Flavia Maxima Fausta

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Flavia Maxima Fausta

Nicknames: "Flavia Maximiana Fausta", "Flavia /Maximiana/", "Flavia Maximiana Theodora"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Sirmium, Balkans
Death: Died in Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Maximian, Western Roman Emperor and Eutropia
Wife of Constantine I "the Great", Roman Emperor
Mother of Constantius II, Roman Emperor Placida; Constantius II, Roman Emperor; Flavia Constantia Augusta; Constans I, Roman Emperor; Faustina Augusta and 2 others
Sister of Maxentius, Western Roman Emperor
Half sister of Flavia Maximiana Theodora and [Afranius]

Occupation: Roman Empress
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Flavia Maxima Fausta

Fausta Flavia Maxima (289-326) was a Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

Fausta had a part in her father's downfall. In 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, and the assassination was disrupted. Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year.

Empress Fausta was held in high esteem by Constantine and proof of his favour was that in 323 she was proclaimed Augusta; previously she held the title of Nobilissima Femina. However 3 years later Fausta was put to death by Constantine. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine put her to death following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina, in 326. According to some sources, she had accused Crispus of rape, and Constantine had Crispus executed. Fausta was later executed by suffocation in an over-heated bath,[1] when her charge was discovered to be false. Modern commentators have tended to ignore the story of allegation of rape and seek some other explanation for what happened.[citation needed] It has been argued instead that Fausta wanted to get rid of Crispus who was a dangerous rival for her own sons in the competition to succeed Constantine.[citation needed] The Emperor ordered the damnatio memoriae of his wife. Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e., they were of the same generation). -------------------- Fausta ( ca. 293-326 A.D.)

Hans A. Pohlsander

SUNY Albany

Fausta's full name was Flavia Maxima Fausta. 1 She was the daughter of the emperor Maximian and his Syrian wife Eutropia .2 The date of her birth has been the subject of scholarly debate. 3 She was born and raised in Rome. 4

In 307 Fausta was married to the emperor Constantine .5 An anonymous Gallic orator composed a panegyric for the occasion. 6 The marriage quite possibly took place at Trier. 7 Although both Constantine's and Fausta's specific dates of birth are subject to question, it is certain that he was her senior by fifteen or more years. Constantine's drive for sole power must have put a strain on the relationship on at least two occasions. In 310, when Maximian plotted against Constantine , Fausta revealed the plot, thus contributing to her own father's end. 8 On 28 October 312 Fausta's brother, the emperor Maxentius , suffered defeat and lost his life in the famous Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The next day his body was recovered from the Tiber River. Constantine had the severed head affixed to a pike and carried through the streets of Rome. 9 We do not know Fausta's reaction to this act of brutality.

Fausta was mother to three sons and two daughters. The three sons were Constantine II , born on 7 August 316 (?), Constantius II , born on 7 August 317, and Constans , born in 320 or 323. 10 These three were appointed Caesars on 1 March 317, 8 November 324, and 25 December 333, respectively. 11 The two daughters were Constantina (not to be confused with Constantine's half-sister Constantia ) and Helena (not to be confused with Constantine's mother and Crispus' wife of the same name). We do not know the years of their birth, only that Constantina was the older one of the two. 12 As the emperor's wife Fausta held the rank of nobilissima femina .13 Not too long after his victory over Licinius , that is in 324 or 325, Constantine granted her the rank of Augusta, 14 as he also did to his mother Helena 15

Fausta's life ended in a most unfortunate way. Her own husband ordered her to be executed in 326, shortly after he had his son Crispus executed. 16 We even learn the means of execution: she was suffocated in an over-heated bath. 17 Two later sources, Zosimus and Zonaras, report that Fausta and Crispus were involved with each other in an illicit Phaedra-and-Hippolytus type of relationship. 18 We may entertain doubts about the nature of their offense and also about the means of Fausta's execution. 19 But the two deaths are so close together in time and our sources so unanimous on this point that there must be some connection between the two cases. 20 We shall not be surprised to find that Fausta suffered damnatio memoriae .21

We must deny any validity to Zosimus' 22 claim that Constantine was driven to accept Christianity by a sense of guilt over his deeds. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate .23 That Fausta and Crispus together plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, 24 but is very unlikely: what would have been their common interest? It has also been claimed that Fausta took her own life; 25 there is no support for this claim in any of our sources. Nor do our sources say where Fausta met her end. 26 Strangely enough, Julian the Apostate has words of high praise for Fausta in the panegyric which he addressed to Constantius II , probably in 355. 27 Did Constantius II try to restore his mother's honor?

Bibliography

Recent and concise accounts of the life of Fausta, with reference to the scattered primary sources, are the following:

Adolf Lippold in Der kleine Pauly II (1967) 522.

A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire I (Cambridge, 1971) 325-26.

Timothy D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge MA, 1982) 9, 33, 34, and 43.

Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle, 2nd ed. (Darmstadt, 1996) 305.

The account by Otto Seeck , RE VI.2 (1909) 2084-86, has become in part obsolete.

More extensive or specialized studies are:

Joseph Vogt, "Heiden und Christen in der Familie Constantins des Grossen," in Eranion: Festschrift för Hildebrecht Hommel (Tübingen 1961) 149-68, esp. 161-63. Also in English: "Pagans and Christians in the Family of Constantine the Great," in Arnaldo Momigliano, ed., The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century (Oxford 1963) 38-55, esp. 48-50.

Patrick Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus," Phoenix 20 (1966) 325-31.

François Paschoud, Cinq études sur Zosime (Paris, 1975) 24-39.

J. Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin: criminelle ou victime," CahHist. 25 (1980) 3-17.

Hans A. Pohlsander, "Crispus: Brilliant Career and Tragic End," Historia 33 (1984) 79-106 at 99-106.

Jan Willem Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta: Some Remarks," Historia 41 (1992) 500- 506.

Samuel N. C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, edd., From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views. A Source History (London 1996). Contains translation of and commentary on the Anonymus Valesianus, Origo Constantini .

Additionally references to Fausta will be found in all of the books on Constantine.

Notes

1 Seeck in RE VI.2 (1909) 2084; Mattingly-Sydenham , RIC VII, index of obverse legends, 724; Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 325; Barnes, New Empire 43; Kienast, Kaisertabelle 2305.

2Lact, Mort. Pers . 27.1 and 30.2; Aur. Vict. Epit 40.12; Euseb -Hieron. Chron. Olymp . 271 (ed, Fotheringham 311; ed. Helm 229); Zosimus 2.10.6 and 39.1.

3 Seeck, in RE VI 2 (1909) 2085, holds for a date not earlier than 293 and possibly as late as 298. But Barnes, New Empire 34, argues convincingly for 289 or 290. Nevertheless it is to be noted that she remained childless for the first nine or ten years of her marriage.

4 Jul. Or. 1.5C-D.

5 Lact. Mort Pers. 27.1; Aur. Vict. Epit. 40.12; Zosimus 2.10. 6 and 2.39.1. The notion that Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed some years earlier is rightly rejected by Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 501-503.

6 Pan. Lat. 7 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 6 (ed. Galletier).

7Barnes, New Empir e 69; Heinz Heinen, Trier und das Trevererland in römischer Zeit, (Trier 1985) 224; But Seeck, in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085, suggests Arles.

8Lact. Mort. Pers. 30.2-3; Euseb.-Hieron. Chron. Olymp. 271 (ed. Fotheringham 311; ed. Helm 229); Eutropius 10.3.2 ( MGH,AA II 172; ed. Santini 66; ed. Friedhelm L. Müller [Stuttgart 1995] 141); Zosimus 2.11; Seeck, in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085, doubts these reports.

9Anonymus Valesianus 4.12 ( MGH, AA IX 8; ed. Rolfe [ LCL Amm. Marc. III]; 516; ed. König 38-41; English transl. by Jane Stevenson in Lieu and Montserrat, From Constantine to Julian 45); Pan. Lat. 4 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 10 (ed. Galletier) 31.4; Pan. La t. 12 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 9 (ed. Galletier) 18.3.

10 Seeck in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085; Jean Moreau, "Constantinus II.," "Constantius II.," and "Constans," Jb. für Antike und Christentum 2 (1959) 160-84 at 160, 164, and 179; Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 326; Barnes, New Empire 44-45; Kienast, Kaisertabelle 2310, 314, and 312, respectively.

There is some reason to think that Fausta was the stepmother rather than birth mother of Constantinus II, but Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus" 330-31, has argued to the contrary. See the discussion in Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin" 16-17. Zosimus, 2.39.1, is certainly wrong in reporting that all three of the sons were born by a woman other than Fausta.

DiMaio and others have argued that that Constantine II was born in the summer of 316 without specifying a particular date, but accept the traditional dating of Constantius II's birth to 7 August 317 (Michael DiMaio, Jörn Zeuge, and Jane Bethune, " The Proelium Cibalense et Proelium Campi Ardiensis : The First Civil War of Constantine I and Licinius I," AncW, 21[1990] 90).

11Moreau, as in n. 10; Kienast, as in n.10.

12Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 222 and 409-10; Barnes, New Empire 43.

13Mattingly-Sydenham, RIC VII 26 and 493; On the use of the title nobilissimus/nobilissima see Maria R. Alföldi, "Helena nobilissima femina : Zur Deutung der Trierer Deckengemälde," Jahrbuch für Numismatik 10 (1959/60) 79-90 at 80-81.

14Maria R. Alföldi, Die constantinische Goldprägung (Mainz, 1963) 95 and 144; Mattingly-Sydenham, as in n.1; R. A. G. Carson, Coins of the Roman Empire (New York, 1990) 170 and pl. 45, nos. 669 and 670, not quite correctly. That this occurred exactly on 8 November 324, when Constantius II was elevated to the rank of Caesar, is an attractive conjecture but not supported by our sources.

15 Euseb. Vita Const. 3.47; Sozomen, Hist. Eccl . 2.2.4.

16 Eutropius 10.6.3 ( MGH, AA II 174; ed. Santini 67; ed. Friedhelm L. Müller [Stuttgart 1995] 142).

17Aur. Vict. Epit . 41.11-12; We need give little credence to John Chrysostom, In Ep. ad Phil. Comm . 4.15.5 (Migne, PG LXII 295), who claims to know that Fausta was bound naked to the mountains and exposed to the wild beasts. John Holland Smith, Constantine the Great (London, 1971) 215, misreading John Chrysostom, transfers the scene to the amphitheater.

18 Zosimus 2.29.1-2; Zonaras 13.2.38-41.

19Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 505-506, concludes that we shall never know.

20Paschoud, Cinq études 37-38, and others before him; more recently Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 504 with n. 27.

21 CIL X 678 = Dessau, ILS 710.

222.29.3-4.

23 Caes. 336A-B.

24 Hist. Franc. 1.34 in Migne, PL LXXI 179; 1.36 in MGH, SRM 1st ed. I 51; ibid. 2nd ed. I.1 26-27.

25Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors (London, 1995) 216.

26It has been supposed by some that it was in Trier: Ramsay MacMullen, Constantine (New York, 1969) 50 and 187; Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin" 4 and 13; W. H. C, Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia, 1984) 496 and 501; Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 506, rightly deems Rome the more likely place; Scarre (see previous note) also seems to think that it was in Rome.

27 Or. 1.9B-C.

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Spouses

1Constantine the Great Roman Emperor

Birth27 Feb 272, Naissus, Moesia Superior (Nish), Serbia

Death22 May 337, Nicomedia

FatherConstantius Flavius Valerius Emperor of Rome (242-306)

MotherSt. Helena (Elaine) of Colchester (248-328)

ChildrenConstantine II (316-340)

Constantius II (317-361)
Constans I (~322-350)

--------------------

ID: I11588

Name:

Given Name: Flavia

Surname: Maximiana

Nickname: Fausta

Sex: F

_UID: C83E33CA201FD811BE490080C8C142CC492E

Change Date: 18 Oct 2005

Birth: ABT 293

Death: 326

Father: Marcus Aurelias Maximian I of Rome b: ABT 235

Mother: Eutropia Crispina of Rome b: ABT 235

Father: Maximianus Herculeus b: ABT 235

Mother: Eutropia Crispina Crispus b: ABT 250

Marriage 1 FLAVIUS @ VALERIUS CONSTANTIUS b: 27 FEB 273

Married:

Children

-1. Maximian

-2. Flavius Julius Constantius II of Rome b: 3 OCT 317

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I11588

Fausta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

-For the opera, see Fausta (opera).

-For the Catholic saint, see Saint Fausta.

Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Fausta had a part in her father's downfall. In 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, and the assassination was disrupted. Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year.

Empress Fausta was held in high esteem by Constantine and proof of his favour was that in 323 she was proclaimed Augusta; previously she held the title of Nobilissima Femina. However 3 years later Fausta was put to death by Constantine. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine put her to death following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina, in 326. According to some sources, she had accused Crispus of rape, and Constantine had Crispus executed. Fausta was later executed by suffocation in an over-heated bath,[1] when her charge was discovered to be false. Modern commentators have tended to ignore the story of allegation of rape and seek some other explanation for what happened. It has been argued instead that Fausta wanted to get rid of Crispus who was a dangerous rival for her own sons in the competition to succeed Constantine. The Emperor ordered the damnatio memoriae of his wife. Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e., they were of the same generation).

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fausta

--------------------

Flavia Maxima Fausta Princess of the West

Died : Abt. 326

Father MAXIMIAN Marcus Aurelius Valerius Emperor of the West

Mother Eutropia Empress of the West

Marriage 307 - Constantine I the Great Emperor of Rome

Children - - Constans I Emperor of the East and West 

- - Helena Princess of the East and West 

- - Constantia Princess of the East and West 

7 Aug 317 - Constantius II Emperor of the East and West 

Abt. 322 - Maximianus Constans Prince of Rome (West)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per02538.htm#0

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fausta

--------------------

Theodora (wife of Constantius I Chlorus)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.

Salve Regina University

Theodora was the eldest daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius and his wife Eutropia . In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius when Maximianus Herculius appointed him as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the west with the right of succession on 1 March 293, Constantius I put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora. She bore him six children: Flavius Dalmatius ,Julius Constantius ,Hannibalianus ,Constantia ,Anastasia , and Eutropia .

Bibliography

Barnes, T.D . Constantine and Eusebius, , Cambridge, 1980.

________. New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine . Cambridge, 1981.

Jones, A.H.M. J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Theodora 1." the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , (Cambridge, 1971), 1.895.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

--------------------

ID: I66366

Name: Theodora of Rome

Prefix: Princess

Given Name: Theodora

Surname: of Rome

Sex: F

_UID: F0FB384C6004F24A987FCC45636DDD765AB8

Change Date: 2 Aug 2004

Birth: ABT 272

Death: BEF 337

Father: Africanius Hanibalian of Syria b: ABT 245

Mother: Eutropia Crispina Crispus b: ABT 250

Marriage 1 Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius b: 31 MAR 250

Married:

Children

Julius of Rome b: ABT 290

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I66366

--------------------

Theodora Empress of the West

Father Afranius Hannibalius of Asia

Mother Eutropia Empress of the West

Marriage - CONSTANTIUS I Chlorus Emperor of the West

Children - - Constantia Princess of the West 

- - Julius Constantinus Prince of the West 

- - Flavius Dalmatius Prince of the West

Forrás / Source:

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per02551.htm#0

-------------------- Fausta ( ca. 293-326 A.D.)

Hans A. Pohlsander

SUNY Albany

Fausta's full name was Flavia Maxima Fausta. 1 She was the daughter of the emperor Maximian and his Syrian wife Eutropia .2 The date of her birth has been the subject of scholarly debate. 3 She was born and raised in Rome. 4

In 307 Fausta was married to the emperor Constantine .5 An anonymous Gallic orator composed a panegyric for the occasion. 6 The marriage quite possibly took place at Trier. 7 Although both Constantine's and Fausta's specific dates of birth are subject to question, it is certain that he was her senior by fifteen or more years. Constantine's drive for sole power must have put a strain on the relationship on at least two occasions. In 310, when Maximian plotted against Constantine , Fausta revealed the plot, thus contributing to her own father's end. 8 On 28 October 312 Fausta's brother, the emperor Maxentius , suffered defeat and lost his life in the famous Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The next day his body was recovered from the Tiber River. Constantine had the severed head affixed to a pike and carried through the streets of Rome. 9 We do not know Fausta's reaction to this act of brutality.

Fausta was mother to three sons and two daughters. The three sons were Constantine II , born on 7 August 316 (?), Constantius II , born on 7 August 317, and Constans , born in 320 or 323. 10 These three were appointed Caesars on 1 March 317, 8 November 324, and 25 December 333, respectively. 11 The two daughters were Constantina (not to be confused with Constantine's half-sister Constantia ) and Helena (not to be confused with Constantine's mother and Crispus' wife of the same name). We do not know the years of their birth, only that Constantina was the older one of the two. 12 As the emperor's wife Fausta held the rank of nobilissima femina .13 Not too long after his victory over Licinius , that is in 324 or 325, Constantine granted her the rank of Augusta, 14 as he also did to his mother Helena 15

Fausta's life ended in a most unfortunate way. Her own husband ordered her to be executed in 326, shortly after he had his son Crispus executed. 16 We even learn the means of execution: she was suffocated in an over-heated bath. 17 Two later sources, Zosimus and Zonaras, report that Fausta and Crispus were involved with each other in an illicit Phaedra-and-Hippolytus type of relationship. 18 We may entertain doubts about the nature of their offense and also about the means of Fausta's execution. 19 But the two deaths are so close together in time and our sources so unanimous on this point that there must be some connection between the two cases. 20 We shall not be surprised to find that Fausta suffered damnatio memoriae .21

We must deny any validity to Zosimus' 22 claim that Constantine was driven to accept Christianity by a sense of guilt over his deeds. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate .23 That Fausta and Crispus together plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, 24 but is very unlikely: what would have been their common interest? It has also been claimed that Fausta took her own life; 25 there is no support for this claim in any of our sources. Nor do our sources say where Fausta met her end. 26 Strangely enough, Julian the Apostate has words of high praise for Fausta in the panegyric which he addressed to Constantius II , probably in 355. 27 Did Constantius II try to restore his mother's honor?

Bibliography

Recent and concise accounts of the life of Fausta, with reference to the scattered primary sources, are the following:

Adolf Lippold in Der kleine Pauly II (1967) 522.

A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire I (Cambridge, 1971) 325-26.

Timothy D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge MA, 1982) 9, 33, 34, and 43.

Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle, 2nd ed. (Darmstadt, 1996) 305.

The account by Otto Seeck , RE VI.2 (1909) 2084-86, has become in part obsolete.

More extensive or specialized studies are:

Joseph Vogt, "Heiden und Christen in der Familie Constantins des Grossen," in Eranion: Festschrift för Hildebrecht Hommel (Tübingen 1961) 149-68, esp. 161-63. Also in English: "Pagans and Christians in the Family of Constantine the Great," in Arnaldo Momigliano, ed., The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century (Oxford 1963) 38-55, esp. 48-50.

Patrick Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus," Phoenix 20 (1966) 325-31.

François Paschoud, Cinq études sur Zosime (Paris, 1975) 24-39.

J. Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin: criminelle ou victime," CahHist. 25 (1980) 3-17.

Hans A. Pohlsander, "Crispus: Brilliant Career and Tragic End," Historia 33 (1984) 79-106 at 99-106.

Jan Willem Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta: Some Remarks," Historia 41 (1992) 500- 506.

Samuel N. C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, edd., From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views. A Source History (London 1996). Contains translation of and commentary on the Anonymus Valesianus, Origo Constantini .

Additionally references to Fausta will be found in all of the books on Constantine.

Notes

1 Seeck in RE VI.2 (1909) 2084; Mattingly-Sydenham , RIC VII, index of obverse legends, 724; Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 325; Barnes, New Empire 43; Kienast, Kaisertabelle 2305.

2Lact, Mort. Pers . 27.1 and 30.2; Aur. Vict. Epit 40.12; Euseb -Hieron. Chron. Olymp . 271 (ed, Fotheringham 311; ed. Helm 229); Zosimus 2.10.6 and 39.1.

3 Seeck, in RE VI 2 (1909) 2085, holds for a date not earlier than 293 and possibly as late as 298. But Barnes, New Empire 34, argues convincingly for 289 or 290. Nevertheless it is to be noted that she remained childless for the first nine or ten years of her marriage.

4 Jul. Or. 1.5C-D.

5 Lact. Mort Pers. 27.1; Aur. Vict. Epit. 40.12; Zosimus 2.10. 6 and 2.39.1. The notion that Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed some years earlier is rightly rejected by Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 501-503.

6 Pan. Lat. 7 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 6 (ed. Galletier).

7Barnes, New Empir e 69; Heinz Heinen, Trier und das Trevererland in römischer Zeit, (Trier 1985) 224; But Seeck, in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085, suggests Arles.

8Lact. Mort. Pers. 30.2-3; Euseb.-Hieron. Chron. Olymp. 271 (ed. Fotheringham 311; ed. Helm 229); Eutropius 10.3.2 ( MGH,AA II 172; ed. Santini 66; ed. Friedhelm L. Müller [Stuttgart 1995] 141); Zosimus 2.11; Seeck, in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085, doubts these reports.

9Anonymus Valesianus 4.12 ( MGH, AA IX 8; ed. Rolfe [ LCL Amm. Marc. III]; 516; ed. König 38-41; English transl. by Jane Stevenson in Lieu and Montserrat, From Constantine to Julian 45); Pan. Lat. 4 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 10 (ed. Galletier) 31.4; Pan. La t. 12 (edd. Baehrens, Mynors, and Nixon and Rodgers) or 9 (ed. Galletier) 18.3.

10 Seeck in RE VI.2 (1909) 2085; Jean Moreau, "Constantinus II.," "Constantius II.," and "Constans," Jb. für Antike und Christentum 2 (1959) 160-84 at 160, 164, and 179; Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 326; Barnes, New Empire 44-45; Kienast, Kaisertabelle 2310, 314, and 312, respectively.

There is some reason to think that Fausta was the stepmother rather than birth mother of Constantinus II, but Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus" 330-31, has argued to the contrary. See the discussion in Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin" 16-17. Zosimus, 2.39.1, is certainly wrong in reporting that all three of the sons were born by a woman other than Fausta.

DiMaio and others have argued that that Constantine II was born in the summer of 316 without specifying a particular date, but accept the traditional dating of Constantius II's birth to 7 August 317 (Michael DiMaio, Jörn Zeuge, and Jane Bethune, " The Proelium Cibalense et Proelium Campi Ardiensis : The First Civil War of Constantine I and Licinius I," AncW, 21[1990] 90).

11Moreau, as in n. 10; Kienast, as in n.10.

12Jones-Martindale-Morris, PLRE I 222 and 409-10; Barnes, New Empire 43.

13Mattingly-Sydenham, RIC VII 26 and 493; On the use of the title nobilissimus/nobilissima see Maria R. Alföldi, "Helena nobilissima femina : Zur Deutung der Trierer Deckengemälde," Jahrbuch für Numismatik 10 (1959/60) 79-90 at 80-81.

14Maria R. Alföldi, Die constantinische Goldprägung (Mainz, 1963) 95 and 144; Mattingly-Sydenham, as in n.1; R. A. G. Carson, Coins of the Roman Empire (New York, 1990) 170 and pl. 45, nos. 669 and 670, not quite correctly. That this occurred exactly on 8 November 324, when Constantius II was elevated to the rank of Caesar, is an attractive conjecture but not supported by our sources.

15 Euseb. Vita Const. 3.47; Sozomen, Hist. Eccl . 2.2.4.

16 Eutropius 10.6.3 ( MGH, AA II 174; ed. Santini 67; ed. Friedhelm L. Müller [Stuttgart 1995] 142).

17Aur. Vict. Epit . 41.11-12; We need give little credence to John Chrysostom, In Ep. ad Phil. Comm . 4.15.5 (Migne, PG LXII 295), who claims to know that Fausta was bound naked to the mountains and exposed to the wild beasts. John Holland Smith, Constantine the Great (London, 1971) 215, misreading John Chrysostom, transfers the scene to the amphitheater.

18 Zosimus 2.29.1-2; Zonaras 13.2.38-41.

19Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 505-506, concludes that we shall never know.

20Paschoud, Cinq études 37-38, and others before him; more recently Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 504 with n. 27.

21 CIL X 678 = Dessau, ILS 710.

222.29.3-4.

23 Caes. 336A-B.

24 Hist. Franc. 1.34 in Migne, PL LXXI 179; 1.36 in MGH, SRM 1st ed. I 51; ibid. 2nd ed. I.1 26-27.

25Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors (London, 1995) 216.

26It has been supposed by some that it was in Trier: Ramsay MacMullen, Constantine (New York, 1969) 50 and 187; Rougé, "Fausta, femme de Constantin" 4 and 13; W. H. C, Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia, 1984) 496 and 501; Drijvers, "Flavia Maxima Fausta" 506, rightly deems Rome the more likely place; Scarre (see previous note) also seems to think that it was in Rome.

27 Or. 1.9B-C.

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. -------------------- Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Fausta had a part in her father's downfall. In 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, and the assassination was disrupted. Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year.

Empress Fausta was held in high esteem by Constantine and proof of his favour was that in 323 she was proclaimed Augusta, previously she held the title of Nobilissima Femina. However 3 years later Fausta was put to death by Constantine. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine put her to death following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina, in 326. According to some sources, she had accused Crispus of rape, and Constantine had Crispus executed. Fausta was later executed by suffocation in an over-heated bath,[1] when her charge was discovered to be false. Modern commentators have tended to ignore the story of allegation of rape and seek some other explanation for what happened. It has been argued instead that Fausta wanted to get rid of Crispus who was a dangerous rival for her own sons in the competition to succeed Constantine. The Emperor ordered the damnatio memoriae of his wife. Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e., they were of the same generation).

-------------------- Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Fausta had a part in her father's downfall. In 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, and the assassination was disrupted. Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year.

Empress Fausta was held in high esteem by Constantine and proof of his favour was that in 323 she was proclaimed Augusta; previously she held the title of Nobilissima Femina. However 3 years later Fausta was put to death by Constantine. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine put her to death following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina, in 326. According to some sources, she had accused Crispus of rape, and Constantine had Crispus executed. Fausta was later executed by suffocation in an over-heated bath, when her charge was discovered to be false. Modern commentators have tended to ignore the story of allegation of rape and seek some other explanation for what happened. It has been argued instead that Fausta wanted to get rid of Crispus who was a dangerous rival for her own sons in the competition to succeed Constantine. The Emperor ordered the damnatio memoriae of his wife. Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e., they were of the same generation). -------------------- She engineered the death of Constantine's son, Crispus, and Constantina's son Licinianus. Was eventually murdered by Constantine for these deaths., in 0326. --------------------


•ID: I043491

•Name: FAUSTINA OF ROME OR (L) FLAVIA

•Sex: F

•ALIA: FAUSTINA OF (L) /ROME/

•Birth: BET 312 AND 341

Marriage 1 CONSTANS I (NOTES) AUGUSTUS(L) WEST ROMAN EMPIRE b: BET 308 AND 3 OCT 317

Children

1. Constantia

2. FLAVIUS (NOTES) THODOSIUS COUNT (L) COCO-SEGOVIA b: BET 316 AND 330 in Caus Castle, Salop

3. PIRESMESSER OR PIRCMESSER (L) BYZANTINE b: BET 340 AND 390

4. CONSTANTINE CONSTANTIUS III (NOTES) EMP (L) ROME b: BET 351 AND 390

5. MAXIMIAN-CONSTANS (NOTES) (L) DE ROME b: BET 275 AND 320

6. HELEN b: ABT 320

7. CONSTANTINE II b: ABT 320

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=pusch&id=I043491 -------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- Dame de Rome -

Dame van Rome -

Lady of Rome

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Flavia Maxima Fausta's Timeline

289
289
Sirmium, Balkans
307
March 31, 307
Age 18
Arles, Bouches-du-Rhone, Provence, France
314
314
Age 25
Rome, Italy
317
August 7, 317
Age 28
Sirmium, Savia, Mid, Emperor
317
Age 28
Serbia
319
319
Age 30
Naissus - Modern Nish, Moesia Superior - Serbia
322
322
Age 33
323
323
Age 34
Atles (Itália)
325
325
Age 36
Naissus, Moesia Superior, Modern Nish In Serbia
326
326
Age 37
Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany