Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (1635 - 1719) MP

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Birthplace: Prison de Niort, Niort, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death: Died in Saint-Cyr-l'École, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
Occupation: Marquise de Maintenon, born in prison, later mistress to king, Marquise de Maintenon; marriage to King Louis XIV was in secret and never officially announced; AKA "Françoise d'Aubigné"
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About Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon

Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon

http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Aubigne.pdf Françoise d’Aubigné

  • born 27/11/1635 (Niort, 79, Conciergerie du palais de Justice; bapt. 28/11/1635); died 15/04/1719 (Saint-Cyr, 78)
  • Gouvernante des bâtards de France (1669), marquise de Maintenon (27/12/1674), dame d’atours de la Dauphine (1680), fondatrice de la Maison Royale de Saint-Cyr

ép.

  • 1) (c.m.) 04/04/1652 (Paris) et 06/04 (rel., Hôtel de Troyes) Paul Scarron, écuyer, seigneur de Fougerest, Beauvais et La Rivière ° 14/07/1610 (Paris) + 06/10/1660 (Paris) écrivain, poète, chanoine honoraire de la Cathédrale du Mans
  • ép. 2) 12/06/1684 (Versailles) Louis XIV, roi de France ° 05/09/1638 (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, bapt. 21/04/1643 à Saint-Germain-en-Laye) + 01/09/1715 (Versailles)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7oise_d'Aubign%C3%A9,_Marquise_de_Maintenon

  • Born 27 November 1635 in Niort, France
  • Died 15 April 1719 (aged 83) at Saint-Cyr
  • Title Marquise de Maintenon
  • Spouse(s) (1) Paul Scarron (1651-1660) (2) Louis XIV of France (1685-1715)
  • Parents Constant d'Aubigné and Jeanne de Cardillac

Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719) was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France. She was known during her first marriage as Madame Scarron, and subsequently as Madame de Maintenon. Her marriage to the king was never officially announced or admitted.

Origins

Françoise d'Aubigné was born on 27 November 1635, but her place of birth is under speculation. A plaque suggests her birthplace was at the Hotel du Chaumont in Niort, in western France.[1] Her enemies and critics claim she was born in a prison at Niort because her father, the Huguenot Constant d'Aubigné, was incarcerated there for conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu. Her mother, Jeanne de Cardilhac, was the daughter of Constant's jailer.[2] Her grandfather was Agrippa d'Aubigné, a well-known Protestant General, a close friend of Henry IV, and an epic poet. Jeanne dutifully had her child baptised in her own Catholic religion; the young girl's godparents were the Comtesse de Neuillant and the Duc de la Rochefoucauld, father of François de La Rochefoucauld, author of the famous Maxims.

In 1639 Françoise's father was released from prison and went with his family to the island of Martinique in the West Indies. Jeanne was a strict mother, allowed her children few liberties, and gave them a Protestant education (despite their Catholic baptism). Constant returned to France, leaving his wife and children behind in Martinique. Jeanne was forever trying to be "mother and father" to her children, and eventually she made it back to France to join her husband in 1647.[3] Within months of her return to France, Jeanne's husband died, and Françoise returned to the care of her beloved aunt, Madame de Villette, her father's sister. The Villettes' house, Mursay, became a happy memory for Françoise, who had been in the care of her aunt and uncle before leaving for Martinique. The de Villettes were wealthy and took good care of the child, but they were ardent Protestants and they continued to school Françoise in their beliefs. When this became known to her godmother's family, an order was issued that Françoise must be educated in a convent.[4]

Françoise disliked the convent life, but she grew to love one of the nuns there, Sister Céleste, who persuaded Françoise to take her First Communion. "I loved her more than I could possibly say. I wanted to sacrifice myself for her service."[4]

Madame de Neuillant, the mother of Françoise's godmother Suzanne, brought her to Paris and introduced her to sophisticated women and men, who became vital links that she would need in the future.

Coming to the Royal Court

In her excursion with Madame de Neuillant, Françoise met Paul Scarron, who was 25 years older than she, and with whom she began to correspond. Scarron was an accomplished poet and novelist, who counted Marie de Hautefort, maîtresse-en-titre of King Louis XIII, among his patrons. He proposed either to pay her dowry so that she might enter a convent, or offered her marriage. Although Scarron suffered from acute and crippling rheumatoid arthritis, she accepted his proposal and became Madame Scarron in 1651. The match permitted her to gain access to the highest levels of Paris society, something that would have otherwise been impossible for a girl from an impoverished background. For nine years, she was Scarron's wife, nurse, and a fixture in his social circle.[5]

Mme de Maintenon

On the death of Scarron in 1660, Anne of Austria continued his pension to his widow, even increasing it to 2000 livres a year, thus enabling her to remain in literary society. Following the dowager queen's death in 1666, Louis XIV suspended the pension. Once again in straitened circumstances, Mme Scarron prepared to leave Paris for Lisbon as a lady-in-waiting to the new Queen of Portugal, Marie-Françoise de Nemours. Before setting off, however, she met Madame de Montespan, who was secretly already the king's lover. Madame de Montespan took such a fancy to Mme Scarron that she had the king reinstate her pension, an act which enabled Françoise to stay in Paris.

In 1669, when Madame de Montespan's first child by Louis was born, she gave Mme Scarron a large income and staff of servants at Vaugirard to raise the child in secrecy. Françoise would take care to keep the house well guarded and discreet, even doing the domestic duties herself.[6] Due to her hard work, the King rewarded her with a large sum of money, and she purchased a property at Maintenon. Saint-Simon was told by his father-in-law that the King had initially disliked Madame Scarron, but, as he tired of Madame de Montespan's bad temper, began to find her rival increasingly sympathetic.

In 1678, the king gave her the title of Marquise de Maintenon after the name of her estate. Such favours incurred Madame de Montespan's jealousy. At court, she was now known as Madame de Maintenon. Madame de Montespan and Françoise would spar frequently over the children and their care.

"Madame de Maintenon knows how to love. There would be great pleasure in being loved by her." said the king. He probably asked her to become his mistress at that time. Though she later claimed she did not yield to his advances ("Nothing is so clever as to conduct one's self irreproachably."[7] she wrote to a friend), some historians doubt that she dared refuse the King at a time when her position remained very insecure.[8] By the late 1670s the king spent much of his spare time with Madame de Maintenon, discussing politics, religion and economics.

In 1680, the king made Madame de Maintenon second Mistress of the Robes to his daughter-in-law, the Dauphine. Soon after, Madame de Montespan left the court. Madame de Maintenon proved a good influence on the king. His wife, Queen Marie-Thérèse, who had spent years being rudely treated by Madame de Montespan, openly declared she had never been so well treated as at this time.

Marriage with Louis XIV

In 1684, Madame de Maintenon became first lady-in-waiting to the Dauphine, and in the winter of 1685-1686 she was married to the king in a private ceremony by François de Harlay de Champvallon, Archbishop of Paris, in the presence, it is believed, of Père la Chaise, the king's confessor, the Marquis de Montchevreuil, the Chevalier de Forbin, and Alexandre Bontemps. Owing to the disparity in their social status, she could not marry the king openly and become queen, and the marriage was morganatic. No written proof of the marriage exists, but that it took place is nevertheless accepted by historians.

In his memoirs, the Duc de Saint-Simon (himself only a boy at the time of the event) wrote the following:

But what is very certain and very true, is, that some time after the return of the King from Fontainebleau, and in the midst of the winter that followed the death of the Queen (posterity will with difficulty believe it, although perfectly true and proved), Père de la Chaise, confessor of the King, said mass at the dead of night in one of the King's cabinets at Versailles. Bontems, governor of Versailles, chief valet on duty, and the most confidential of the four, was present at this mass, at which the monarch and La Maintenon were married in presence of Harlay, Archbishop of Paris, as diocesan, of Louvois (both of whom drew from the King a promise that he would never declare this marriage), and of Montchevreuil. ... The satiety of the honeymoon, usually so fatal, and especially the honeymoon of such marriages, only consolidated the favour of Madame de Maintenon. Soon after, she astonished everybody by the apartments given to her at Versailles, at the top of the grand staircase facing those of the King and on the same floor. From that moment the King always passed some hours with her every day of his life; wherever she might be she was always lodged near him, and on the same floor if possible.[9]

The Marquise de Montespan in her memoirs wrote the following about the marriage:

The following week Madame de Maintenon ... consented to the King's will, which she had opposed in order to excite it, and in the presence of the Marquis and Marquise de Montchevreuil, the Duc de Noailles, the Marquis de Chamarante, M. Bontems, and Mademoiselle Ninon, her permanent chambermaid, was married to the King of France and Navarre in the chapel of the château.

The Abbé de Harlay, Archbishop of Paris, assisted by the Bishop of Chartres and Père de la Chaise, had the honour of blessing this marriage and presenting the rings of gold. After the ceremony, which took place at an early hour, and even by torchlight, there was a slight repast in the small apartments. The same persons, taking carriages, then repaired to Maintenon, where the great ceremony, the mass, and all that is customary in such cases were celebrated.

At her return, Madame de Maintenon took possession of an extremely sumptuous apartment that had been carefully arranged and furnished for her. Her people continued to wear her livery, but she scarcely ever rode any more except in the great carriage of the King, where we saw her in the place which had been occupied by the Queen. In her interior the title of Majesty was given her; and the King, when he had to speak of her, only used the word Madame, without adding Maintenon, that having become too familiar and trivial.[10]

Influence and legacy

Historians have often remarked upon Madame de Maintenon's political influence, which was considerable. Ministers would discuss with her beforehand a majority of the business that the king would be dealing with. He would not always consult her on more important matters, though. Her judgment was not infallible and mistakes were undoubtedly made: replacing Catinat by Villeroi in 1701 may be attributed to her, but not entire policies (according to Saint-Simon, certainly not the policy with regard to the Spanish Succession).

Madame de Maintenon used her power for personal patronage, for example in achieving the promotions of Chamillart and Villeroi, and the frequent assistance she gave to her brother Charles, the comte d'Aubigné. She had no recognised position at court, and therefore less social influence than the wife of the king would typically have. One can speculate as to whether or not she occasionally desired to be recognised as queen.

Some have accused her of responsibility for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and the dragonnades, but recent investigations have shown that in spite of her ardent Catholicism, she opposed the cruelties of the dragonnades, but she was pleased with the conversions they procured. She is reputed to have said that in view of her Protestant upbringing, she feared that a plea on behalf of the Huguenots might lead her enemies to claim that she was still a secret Protestant. She had a great reputation for devotion, and in 1692, Innocent XII granted her the right of visitation over all the convents in France.

At Saint-Cyr, a village 5 km west of Versailles, she founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for poor girls of noble families. The school began at Rueil then moved to Noisy-le-Roi; the king endowed St-Cyr at her request, using the funds of the Abbey of St. Denis. Madame de Maintenon drew up the rules of the institution and attended to every detail. She was considered a born teacher and a friendly, motherly influence on her pupils, who included Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy.[11]

Jean Racine wrote Esther and Athalie for the girls at Saint-Cyr, and Chamillart became controller-general of the kingdom's finances because he had managed Saint-Cyr so well. In the latter years of her life, Madame de Maintenon encouraged the king to promote her previous charges, the children of the king by Madame de Montespan, to high positions at court intermediate between the Prince and Princesses du Sang and the peers of the realm.

On the death of her husband in 1715, she retired to Saint-Cyr. The Duc d'Orléans, as regent, honoured her with a pension of 48,000 livres. She continued to receive visitors at Saint-Cyr.

One morning Madame de Maintenon awoke at Saint-Cyr to find a very tall man seated at a chair by the foot of her bed. Instead of showing surprise, she knew who the man was. It was a very distinguished royal visitor, who was the toast of Paris. When the man asked what her illness was she replied, "Old age".

She then asked what brought him to her room, the man replied, "I came to see everything worthy of note that France contains." At that a smile appeared on her face and some of her beauty returned to her cheeks. At that, Tsar Peter I of Russia, the visitor, left the room. He later remarked to his aides that she had rendered a great service to the King and nation.[12]

She died on 15 April 1719 and was buried in the choir at Saint-Cyr, bequeathing her estate at Maintenon to her niece, Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, the wife of Adrien-Maurice, 3rd duc de Noailles, and her brother Charles' only daughter. In her honor, a small island, off the coast of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, which at that time was known as "L'Île Royale", was attributed to her; this island was named Isle Madame (first noted as l'Isle de la Marquise).

She owned the Château de Maintenon.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 149.
  2. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 150
  3. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 151.
  4. ^ a b Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, 152
  5. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XVI, 149.
  6. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 158.
  7. ^ Herman, Eleanor: Sex with Kings, page 115. William Morrow, 2004
  8. ^ Bertière, Simone : Les femmes de Louis XIV
  9. ^ Bayle St. John's abridged English edition of Saint-Simon's memoirs,
  10. Memoirs of Louis XIV and His Court and of the Regency at Project Gutenberg
  11. ^ English translation,
  12. Memoirs of Madame de Montespan at Project Gutenberg
  13. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 251.
  14. ^ Antonia Fraser, Love and Louis XIV, page 280.

References

  • Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006. ISBN 0-297-82997-1
  • Herman, Eleanor. Sex with Kings. New York, Harper Collins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-058543-9

A Picture of Françoise d'Aubigné as a young woman from the Lëtzebuergesch Wikipedia.

Additional picture of Françoise d'Aubigné from the German Wikipedia.

Another additional picture of Françoise d'Aubigné from the Swedish Wikipedia.

Madame Louis 14, till 30 April 2011, a one-woman play written and played by Lorraine Pintal in French in Montreal, Quebec.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Further reading

  • Buckley, Veronica. Madame De Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV. London, Bloomsbury, 2008. ISBN 0-7475-8098-7 [1]
  • L'allée du Roi", Françoise Chandernagor, Memories of Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, wife of the king of France, French, Paris, Julliard, 1995 ISBN 2-266-06787-7

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https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=w_2wAAAAIAAJ&rdid=book-w_2wAAAAIAAJ&rdot=1

Emily Bowles, Madame de Maintenon, London: Kegan Paul, 1888 (on GoogleBooks):

The authorities consulted are these :— 1. "La Famille d'Aubigne- et l'Enfance de Madame de Maintenon suivi des Me"moires Inedits de Languet de Gergy, Archevêque de Sens, sur Madame de Maintenon et la Cour de Louis XIV." Lavallée.

2. "Histoire de la Maison Royale de Saint Cyr, 16861793." Lavallée.

3. " Histoire de Madame de Maintenon et des Principaux Evénements du Règne de Louis XIV." M. le Duc de Noailles.

4. "Madame de Maintenon d'après sa Correspondance Authentique. Choix de ses Lettres et Entretiens." A. Geffroy, Membre de l'Institut.

It may be allowed, perhaps, here to acknowledge, in regard to this last, the kindness and never-failing courtesy of M. Gustave Masson, who contributed the unpublished letters from the British Museum to M. Geffroy's excellent collection.

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Another biography:

D.D. Dyson, Madame de Maintenon: Her Life and Times, 1635-1719/ London: John Lane, 1910.

https://play.google.com/store/books/details/C_C_Dyson_Madame_de_Maintenon?id=p4JEAAAAIAAJ&feature=similar_books#?t=W251bGwsMSwyLDEwOCwiYm9vay1wNEpFQUFBQUlBQUoiXQ..

"Among all the wise, witty, wicked or beautiful women who lived in France in the seventeenth century, a time when everything was possible and the strangest adventures were everyday facts, no figure is more string than that of Francoise d'Aubigne, Mdme. de Maintenon, whose eventful career sounded the whole gamut of fortune ; who was born in the precincts of a prison and ended her days as the wife of the proudest king in Europe. Her life is also an illustration of the fact that virtue and merit are occasionally crowned even in this world, and that this road to fortune is less slippery than that of the passions, and those who travel by it are less liable to reverses ; also that a truly devout life may be lived in the midst of the world and in the neighbourhood of a throne."

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Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon @ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Collier%27s_New_Encyclopedia_(1921)/Maintenon,_Fran%C3%A7oise_d%27Aubign%C3%A9,_Marchioness_de

Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Maintenon, Françoise d'Aubigné, Marchioness de < Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)

MAINTENON (mangt-nông), FRANÇOISE D'AUBIGNÉ, MARCHIONESS DE, the second wife of Louis XIV.; born in the prison of Niort, France, Nov. 27, 1635, where her parents were held. On their release they removed to Martinique. After her father's death she was brought up by her aunt, Madame Villette, in the Protestant faith, from which, owing to the interference of her mother, a strict Catholic, she was afterward converted. Subsequently, being left in very reduced circumstances, she married the celebrated poet and novelist Scarron. On his death she became governess of the children of Madame de Montespan. This connection brought her under the notice of the monarch, and in 1679 he changed her name to Maintenon, giving her an estate with that title. She supplanted Montespan and La Chaise, his confessor, having advised the king to sanction his wishes by a secret but formal marriage, it was solemnized in 1685. After her elevation, she lived in a sort of retirement from the world. Louis visited her several times a day, and transacted business with his ministers in her apartments, while she read or otherwise employed herself. Having founded the school of St. Cyr, for the education of poor girls of good family, she retired to it after the death of the king, and there passed the remainder of her life. She died, generally respected, April 15, 1719. Her “Memoirs” and “Correspondence” have been published.

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Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon et du Parc (1) F, #102063, b. 27 November 1635, d. 15 April 1719 Last Edited=14 Dec 2008

Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon et du Parc was born on 27 November 1635 at Niort Prison, Niort, Poitou, France. (1) She was the daughter of Constantin d'Aubigné, Baron de Surimau and Jeanne de Cardillac. (1) She married, secondly, Louis XIV, Roi de France, son of Louis XIII, Roi de France and Ana Maria Maurica von Habsburg, Princesa de España, on 12 June 1684 at Versailles Palace, Versailles, Île-de-France, France, in a morganatic and secret marriage. (1)

She died on 15 April 1719 at age 83 at Saint-Cyr, Île-de-France, France, without issue. (1) She was buried at Saint-Cyr, Île-de-France, France. (1)

Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon et du Parc was created Marquise du Parc in May 1688. (1) She was created Marquise de Maintenon in May 1688. (1) She was foundress and superior of the Royal house of St. Louis at Saint-Cyr, Île-de-France, France. (1)

Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10207.htm#i102063

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See also / Lásd még: http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Fran%C3%A7oise-d%27Aubign%C3%A9%2C-marquise-de-Maintenon

Her first husband was: Paul SCARRON Lásd / See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Scarron

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Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon et du Parc's Timeline

1635
November 27, 1635
Niort, Poitou-Charentes, France
1652
April 4, 1652
Age 16
Paris, Paris, Île-de-France, France
1683
October 9, 1683
Age 47
Versailles, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
1719
April 15, 1719
Age 83
Saint-Cyr-l'École, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
April 17, 1719
Age 83
Saint-Cyr-l'École, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France