Foulques III "Nerra", comte d'Anjou, V. comte de Vendôme

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Foulques d'Anjou, III

Also Known As: "Le Noir", "Nerra", "Foulques", "Count D'anjou", "the Black", "/Fulk/ III", "Count", ""LeNoir" Count", "/Le Noir/", "The Black", "Fulk Nerra /Plantaganet/", ""the Black")", "le Noir", "called Nerra (that is", ""Le /Noir"/", "Fulke III /De Anjou/", "Count of Anjou", "Fulk the Black", "Fulk..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
Death: Died in Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France
Place of Burial: chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Geoffrey "Grisgonelle", comte d'Anjou and Adèle de Meaux, dite de Vermandois
Husband of Beatrice d'Eu; Elisabeth dite "Adèle" de Vendôme and Hildegarde, Countess d'Anjou
Father of Payan d'Aunay; Ermengarde of Anjou; Adèle d'Anjou, VI. comtesse de Vendôme; Adeline Ade d'Anjou; Gerberge d'Anjou and 3 others
Brother of Ermangarde d'Anjou, Duchess of Bretagne; Raingarde; Adela Blanca D' ANJOU, COUNTESS OF PROVENCE; Maurice d'Anjou; Gerberge d'Anjou and 1 other
Half brother of Maurice d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou

Occupation: Count of Anjou, Conde de Anjou, One of the remarkable rulers of this period (see notes), Sâenâechal de France, COUNT OF ANJOU, 'NERRA', Greve av Anjou, Greve, @occu00052@, Comte de Anjou "Le Noir", Comte, d'Anjou, v.987, Sénéchal, de France
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Foulques III "Nerra", comte d'Anjou, V. comte de Vendôme

Fulk III “the Black”, born circa 966, was the son of Geoffrey Grisegonelle "Greymantle" or "Grey Tunic". He one of the most remarkable figures of his period and the most powerful member of the dynasty. Fulk ruled Anjou for 53 years. He was both cruel and devotional, and had a violent and pious temperament. He was partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. A temperamental, passionate and unbalanced character, his most heinous act was having his first wife (and cousin), Elisabeth of Vendôme, burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherder in December 999. Fulk came into conflict with the Counts of Rennes, he conquered and slew Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine. He died at Metz, while on pilgrimage. Fulk was an old man when he decided to make what might be his last pilgrimage, as penance for his sins. The first night he stayed at the abbey of St. Maur-sur-Loire, where he learned more about the life of St. Maur. Fulk became overcome with passion and devotion in the Holy Lands. Previously Fulk was known as "the Black." Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, who was his successor, and Ermengard. A writer said of Fulk III that “he was a plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing. Nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.”

Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois. Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

Fulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III,_Count_of_Anjou

He was born on 21 Jun 967 in Anjou, France. He died on 21 Jun 1040 in Metz, France.115 He was buried on 21 Jun 1040 in , Beaulieu-Lès-Loches, 37.16 He was also known as Le Noir The Black. He graduated in Made 3 Or 4 Pilgrimages To Jerusalem To Atone For His Sins..16 Name Suffix:<NSFX> The Black ADELAIDE IS GEOFFREY'S 1ST WIFE; MLC/RAName Suffix:<NSFX> III

Known as a terrifying character of fiendish cruelty. Plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of fale oaths. Made 3 or 4 pilgrimages to Jerusalem to atone for his sins . When taken w/ remorse he abandoned himself to incredible penances. Buried at Abbey de St. Pier re de Beaulieu, France.

" Not all founders [of monasteries] were known for their kindness. Fulk of Anjo u, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fu lk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, rav aging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all th e commandments of God. This appalling man had countless crimes upon his consc ience, but when seized with a fit of remorse he abandoned himself to incredibl e penances. Thus the very tomb of St. Martin, whose monks he had ill-treated, saw him prostrate, with bare feet and in penitent's dress; and four times dur ing his life he went to Jerusalem as a devout pilgrim, treading half-naked the sorrowful road of the passion while two of his servants flogged him until the blood flowed, crying, "Lord, receive thy perjured Fulk!" " --- Richard Erdoe s, *AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse*, 1988 (reprint 1995) p 121 _FA2

Parents: Count Of Anjou Geoffroi Ier Grisegonelle D'ANJOU and Countess Anjou Adelaide De VERMANDOIS. Parents: Count Of Anjou Geoffroi Ier Grisegonelle D'ANJOU and Adelaide De Chalon DE VERMANDOIS. Parents: Count Of Anjou Geoffroi Ier Grisegonelle D'ANJOU and Of Vermandois ADELAIDE.

Spouse: Hildegarde Of Lotharingia. Count Of Fulk III The BLACK and Hildegarde Of Lotharingia were married after 1000 in , , Anjou, France.115,263 Children were: Comtesse Ermengarde D'ANJOU.

Spouse: HILDEGARDE. Count Of Fulk III The BLACK and HILDEGARDE were married. Children were: 1st Baron Of Kendal Ivo Fitzrichard TAILLEBOIS DE REUMAR, Ermengarde Ou Blanche D'ANJOU.

Children were: Comtesse Ermengarde D'ANJOU.

Spouse: Elizabeth De VENDOME. Count Of Fulk III The BLACK and Elizabeth De VENDOME were married before 989 in , , , France. Children were: Adele De ANJOU.

Spouse: Hildegarde De ANJOU. Count Of Fulk III The BLACK and Hildegarde De ANJOU were married in 1000 in Anjou, France.15,20,314,707 Children were: Geoffrey Of Anjou MARTEL, Elizabeth De ANJOU, Geoffroy II De ANJOU, Comtesse Ermengarde D'ANJOU. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~lzrslong/b351.htm#P187727 -------------------- Geoffrey's successor Fulk III Nerra [d.1040], one of the most remarkable figures of his period and the most powerful member of the dynasty, ruled from 987 to 1040. He finally drove his encroaching neighbours back beyond the frontiers of Anjou and built strongly fortified castles along the border of his territory. Fulk's son Geoffrey II 'Martel' (1040-60) pursued the policy of expansion begun by his father and annexed the Vendômois and a part of Maine to Anjou. Because he left no sons, his two nephews, Geoffrey III the Bearded [le Barbu] and Fulk IV 'the Rude' [le Réchin], shared the succession. However, they soon came into armed conflict, and Fulk defeated Geoffrey in 1068. Nevertheless, he had to give up most of the lands that Fulk III Nerra had acquired to defend his fief against the claims of the Duke of Normandy. -------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

Fulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1] . . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ” Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine. Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur. Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church. Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesHe was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent and pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God. . . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais , one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife , Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengard.

[edit] -------------------- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois. Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

He was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent and pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ”

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengard. -------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesHe was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent but also pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say:

Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengard.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois. Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

Fulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ”

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Erdoes.
  2. ^ Achille Luchaire.

[edit] Sources

   * Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040: a Political Biography of the Angevin Count. University of California Press, 1993.
   * Erdoes, Richard. AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse, 1988
   * Fichtenau, Henry. Living in the Tenth Century, 1991.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_the_Black -------------------- Fulk III, Count of Anjou From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

He was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent but also pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1] . . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ” Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine. All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur. Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church. Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde. [edit]Notes

^ Erdoes. ^ Achille Luchaire. [edit]Sources

Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040: a Political Biography of the Angevin Count. University of California Press, 1993. Erdoes, Richard. AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse, 1988 Fichtenau, Henry. Living in the Tenth Century, 1991.

THE ORDER OF SAINT JOHN:

"Pilgrimage to sites regarded as holy is as old as mankind" (Riley-Smith, 3). Surviving accounts of journeys to Jerusalem date from the year 333. After Jerusalem fell to the Muslims, in 638, there were fewer visitors because of the uncertainy of safety. By the time of the first millenium, in the year 1000, people tried to again make these pilgrimages to the Holy Lands. This was most likely because of the omens about the world ending with the return of the anti-Christ and the return of their Savior to oust the Devil.

Early in the 11th century (in the 1030s) many more people were making pilgrimages to the holy city of Jerusalem. By this period in time, Count Fulk III (972-June 21, 1040) of Anjou was taking his last pilgrimage.

Fulk had ruled Anjou for fifty-three (53) years. Fulk was both cruel and devotional. He had a violent and pious temperament. He was partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. His most heinous act was having his first wife (and cousin), Elisabeth of Vendôme, burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherder in December 999.

Fulk was an old man when he decided to make what might be his last pilgrimage, as penance for his sins. The first night he stayed at the abbey of St. Maur-sur-Loire, where he learned more about the life of St. Maur. Fulk became overcome with passion and devotion in the Holy Lands. Previously Fulk was known as "the Black." Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, who was his successor, and Ermengard.

A writer said of Fulk III:

Fulk of Anjou [was] plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God (un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge and Wikipedia.

The First Crusade began in the 1090s. Pilgrimages led some Italian merchants to obtain, from the city's Muslim rulers, the right to maintain a Roman Catholic Church there. In connection with this church, a hospital was established for the pilgrims who contracted various diseases on their journey. When the Crusaders took Jerusalem, the master of the hospital was Gerard de Martignes (d. 1120), from Provencial France. Blessed Gerard, as founder, acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. The pilgrim's hospital was dedicated to St. John the Baptist and founded around 1070 as part of a Benedictine monastery.

Gerard was director of the Hospital of Notre Dame in the Holy City sometime before the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099. At first, Gerard directed the Hospital under the authority of the Abbot of St. Mary. Later he and his companions left and created a special congregation, adopted a Rule, took vows and were accredited by the Popes. The first papal bull, in their favor, is dated 15 February 1113 and refers to "Gerard, Founder and Governor of the Hospital at Jerusalem and his Legitimate Successors". This document was adminstered by Pope Paschal II (1099-1118). A sub-order was called "The Canons of the Holy Sepulchre." They were responsible for guarding the tomb of Christ. Each knight of the Hospitallers was allowed his own four horses and two esquires, while a sergeant had two horses and, from 1302, a sergeant was also allowed one squire. Blessed Gerard's skull is precerved in the convent of St. Ursula, in Vallette, Malta.

Valletta is the capital city of Malta, and is built on the northern half of the Sciberras peninsula, which separates the Grand Harbour from Marsamxett Harbour. Valletta was conceived by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, of the Knights of Saint John. When the knights agreed to make Malta their headquarters, they realized that they needed a defensible city to protect the island against the Turkish hordes. The Turks had already been driven them out of Rhodes, and the they followed them to Malta.

At the Grand Master's request, the Pope sent his own architect, Francesco Laperelli, to plan this city. Laparelli was the great Michelangelo's assistant. Laparelli arrived in Malta on December 28th, 1565. His plans, for the city, were drawn up within three days. On March 28th, 1565, Valette was officially born. Their new city was christened "Valletta" after the Grand Master Jean de la Valette.

Towards the end of 1568, a Maltese architectural engineer, Gerolamo Cassar, took charge of the building of the city. Grand Master Laparelli left for active service in Crete, and died. The body of Jean de la Valette was entombed in the church, called Our Lady of Victory, until St. John's Co-Cathedral was built. St. John the Baptist is the Patron Saint of the Order. St. John's was the Order's church and was accorded the status of Co-Cathedral in 1882 along with the Cathedral at Mdina.

Then The Order of the Knights Templar was established in 1119-1120. In 1128, the Order of the Knights Templar is recognized by the Catholic Church. These two Orders were united in the same cause, which was to protect and heal the Christians as they made their pilgrimage to the Holy Lands. Somewhere around 1135-1154, the Hospitallers were made independent of local religious authorities (The Muslims).

Pilgrimages were an important part of religious life in the Middle Ages. Out of devotion or penance, men and women made their way to the various shrines of Europe to pay homage to the saints or holy places. The most popular destinations were Santiago de Compostela in Spain, to Rome, and to Jerusalem. Trips to Jerusalem were dangerous, since Jerusalem had been in Muslim hands since the seventh century. In 1016, Caliph Hakin began to persecute Christians, and he tore down the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Hakim declared himself divine in the same year, and even began to kill his own subjects. Most thought him a madman.

In 1095, the Emperor of Bzyantium, Alexius I, Comnenus (1081-1118), asked the Roman Pope to send Christian knights to help him to reconquer eastern Turkey. Eastern Turkey was lost at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Thus began the war on God's behalf.

The main "Soldiers of God" were the Hospitallers and the Knights Templars. However, for some reason of dispute, by the thirteenth century, the Templars and Hospitallers were fighting each other in Acre.

The Order was also called the "Knights of Malta" and then became the "Knights of Rhodes." The "Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem," followed the rule of St. Augustine. After the fall of Acre, in 1291, the Order transferred to Cyprus, then to Rhodes (in 1310), and in 1530 to Malta after being driven out of Rhodes by the forces of Sulieman, "The Magnificent," in 1530. Note that Sulieman is "Solomon" in English. Sulieman was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520-1566. The Hospitallers were a major military force in the Meditteranean until they were defeated by Napoleon in 1789. The Order was given protection by Russian Emperor Paul I (1796-1801), and by 1834 it moved its headquarters to Rome with the help of Pope Leo XIII.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesFulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1] . . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2]

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

[edit] Notes 1.^ Erdoes. 2.^ Achille Luchaire. [edit] Sources Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040: a Political Biography of the Angevin Count. University of California Press, 1993. Erdoes, Richard. AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse, 1988 Fichtenau, Henry. Living in the Tenth Century, 1991. Preceded by Geoffrey I Count of Anjou 987 – 1040 Succeeded by Geoffrey II Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III,_Count_of_Anjou" Categories: 972 births | 1040 deaths | House of Ingelger | Counts of Anjou -------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois. Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

Fulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ”

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III,_Count_of_Anjou -------------------- Fulk III, Count of Anjou

Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

He was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent but also pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God."

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengard.

-------------------- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulko_III._%28Anjou%29 -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III_of_Anjou -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III_of_Anjou -------------------- Fulk III, called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 until his death. He was the founder of Angevin power.

Fulk was only 15 years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent but also pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin, but not our ancestor) Elisabeth of Vendôme, burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches.

For all this, modern historiography has this to say: "Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God." And you get to inherit some of his DNA!

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, our ancestor.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III_of_Anjou for more information.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesFulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1] . . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2]

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

[edit] Notes ^ Erdoes. ^ Achille Luchaire. [edit] Sources Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040: a Political Biography of the Angevin Count. University of California Press, 1993. Erdoes, Richard. AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse, 1988 Fichtenau, Henry. Living in the Tenth Century, 1991.

-------------------- He was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent and pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruetly and penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches.

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengard.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesHe was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent and pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God." -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_the_Black -------------------- Duc d'Anjou -------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesHe was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent and pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty and penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God." -------------------- Birth: 21 Jun 0967 in of, , Anjou, France Death: 1040 in Anjou, France -------------------- Dictionnaire de la noblesse, tome I -------------------- Fulk III, Count of Anjou From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois. Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

He was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father. He had a violent but also pious temperament, partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In probably his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. He made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038. In 1007, he built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. For all this, modern historiography has this to say: “ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2] ”

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. Throughout his reign, while fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Erdoes.
  2. ^ Achille Luchaire.

[edit] Sources

   * Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040: a Political Biography of the Angevin Count. University of California Press, 1993.
   * Erdoes, Richard. AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse, 1988
   * Fichtenau, Henry. Living in the Tenth Century, 1991.

-------------------- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.


Fulk Nerra's castle keep at LochesFulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2]

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England.

-------------------- Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

Fulk Nerra's castle keep at Loches

Fulk III was the founder of Angevin power. He was only fifteen when he succeeded his father, and had a violent but also pious temperament, was partial to acts of extreme cruelty as well as penitence. In his most notorious act, he had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth of Vendôme burned at the stake in her wedding dress, after he discovered her in adultery with a goatherd in December 999. On the other hand, he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land in 1002, 1008, and 1038 and, in 1007, built the great abbey at Beaulieu-lès-Loches. As a result, historiography has this to say about him:

“ Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God.[1]

. . . un des batailleurs les plus agités du Moyen Âge.[2]

Fulk fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil on 27 June 992. He then extended his power over the Counties of Maine and Touraine.

Fulk's enterprises came up against the no less determined and violent ambitions of Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. On 6 July 1016, he defeated Odo at the Battle of Pontlevoy. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." However, when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings, primarily for defensive purposes. While fighting against the Bretons and Blesevins, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from there to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed, including those at Château-Gontier, Loches (a stone keep), and Montbazon. He built the donjon at Langeais (990), one of the first stone castles. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in Metz while returning from his last pilgrimage. He is buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu. By his first wife, Elisabeth, he left one daughter, Adela. By his second wife (1001), Hildegard of Sundgau, he had two children, Geoffrey Martel, his successor, and Ermengarde, through whom he was an ancestor of Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet kings of England. -------------------- •Name: Foulques III 1 2 •Sex: M •ALIA: "Le /Noir"/ •Title: Count of Anjou •Birth: 21 JUN 967 in Anjou, France •Death: 21 JUN 1040 in Metz, Lorraine, France 1 •Note: [Tertulle (Tercullus).ged]

"Not all founders [of monasteries] were known for their kindness. Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of fale oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God. This appalling man had countless crimes upon his conscience, but when seized with a fit of remorse he abandoned himself to incredible penances. Thus the very tomb of St. Martin, whose monks hehad ill-treated, saw him prostrate, with bare feet and in penitent's dress; and four times during his life he went to Jerusalem as a devout pilgrim, treading half-naked the sorrowful road of the passion while two of his servants flogged him until the blood flowed, crying, "Lord, receive thy perjured Fulk!" --- Richard Erdoes, *AD 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse*, 1988 (reprint 1995) p 12.

Nathaniel Taylor Posted to soc.genealogy.medieval on 8 Dec 1996: Subject: Re: FULK THE BLACK: "Fulk is spoken of elsewhere with admiration. R. W. Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages, pp. 83-86, calls him (86) a 'man of note' and a 'pioneer in the art of feudal government,' particularly in the building and strategic use of stone castles. Bernard Bachrach's biography of Fulk is more openly admiring in an Ayn Rand sort of way. Fulk may not have been particularly sensitive, but a fitting progenitor for the likes of Henry II & Edward I."[benbrink.FTW]

Fulk the Black built 13 castles, won 2 pitched battles, built 2 abbeys, and went twice to Jerusalem. (Southern observes that it's 'almost certain' that Fulk went to Jerusalem 3 times.) Southern says Fulk was 'a pioneer in the art of feudal government.' 'In them,' says Southern, speaking of Fulk the Black and his contemporary, the Duke of Normandy, 'the alternation of headlong violence with abrupt acts of remorse and atonement, which characterises the early feudal age, has its full play. -Charlotte's WebGeneology

http://www.charweb.org/gen/rjones/d0041/g0000076.htm#I253

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III_of_Anjou

Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

Adelaid of Vermandois was a direct descendant of Charlemagne

104. Fulk III "the Black" of Maine, Count of Anjou 159 (Adelaide , of Vermandois80, Robert, of Vermandois, Count of Trois and Meaux58, Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes39, Herbert I, Count of Vermandois25, Pepin, Count of Senlis, Peronne, St. Quentin15, Bernard, King of Italy5, Pepin, King of Italy and Lombardy2, Charlemagne, King of France, Holy Roman Emperor1) died on 21 Jun 1040.

Fulk married Hildegarde 191 after 1000. Hildegarde died on 1 Apr 1040 in Jerusalem, Palestine.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 130 F i. Ermengarde of Anjou 157 was born about 1018 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 58.

http://www.ffish.com/family_tree/Descendants_Charlemagne/D1.htm#90

http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/2/25579.htm

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Foulques III "Nerra", comte d'Anjou, V. comte de Vendôme's Timeline

987
June 21, 987
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
990
990
Age 2
France
1000
1000
Age 12
Anjou, France
1002
1002
Age 14
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
1002
Age 14
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
1006
October 13, 1006
Age 19
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
1015
1015
Age 27
Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
1018
March 21, 1018
Age 30
Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
1020
1020
Age 32
Dawnay Castle, , Normandy, France
1040
June 21, 1040
Age 53
Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France