|Also Known As:||"The Good", "De Goede Graaf", "Fulk", "le Bon", "Count D'anjou", "den Gode", "Count of Anjou", "the Good", "Le Bon", ""The /Good"/", "Fulk II Count of Anjou", ""The Good"", ""Le Bon" Count Of The Good"|
|Death:||Died in Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine/Centre, France|
|Place of Burial:||St Martin Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France|
Son of Fulk I "the Red", Count of Anjou and Roscille des Loches, comtesse d'Anjou
|Occupation:||Conde de Anjou., Count from 942 until his death. "Man of culture", "poet", "artist". Warred with the Bretons of Brittany (NW France)., Count of Anjou 942 - Nov. 11, 958, Count of Anjou, comte d'Anjou, Count, Count of Anjou (942-958), Greve, Kreivi|
|Managed by:||Private User|
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About Fulk II, count of Anjou
Foulques II 'le Bon' Comte d'Anjou
Parents: Foulques I 'le Roux' & Roscille Spouse: 1. Gerberge 2 profiles due to uncertainty
FOULQUES d'Anjou, son of FOULQUES I "le Roux" Comte d'Anjou & his wife Roscille de "Loches" (-11 Nov 958). The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Fulco Rufus alium [filium] …tertium iuniorem…alter Fulco cognominatus Bonus" when recording that he succeeded his father. He succeeded his father in 942 as FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d'Anjou. He made peace with the Normans.
m firstly (937) GERBERGE, daughter of --- (-before 952). "Gaufridus…Andecavorum comes" names "patris mei Fulconis, matris quoque meæ Gerbergæ" in his charter dated 19 Jun 966. Maurice Chaume suggested that she was Gerberge, daughter of Geoffroy Vicomte d'Orléans [Comte de Gâtinais], based on onomastic reasons only to explain the use of the name Geoffroy in the family of the Comtes d'Anjou.
m secondly (after 952) as her second husband, --- de Blois, widow of ALAIN II “Barbetorte” Duke of Brittany, daughter of THIBAUT [I] "l'Ancien" Comte de Blois & his [second wife Richilde ---]. The Chronicle of Nantes records the marriage of "Theobaldus comes Blesensis…sororem suam relictam Alani Barbætortæ ducis" and "Fulconi comiti Andegavensi".
Comte Foulques II & his first wife had four children:
1. GEOFFROY d'Anjou ([938/40]-21 Jul 987, bur Châteauneuf, église Saint-Martin). The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "primogenitus Gofridus…Guido…episcopus Podii…tertius minor Drogo" as the three sons of "Fulco Pius". He succeeded his father in 958 as GEOFFROY I "Grisgonelle" Comte d'Anjou.
2. GUY d'Anjou (-before 995). The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "primogenitus Gofridus…Guido…episcopus Podii…tertius minor Drogo" as the three sons of "Fulco Pius". The Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy refers to the bishop who was "frater germanus comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella", clarifying in a later passage that he was "dominus Guido sanctæ Vallavensis ecclesiæ…episcopus". "Gaufridus…Andecavorum comes", with the consent of "fratre meo Widone abate", established the right of the comtes d'Anjou to appoint abbots of Saint-Aubin d'Angers, by charter dated 19 Jun 966. He was appointed Bishop of Le Puy in 975 by Lothaire King of the Franks.
3. ADELAIS [Blanche] d'Anjou ([940/50]-[29 May 1026, bur Montmajour, near Arles]). Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy which names "comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella…Pontius et Bertrandus eius nepotes…matre eorum Adalaide sorore ipsius", the brothers Pons and Bertrand being confirmed in other sources as the sons of Etienne de Brioude, for example the charter dated 1000 under which "duo germani fratres…Pontius, alter Bertrandus" donated property to Saint-Chaffre for the souls of "patris sui Stephani matrisque nomine Alaicis". Adelais's second and third marriages are confirmed by Richer who records the marriage of Louis and "Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum uxorem" and their coronation as king and queen of Aquitaine. The Chronicon Andegavensi names "Blanchiam filiam Fulconis Boni comitis Andegavensis" as wife of the successor of "Lotharius rex Francorum", but confuses matters by stating that the couple were parents of "filiam Constantiam" wife of Robert II King of France. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Blanchiam" as the wife of "Lotharius rex…Ludovicum filium" but does not give her origin. She was crowned Queen of Aquitaine with her third husband on the day of their marriage. The Libro de Otiis Imperialibus names "Blanchiam" as wife of "Ludovicus puer [filius Lotharii]". Rodulfus Glaber refers to the unnamed wife of "Ludowicum" as "ab Aquitanis partibus uxorem", recounting that she tricked him into travelling to Aquitaine where "she left him and attached herself to her own family". Richer records her marriage with "Wilelmum Arelatensem" after her divorce from Louis. Her fourth marriage is confirmed by the Historia Francorum which names "Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis". The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as mother of "Constantia [uxor Robertus rex]", specifying that she was "soror Gaufridi Grisagonelli". The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Blanca sorore eius" ( "eius" referring incorrectly to Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou) as wife of "Guillelmi Arelatensis comitis" and as mother of Constance, wife of Robert II King of France. "Adalaiz comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1003. This charter is subscribed by "Emma comitissa…Wilelmus comes", the second of whom was presumably the son of Adelais but the first of whom has not been identified. "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius". "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018 (this document making no mention of her supposed fifth husband). No explanation has been found for her having been named Adelais in some sources and Blanche in others, as it is difficult to interpret these documents to mean that they referred to two separate individuals. Adelais's supposed fifth marriage is deduced from the following: Count Othon-Guillaume's wife is named Adelais in several charters, and Pope Benedict VIII refers to "domnæ Adeleidi comitissæ cognomento Blanchæ" with "nuruique eius domnæ Gerbergæ comitissæ" when addressing her supposed husband in a document dated Sep 1016, Gerberga presumably being Count Othon-Guillaume's daughter by his first wife who was the widow of Adelaide-Blanche d´Anjou's son by her fourth husband. However, the document in question appears not to specify that "domnæ Adeleidi…" was the wife of Othon Guillaume and the extracts seen (the full text has not yet been consulted) do not permit this conclusion to be drawn. It is perfectly possible that the Pope named Adelais-Blanche in the letter only in reference to her relationship to Othon Guillaume´s daughter. If her fifth marriage is correct, Adelais would have been considerably older than her new husband, and probably nearly sixty years old when she married (Othon-Guillaume's first wife died in [1002/04]), which seems unlikely. Another difficulty is presented by three entries dated 1018, 1024 and 1026 which appear to link Adelais to Provence while, if the fifth marriage was correct, she would have been with her husband (whose death is recorded in Sep 1026) in Mâcon. These entries are: firstly, "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018; secondly, "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"; and thirdly, a manuscript written by Arnoux, monk at Saint-André-lès-Avignon, records the death in 1026 of "Adalax comitissa". The necrology of Saint-Pierre de Mâcon records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Adalasia comitissa vocata regali progenie orta". An enquiry dated 2 Jan 1215 records that "comitissa Blanca" was buried "apud Montem Majorem". m firstly ([950/60]) as his second wife, ETIENNE de Brioude, son of BERTRAND --- & his wife Emilgarde [Emilde] --- (-before [970/75]). m secondly ([970/75]) RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND III Comte de Toulouse & his wife Gundinildis --- ([945/55]-killed "Carazo" [972/79]). m thirdly (Vieux-Brioude, Haute-Loire 982, divorced 984) LOUIS associate King of the Franks, son of LOTHAIRE King of the Franks & Emma d'Arles [Italy] ([966/67]-Compiègne 21 May 987, bur Compiègne, église collégiale de Saint-Corneille). Crowned King of Aquitaine the day of his marriage in 982. He succeeded his father in 986 as LOUIS V King of the Franks. m fourthly ([984/86]) as his second wife, GUILLAUME [II] "le Libérateur" Comte d'Arles Marquis de Provence, son of BOSON [II] Comte d'Arles & his wife Constantia [de Vienne] (-Avignon 993 after 29 Aug, bur Sarrians, église de Sainte-Croix). [m fifthly (before 1016) as his second wife, OTHON GUILLAUME Comte de Mâcon et de Nevers [Bourgogne-Comté], son of ADALBERTO associate-King of Italy & his wife Gerberge de Chalon ([960/62]-Dijon 21 Sep 1026).]
4. DROGON d'Anjou (-998). The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "primogenitus Gofridus…Guido…episcopus Podii…tertius minor Drogo" as the three sons of "Fulco Pius", specifying that Drogo succeeded his brother as Bishop of Le Puy.
Foulque II (ou Fulco) d'Anjou (le Bon),
fut comte d'Anjou au Xesiècle, comte de Nantes et duc de Bretagne entre 942 et 960. Il était de la famille des Ingelgeriens et fils de Foulque Ier le Roux et de Roscille de Loches.
Il est cité pour la première fois dans une charte de son père de 929, avec sa mère et son frère Guy. Il est encore signataire d'une charte de son père en août 941, et il est probable qu'il lui succéda peu de temps après. Allié aux Robertiens, il est plutôt opposé aux comtes de Blois, mais la mort d'Alain II Barbetorte, duc de Bretagne en 952, redistribue les alliances. Foulque II épouse la veuve d'Alain Barbetorte, et prend le contrôle du comté de Nantes au nom de Drogon, le fils de Barbetorte. Celui-ci mourut en 958 dans des conditions mal définies. Foulque II d'Anjou devint comte de Nantes jusqu'en 960, Date à laquelle Hoël Ier fils d'Alain Barbetorte et d'un second mariage, devint à son tour comte de Nantes.
Il céda Saumur au comte de Blois Thibaut le Tricheur, cité que ses successeurs ne réussirent à reprendre que près d'un siècle plus tard. Il prit Méron, à Guillaume III, comte de Poitiers.
Malgré certains méfaits qui lui sont attribués, il laisse par ailleurs le souvenir d'un prince cultivé, poète et artiste. Il est cité pour la dernière fois en septembre 958, lors d'une assemblé regroupant les comtes de Blois, d'Anjou et des seigneurs bretons. Lors de cette assemblée, Foulque II devient comte de Nantes et même duc de Bretagne. En septembre 960, c'est son fils Geoffroy qui est cité comme comte d'Anjou. Il est donc mort entre ces deux dates.
Foulque le Bon est cité dans la Chronique des exploits des Comtes d'Anjou, texte écrit entre 1100 et 1140 par un moine angevin, à la demande de Foulque le Réchin.
'''Mariages et enfants'''
En 937, il épousa en premières noces Gerberge, décédée avant 952. Aucun document ne mentionne son origine. Une hypothèse la considère comme une fille de Ratburn Ier, vicomte de Vienne, et de Gerberge. Ratburn était lui-même fils de Berillo, vicomte de Vienne, et d'Ermengarde, fille de Boson, roi de Provence. Cette hypothèse s'appuie sur l'apparition des prénoms Gerberge et Ermengarde parmi les Ingelgeriens et sur les bonnes relations entre l'Anjou et la Bourgogne à cette époque. Ce dernier argument n'est pas en soit une preuve, mais seulement un indice, et l'apparition du prénom d'Ermengarde peut s'expliquer autrement. Le seul argument restant en faveur de cette hypothèse est le prénom de Gerberge, qui est cependant trop courant pour être exploitable. Une autre hypothèse la donne comme fille de Geoffroy, vicomte d'Orléans et d'Ada. Cette seconde hypothèse a l'avantage d'expliquer l'apparition du prénom Geoffroy parmi les comtes d'Anjou, ainsi que la transmission du comté du Gâtinais.
Foulque et Gerberge ont donné naissance à :
Geoffroy Ier Grisegonel († 987), comte d'Anjou. Guy († 994) évêque du Puy-en-Velay. Adélaïde d'Anjou (945-50 † 1010 ou 1026), dite Blanche, mariée plusieurs fois : en 967 avec Étienne de Brioude, vicomte de Gévaudan vers 975 avec Raymond (V) († 978), comte de Toulouse en 982 Louis V († 987), roi de France, mais il se séparèrent très rapidement en 984 Guillaume Ier († 993), comte de Provence. probablement Adèle, mariée à Gautier Ier, comte de Vexin, de Valois et d'Amiens. L'identification de cette Adèle comme fille de Foulques II est motivée par l'apparition des prénoms de Foulques, de Geoffroy et de Guy parmi les fils de Gautier et d'Adèle. D'autres enfants leur furent attribués par erreur :
Dreux ou Drogon qui aurait été évêque du Puy après son frère, mais la liste des évêques du Puy ne mentionne pas d'évêque de ce prénom au Xe siècle, et sa présence dans les généalogies résulte probablement d'une confusion avec Drogon de Bretagne, fils de Roscille de Blois et d'Alain Barbetorte et beau-fils de Foulque II quand ce dernier épousera Roscille de Blois veuve d'Alain Barbetorte. Humbert le Veneur, cité par Mabille en 1871, mais dont l'existence ne s'appuie sur aucun document Bouchard le Vénérable († 1007), comte de Vendôme, également cité par Mabille en 1871, mais sa filiation a été établie depuis. Veuf, Foulque se remaria en 954 avec Roscille de Blois, veuve d'Alain II Barbetorte, duc de Bretagne et comte de Nantes, laquelle veuve était sœur de Thibaut Ier le Tricheur, comte de Blois
Précédé par Foulque II d'Anjou Suivi par Foulque Ier le Roux Comte d'Anjou
Geoffroy Ier Grisegonel
Drogon de Bretagne Duc de Bretagne
Hoël Ier de Bretagne
M, #48, d. 960
Fulk II d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou is the son of Fulk I d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou and Roselle de Loch. He died in 960. Fulk II d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou also went by the nick-name of Fulk 'the Good'. He gained the title of Comte d'Anjou.
Children of Fulk II d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou and Gerberge de Tours -1. Geoffrey I d'Anjou, 4th Comte d'Anjou+ d. 21 Jul 987 -2. Bouchard de Vendôme, Comte de Vendôme+ d. 26 Feb 1007 -3. Guy d'Anjou d. b 995 -4. Drogo d'Anjou d. c 998 -5. Blanche d'Anjou d. c 1026 -6. Humbert d'Anjou d. a 957 -7. Adelaide d'Anjou+ d. b 990 -8. Adelheid d'Anjou
Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p5.htm#i48
from Ancestry/Florent Coache:
..and under his successor, Fulk II the Good, the destruction caused bythe preceding wars was repaired. [Ref: Ency Britannica]
According to legend, he was learned and saintly, dressed as a cleric and said of Louis IV, King of France, who had mocked his piety, 'an illiterate king is a crowned ass'. [Ref: Leo van de Pas? Genealogicsciting: Paget] Note: "a man of wit, but perhaps lacking in tact - LouisIV was not the fool his father, Charles III "the Simple", has beenprofiled to have been" Curt
Alas, I no longer have access to a terrific source which may/may not havemore to say about Foulques II: "Fragmentum historieae Andegavensis"(Fragments of a History of the Counts of Anjou) From 'Chroniques descomtes d'Anjou et des seigneurs d'Amboise' by Count Fulk le Rechin 1096(Louis Kalpen and Rene Poupardin), 1913, Paris. Should you find accessto the UCLA library which probably has it, you will find this source thatmay have more to say about Foulques II. If memory serves me right Fulk"le Rechin" wrote many things modern scholars dispute, but he was atleast contemporary, though obviously, he may have embellished a thing or two about his ancestry.
Foulque II of Anjou (The Good) was Comte d'Anjou in the 10th century, and Comte de Nantes and Duke of Brittany between 958 and 960. He was from the Ingelgerien family and a son of Foulque I Rufus and Roscille Loches.
He was cited for the first time in a charter of his father in 929, along with his mother and brother Guy. He was signatory to a charter of his father in August 941, and he probably succeeded him shortly after.
He was allied with the Robertians, in contrast to the Comte de Blois, but the death of Alain II Barbetorte, Duke of Brittany in 952 caused a shift of alliances.
Foulque II married the widow of Alain Barbetorte and took control of the County of Nantes in the name of Barbetorte's son Drogo. Drogo died in 958 of unknown conditions. Foulque II of Anjou became Comte de Nantes at that time until 960, when Hoel I, born out of the second marriage of Alain Barbetorte, became Comte de Nantes.
Foulque ceded Saumur to Comte de Blois Thibaut the Cheat. It is noted that his successors retook Saumur almost a century later. Guillaume III, Comte de Poitiers, took Meron.
Despite certain misdeeds attributed to him, he leaves a memory of an educated prince, a poet and an artist. He was citied for the last time in September 958 at a meeting attended by the Comte de Blois, Comte de Anjou, and the Lords of Brittany. At this meeting, held in the County of Veron, Foulque II became Comte de Nantes and Duc de Bretagne (Brittany). In September 960, his son Geoffroy is cited as being the Comte d'Anjou, so Foulque's death would be between these two dates.
Foulque the Good is quoted in the Chronicle of the Exploits of the Comte de Anjou, written between 1100 and 1140 by an Angevin monnk at the request of Foulque le Rechin.
Weddings and Children
In 937, Foulque was married for the first time to a certain Gerberga (OUR ANCESTOR), who died before 952. There is no record of her origin. One hypothesis says that she was a daughter of Ratburn I, Vicomte de Vienne, and his wife Gerberga. Ratburn was himself the son of Berrillo, Vicomte de Vienne and Ermengarde, daughter of Boson, King of Provence. This hypothesis is based on the appearance of surnames Gerberga and Ermengarde among the Ingelgeriens, and good relations between Anjou and Burgundy at the time. The argument is in itself not a proof, only a clue, as the appearance of the name Ermengarde can be otherwise explained. The only remaining argument in favor of this hypothesis is the name of Gerberga, which is too common to be usable. Another hypothesis has the advantage of explaining the appearance of the name Geoffroy among the counts of Anjou and that would be that she is from the Comte Gatinais.
Foulque and Gerberga gave birth to:
1. Geoffroy I Gresegonel (d. 987), Comte d'Anjou 2. Guy d'Anjou (d. 984), Bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay 3. Adelaid d'Anjou (b. 940s, d. 1026), nicknamed "The White", married several times: 3a. Up to the 950s, Stephen Broude, Vicomte de Gevaudan 3b. Up to 975 with Raimond (d. 978) Comte de Toulouse 3c. In 982 to Louis V (d. 987), King of France, but separated soon after. 3d. Around 984/986 to William I (d. 983) Comte de Provence. 4. Probably Adele, who married Gautier I, Comte Vexon, Valois, et Amiens. Her parentage to Foulque II was suggested by the names of Foulque, Geoffroy, and Guy among the sons of Walter and Adele.
Other children who were assigned to Foulque II in error:
1. Dreux or Drogo, who was Bishop of Le Puy after his brother, but the list of Bishops of Le Puy does not mention this name in the 10th century, and his presence in genealogies is probably because of a confusion with Drogo of Brittany, son of Roscille de Blois and Alain Barbetorte. He was a stepson of Foulque II when the latter married Roscille de Blois, widow of Alain Barbetorte. 2. Humbert the Huntsman, cited by Mabille in 1871, but whose existence is not in any document. 3. Bouchard the Venerable (d. 1007) Comte de Vendome, also cited by Mabille in 1871, but his parentage has been established since.
Widowed, Foulque remarried in 954 with Roscille de Blois, widow of Alain II Barbetorte, Duke of Brittany and Comte de Nantes, and sister of Thibaut I the Cheater, Comte de Blois.
As Comte d'Anjou, preceded by Foulque I the Red, and succeeded by Geoffroy I Grisegonel.
As Duke of Brittany, preceded by Drogo de Bretagne and Hoel I de Bretagne.
---------------------------------------- Fulk II & Gerberge were also the parents of: Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou
She married five times:
Spouse Stephen, Count of Gévaudan Raymond, Count of Toulouse Louis V of France William I of Provence Otto-William, Count of Burgundy House House of Ingelger Father Fulk II, Count of Anjou Mother Gerberge Born c. 940 Died 1026 Avignon Burial Montmajour Abbey Religion Roman Catholicism -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_II,_Count_of_Anjou -------------------- Otbert (Latin Otbertus, Italian Oberto; died after 1014) was margrave of Milan. A member of the Obertenghi family, he followed his father, Otbert I, as margrave after his father's death in 975, together with his brother Adalbert. He was also count of Milan, Genoa, and Bobbio. In 1002, he joined Arduin's revolt against Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Otbert had the following children:
Hugh, Margrave of Milan
Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan
Bertha, married firstly, Arduin, Margrave of Ivrea, and secondly, Manfred II, Margrave of Turin
Otbert III, Margrave of East Liguria
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otbert_II,_Margrave_of_Milan"
Categories: House of Este | 10th-century births | 11th-century deaths -------------------- From Wikipedia, translated from the French:
Fulk II (or Fulco) of Anjou (the Good), was Count of Anjou in the tenth century , Count of Nantes and the Duke of Brittany between 958 and 960 . He was of the Ingelgeriens family and the son of Fulk I the Red and Roscille of Loches .
Fulk II married the widow of Alain Barbetorte and took control of the county of Nantes in the name of the son of Barbetorte Drogo . The latter died in 958 in ill-defined conditions. Fulk II was Count of Nantes until 960, when Hoel I, born of a second marriage to Alain Barbetorte , in turn became Count of Nantes.
Despite certain misdeeds attributed to him, he is remembered as an cultured nobleman, a poet and an artist.
He was mentioned for the last time in September 958, at a meeting attended by the Counts of Blois, Anjou and the Brittany lords. At this meeting, held in the country of Veron, Fulk II became Count of Nantes and the Duke of Brittany. In September 960 , his son Geoffrey is identified as the Count of Anjou. Thus, Fulk's death between these two dates.
In 937 he married his first wife Gerberga, who died before 952 . There is no record of her origin.
Fulk and Gerberga gave birth to:
* Geoffrey I. Grisegonel († 987), Count of Anjou.
* Guy d'Anjou († 994) Bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay .
* Adelaide d'Anjou (940-50 † 1026), called The White, who married several times:
1. About 950/60 Stephen Brioude , Viscount Gevaudan
2. About 975 with Raymond V († 978), Count of Toulouse
3. In 982 Louis V († 987), king of France, but they quickly separated
4. About 984/86 William I († 993), Count of Provence .
In 954 Fulk married Roscille Blois , widow of Alain Barbetorte II , Duke of Brittany and Count of Nantes , and sister of Thibaut I the Cheat , Count of Blois
Fulk II, count of Anjou's Timeline
Anjou, now Pays de Loire, France
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
November 11, 940
Anjou, Pays-de-la-Loire, France
Anjou, now, Pays de la Loire, France
November 11, 958
Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine/Centre, France
November 11, 958
St Martin Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France