François I, roi de France

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François de Valois, Roi de France

Nicknames: "'le Chevalier'"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Château de Cognac, Cognac, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death: Died in Rambouillet, Île-de-France, France
Place of Burial: Basilique Saint Denis, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles d'Orleans, comte d'Angoulême and Louise de Savoie, comtesse d'Angoulême
Husband of Claude de Valois-Orléans, reine de France and Leonor de Habsburgo, reine de France
Father of Louis de Saint Gelais, seigneur de Lansac; Louise de Valois, (mort jeune); Charlotte de Valois; François III de Valois, dauphin de France; Henri II de Valois, roi de France and 5 others
Brother of Marguerite d'Angoulême, Reina de Navarra
Half brother of Souveraine d'Angoulême and Jeanne d'Angoulême

Occupation: King of France, comte d'Angoulême (1496-1515), duc de Valois (1499-1515), King of France (1515-1547), duca di Milano, Roi de France (1515-1547), King of France 1515-1547, Francis, I of France, roi de France
Managed by: Flemming Allan Funch
Last Updated:

About François de Valois, Roi de France

Francis I (French: François Premier and François d'Angoulême) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547.

Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, as well as King Henry VIII of England and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, his great rivals.

Links:

Thepeerage: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10246.htm

Geneall: http://www.geneall.net/F/per_page.php?id=2540

Wikipedia:

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France

Francais: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Ier_de_France

  • NOTE: NOT FATHER OF Emanuele Filiberto, Duca di Savoia. please unlink connection.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France

Francis I of France

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Francis I

Duke of Brittany; Count of Provence

King of France

Reign 1 January 1515 - 31 March 1547 (&0000000000000032.00000032 years, &0000000000000089.00000089 days)

Coronation 25 January 1515

Predecessor Louis XII

Successor Henry II

Spouse Claude, Duchess of Brittany

Eleanor of Habsburg

Issue

Francis III, Duke of Brittany

Henry II of France

Madeleine, Queen of Scots

Charles, Duke of Orléans

Margaret, Duchess of Savoy

House House of Valois

Father Charles, Count of Angoulême

Mother Louise of Savoy

Born 12 September 1494(1494-09-12)

Cognac, Charente, France

Died 31 March 1547 (aged 52)

Château de Rambouillet

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, France

Signature

Francis I (French: François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death.

Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, with whom he was allied in a Franco-Ottoman alliance, as well as of Henry VIII of England and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, his great rivals.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Kingship
         o 2.1 Patron of the arts
         o 2.2 Man of letters
         o 2.3 Construction
         o 2.4 Military action
         o 2.5 Relations with the New World and Asia
               + 2.5.1 Americas
               + 2.5.2 Far East Asia
               + 2.5.3 Ottoman Empire
         o 2.6 Implementation of bureaucratic reform
         o 2.7 Religion
         o 2.8 Death
         o 2.9 Legacy
   * 3 Francis I in fiction
   * 4 Marriage and issue
   * 5 Ancestors
   * 6 References
   * 7 Further reading

[edit] Early life

Francis I, the only son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and of Louise of Savoy, was born at the Château de Cognac [1], Cognac (c. 400 km southwest of Paris), in the modern French department of Charente, in the province of Saintonge which was part of the former Duché d'Aquitaine. His father was the first cousin of King Louis XII. In 1498, the four-year-old Francis, already Count of Angoulême, was created Duke of Valois. He was the heir presumptive of Louis XII who did not succeed in siring sons with any of his three wives. In 1506, and by instigation of Louis XII, young Francis was betrothed to his own second cousin Claude of France, the daughter of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany, and heiress of the Duchy of Brittany. The marriage took place on 18 May 1514. Because of the Salic Law that excluded women from succeeding to the throne of France, the throne passed to Francis I at the death of Louis XII of France, as he was a male-line great-great-grandson of Charles V of France and the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty. Claude, Duchess of Brittany, became queen consort of France.

Medal of Francis I after the battle of Marignano in 1515.

In 1515 Francis was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims. Despite being only twenty-years old, he already had unprecedented humanist credentials. While his two predecessors, Charles VIII and Louis XII, had spent much of their reigns concerned with Italy they did not much embrace the new intellectual movements coming out of it. Both monarchs continued in the same patterns of behavior that had dominated the French monarchy for centuries. They are considered the last of the medieval French monarchs, but they did lay the groundwork for the Renaissance to come into full swing in France.

Contact between the French and Italians in the long running series of wars under Charles VIII and Louis XII had brought new ideas to France by the time the young Francis was receiving his education. Thus a number of his tutors, such as Desmoulins, his Latin instructor, and Christophe de Longueil were schooled in the new ways of thinking and they attempted to imbue Francis with it. Francis' mother also had a great interest in Renaissance art, which she passed down to her son. One certainly cannot say that Francis received a humanist education; most of his teachers had not yet been affected by the Renaissance. One can, however, state that he clearly received an education more oriented towards humanism than any previous French king.

[edit] Kingship

[edit] Patron of the arts

Francis I receiving the last breath of Leonardo da Vinci in 1519, by Ingres, painted in 1818.

By the time Francis ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had clearly arrived in France, and Francis was an important supporter of the change. He became a major patron of the arts and lent his support to many of the greatest artists of his time and encouraged them to come to France. Some did work for him, including such greats as Andrea del Sarto, and Leonardo da Vinci, whom Francis convinced to leave Italy in the last part of his life. While Leonardo did little painting in his years in France, he brought with him many of his great works, such as the Mona Lisa, known in France as La Joconde, and these stayed in France upon his death.

Other major artists, whom Francis employed, include the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, and the painters Rosso, Romano and Primaticcio, all of whom were heavily employed in decorating Francis' various palaces and exceedingly loyal. Francis employed a number of agents in Italy who endeavoured to procure artworks by Italian masters such as Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael and ship them to France. These agents had some notable successes, even if plans to try to move Leonardo's Last Supper to France proved impractical. When Francis ascended the throne, the royal palaces were decorated with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture either ancient or modern. It is during Francis' reign that the magnificent art collection of the French kings that can still be seen in the Louvre was truly begun.

[edit] Man of letters

Francis I painted in 1515.

French Monarchy-

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois

(Valois-Angoulême branch)

Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg

Francis I

Children

  Francis, Dauphin of Viennois
  Henry II
  Magdalene, Queen of Scots
  Charles of Valois
  Margaret, Duchess of Savoy

Henry II

Children

  Francis II
  Elizabeth, Queen of Spain
  Claude, Duchess of Lorraine
  Charles IX
  Henry III
  Margaret, Queen of Navarre
  François, Duke of Anjou
  Joan of Valois
  Victoria of Valois

Francis II

Charles IX

Henry III

Francis was also renowned as a man of letters. When Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, it is as the great hope to bring culture to the war-obsessed French nation. Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of immense quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist Guillaume Budé as chief librarian, and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had looking for art works. During his reign, the size of the library increased greatly. Not only did Francis expand the library, there is also, according to Knecht, evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer feat in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge.

In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, decreeing that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France.

Francis's older sister, Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, was also an accomplished writer, producing the classic, Heptameron.

[edit] Construction

Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Château d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Château de Blois. Early in his reign, he also began construction of the magnificent Château de Chambord, inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Francis rebuilt the Louvre, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissance splendour. He financed the building of a new City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the Château de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne, and rebuilt the Château de St-Germain-en-Laye. The largest of Francis' building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal château of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favourite place of residence, as well as the residence of his official mistress - Anne, duchess of Étampes. Each of Francis' projects was luxuriously decorated both inside and outside. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.

[edit] Military action

Coin of Francis I. Cabinet des Médailles.

Militarily and politically, Francis's reign was less successful; he tried and failed to become Holy Roman Emperor, and pursued a series of wars in Italy. Francis managed to defeat the Swiss at Marignano in 1515, which enabled him to capture the Italian city-state of Milan.

Grand culverin of Francis I, with royal salamander emblem and with the Latin motto Nutrisco et extinguo ("I nourish [the good] and extinguish [the bad]"). Caliber: 140mm, length: 307cm, recovered in Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée.

Much of the military activity of Francis's reign was focused on his sworn enemy, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Francis and Charles had an intense personal rivalry and a bitter hatred for one another, which they inherited from their predecessors' wars in Burgundy and Navarre; Charles, in fact, brashly challenged Francis himself to single combat, multiple times. In addition to the Holy Roman Empire, Charles personally ruled Spain, Austria and a number of smaller possessions neighboring France, and was thus a threat to Francis's kingdom. Francis attempted to arrange an alliance with Henry VIII of England. The negotiations took place at the famous Field of Cloth of Gold of 1520, but ultimately failed. Francis' most devastating defeat occurred at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525), where he was captured by Charles: Cesare Hercolani hurt his horse and Francis was captured by Spaniards Juan de Urbieta, Diego Dávila and Alonso Pita. For this reason, Hercolani was named "victor of the battle of Pavia". The famous Zuppa alla Pavese[2],[3], now a renowned recipe, was said to have been invented on the spot to feed the captive king right after the battle.

Grand culverin of Francis I with salamander emblem and inscription in Arabic language, captured by the Ottomans in the Siege of Rhodes (1522). Musée de l'Armée.

Francis was held captive in Madrid. In the Treaty of Madrid signed on 14 January 1526, Francis I was forced to make major concessions to Charles V before he was freed on 17 March 1526. Francis was allowed to return to France in exchange for his two sons, Francis and Henry, but once he was free he argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress, and also claimed that the agreement was void, as his sons had been taken hostage suggesting his word alone was not trusted, and he repudiated it.

Francis continued to persevere in his hatred of Charles V and desire to control Italy via more wars in Italy. The repudiation of the Treaty of Madrid led to the War of the League of Cognac. After the failure of the league, he obtained the help of the Ottoman Empire and went to war again in Italy in the Italian War of 1536–1538 after the death of Francesco II Sforza, the ruler of Milan. He was defeated once again by Charles V and forced to sign the Treaty of Nice. However, the Treaty of Nice collapsed and led to the Francis' final attempt on Italy via in the Italian War of 1542–1546. This time, Francis managed to hold off the forces of Charles V and England's Henry VIII and Charles V was forced to sign the Treaty of Crepy because of financial problems and problems with the Schmalkaldic League.

[edit] Relations with the New World and Asia

Giovanni da Verrazzano's voyage in 1524.

A symbol of French explorations under Francis I: the French ambassador to England Jean de Dinteville in "The Ambassadors", by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1533.

In order to counter-balance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles Quint, and especially its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. Fleets were sent to the Americas and the Far East, and close contacts were developed with the Ottoman Empire, that would permit the development of French Mediterranean trade as well as the establishment of a strategic military alliance.

The port city now known as Le Havre was founded in 1517, in Francis I's early years on the throne. Founding a new port was urgently needed in order to replace the ancient harbours of Honfleur and Harfleur whose utility had decreased due to silting. Le Havre was originally named Franciscopolis after the King who founded it, but this name did not survive later reigns.

[edit] Americas

Further information: France-Americas relations

In 1524, Francis assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America; on this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown and founded New Angoulême on the actual site of New York City.

In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil.[4]

In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find certaines îles et pays où l'on dit qu'il se doit trouver grande quantité d'or et autres riches choses ("certain islands and lands where it is said there must be great quantities of gold and other riches"). In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith."

[edit] Far East Asia

Further information: France-Asia relations

An example of the Dieppe maps showing Sumatra. Nicholas Vallard, 1547.

French trade with East Asia was initiated during the reign of Francis I with the help of shipowner Jean Ango. In July 1527, a French Norman trading ship from the city of Rouen is recorded by the Portuguese João de Barros to have arrived in the Indian city of Diu.[5] In 1529, Jean Parmentier of Dieppe, onboard the Sacre and the Pensée, reached Sumatra.[5][6] Upon its return, the expedition triggered the development of the Dieppe maps, influencing the work of Dieppe cartographers, such as Jean Rotz.[7]

[edit] Ottoman Empire

Further information: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Orientalism in early modern France

Francis I (left) and Suleiman the Magnificient (right) initiated a Franco-Ottoman alliance. Both were separately painted by Titian circa 1530.

Under the reign of Francis I, France became the first country in Europe to establish formal relations with the Ottoman Empire, and to set up instruction in the Arabic language, through the instruction of Guillaume Postel at the Collège de France.[8]

In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis came to an understanding with the Ottoman Empire, which transformed into a Franco-Ottoman alliance. The alliance has been called "the first nonideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire".[9] It did however cause quite a scandal in the Christian world,[10] and was designated as "the impious alliance", or "the sacrilegious union of the Lily and the Crescent"; nevertheless, it endured since it served the objective interests of both parties.[11] The two powers colluded against Charles V, and, in 1543, they even combined for a joint naval assault in the Siege of Nice.

[edit] Implementation of bureaucratic reform

The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts in August 1539, prescribed the use of French in official documents.

Francis I took several steps to eradicate the monopoly of Latin as the language of knowledge. In 1530, he declared French the national language of the kingdom, and that same year opened the Collège des trois langues, or Collège Royal, following the recommendation of humanist Guillaume Budé, in which were taught Greek, Hebrew and Chaldean, and from 1539 Arabic under Guillaume Postel.[12]

In 1539, in his castle in Villers-Cotterêts[13], Francis signed the important edict known as Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, which, among other reforms, made French the administrative language of the kingdom, replacing Latin. This same edict required priests to register births, marriages and deaths and to establish a registry office in every parish. This established the first records of vital statistics with filiations available in Europe.

[edit] Religion

Coin of Francis I, 1529.

It was during Francis' reign that divisions in the Christian religion in Western Europe erupted. Martin Luther's preaching and writing led to the formation of the Protestant movement which spread through much of Europe, including France.

Initially, under the influence of his beloved sister Marguerite de Navarre, Francis was relatively tolerant of the new movement, and even considered it politically useful, as it caused many German princes to turn against his enemy, Charles V. However, Francis' attitude toward Protestantism changed following the "Affair of the Placards", on the night of 17 October 1534, in which notices appeared on the streets of Paris and other major cities denouncing Mass. A notice was even posted on the door to the king's room, and, it is said, the box in which he kept his handkerchief. Antoine Marcourt, a Protestant pastor, was responsible for the notices.

The most fervent Catholics were outraged by the notice's allegations. Francis himself came to view the movement as a plot against him, and began to persecute its followers. Protestants were jailed and executed. In some areas whole villages were destroyed. Printing was censored and leading Protestants like John Calvin forced into exile. The persecutions soon numbered tens of thousands of homeless people.

These persecutions against Protestants were codified in the Edict of Fontainebleau (1540) issued by Francis.

[edit] Death

Francis I and Charles V entering Paris in January 1540.

Francis died at the château de Rambouillet on 31 March 1547, on his son and heir's 28th birthday. It is said that "he died complaining about the weight of a crown that he had first perceived as a gift from God"[citation needed].

Francis I was interred with his first wife, Claude de France, Duchess of Bretagne, in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Henry II.

Francis' tomb, that of his wife and of his mother, along with the tombs of other French kings and members of the royal family, were desecrated on 20 October 1793, during the Reign of Terror, at the height of the French Revolution.

[edit] Legacy

Francis' legacy is generally considered a mixed one. He achieved great cultural feats, but they came at the expense of France's economic well-being.

The persecution of the Protestants was to lead France into decades of civil war, which did not end until 1598 with the Edict of Nantes.

[edit] Francis I in fiction

Royal styles of

King Francis I

Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France

Blason France moderne.svg

Reference style His Most Christian Majesty

Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty

Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi

The amorous exploits of Francis inspired the 1832 play by Fanny Kemble (1809-1893) Francis the First and the 1832 play by Victor Hugo (1802-1885), Le Roi s'amuse ("The King's Amusement") featuring the jester Triboulet, which later inspired the opera of Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901), Rigoletto.

Francis was first played in a George Méliès movie by an unknown actor in 1907, and has also been played by Claude Garry (1910), Aimé Simon-Girard (1937), Sacha Guitry (1937), Gérard Oury (1953), Jean Marais (1955), Pedro Armendáriz (1956), Claude Titre (1962), Bernard Pierre Donnadieu (1990), Timothy West (1998).

Francis was portrayed by Peter Gilmore in the comedy film "Carry on Henry" charting the fictitious two extra wives of Henry VIII (including Marie cousin of King Francis).

Francis receives a mention in a minor story in Laurence Sterne's novel Tristram Shandy. The narrator claims that the king, wishing to win the favour of Switzerland, offers to make the country the godmother of his son. When, however, their choice of name conflicts, he declares war. He is also mentioned in Jean de la Brète's novel Reine - Mon oncle et mon curé, where the main character Reine de Lavalle idolises him after reading his biography, much to the dismay of the local priest. He often receives mentions in novels on the lives of either of the Boleyn sisters - Mary Boleyn (d. 1543) and her sister, Queen Anne Boleyn (executed 1536), both of whom were for a time educated at his court. Mary had, according to several accounts, been Francis' one-time mistress and Anne had been a favourite of his sister: the novels The Lady in the Tower, The Other Boleyn Girl, The Last Boleyn, Dear Heart, How Like You This? and Mademoiselle Boleyn feature Francis in their story. Francis is also in Diane Haeger's novel "Courtesan" about Diane de Poitiers and Henri II. He has also featured as a recurring character in the Showtime series The Tudors, opposite Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII and Natalie Dormer as Anne Boleyn. Francis is played by French actor, Emmanuel Leconte.

Samuel Shellabarger's novel The King's Cavalier describes Francis the man, and the cultural and political circumstances of his reign, in some detail.

[edit] Marriage and issue

One alleged out-of-wedlock issue, Henri de la Rue.

On 18 May 1514, Francis married his second cousin, Claude of France, Duchess of Brittany, who was the daughter of Louis XII, King of France, and Anne, Duchess of Brittany. The couple had seven children:

Name Birth Death Notes

Louise, Princess of France 19 August 1515 21 September 1517 Died young. Had no issue.

Charlotte of Valois 23 October 1516 8 September 1524 Died young. Had no issue.

Francis III, Duke of Brittany 28 February 1518 10 August 1536 Died young. Had no issue.

Henry II, King of France 31 March 1519 10 July 1559 Married Catherine de' Medici (1519 - 1589) in 1533. Had issue.

Madeleine of France, Queen of Scots 10 August 1520 2 July 1537 Married James V, King of Scotland (1512 - 1542) in 1537. Had no issue.

Charles de Valois, Duke of Orléans 22 January 1522 9 September 1545 Died young. Had no issue.

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry 5 June 1523 14 September 1574 Married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528 - 1580) in 1559. Had issue.

On 7 August 1530, Francis I married his second wife Eleanor of Austria, a sister of the Emperor Charles V. The couple had no children. During his reign, Francis kept two official mistresses at court. The first was Françoise de Foix, comtesse de Chateaubriand. In 1526, she was replaced by the blonde-haired, cultured Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, duchesse d'Étampes who, with the death of Queen Claude two years earlier, wielded far more political power at court than her predecessor had done. Another of his earlier mistresses, was allegedly Mary Boleyn, mistress of King Henry VIII and sister of Henry's future wife, Anne Boleyn.[14]

Francis I of France

House of Valois, Orléans-Angoulême branch

Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

Born: 12 September 1494 Died: 31 March 1547

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Louis XII King of France

1 January 1515 – 31 March 1547 Succeeded by

Henry II

Preceded by

Maximilian Sforza Duke of Milan

1515–1521 Succeeded by

Francesco II Sforza

French royalty

Preceded by

Louis, Duke of Orléans Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

7 April 1498 — 1 January 1515 Succeeded by

Charles IV, Duke of Alençon

French nobility

Preceded by

Claude Duke of Brittany by marriage

with Claude

18 May 1514–20 July 1524 Succeeded by

Francis III / IV

Preceded by

Louis XII of France Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Valentinois and of Diois

as 'Francis III of Viennois'

1 January 1515 – 28 September 1518

Count of Provence and Forcalquier

as 'Francis I'

1 January 1515 – 31 March 1547 Succeeded by

Henry II of France

Preceded by

New creation

(Louis) Duke of Valois

1498 – 1 January 1515 Succeeded by

Merged into Royal Domain

(eventually Margaret)

Preceded by

Charles Count of Angoulême

1 January 1496 – 1 January 1515 Succeeded by

Merged into Royal Domain

(Louise of Savoy as Duchess of Angoulême)

[edit] References

  1. ^ http:::fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Cognac
  2. ^ http:::it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuppa_alla_pavese
  3. ^ http://theoldfoodie.blogspot.com/2006/02/restoration-by-soup.html
  4. ^ Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I by R. J. Knecht p.375 [1]
  5. ^ a b The Cambridge history of the British Empire p.61
  6. ^ European travellers in India Edward Farley Oaten p.123
  7. ^ Explorers and colonies: America, 1500-1625 David B. Quinn p.57
  8. ^ Eastern wisedome and learning: the study of Arabic in seventeenth-century ... by G. J. Toomer p.26
  9. ^ Kann, p.62
 10. ^ Miller, p.2
 11. ^ Merriman, p.133
 12. ^ Orientalism in early modern France, by Ina Baghdianitz McCabe, ISBN 9781845203740, p.25ff
 13. ^ The rise and fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610 by Robert Jean Knecht p.158
 14. ^ Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, X, no.450

[edit] Further reading

   * Clough, C.H., "Francis I and the Courtiers of Castiglione’s Courtier." European Studies Review. vol viii, 1978.
   * Denieul-Cormier, Anne. The Renaissance in France. trans. Anne and Christopher Fremantle. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1969.
   * Grant, A.J. The French Monarchy, Volume I. New York: Howard Fertig, 1970.
   * Guy, John. Tudor England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
   * Jensen, De Lamar. Renaissance Europe. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.
   * Knecht, R.J. Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
   * Major, J. Russell. From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
   * Seward, Desmond. François I: Prince of the Renaissance. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1973.

This page was last modified on 5 June 2010 at 16:58

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Francis I of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547.

Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of King Henry VIII of England and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, his great rivals.

Early life

Francis I was born at Cognac, Charente, the son of Charles d'Angoulême (1459 – January 1, 1496), and of Louise of Savoy (September 11, 1476 – September 22, 1531). His father, Charles d'Angoulême, was the cousin of King Louis XII. In 1498, the four-year-old Francis, already Count of Angoulême, was created Duke of Valois. He was the heir presumptive of Louis XII, who did not succeed in siring sons with any of his three wives. Young Francis was, by instigation of King Louis, in 1506 betrothed and on 18 May 1514 married, to Claude of France (1499-1524), the daughter of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany and heiress of Brittany. Because of the Salic Law that stated that women could not inherit the throne of France, the throne passed to Francis I at the death of Louis XII, as he was the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty. Claude of France became queen consort.

When young Francis ascended the throne in 1515, he was already a king with unprecedented humanist credentials. While his two predecessors, Charles VIII and Louis XII, had spent much of their reigns concerned with Italy they did not much embrace the new intellectual movements coming out of it. Both monarchs continued in the same patterns of behavior that had dominated the French monarchy for centuries. They are considered the last of the medieval French monarchs, but they did lay the groundwork for the Renaissance to come into full swing in France.

Contact between the French and Italians in the long running series of wars under Charles and Louis had brought new ideas to France by the time the young Francis was receiving his education. Thus a number of his tutors, such as Desmoulins, his Latin instructor, and Christophe de Longeuil were schooled in the new ways of thinking and they attempted to imbue Francis with it. Francis's mother also had a great interest in Renaissance art, which she passed down to her son. One certainly cannot say that Francis received a humanist education; most of his teachers had not yet been affected by the Renaissance. One can, however, state that he clearly received an education more oriented towards humanism than any previous French king.

Kingship

Patron of the Arts

By the time Francis ascended the throne in 1515 the Renaissance had clearly arrived in France, and Francis was an important supporter of the change. Francis became a major patron of the arts. He lent his support to many of the greatest artists of his time and encouraged them to come to France. Some did work for him, including such greats as Andrea del Sarto, and Leonardo da Vinci, whom Francis convinced to leave Italy in the last part of his life. While Leonardo did little painting in his years in France, he brought with him many of his great works, such as the Mona Lisa, and these stayed in France upon his death.

Other major artists whom Francis employed include the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, and the painters Rosso, Romano and Primaticcio, all of whom were heavily employed in decorating Francis's various palaces and exceedingly loyal. Francis employed a number of agents in Italy who endeavoured to procure artworks by Italian masters such as Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael and ship them to France. These agents had some notable successes, even if plans to try to move Leonardo's Last Supper to France proved impractical. When Francis ascended the throne the royal palaces were decorated with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture either ancient or modern. It is during Francis's reign that the magnificent art collection of the French kings that can still be seen in the Louvre was truly begun.

Man of letters

Francis was also renowned as a man of letters. When Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, it is as the great hope to bring culture to the war-obsessed French nation. Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of immense quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist Guillaume Budé as chief librarian, and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had looking for art works. During his reign the size of the library increased greatly. Not only did Francis expand the library, there is also, according to Knecht, evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer feat in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge.

In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, decreeing that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France.

Francis's older sister, Marguerite (1492 – 1549), Queen of Navarre, was also an accomplished writer, producing the classic, Heptameron.

Construction

Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Château d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Château de Blois. Early in his reign, he also began construction of the magnificent Château de Chambord, inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo. Francis rebuilt the Louvre, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissance splendour. He financed the building of a new City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the Château de Madrid and rebuilt the Château de St-Germain-en-Laye. The largest of Francis's building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal château of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favourite place of residence, as well as the residence of his official mistress - Anne, duchess of Etampes. Each of Francis's projects was luxuriously decorated both inside and outside. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.

[edit]Military action

Militarily and politically, Francis's reign was less successful; he tried and failed to become Holy Roman Emperor, and pursued a series of wars in Italy. (See Italian Wars.) Francis managed to defeat the Swiss at Marignano in 1515, which enabled him to capture the Italian city-state of Milan.

Much of the military activity of Francis's reign was focused on his sworn enemy, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In addition to the Holy Roman Empire, Charles personally ruled Spain, Austria and a number of smaller possessions neighboring France, and was thus a threat to Francis's kingdom. Francis attempted to arrange an alliance with Henry VIII of England. The negotiations took place at the famous Field of the Cloth of Gold of 1520, but ultimately failed. Francis's most devastating defeat occurred at the Battle of Pavia (1525), where he was captured by Charles: Cesare Hercolani hurt his horse and Francis was captured by Spaniards Juan de Urbieta, Diego Dávila and Alonso Pita. For this reason, Hercolani was named "victor of the battle of Pavia". The famous Zuppa alla Pavese, now a renowned recipe was said to have been invented on the spot to feed the captive king right after the battle. Francis was held captive in Madrid and forced to make major concessions to Charles before he was freed. Upon his return to France, however, Francis argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress, and also claimed that the agreement was void, as his sons had still been taken hostage suggesting his word alone was not trusted, and he repudiated it.

In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis came to an understanding with the Ottoman Empire. No formal treaties with the 'infidel empire' was signed, but high-level meetings between the two powers caused them to collude against Charles V, and in 1543 the two powers even combined for a joint naval assault on Nice.

[edit]The New World

In 1524, Francis assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America; on this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find certaines îles et pays où l'on dit qu'il se doit trouver grande quantité d'or et autres riches choses ("certain islands and lands where it is said there must be great quantities of gold and other riches"). In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith."

Bureaucratic reform

In 1539, in his castle in Villers-Cotterêts, Francis signed the edict which made French the administrative language of the kingdom, replacing Latin. This same edict required priests to register births, marriages and deaths and to establish a registry office in every parish. This established the first records of vital statistics with filiations available in Europe.

Religion

It was during Francis's reign that divisions in the Christian religion in Western Europe erupted. Martin Luther's denouncing corruption and self-indulgence in the Roman Catholic Church led to the formation of the Protestant movement which spread through much of Europe, including France.

Initially, under the influence of his beloved sister Marguerite de Navarre, Francis was relatively tolerant of the new movement, and even considered it politically useful, as it caused many German princes to turn against his enemy, Charles V. However, Francis's attitude toward Protestantism changed following the "Affair of the Placards", on the night of October 17, 1534, in which notices appeared on the streets of Paris and other major cities denouncing the Papal Mass. A notice was even posted on the door to the king's room, and, it is said, the box in which he kept his handkerchief. Antoine Marcourt, a Protestant pastor, was responsible for the notices.

The most fervent Catholics were outraged by the notice's allegations. Francis himself came to view the movement as a plot against him, and began to persecute its followers. Protestants were jailed and executed. In some areas whole villages were destroyed. Printing was censored and leading Protestants like John Calvin forced into exile. The persecutions soon numbered tens of thousands of homeless people.

Francis died in 1547. It is said that "he died complaining about the weight of a crown that he had first perceived as a gift from God"[citation needed].

[edit]Legacy

Francis's legacy is generally considered a mixed one. He achieved great cultural feats, but they came at the expense of France's economic well being.

The persecution of the Protestants was to lead France into decades of civil war, which did not end until 1598 with the Edict of Nantes.

Francis died at the Château de Rambouillet, and is interred with his first wife, Claude de France, Duchess of Bretagne, in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Henry II.

Marriage and Issue

One alleged out-of-wedlock issue, Henri de la Rue.

On May 18, 1514, Francis married Claude, Princess of France (October 13, 1499 – July 20, 1524), who was the daughter of Louis XII, King of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany. The couple had seven children:

Name Birth Death Notes

Louise, Princess of France August 19, 1515 September 21, 1517 Died young. no issue.

Charlotte, Princess of France October 23, 1516 September 8, 1524 Died young. no issue.

Francis, Dauphin of France February 28, 1518 August 10, 1536 Died young. no issue.

Henry II, King of France March 31, 1519 July 10, 1559 Married Catherine de' Medici (1519 - 1589) in 1533. Had issue.

Madeleine, Princess of France August 10, 1520 July 2, 1537 Married James V, King of Scotland (1512 - 1542) in 1537. Had no issue.

Charles of Valois, Duke of Orleans January 22, 1522 September 9, 1545 Died young. Had no issue.

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry June 5, 1523 September 14, 1574 Married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528 - 1580) in 1559. Had issue.

On August 7, 1530, Francis I married his second wife Eleanor of Austria. The couple had no children.During his reign, Francis kept two official mistresses at court. The first was Francoise de Foix, Comtesse de Chateaubriand. In 1526 ,she was replaced by the blonde-haired, cultured Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes who wielded far more political power at court than her predecessor had done.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France

Francis I of France

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Francis I

Duke of Brittany; Count of Provence

King of France

Reign 1 January 1515 – 31 March 1547 (&0000000000000032.00000032 years, &0000000000000089.00000089 days)

Coronation 25 January 1515

Predecessor Louis XII

Successor Henry II

Spouse Claude, Duchess of Brittany

Eleanor of Austria

Issue

Francis III, Duke of Brittany

Henry II of France

Madeleine, Queen of Scots

Charles, Duke of Orléans

Margaret, Duchess of Savoy

House House of Valois

Father Charles, Count of Angoulême

Mother Louise of Savoy

Born 12 September 1494(1494-09-12)

Cognac, Charente, France

Died 31 March 1547 (aged 52)

Château de Rambouillet

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, France

Signature

Francis I (French: François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death.

Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, with whom he was allied in a Franco-Ottoman alliance, as well as of Henry VIII of England and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, his great rivals.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Kingship
         o 2.1 Patron of the arts
         o 2.2 Man of letters
         o 2.3 Construction
         o 2.4 Military action
         o 2.5 Relations with the New World and Asia
               + 2.5.1 Americas
               + 2.5.2 Far East Asia
               + 2.5.3 Ottoman Empire
         o 2.6 Implementation of bureaucratic reform
         o 2.7 Religion
         o 2.8 Death
         o 2.9 Legacy
   * 3 Francis I in fiction
   * 4 Marriage and issue
   * 5 Ancestors
   * 6 References
   * 7 Further reading

[edit] Early life

Francis I, the only son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and of Louise of Savoy, was born at the Château de Cognac [1], Cognac (c. 400 km southwest of Paris), in the modern French department of Charente, in the province of Saintonge which was part of the former Duchy of Aquitaine. His father was the first cousin of King Louis XII.

In 1498, the four-year-old Francis, already Count of Angoulême, was created Duke of Valois. He was the heir presumptive of Louis XII who did not succeed in siring sons with any of his three wives.

In 1506, and by instigation of Louis XII, young Francis was betrothed to his own second cousin Claude of France, the daughter of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany, and heiress of the Duchy of Brittany. The marriage took place on 18 May 1514. Because of the Salic Law that excluded women from succeeding to the throne of France, the throne passed to Francis I at the death of Louis XII of France, as he was a male-line great-great-grandson of Charles V of France and the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty. Claude, Duchess of Brittany, became queen consort of France.

Medal of Francis I after the battle of Marignano in 1515.

In 1515 Francis was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims. Despite being only twenty-years old, he already had unprecedented humanist credentials. While his two predecessors, Charles VIII and Louis XII, had spent much of their reigns concerned with Italy they did not much embrace the new intellectual movements coming out of it. Both monarchs continued in the same patterns of behavior that had dominated the French monarchy for centuries. They are considered the last of the medieval French monarchs, but they did lay the groundwork for the Renaissance to come into full swing in France.

Contact between the French and Italians in the long running series of wars under Charles VIII and Louis XII had brought new ideas to France by the time the young Francis was receiving his education. Thus a number of his tutors, such as Desmoulins, his Latin instructor, and Christophe de Longueil were schooled in the new ways of thinking and they attempted to imbue Francis with it. Francis' mother also had a great interest in Renaissance art, which she passed down to her son. One certainly cannot say that Francis received a humanist education; most of his teachers had not yet been affected by the Renaissance. One can, however, state that he clearly received an education more oriented towards humanism than any previous French king.

[edit] Kingship

[edit] Patron of the arts

Francis I receiving the last breath of Leonardo da Vinci in 1519, by Ingres, painted in 1818.

By the time Francis ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had clearly arrived in France, and Francis was an important supporter of the change. He became a major patron of the arts and lent his support to many of the greatest artists of his time and encouraged them to come to France. Some did work for him, including such greats as Andrea del Sarto, and Leonardo da Vinci, whom Francis convinced to leave Italy in the last part of his life. While Leonardo did little painting in his years in France, he brought with him many of his great works, such as the Mona Lisa, known in France as La Joconde, and these stayed in France upon his death.

Other major artists, whom Francis employed, include the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, and the painters Rosso, Romano and Primaticcio, all of whom were heavily employed in decorating Francis' various palaces and exceedingly loyal. Francis employed a number of agents in Italy who endeavoured to procure artworks by Italian masters such as Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael and ship them to France. These agents had some notable successes, even if plans to try to move Leonardo's Last Supper to France proved impractical. When Francis ascended the throne, the royal palaces were decorated with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture either ancient or modern. It is during Francis' reign that the magnificent art collection of the French kings that can still be seen in the Louvre was truly begun.

[edit] Man of letters

Francis I painted in 1515.

French Monarchy-

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois

(Valois-Angoulême branch)

Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg

Francis I

Children

  Francis, Dauphin of Viennois
  Henry II
  Magdalene, Queen of Scots
  Charles of Valois
  Margaret, Duchess of Savoy

Henry II

Children

  Francis II
  Elizabeth, Queen of Spain
  Claude, Duchess of Lorraine
  Charles IX
  Henry III
  Margaret, Queen of Navarre
  François, Duke of Anjou
  Joan of Valois
  Victoria of Valois

Francis II

Charles IX

Henry III

Francis was also renowned as a man of letters. When Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, it is as the great hope to bring culture to the war-obsessed French nation. Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of immense quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist Guillaume Budé as chief librarian, and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had looking for art works. During his reign, the size of the library increased greatly. Not only did Francis expand the library, there is also, according to Knecht, evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer feat in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge.

In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, decreeing that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France.

Francis's older sister, Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, was also an accomplished writer, producing the classic, Heptameron.

[edit] Construction

Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Château d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Château de Blois. Early in his reign, he also began construction of the magnificent Château de Chambord, inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Francis rebuilt the Louvre, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissance splendour. He financed the building of a new City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the Château de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne, and rebuilt the Château de St-Germain-en-Laye. The largest of Francis' building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal château of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favourite place of residence, as well as the residence of his official mistress - Anne, duchess of Étampes. Each of Francis' projects was luxuriously decorated both inside and outside. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.

[edit] Military action

Coin of Francis I. Cabinet des Médailles.

Militarily and politically, Francis's reign was less successful; he tried and failed to become Holy Roman Emperor, and pursued a series of wars in Italy. Francis managed to defeat the Swiss at Marignano in 1515, which enabled him to capture the Italian city-state of Milan.

Grand culverin of Francis I, with royal salamander emblem and with the Latin motto Nutrisco et extinguo ("I nourish [the good] and extinguish [the bad]"). Caliber: 140mm, length: 307cm, recovered in Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée.

Much of the military activity of Francis's reign was focused on his sworn enemy, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Francis and Charles had an intense personal rivalry and a bitter hatred for one another, which they inherited from their predecessors' wars in Burgundy and Orleans; Charles, in fact, brashly challenged Francis himself to single combat, multiple times. In addition to the Holy Roman Empire, Charles personally ruled Spain, Austria and a number of smaller possessions neighboring France, and was thus a threat to Francis's kingdom.

Francis attempted to arrange an alliance with Henry VIII of England with negotiations taking place at the famous Field of Cloth of Gold on 7 June 1520 but, despite a lavish fortnight of diplomacy, they ultimately failed to reach agreement.

Francis' most devastating defeat occurred at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525), where he was captured by Charles: Cesare Hercolani hurt his horse and Francis was captured by Spaniards Juan de Urbieta, Diego Dávila and Alonso Pita. For this reason, Hercolani was named "victor of the battle of Pavia". The famous Zuppa alla Pavese[2],[3], now a renowned recipe, was said to have been invented on the spot to feed the captive king right after the battle.

Grand culverin of Francis I with salamander emblem and inscription in Arabic language, captured by the Ottomans in the Siege of Rhodes (1522). Musée de l'Armée.

Francis was held captive in Madrid. In the Treaty of Madrid signed on 14 January 1526, Francis I was forced to make major concessions to Charles V before he was freed on 17 March 1526. Francis was allowed to return to France in exchange for his two sons, Francis and Henry, but once he was free he argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress, and also claimed that the agreement was void, as his sons had been taken hostage suggesting his word alone was not trusted, and he repudiated it.

Francis continued to persevere in his hatred of Charles V and desire to control Italy via more wars in Italy. The repudiation of the Treaty of Madrid led to the War of the League of Cognac. After the failure of the league, he obtained the help of the Ottoman Empire and went to war again in Italy in the Italian War of 1536–1538 after the death of Francesco II Sforza, the ruler of Milan. He was defeated once again by Charles V and forced to sign the Treaty of Nice. However, the Treaty of Nice collapsed and led to the Francis' final attempt on Italy via in the Italian War of 1542–1546. This time, Francis managed to hold off the forces of Charles V and England's Henry VIII and Charles V was forced to sign the Treaty of Crepy because of financial problems and problems with the Schmalkaldic League.

[edit] Relations with the New World and Asia

Giovanni da Verrazzano's voyage in 1524.

A symbol of French explorations under Francis I: the French ambassador to England Jean de Dinteville in "The Ambassadors", by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1533.

In order to counter-balance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and especially its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. Fleets were sent to the Americas and the Far East, and close contacts were developed with the Ottoman Empire, that would permit the development of French Mediterranean trade as well as the establishment of a strategic military alliance.

The port city now known as Le Havre was founded in 1517, in Francis I's early years on the throne. Founding a new port was urgently needed in order to replace the ancient harbours of Honfleur and Harfleur whose utility had decreased due to silting. Le Havre was originally named Franciscopolis after the King who founded it, but this name did not survive later reigns.

[edit] Americas

Further information: France-Americas relations

In 1524, Francis assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America; on this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown and founded New Angoulême on the actual site of New York City.

In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil.[4]

In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find certaines îles et pays où l'on dit qu'il se doit trouver grande quantité d'or et autres riches choses ("certain islands and lands where it is said there must be great quantities of gold and other riches"). In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith."

[edit] Far East Asia

Further information: France-Asia relations

An example of the Dieppe maps showing Sumatra. Nicholas Vallard, 1547.

French trade with East Asia was initiated during the reign of Francis I with the help of shipowner Jean Ango. In July 1527, a French Norman trading ship from the city of Rouen is recorded by the Portuguese João de Barros to have arrived in the Indian city of Diu.[5] In 1529, Jean Parmentier of Dieppe, onboard the Sacre and the Pensée, reached Sumatra.[5][6] Upon its return, the expedition triggered the development of the Dieppe maps, influencing the work of Dieppe cartographers, such as Jean Rotz.[7]

[edit] Ottoman Empire

Further information: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Orientalism in early modern France

Francis I (left) and Suleiman the Magnificient (right) initiated a Franco-Ottoman alliance. Both were separately painted by Titian circa 1530.

Under the reign of Francis I, France became the first country in Europe to establish formal relations with the Ottoman Empire, and to set up instruction in the Arabic language, through the instruction of Guillaume Postel at the Collège de France.[8]

In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis came to an understanding with the Ottoman Empire, which transformed into a Franco-Ottoman alliance. The alliance has been called "the first nonideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire".[9] It did however cause quite a scandal in the Christian world,[10] and was designated as "the impious alliance", or "the sacrilegious union of the Lily and the Crescent"; nevertheless, it endured since it served the objective interests of both parties.[11] The two powers colluded against Charles V, and, in 1543, they even combined for a joint naval assault in the Siege of Nice.

[edit] Implementation of bureaucratic reform

The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts in August 1539, prescribed the use of French in official documents.

Francis I took several steps to eradicate the monopoly of Latin as the language of knowledge. In 1530, he declared French the national language of the kingdom, and that same year opened the Collège des trois langues, or Collège Royal, following the recommendation of humanist Guillaume Budé, in which were taught Greek, Hebrew and Chaldean, and from 1539 Arabic under Guillaume Postel.[12]

In 1539, in his castle in Villers-Cotterêts[13], Francis signed the important edict known as Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, which, among other reforms, made French the administrative language of the kingdom, replacing Latin. This same edict required priests to register births, marriages and deaths and to establish a registry office in every parish. This established the first records of vital statistics with filiations available in Europe.

[edit] Religion

Coin of Francis I, 1529.

It was during Francis' reign that divisions in the Christian religion in Western Europe erupted. Martin Luther's preaching and writing led to the formation of the Protestant movement which spread through much of Europe, including France.

Initially, under the influence of his beloved sister Marguerite de Navarre, Francis was relatively tolerant of the new movement, and even considered it politically useful, as it caused many German princes to turn against his enemy, Charles V. However, Francis' attitude toward Protestantism changed following the "Affair of the Placards", on the night of 17 October 1534, in which notices appeared on the streets of Paris and other major cities denouncing Mass. A notice was even posted on the door to the king's room, and, it is said, the box in which he kept his handkerchief. Antoine Marcourt, a Protestant pastor, was responsible for the notices.

The most fervent Catholics were outraged by the notice's allegations. Francis himself came to view the movement as a plot against him, and began to persecute its followers. Protestants were jailed and executed. In some areas whole villages were destroyed. Printing was censored and leading Protestants like John Calvin forced into exile. The persecutions soon numbered tens of thousands of homeless people.

These persecutions against Protestants were codified in the Edict of Fontainebleau (1540) issued by Francis.

[edit] Death

Francis I and Charles V entering Paris in January 1540.

Francis died at the château de Rambouillet on 31 March 1547, on his son and heir's 28th birthday. It is said that "he died complaining about the weight of a crown that he had first perceived as a gift from God"[citation needed].

Francis I was interred with his first wife, Claude de France, Duchess of Bretagne, in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Henry II.

Francis' tomb, that of his wife and of his mother, along with the tombs of other French kings and members of the royal family, were desecrated on 20 October 1793, during the Reign of Terror, at the height of the French Revolution.

[edit] Legacy

Francis' legacy is generally considered a mixed one. He achieved great cultural feats, but they came at the expense of France's economic well-being.

The persecution of the Protestants was to lead France into decades of civil war, which did not end until 1598 with the Edict of Nantes.

Francis I in fiction

Royal styles of

King Francis I

Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France

Blason France moderne.svg

Reference style His Most Christian Majesty

Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty

Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi

The amorous exploits of Francis inspired the 1832 play by Fanny Kemble (1809-1893) Francis the First and the 1832 play by Victor Hugo (1802-1885), Le Roi s'amuse ("The King's Amusement") featuring the jester Triboulet, which later inspired the opera of Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901), Rigoletto.

Francis was first played in a George Méliès movie by an unknown actor in 1907, and has also been played by Claude Garry (1910), Aimé Simon-Girard (1937), Sacha Guitry (1937), Gérard Oury (1953), Jean Marais (1955), Pedro Armendáriz (1956), Claude Titre (1962), Bernard Pierre Donnadieu (1990), Timothy West (1998).

Francis was portrayed by Peter Gilmore in the comedy film "Carry on Henry" charting the fictitious two extra wives of Henry VIII (including Marie cousin of King Francis).

Francis receives a mention in a minor story in Laurence Sterne's novel Tristram Shandy. The narrator claims that the king, wishing to win the favour of Switzerland, offers to make the country the godmother of his son. When, however, their choice of name conflicts, he declares war. He is also mentioned in Jean de la Brète's novel Reine - Mon oncle et mon curé, where the main character Reine de Lavalle idolises him after reading his biography, much to the dismay of the local priest. He often receives mentions in novels on the lives of either of the Boleyn sisters - Mary Boleyn (d. 1543) and her sister, Queen Anne Boleyn (executed 1536), both of whom were for a time educated at his court. Mary had, according to several accounts, been Francis' one-time mistress and Anne had been a favourite of his sister: the novels The Lady in the Tower, The Other Boleyn Girl, The Last Boleyn, Dear Heart, How Like You This? and Mademoiselle Boleyn feature Francis in their story. Francis is also in Diane Haeger's novel "Courtesan" about Diane de Poitiers and Henri II. He has also featured as a recurring character in the Showtime series The Tudors, opposite Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII and Natalie Dormer as Anne Boleyn. Francis is played by French actor, Emmanuel Leconte.

Samuel Shellabarger's novel The King's Cavalier describes Francis the man, and the cultural and political circumstances of his reign, in some detail.

[edit] Marriage and issue

One alleged out-of-wedlock issue, Henri de la Rue.

On 18 May 1514, Francis married his second cousin, Claude of France, Duchess of Brittany, who was the daughter of Louis XII, King of France, and Anne, Duchess of Brittany. The couple had seven children:

Name Birth Death Notes

Louise, Princess of France 19 August 1515 21 September 1517 Died young.

Charlotte of Valois 23 October 1516 8 September 1524 Died young.

Francis III, Duke of Brittany 28 February 1518 10 August 1536 Died young.

Henry II, King of France 31 March 1519 10 July 1559 Married Catherine de' Medici (1519 - 1589) in 1533. Had issue.

Madeleine of France, Queen of Scots 10 August 1520 2 July 1537 Married James V, King of Scotland (1512 - 1542) in 1537. Had no issue.

Charles de Valois, Duke of Orléans 22 January 1522 9 September 1545

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry 5 June 1523 14 September 1574 Married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528 - 1580) in 1559. Had issue.

On 7 August 1530, Francis I married his second wife Eleanor of Austria, a sister of the Emperor Charles V. The couple had no children. During his reign, Francis kept two official mistresses at court. The first was Françoise de Foix, comtesse de Chateaubriand. In 1526, she was replaced by the blonde-haired, cultured Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, duchesse d'Étampes who, with the death of Queen Claude two years earlier, wielded far more political power at court than her predecessor had done. Another of his earlier mistresses, was allegedly Mary Boleyn, mistress of King Henry VIII and sister of Henry's future wife, Anne Boleyn.[14]

References

  1. ^ http:::fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Cognac
  2. ^ http:::it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuppa_alla_pavese
  3. ^ http://theoldfoodie.blogspot.com/2006/02/restoration-by-soup.html
  4. ^ Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I by R. J. Knecht p.375 [1]
  5. ^ a b The Cambridge history of the British Empire p.61
  6. ^ European travellers in India Edward Farley Oaten p.123
  7. ^ Explorers and colonies: America, 1500-1625 David B. Quinn p.57
  8. ^ Eastern wisedome and learning: the study of Arabic in seventeenth-century ... by G. J. Toomer p.26
  9. ^ Kann, p.62
 10. ^ Miller, p.2
 11. ^ Merriman, p.133
 12. ^ Orientalism in early modern France, by Ina Baghdianitz McCabe, ISBN 9781845203740, p.25ff
 13. ^ The rise and fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610 by Robert Jean Knecht p.158
 14. ^ Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, X, no.450

[edit] Further reading

   * Clough, C.H., "Francis I and the Courtiers of Castiglione’s Courtier." European Studies Review. vol viii, 1978.
   * Denieul-Cormier, Anne. The Renaissance in France. trans. Anne and Christopher Fremantle. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1969.
   * Grant, A.J. The French Monarchy, Volume I. New York: Howard Fertig, 1970.
   * Guy, John. Tudor England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
   * Jensen, De Lamar. Renaissance Europe. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.
   * Knecht, R.J. Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
   * Major, J. Russell. From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
   * Seward, Desmond. François I: Prince of the Renaissance. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1973.

This page was last modified on 1 August 2010 at 19:40. -------------------- Portrait of François I, King of France by Jean Clouet 2

François I, Roi de France1 M, #102458, b. 12 September 1494, d. 31 March 1547

François I, Roi de France|b. 12 Sep 1494\nd. 31 Mar 1547|p10246.htm#i102458|Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Angoulême|b. 1459\nd. 1 Jan 1496|p10317.htm#i103164|Louise di Savoia|b. 11 Sep 1476\nd. 22 Sep 1531|p10246.htm#i102459|Jean d'Orléans, Comte d'Angoulême|b. 26 Jun 1404\nd. 30 Apr 1467|p10317.htm#i103165|Marguerite de Rohan|d. a 1496|p10592.htm#i105914|Filippo I. di Bresse, Duca di Savoia|b. 5 Feb 1436\nd. 7 Nov 1497|p322.htm#i3218|Margaret de Bourbon|b. 1444\nd. 24 Apr 1483|p476.htm#i4756|

Last Edited=4 Dec 2008 Consanguinity Index=1.55%

François I, King of France by Jean Clouet 2 François I, Roi de France was born on 12 September 1494 at Cognac, Poitou, France. He was the son of Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Angoulême and Louise di Savoia.1 He married, firstly, Claude de Valois, Duchesse de Bretagne, daughter of Louis XII, Roi de France and Anne de Dreux, Duchesse de Bretagne, on 18 May 1514 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France. He married, secondly, Eleonora Erzherzogin von Österreich, daughter of Felipe I von Habsburg, Rey de Castilla and Juana, Reina Juana de Castilla, on 8 July 1530 at Abbaye de Veien. He died on 31 March 1547 at age 52 at Château de Rambouillet, Île-de-France, France. He was buried at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France.

    François I, Roi de France was a member of the House of Angoulême.1 He succeeded to the title of Roi François I de France in 1515.1 He gained the title of Comte d'Angoulême.

Children of François I, Roi de France and Claude de Valois, Duchesse de Bretagne 1.Louise de Valois b. 1515 2.Charlotte de Valois b. 1516 3.François de Valois, Dauphin de France b. 1518, d. 1536 4.Henri II, Roi de France+1 b. 31 Mar 1519, d. 10 Jul 1559 5.Madeleine de Valois b. 10 Aug 1520, d. 7 Jul 1537 6.Charles de Valois, Duc d'Angoulême b. 1522, d. 1545 7.Marguerite de Valois, Duchesse de Berri+ b. 5 Jun 1523, d. 14 Sep 1574 Citations 1.[S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 78. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World. 2.[S308] Portraits au crayons des Clouet, online http://clouet.dessins.free.fr. Hereinafter cited as Portraits au crayons des Clouet. -------------------- Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, with whom he was allied in a Franco-Ottoman alliance, as well as of Henry VIII of England and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, his great rivals.

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François I, roi de France's Timeline

1494
September 12, 1494
Cognac, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France
1513
1513
Age 18
Cognac, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France
1514
May 18, 1514
Age 19
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
1515
January 15, 1515
Age 20
August 19, 1515
Age 20
Amboise, Indre-Et-Loire, Centre, France
1515
Age 20
1516
October 23, 1516
Age 22
Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France
1518
February 28, 1518
Age 23
Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France
1519
March 31, 1519
Age 24
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Ile-de-France, France
1520
August 10, 1520
Age 25
Chateau St. Germain-en-Laye, Paris, France