, Theodosius would have to attack Maximus and restore Valentinian II to his throne. Theodosius consented to Justina’s request, the marriage probably taking place in late 387. [9]

The account was questioned by Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont as inconsistent with the piety of Theodosius. Tillemont suggested that the marriage took place in 386, prior to the beginning of hostilities. However The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon considered Zosimus' account more likely and later works, including the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, have followed his example.

When she married Theodosius, Galla became both a Roman Empress and a stepmother to Theodosius’ two sons from his first marriage, Arcadius and Honorius. Arcadius was the eldest and had been declared an Augustus in January, 383. He served as a nominal co-ruler to his father but was still approximately ten-years-old at the time of Galla's marriage.

Children

Theodosius and Galla had three children [13] who were:

   * Gratian, a son. Born in 388, died young.
   * Aelia Galla Placidia, A daughter (392-27 November, 450). She was the only child who survived to adulthood and later become an Empress. Married first Ataulf, king of the Visigoths. Married secondly Constantius III.
   * John, A son. He died with his mother in childbirth in 394.

Sources:

1. Rodgers,N.,The History and Conquests of Ancient Rome,Hermes House,2005.

  1. ^ Michael DiMaio, Jr., "Magnentius (350-353 A.D) and Decentius (351-353 A.D.)"
  2. ^ David A. Wend, "Magnentius As Emperor"
  3. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "John of Antioch"
  4. ^ Noel Emmanuel Lenski, Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A.D. (2003), page 103]
  5. ^ a b c Walter E. Roberts , "Valentinian II (375-92 A.D.)"
  6. ^ a b c Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 1
  7. ^ The Gallic Rooster
  8. ^ Walter E. Roberts, "Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.)"
  9. ^ a b c d e Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849)
 10. ^ Justina's entry in the Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century
 11. ^ Stephen Williams & Gerard Friell, Theodosius: the Empire at Bay (1994)
 12. ^ Walter E. Roberts, Flavius Eugenius (392-394) (1994)
 13. ^ David Woods , "Theodosius I (379-395 A.D.)"

--------------------

B: 340 or 365

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http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gala_(esposa_de_Teodosio_I)

Gala (Galla, fallecida en 394) fue una princesa del Imperio Romano de Occidente y emperatriz del Imperio Romano. Fue la segunda emperatriz consorte de Teodosio I el Grande. Era hija del augusto Valentiniano I, emperador de Occidente, y de su segunda esposa Justina. Este matrimonio se celebró en 364 para consolidar el gobierno de Valentiniano ya que Justina había estado casada con el augusto Constancio II, del que tuvo una hija Constancia, que a su vez se casó con Graciano, hijo de Valentiniano. De esta forma los hermanos de Gala eran al mismo tiempo sus cuñados.

Su hermano mayor murió en 383 y cuando el menor Valentiniano II fue destronado en 387 por Máximo, se trasladó junto a su madre a Tesalónica donde conoció al augusto Teodosio, emperador de Oriente, recientemente viudo. Teodosio la pidió como esposa y restableció a Valentiniano en Occidente.

Fue madre de Gala Placidia.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_%28wife_of_Theodosius_I%29 -------------------- In about 375-376, Flaccilla married Theodosius I, a son of Count Theodosius. At the time Theodosius had fallen out of favor with Valentinian I and had withdrawn to civilian life in Cauca, Gallaecia.

Their first son Arcadius was born prior to the elevation of his parents on the throne. Their secold son Honorius was born on 9 September 384. Their daughter Pulcheria has been suggested to have been born prior to the elevation of her parents to the throne due to another passage of Laus Serenae. She predeceased her parents as mentioned in the writings of Gregory of Nyssa.

A younger Gratian .mentioned alongside the imperial children by Ambrose. has at times been suggested as a third son. However, Gregory of Nyssa reports the existence of only three imperial children and other sources do not mention Gratian. Gratian was possibly a relation of some sort but not an actual member of the Theodosian dynasty.

She was a fervant supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between Theodosius and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a distinct sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the Church".

Theodoret reports on her works of charity, personally tending to the disabled. He quotes her saying that "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver."

She died in 385 (or 386). Her death is mentioned by (among others) Claudian, Zosimus, Philostorgius and Joannes Zonaras. According to the Chronicon Paschale, the palatium Flaccillianum of Constantinople was named in her honor. A statue of her was placed within the Byzantine Senate. She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church, her feast day being 14 September.

Galla was a daughter of Valentinian I and his second wife Justina. She is listed as one of four children of the marriage by Jordanes. Her father was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 364 to his death on 17 November 375. Her paternal uncle Valens was Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 364 to his death in the Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378).

Her father was previously married to Marina Severa. The only known child to come from this marriage was Gratian, Western Roman Emperor from 375 to his assassination on 25 August 383. Her mother was previously married to Magnentius, a Roman usurper from 350 to 353. However both Zosimus and the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648 report that Justina was too young at the time of her first marriage to have children. . Galla thus had no known maternal half-siblings.

Galla had three full-siblings. Her only brother was Valentinian II. He was at first co-emperor with Gratian from 375 and the only legitimate Western Roman Emperor from 383 to his death by hanging on 15 May 392. His death was officially reported as a suicide but Arbogast, his magister militum was suspected to have had a hand in it. The accusation can be found in the writings of Socrates of Constantinople, Orosius, and Zosimus. Sozomen was less certain and mentioned both versions of how Valentinian II died.

Her two sisters were Grata and Justa. According to Socrates both remained unmarried. They were probably still alive in 392 but not mentioned afterwards.

Marriage

Little is known on Galla and her full name is unknown. Galla is the female cognomen for Gallus. In Latin, Gallus could mean both an inhabitant of Gaul and a rooster. The association through word play would much later inspire the Gallic rooster, a national symbol of France.

She was cast into a role of significance because of conflict between three Roman emperors in the 380s. In 383, Gratian had died while facing a major revolt under Magnus Maximus. Maximus proceeded to establish his control of a portion of the Roman Empire including Britain, Gaul, Hispania and the Diocese of Africa. He ruled from his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) and was able to negotiate his recognition by Valentinian II and Theodosius I, starting from 384. The area of Valentinian II had effectively been limited to Italia, ruling from Mediolanum (modern Milan).

In 387, the truce between Valentinian II and Maximus ended. The latter crossed the Alps into the Po Valley and threatened Milan. Valentinian and Justina fled their capital for Thessaloniki, capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and at the time chosen residence of Theodosius. Galla had accompanied them. Theodosius was at the time a widower, his first wife Aelia Flaccilla having died in 385 or 386.

Theodosius granted refuge to the fugitives. According to the account of Zosimus, Justina arranged for Galla to appear in tears before Theodosius and appeal to his compassion. Galla was reportedly a beautiful woman and Theodosius was soon smitten with her, requesting to marry her. Justina used this to her advantage, setting a condition for the marriage agreement to be sealed. Under her condition, Theodosius would have to attack Maximus and restore Valentinian II to his throne. Theodosius consented to Justina’s request, the marriage probably taking place in late 387.

The account was questioned by Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont as inconsistent with the piety of Theodosius. Tillemont suggested that the marriage took place in 386, prior to the beginning of hostilities. However The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon considered Zosimus' account more likely and later works, including the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, have followed his example.

Empress

When she married Theodosius, Galla became both a Roman Empress and a stepmother to Theodosius’ two sons from his first marriage, Arcadius and Honorius. Arcadius was the eldest and had been declared an Augustus in January, 383. He served as a nominal co-ruler to his father but was still approximately ten-years-old at the time of Galla's marriage.

In July-August, 388, the combined troops of Theodosius I and Vallentinian II invaded the territory of Maximus under the leadership of Richomeres, Arbogast, Promotus and Timasius. Maximus suffered a series of losses and surrendered in Aquileia. He was executed on 28 August 388. His son and nominal co-ruler Flavius Victor was also executed. His wife Elen and two daughters were spared. The condition for Galla's marriage had been met. However Justina died the same year, uncertain if she was able to witness the result of her efforts. .

Theodosius installed Valentinian and his court at Vienne in Gaul, away from Milan and the influence of Ambrose. Theodosius appointed Arbogast as magister militum for the Western provinces. Acting in the name of Valentinian, Arbogast was actually subordinate only to Theodosiu

Theodosius spend the years 388-391 in Italia. In his absence, Galla and her stepsons remained in the Great Palace of Constantinople. In 390, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, Arcadius had her expelled from the Palace. Since Arcadius was only thirteen, the decision could as well belong to those who governed in his name.

Zosimus reports her mourning over the death of her brother in 392. On 22 August 392, Arbogast declared Eugenius as an emperor without the approval of Theodosius. Negotiations with Theodosius to achieve recognition were unsuccessful. On 23 January 393, Theodosius declared his second son Honorius, an Augustus. The implication being that Theodosius alone was legitimate emperor. Conflict between Theodosius and Eugenius begun in 394, resulting in the Battle of the Frigidus (5 September - 6 September 394. Theodosius was victorious while Arbogast committed suicide and Eugenius was executed. The battle left Theodosius in control of the entire Roman Empire.

Whether Galla lived to see the victory is uncertain. According to Zosimus, she died in childbirth within the same year, the exact date not known.

A passage of Philostorgius was interpreted by Tillemont as identifying Galla as an adherent of Arianism. However the passage seems to actually mean that her mother was Arian. Galla herself is hovever identified as an Arian in the Chronicon Paschale.

-------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- Galla was a daughter of Valentinian I and his second wife. She is listed as one of four children of the marriage by Jordanes. Her father was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 364 to his death on 17 November 375.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_%28wife_of_Theodosius%29

5. Galla Juntina Valentina of Rome 395.

Galla married Theodosius who was born in 346 in Cauca, Spain.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 6 F i. Galla Placidia of Cauca 7 8 was born about 388, died on 27 Nov 450 about age 62, and was buried in Ravenna, Italy.

was born about 388, died on 27 Nov 450 about age 62, and was buried in Ravenna, Italy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Galla Placidia :

Aelia Galla Placidia (c. 388 - November 27 , 450 ) was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla , who herself was daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I , Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius .

She had spent much time in the household of Stilicho the Vandal and his wife Serena . Stilicho was effectively the military steward of the West, and according to himself also of the East. He was executed by Honorius, however, in 408 causing most of the non-Italians in Roman service to go over to Visigoth chieftain Alaric I - who promptly invaded Italy. In either 409 or 410, during Alaric 's siege of Rome , Galla became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they sacked Rome (for three days beginning August 24 , 410 ), then wandered through Italy where Alaric died in the same year, and later Gaul .

She married Athaulf , brother-in-law of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after Alaric's death, at Narbo in January 414 , although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forlì ). Jordanes's date may actually be when she and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy and was buried in Barcelona . Years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica , Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415 , instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416 .

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417 . They had a son who became Valentinian III , and a rather more strong-willed daughter, Justa Grata Honoria . Constantius became emperor in 421 , but died shortly afterwards. Galla herself, the former Augusta, was however forced from the Western empire. Whatever the politics or motivations, the public issue was increasingly scandalous public sexual caresses from her own brother Honorius. She left with her young children to find refuge at Constantinople . After Honorius died in 423 , and after the suppression of Joannes despite his ally Aëtius ' attempt to raise troops to his aid, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425 .

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aëtius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician. Placidia apparently was the one who made peace with Aetius - he later was pivotal to the defense of the Western Empire against Attila the Hun - who was diverted from his focus on Constantinople towards Italy as his target due to a foolish letter from Placidia's own daughter, Justa Grata Honoria , in spring 450 , asking him to rescue her from an unwanted marriage to a senator that the Imperial family, including Placidia, was trying to force on her. Placidia's last notable public act was to convince her son Valentinian III to exile rather than kill Honoria for this. She died shortly afterwards at Rome in November 450, and did not live to see Attila ravage Italy in 451 -453 in a much more brutal campaign than the Goths had waged, using Justa's letter as their sole "legitimate" excuse.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic , and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna . Her Mausoleum in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996 .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_%28wife_of_Theodosius_I%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_%28wife_of_Theodosius_I%29

--------------------

Galla was a daughter of Valentinian I and his second wife Justina. She is listed as one of four children of the marriage by Jordanes. Her father was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 364 to his death on 17 November 375. Her paternal uncle Valens was Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 364 to his death in the Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378).

Her father was previously married to Marina Severa. The only known child to come from this marriage was Gratian, Western Roman Emperor from 375 to his assassination on 25 August 383. Her mother was previously married to Magnentius, a Roman usurper from 350 to 353. However both Zosimus and the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648 report that Justina was too young at the time of her first marriage to have children. . Galla thus had no known maternal half-siblings.

Galla had three full-siblings. Her only brother was Valentinian II. He was at first co-emperor with Gratian from 375 and the only legitimate Western Roman Emperor from 383 to his death by hanging on 15 May 392. His death was officially reported as a suicide but Arbogast, his magister militum was suspected to have had a hand in it. The accusation can be found in the writings of Socrates of Constantinople, Orosius, and Zosimus. Sozomen was less certain and mentioned both versions of how Valentinian II died.

Her two sisters were Grata and Justa. According to Socrates both remained unmarried. They were probably still alive in 392 but not mentioned afterwards.

Marriage

Little is known on Galla and her full name is unknown. Galla is the female cognomen for Gallus. In Latin, Gallus could mean both an inhabitant of Gaul and a rooster. The association through word play would much later inspire the Gallic rooster, a national symbol of France.

She was cast into a role of significance because of conflict between three Roman emperors in the 380s. In 383, Gratian had died while facing a major revolt under Magnus Maximus. Maximus proceeded to establish his control of a portion of the Roman Empire including Britain, Gaul, Hispania and the Diocese of Africa. He ruled from his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) and was able to negotiate his recognition by Valentinian II and Theodosius I, starting from 384. The area of Valentinian II had effectively been limited to Italia, ruling from Mediolanum (modern Milan).

In 387, the truce between Valentinian II and Maximus ended. The latter crossed the Alps into the Po Valley and threatened Milan. Valentinian and Justina fled their capital for Thessaloniki, capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and at the time chosen residence of Theodosius. Galla had accompanied them. Theodosius was at the time a widower, his first wife Aelia Flaccilla having died in 385 or 386.

Theodosius granted refuge to the fugitives. According to the account of Zosimus, Justina arranged for Galla to appear in tears before Theodosius and appeal to his compassion. Galla was reportedly a beautiful woman and Theodosius was soon smitten with her, requesting to marry her. Justina used this to her advantage, setting a condition for the marriage agreement to be sealed. Under her condition, Theodosius would have to attack Maximus and restore Valentinian II to his throne. Theodosius consented to Justina’s request, the marriage probably taking place in late 387.

The account was questioned by Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont as inconsistent with the piety of Theodosius. Tillemont suggested that the marriage took place in 386, prior to the beginning of hostilities. However The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon considered Zosimus' account more likely and later works, including the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, have followed his example.

Empress

When she married Theodosius, Galla became both a Roman Empress and a stepmother to Theodosius’ two sons from his first marriage, Arcadius and Honorius. Arcadius was the eldest and had been declared an Augustus in January, 383. He served as a nominal co-ruler to his father but was still approximately ten-years-old at the time of Galla's marriage.

In July-August, 388, the combined troops of Theodosius I and Vallentinian II invaded the territory of Maximus under the leadership of Richomeres, Arbogast, Promotus and Timasius. Maximus suffered a series of losses and surrendered in Aquileia. He was executed on 28 August 388. His son and nominal co-ruler Flavius Victor was also executed. His wife Elen and two daughters were spared. The condition for Galla's marriage had been met. However Justina died the same year, uncertain if she was able to witness the result of her efforts. .

Theodosius installed Valentinian and his court at Vienne in Gaul, away from Milan and the influence of Ambrose. Theodosius appointed Arbogast as magister militum for the Western provinces. Acting in the name of Valentinian, Arbogast was actually subordinate only to Theodosiu

Theodosius spend the years 388-391 in Italia. In his absence, Galla and her stepsons remained in the Great Palace of Constantinople. In 390, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, Arcadius had her expelled from the Palace. Since Arcadius was only thirteen, the decision could as well belong to those who governed in his name.

Zosimus reports her mourning over the death of her brother in 392. On 22 August 392, Arbogast declared Eugenius as an emperor without the approval of Theodosius. Negotiations with Theodosius to achieve recognition were unsuccessful. On 23 January 393, Theodosius declared his second son Honorius, an Augustus. The implication being that Theodosius alone was legitimate emperor. Conflict between Theodosius and Eugenius begun in 394, resulting in the Battle of the Frigidus (5 September - 6 September 394. Theodosius was victorious while Arbogast committed suicide and Eugenius was executed. The battle left Theodosius in control of the entire Roman Empire.

Whether Galla lived to see the victory is uncertain. According to Zosimus, she died in childbirth within the same year, the exact date not known.

A passage of Philostorgius was interpreted by Tillemont as identifying Galla as an adherent of Arianism. However the passage seems to actually mean that her mother was Arian. Galla herself is hovever identified as an Arian in the Chronicon Paschale.

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Flavia Galla's Timeline

373
373
Cauca,,,Spain
385
385
Age 12
Istanbul, Turkey
387
November 387
Age 14
Italy
388
388
Age 15
394
394
Age 21
394
Age 21
Roma, Lazio, Rome, Italy
????