Fran Kurelac (1811 - 1874) MP

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Birthplace: Bruvno, Lika, Croatia
Death: Died in Zagreb, Croatia
Managed by: Jadra... away
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About Fran Kurelac

http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran_Kurelac

Keywords: filologija, Rijeka, 19. stoljeće, Fran Kurelac ( philology, Rijeka, 19th century, Fran Kurelac )

Abstract: Ubrzan razvoj društvenih, humanističkih i prirodnih znanosti u 19. stoljeću odrazio se i na standardizaciju hrvatskoga jezika. Stoga je u razvoju hrvatske pismenosti 19. stoljeće obilježeno predilirskim najavama velikih odluka i ilirskim pokretom s uobličavanjem brojnih filoloških pitanja, čije je rješavanje zaokupilo sljedeće naraštaje hrvatskih filologa. Na hrvatskoj je filološkoj sceni sredinom devetnaestoga stoljeća Rijeka bila obilježena kao značajno središte. Tu je jedno vrijeme djelovao znameniti filolog Fran Kurelac, pa je i nakon odlaska iz Rijeke ostao uz nju tako jasno povezan da su povjesničari jezika njegovu filološku misao prozvali riječkom filološkom školom, premda je brojne radove s tom književnojezičnom koncepcijom pisao i izvan Rijeke (u Zagrebu, Đakovu...). Najjače su ga veze stalno vraćale Rijeci zbog izuzetnoga odnosa što ga je uspio za svojega učiteljskog rada ostvariti sa svojim učenicima. Naime, među njegovim su sljedbenicima bili Bude Budisavljević, Ivan Dežman, Fran Pilepić, Ivan Fiamin i Ivan Črnčić, većinom učenici riječke gimnazije, kojima je vidike prema hrvatskome jeziku proširio upravo Kurelac. Tada je Rijeka bila jedno od triju hrvatskih središta u kojima se promišljala standardizacija hrvatskoga jezika. Kurelčevi poticaji zagrebačkim filolozima značajno su doprinijeli normiranju hrvatskoga jezika, i onda kada su bili suprotni njegovim prijedlozima i prijedlozima njegovih učenika i sljedbenika. U ovoj je knjizi predstavljeno desetak filologa koji su u Rijeci i njezinoj okolici djelovali u 19. stoljeću, ili bili uz Rijeku i riječki prsten vezani: Božo Babić, Buda Budisavljević, Ivan Črnčić, Ivan Dežman, Ivan Fiamin, Fran Kurelac, Antun Mažuranić, Jakov Antun Mikoč, Vinko Pacel, Fran Pilepić i Adolfo Veber Tkalčević. Njihov je odnos prema temeljnim jezikoslovnim pitanjima 19. stoljeća naznačen u uvodnim tekstovima - Filološke teme i dileme u 19. stoljeću i Riječki filološki krug, dok je većina predstavljena i zasebnim studijama u ovoj knjizi. Između njih je utemeljitelj zagrebačke filološke škole, svojedobno riječki gimnazijalac, a kasnije ravnatelj te gimnazije - Antun Mažuranić (1805. Novi u Vinodolu - 1888. Zagreb), stariji brat velikoga pjesnika i bana Ivana. U povijesti hrvatskoga standardnog jezika upisan je zlatnim slovima kao ilirski gramatičar i leksikograf. Njegovi Temelji ilirskoga i latinskoga jezika pa i kasnija Slovnica hervatska zaista su temelji, stoga je šteta što nije nakon detaljnoga morfološkog opisa uslijedio i (obećani) sintaktički. Mažuranićevi, pak, leksikografski prinosi najčešće nisu bili objelodanjivani pod njegovim imenom, pa tek posredno znamo da je baš on sastavljač zbirke riječi objavljene u Danici 1835. godine, da je pomogao u izradi njemačko-hrvatskoga rječnika Ivana Mažuranića i Jakova Užarevića, te da je sudjelovao, uz brata Ivana i jezikoslovca Vjekoslava Babukića, u pripremanju dopuna Gundulićeva Osmana, gdje je zadovoljavanje leksičke komponente bilo od krucijalne važnosti. Osim u standardnome jeziku Antun Mažuranić je ostavio traga i u povijesti hrvatskoga jezika i dijalektologiji analizom Zakona vinodolskoga i prvim sustavnim opisom jednoga čakavskog govora. I drugo veliko ime zagrebačke filološke škole vezujemo uz ovaj kraj - Bakranin rodom Adolfo Veber Tkalčević (1825. Bakar - 1889. Zagreb) - jedno je od hrvatskih najvećih jezikoslovnih imena. Njegov je opus teško sažeti u nekoliko riječi, jer je dao vrijedne doprinose ne samo na užemu jezikoslovnom polju - kao gramatičar i nepokolebljiv polemičar, nego i na širem - kao književni teoretičar, ali i književni praktičar: putopisac, pripovjedač, propovjednik i prevoditelj. Veberovi jezikoslovni stavovi obilježili su drugu polovinu 19. stoljeća u cijeloj tada razjedinjenoj Hrvatskoj i stvorili temelje za suvremeni gramatički opis hrvatskoga jezika, napose na sintaktičkoj razini. Njegove žučne polemike s Franom Kurelcem, u kojima je branio leksikološke stavove hrvatskoga Slovaka Bogoslava Šuleka, razbistrile su mnoge normativne dvojbe. Sve nas to nedvojbeno vodi središnjoj riječkoj filološkoj ličnosti, velikome zanesenjaku Franu Kurelcu (1811. Bruvno na Krbavi - 1874. Zagreb), nastavniku hrvatskoga jezika u riječkoj gimnaziji. Taj je vrsni jezikoslovac bio osnivač, predvodnik i glavni predstavnik riječkoga filološkog kruga te jedan od ponajboljih hrvatskih polemičara uopće. Na širem filološkom polju svoje je doprinose dao kao skupljač narodnoga blaga, prevoditelj i putopisac. Nažalost, iza sebe nije ostavio opsežna jezikoslovna djela - gramatiku, rječnik ili stilistiku, premda je svojim kraćim djelima pokazao izrazite sposobnosti preciznoga gramatičkoga mišljenja te bio sustavno hvaljen kao vrstan stilist, a u rukopisu je ostavio nedovršen rječnik. Kada je zbog političkih razloga dobio otkaz u riječkoj gimnaziji, predložio je svojemu kolegi nastavniku prirodnih znanosti Vinku Pacelu (1825. Karlovac - 1869. Karlovac) da preuzme i nastavu hrvatskoga jezika. Taj je prirodoslovac, po svojoj prvotnoj vokaciji, bio i izvrstan jezikoslovac, autor više značajnih tekstova, u kojima je na najbolji mogući način iskoristio svoja prirodoslovna znanja u vrijeme uspostavljanja hrvatskoga nazivoslovlja. U početku zadivljen Kurelčevom jezikoslovnom misli ipak nalazi svoj put prema standardu. Pacel je manje uspjeha imao kao književnik, urednik časopisa i prevoditelj, dok bi zasigurno dao više kao političar da nije umro u naponu snage. Najdulje su na Kurelčevu putu ustrajali njegovi riječki učenici, ali su i oni polako težili uspostavljanju sklada između učiteljeva naukovanja i pragmatike - književnoga jezika kako su ga rabili pripadnici zagrebačke filološke škole. Nijedan se od njih nije posvetio jezikoslovnome zvanju, pa tek posredno iščitavamo njihove jezične stavove i traženja između mladenačkoga ushita velikim Kurelcem i odrasle spoznaje realnoga svijeta. Tako riječkome krugu pripadaju glagoljski paleograf i povjesničar Ivan Črnčić (1830. Polje u Dobrinjštini na Krku - 1897. Rim), prevoditelj i književnik Ivan Fiamin (1833. Volosko - 1890. Rijeka), liječnik, leksikograf i književnik Ivan Dežman (1841. Rijeka -1873. Zagreb), pravnik i političar Fran Pilepić (1838. Rijeka - 1890. Rijeka), te najmlađi među njima i najprivrženiji učitelju pisac regionalne proze s ličkim temama Bude Budisavljević (1843. Bjelopolje u Lici - 1919. Zagreb). Nisu svi riječki intelektualci prihvatili Kurelčeve književnojezične stavove. Dapače, mnogi su u svojim izravnim kontaktima s Bogoslavom Šulekom i drugim pripadnicima zagrebačke filološke škole pokazali da prihvaćaju upravo njihovu, a ne riječku normativnu koncepciju. To možemo najbolje potvrditi na djelu dvojice nastavnika na pomorskim školama, pomorskih pisaca i, što je naročito značajno, pomorskih leksikografa - Jakova Antuna Mikoča (1797. Bakar - 1854. Rijeka) i Bože Babića (1840. Sv. Juraj kod Senja - 1912. Senj). Njihovi rukopisni i tiskani rječnici pokazuju mogućnosti hrvatskoga jezika u stvaranju stručnoga pomorskog nazivlja. Ovime je album riječkih filoloških portreta tek dijelom uobličen, pa posao na njegovu popunjavanju nije ni izdaleka završen. Project / theme: 0009015 Original language: HRV Category: Znanstvena Research fields: Languages Printed media: da Remarks: A PORTRAIT OF THE RIJEKA PHILOLOGISTS SUMMARY The rapid growth of the humanities and of the social and natural sciences in the 19th century had an effect on the standardization of the Croatian language. Therefore, the growth of the 19th century litracy in Croatia was characterized by the pre-Illyrian notification of great decisions made and by the Illyrian movement with a number of philological questions put, the answer to which has been the concern of the forthcoming generations of Croatian philologists. Toward the middle of the 19th century Rijeka was marked as an important centre on the Croatian philological scene. It was the time when the famous philologist Fran Kurelec pursued his career, and even after he had left Rijeka he remained so closely connected to this city, so that the language historians called his philological thought the Rijeka School of Philology, although a number of his works dealing with this literary-linguistic concept were written out of Rijeka (in Zagreb, Đakovo, ...). But he was strongly tied to Rijeka due to a special relation he had established with his pupils during his teaching profession period. Namely, among his followers we could find Bude Budisavljević, Ivan Dežman, Fran Pilepić, Ivan Fiamin and Ivan Črnčić, for the most part secondary-school pupils attending the Rijeka Grammar School, whose interest towards the Croatian language became broader thanks to Kurelec. Rijeka was then one of the three Croatian centres where a lot of thought was given to the standardization of the Croatian language. The impuls received by the Zagreb philologists from Kurelec was an important contribution to the standardization of the Croatian language, even then when it was contrary to his suggestions and to the seggestions of his puplis and followers. The book aims at presenting some ten philologists who acted in Rijeka and its surroundings in the 19th century, or who were linked to Rijeka and the Rijeka circle: Božo Babić, Buda Budisavljević, Ivan Črnčić, Ivan Dežman, Ivan Fiamin, Fran Kurelac, Antun Mažuranić, Jakov Antun Mikoč, Vinko Pacel, Fran Pilepić and Adolfo Veber Tkalčević. Their relation to the basic linguistic questions of the 19th century is pointed out in the introductory texts – ; ; ; Philological Topics and Dilemmas in the 19th century and The Philological circle of Rijeka, while the majority of their relation is also presented in this book in separate studies. Among the ten above mentioned philologists, we can find the founder of the Zagreb School of Philology, formerly the Rijeka Secondary-School pupil and later the headmaster of a secondary school – ; ; ; Antun Mažuranić (born at Novi Vinodolski in 1805 – ; ; ; died at Zagreb in 1888), elder brother of the great poet and civil governor Ivan. He entered into the history of the Croatian standard language in capital letters as an Illyrian grammarian and lexicographer. His Bases of the Illyrian and Latin Language and the subsequent Croatian Grammar are the real bases, and it is, therefore, a pity that a (promised) syntactic description did not follow after a detailed morphological one. On the other hand, the lexicographic contribution of Mažuranić was never made public under his name. It is only indirectly that we know that it was he who wrote a collection of words and published it in the review Danica in 1835, who helped in the compilation of a German and Croatian dictionary written by Ivan Mažuranić and Jakov Užarević, and that he took part, together with his brother Ivan and the linguist Vjekoslav Babukić, in preparing the supplement of Osman written by Gundulić, where meeting the lexical standards was of utmost importance. Antun Mažuranić left traces not only in the standard Croatian language, but also in the history of the Croatian language and in the dialectology, with the analysis of the Law of Vinodol and with the first systematic description of a chakavian dialect. The second great name of the Zagreb School of Philology is also linked to this part of the country – ; ; ; Adolfo Veber Tkalčević (born at Bakar in 1825 - died at Zagreb in 1889) – ; ; ; one of the greatest Croatian linguists. His work is hard to be summarized in a few words, since he gave a great contribution not only on a narrow linguistic field – ; ; ; as a grammarian and a firm polemist, but also on a wider one – ; ; ; as a literary theoretician and as a literary practitian as well, as a travel and prose-writer, as a preacher and as a translator. The Veber's linguistic views marked the second part of the 19th century in the whole, then disunited, Croatia and created the basis for a modern grammatical description of the Croatian language, especially on the syntactic level. His violent polemics with Frano Kurelec, in which he pleaded for the lexicological views of the Croatian Slovak Bogoslav Šulek, cleared up many normative doubts. All these facts undoubtedly take us to the Rijeka philological kingpin, to the great enthusiast Fran Kurelec (born at Bruvno na Krbavi in 1811 – ; ; ; died at Zagreb in 1874), a Croatian language teacher at the Rijeka Secondary School. As a competent high-quality linguist, he was the founder, leader and main representative of the Rijeka philological circle, and widely regarded asone of the best Croatian polemists. He gave a contribution in a broader philological field as a collector of folk art works, as a translator and as a travel-writer. Unfortunately, there were no great linguistic works left behind him – ; ; ; a grammar or dictionary or stylistics, although he showed outstanding talents to express himself grammatically correct, and therefore, was systematically praised as an excellent stylist, but left an unfinished dictionary manuscript. When he was dismissed from his job at the Rijeka Secondary School due to political reasons, he suggested to his fellow colleague Vinko Pacel (born at Karlovac in 1825 - died at Karlovac in 1869), a teacher of the natural sciences, to take over the teaching of the Croatian language as well. This natural scientist, by his primary vocation, was also an excellent linguist, the author of many important texts, in which he made good use, in the best possible way, of his natural-science knowledge at the time when the Croatian terminology was to be introduced. Although impressed by the linguistic ideas of Kurelec at the beginning, he found his way towards the standards. Pacel had less success as a writer, editor and translator, but would have probably been more efficient as a politician if he had not died in the prime of his life. Those who persisted on the way paved by Kurelec were his scholars from Rijeka, but even they aimed at establishing a harmony between the teacher's teaching doctrine and pragmatics – ; ; ; the standard language as used by the members of the Zagreb School of Philology. None of them took up the profession of a linguist, and it is only indirectly that we are able to interpret their linguistic attitudes and their searching between the juvenil enthusiasm over the great Kurelec and the adult's perception of the real world. Consequently, the Rijeka circle includes the Glagolitic paleographer and historian Ivan Črnčić (born at Polje, Dobrinjština, on the island of Krk in 1830 - died at Rome in 1897), the translator and writer Ivan Fiamin (born at Volosko in 1833 - died at Rijeka in 1890), the medical doctor, lexicographer and writer Ivan Dežman (born at Rijeka in 1841 - died at Zagreb in 1873), the lawyer and politician Fran Pilepić (born at Rijeka in 1838 - died at Rijeka in 1890), and the youngest among them and the most devoted one to his teacher, Bude Budisavljević (born at Bjelopolje in Lika in 1843 - died at Zagreb in 1919), the regional prose-writer dealing with the topics of the Lika region. Not all the intelectuals from Rijeka adopted the literary and linguistic ideas of Kurelec. On the contraty, many of them, in their direct contacts with Bogoslav Šulek and other representatives of the Zagreb School of Philology proved their adherence to its normative concept rather than to the one promoted by the Rijeka School of Philology. To prove this we can choose the works of two teachers of the Merchant Marine College, who were at the same maritime topic-writers and, what is even more important, maritime lexicographers – ; ; ; Jakov Antun Mikoč (born at Bakar in 1797 - died at Rijeka in 1854) and Božo Babić (born at Sv.Juraj near Senj in 1840 - died at Senj in 1912). Their dictionaries in manuscript and printed have pointed out to the possibilities that the Croatian language has in creating a professional maritime terminology. The portrait of the Rijeka philologists is with this book only partly formed, and the work on its further shaping is far from being completed

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Fran Kurelac's Timeline

1811
January, 1811
Bruvno, Lika, Croatia
1874
June 18, 1874
Age 63
Zagreb, Croatia
????
Zagreb Mirogoj, Croatia