Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort

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Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Château de la Bourdasière, Mont Louis, France
Death: Died in Paris, France
Place of Burial: Abbaye de Maubuisson, Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône, Val-d'Oise, Île-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Antoine d'Estrées, marquis de Coeuvres and Françoise Babou de Bourdaisière
Wife of Roger II de Saint Lary, I. duc de Bellegarde
Mother of César de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme; Catherine Henriette de Bourbon Légitimée de France Duchess of Elbeuf; Alexandre de Bourbon, Chevalier de Vendôme and N.N. N.N.
Sister of François Annibal, duc d'Estrées; Catherine-Henriette de Bourbon; François Louis d'Estrées, marquis de Coeuvres; Marie Catherine d'Estrées; Diane d'Estrées and 5 others

Occupation: Duchess of Beaufort and Verneuil; Marchioness of Monceaux; AKA "Gabrielle d'Estrées"
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort

Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchesse de Beaufort (1)

F, #589, b. 1571, d. 10 April 1599

Last Edited=28 Jan 2009

Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchesse de Beaufort was born in 1571 at Château de la Bourdasière, Mont Louis, France. (1) She was the daughter of Antoine d'Estrées, Marquis de Coeuvres and Françoise Babou de la Bourdaisière. (1)

She died on 10 April 1599 at Paris, France, unmarried. (1)

    Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchesse de Beaufort gained the title of Duchesse de Beaufort. (1) 

She and Henri IV, Roi de France were associated between 1593 and 1597. (1)

She has an extensive biographical entry in the wikipedia entry,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabrielle_d%27Estr%C3%A9e.2

Children of Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchesse de Beaufort and Henri IV, Roi de France

 -1. César de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme+ b. 3 Jun 1594, d. 22 Oct 1665 (1) 
 -2. Catherine Henriette de Bourbon+ b. 26 Mar 1596, d. 20 Jun 1663 (3) 
 -3. Alexandre de Bourbon, Chevalier de Vendôme b. 23 Apr 1598, d. 8 Feb 1629 (3) 
 -4. stillborn son d'Estrées b. 1599, d. 1599 (2) 

Forrás:

http://thepeerage.com/p59.htm#i589

--------------------

Gabrielle d'Estrées

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort et Verneuil, marquise de Monceaux (Gabrielle of Estreés, Duchess of Beaufort and Vernueil, Marchioness of Monceaux) (1571–1599) was a French mistress of King Henry IV of France, born at Château de la Bourdaisière in Montlouis-sur-Loire, in the Indre-et-Loire département of France.

Mistress to a King

Gabrielle d'Estrées became Henri's companion and lover at the age of twenty in 1591, in the middle of his bitter struggle with the Catholic League. Although he was married to Marguerite de Valois, Henri and Gabrielle were openly affectionate with each other in public. Fiercely loyal, Gabrielle accompanied Henri during his campaigns. Even when heavily pregnant, she insisted on living inside his tent near the battlefield, making sure his clothing was clean and that he ate well after a battle, handling the day to day correspondence while he fought. As she was an intelligent and practical woman, Henri confided his secrets to her and followed her advice. When the two were apart, they wrote each other frequent letters.

Born a Catholic, Gabrielle realized the best way to conclude the religious wars was for Henri himself to become a Catholic. Recognizing the wisdom in her argument, on 25 July 1593 Henri declared that "Paris is well worth a Mass" and permanently renounced Protestantism. This enabled him to be crowned King of France on February 27, 1594. As a reward, Henri arranged for her marriage to M. de Liancourt to be annulled, and gave her the titles of Marquise de Monceaux and Titular Mistress of the King of France.

News of the relationship between Henri and Gabrielle did not sit well with some members of the Parisian elite, and malicious pamphlets circulated that blamed the new duchess for many national misfortunes. One of the most vicious nicknames ascribed to Gabrielle was la duchesse d'Ordure ("the Duchess of Filth").[1]

In the succeeding years, Gabrielle became Henri's most important diplomat, using her female friends amongst the various Catholic League families to bring about peace. In March 1596, Henri gave both Gabrielle and his saintly sister Catherine a set of gold keys which bestowed upon them seats on his council. This gift pleased Gabrielle so much that she took to wearing the little keys on a chain around her neck.

Avid horseback riders, she and Henri enjoyed hunting and riding in the countryside around Paris. For seven years, she had the role of a wife and gave the King three children he willingly acknowledged, and Henri gave her the Duchy of Beaufort in 1597.

Shortly afterward, in 1598, Henri issued the Edict of Nantes, which gave the Huguenots certain rights while deferring to Catholics. Joining forces, the Huguenot Catherine and Catholic Gabrielle went to work overriding the objections of powerful Catholics and Huguenots and forcing compliance with the edict. Henri was so impressed with her efforts that he wrote "My mistress has become an orator of unequaled brilliance, so fiercely does she argue the cause of the new Edict."

[edit]Death

After applying to Pope Clement VIII for an annulment of his marriage and authority to remarry, in March of 1599 Henri gave his mistress his coronation ring. Gabrielle, so sure that the wedding would take place, stated, "Only God or the king's death could put an end to my good luck".

Perhaps she tempted fate too much. A few days later, in early April, she suffered an attack of eclampsia and gave birth to a stillborn son. King Henri was at the Royal Château de Fontainebleau when news arrived of her illness. The next day, April 10, 1599, while Henri was on his way to her, she died in Paris after the miscarriage.[2]

The king was grief-stricken, especially given the widely-held rumor that Gabrielle had been poisoned. He wore black in mourning, something no previous French monarch had done before. He gave her the funeral of a Queen; her coffin was transported amidst a procession of princes, princesses, and nobles to the Saint Denis Basilica for a requiem Mass. Known in French history and song as La Belle Gabrielle, she was interred at Abbaye Notre-Dame-la-Royale de Maubuisson, Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône (Val-d'Oise, Île-de-France).

A publication after her death called the "Mémoires secrets de Gabrielle d'Estrée" (The Secret Memoirs of Gabrielle d’Estrée) is believed to have been written by one of her friends.

[edit]Children

Her four children by Henry were:

César de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (1594–1665), married Françoise of Mercoeur and had issue. In 1626, he participated in a plot against Cardinal Richelieu. César was captured and held in prison for three years. In 1641 he was accused of conspiracy again and this time fled to England.

Catherine-Henriette de Bourbon (1596–1663), married Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf.

Alexandre, Chevalier de Vendôme (1598–1629).

stillborn son (1599).

-------------------- Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchess of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marchioness of Monceaux[1] (French pronunciation: [ɡabʁiɛl dɛstʁe]; 1573[2][3] – 10 April 1599) was a French mistress of King Henry IV of France, born at either the Château de la Bourdaisière in Montlouis-sur-Loire, in Touraine, or at the château de Cœuvres, in Picardy.[4]

Gabrielle d'Estrées became Henry's mistress in 1591, in the middle of his bitter struggle with the Catholic League. Although he was married to Marguerite de Valois, Henri and Gabrielle were openly affectionate with each other in public. Fiercely loyal, Gabrielle accompanied Henri during his campaigns. Even when heavily pregnant, she insisted on living inside his tent near the battlefield, making sure his clothing was clean and that he ate well after a battle, handling the day to day correspondence while he fought. As she was an intelligent and practical woman, Henri confided his secrets to her and followed her advice. When the two were apart, they wrote each other frequent letters.[citation needed]

Born a Catholic, Gabrielle knew that the best way to conclude the religious wars was for Henri himself to become a Catholic. Recognizing the wisdom in her argument, on 25 July 1593 Henri declared that "Paris is well worth a Mass" and permanently renounced Protestantism. This enabled him to be crowned King of France on 27 February 1594. Henri also arranged for Gabrielle's marriage to Liancourt to be annulled.

On 7 June 1594, their first child was born, a son, César de Bourbon, future Duke of Vendôme. On 4 January 1595, Henri IV officially recognized and legitimized his son in a text validated by the Parlement de Paris.[5] In that text, he also recognized Gabrielle d'Estrées as the mother of his son and as "the subject the most worthy of our friendship"; in other words, Henri IV had the Parlement de Paris officially ratify Gabrielle's position as his mistress. In 1596, he made her marquise de Monceaux and, the following year, duchesse de Beaufort.[6]

Henri IV also recognized and legitimized two more children he had with Gabrielle: Catherine-Henriette de Bourbon, a daughter born in 1596, and Alexandre de Bourbon, a son born in 1598.

The relationship between Henri and Gabrielle did not sit well with some members of the French aristocracy, and malicious pamphlets circulated that blamed the new duchess for many national misfortunes. One of the most vicious nicknames ascribed to Gabrielle was la duchesse d'Ordure ("the Duchess of Filth").[7]

Gabrielle became Henri's most important diplomat, using her female friends amongst the various Catholic League families to bring about peace. In March 1596, Henri gave both Gabrielle and his sister Catherine a set of gold keys which bestowed upon them seats on his council. This gift pleased Gabrielle so much that she took to wearing the little keys on a chain around her neck.[8]

In 1598, Henri issued the Edict of Nantes, which gave the Huguenots certain rights while deferring to Catholics. Joining forces, the Huguenot Catherine and Catholic Gabrielle went to work overriding the objections of powerful Catholics and Huguenots and forcing compliance with the edict. Henri was so impressed with her efforts that he wrote "My mistress has become an orator of unequaled brilliance, so fiercely does she argue the cause of the new Edict." [8]

[edit] DeathAfter applying to Pope Clement VIII for an annulment of his marriage and authority to remarry, in March of 1599 Henri gave his mistress his coronation ring. Gabrielle, so sure that the wedding would take place, stated, "Only God or the king's death could put an end to my good luck".[citation needed] A few days later, on 9 April, she suffered an attack of eclampsia and gave birth to a stillborn son. King Henri was at the Château de Fontainebleau when news arrived of her illness. The next day, 10 April 1599, while Henri was on his way to her, she died in Paris.[9]

The king was grief-stricken,[10] especially given the widely-held rumor that Gabrielle had been poisoned. He wore black in mourning, something no previous French monarch had done before. He gave her the funeral of a Queen; her coffin was transported amidst a procession of princes, princesses, and nobles to the Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois church in Paris, for a requiem mass. Remembered in French history and song as La Belle Gabrielle, she was interred at the Notre-Dame-La-Royale de Maubuisson Abbey[11] in Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône (Val-d'Oise, Île-de-France).

A publication after her death called the "Mémoires secrets de Gabrielle d'Estrée" (The Secret Memoirs of Gabrielle d’Estrée) is believed to have been written by one of her friends.

[edit] ChildrenHer four children by Henry were:

César, Duke of Vendôme (1594–1665), married Françoise de Lorraine (1592–1669) and had issue. In 1626, he participated in a plot against Cardinal Richelieu. César was captured and held in prison for three years. In 1641 he was accused of conspiracy again and this time fled to England. Catherine Henriette de Bourbon (1596–1663), married Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf. Alexandre, Chevalier de Vendôme (1598–1629). stillborn son (1599). [edit] Immortalized in controversial art piece The painting presumed to depict Gabrielle d'EstréesShe is the presumed subject of the painting Gabrielle d'Estrées et une de ses sœurs by an unknown artist (c.1594). Gabrielle sits up nude in a bath, holding (presumably) Henry's coronation ring, whilst her sister sits nude beside her and pinches her right nipple. Henry gave Gabrielle the ring as a token of his love shortly before she died.

The painting now hangs at the Louvre Museum in Paris.[12]

[edit] See alsoHenry IV of France's wives and mistresses [edit] References^ French: Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort et Verneuil, marquise de Monceaux ^ Petit Robert dictionary, Dictionnaires Le Robert, Paris, 1988 ^ Desclozeaux, Adrien, Gabrielle d'Estrées, marquise de Monceaux, duchesse de Beaufort, H. Champion, Paris, 1889, p. 2 [1], (French) ^ Desclozeaux, pp. 1-2. ^ http://www.calames.abes.fr/pub/#details?id=IF1C11061 ^ Bayrou, François, Le Roi libre, Flammarion, Paris, 1994, p. 438 (French). ^ Bercé, Yves-Marie, 5 ^ a b Herman, Eleanor (2004). Sex With Kings pg 158 ^ Bercé, Yves-Marie, 6 ^ Bayrou, p. 440. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=E0UoAAAAYAAJ&dq=Notre-Dame-La-Royale+de+Maubuisson+Abbey&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=S2QEI9Nfh1&sig=Sgy8pb--WXZ9RXaoYWuGpmb_y7s&hl=en&ei=c-Q2S8utFcaOlAeK1-2hBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Gabrielle%20d%27Estr%C3%A9es&f=false ^ Official site of the Louvre Museum - Portrait présumé de Gabrielle d'Estrées et de sa sœur la duchesse de Villars [edit] Bibliography Kingdom of France portal Herman, Eleanor, Sex with Kings 2004 Bayrou, François, Le Roi libre, Paris: Flammarion, 1994, ISBN 2-08-066821-8 (French) Bercé, Yves-Marie, The Birth of Absolutism: a history of France, 1598-1661. Basingstoke : Macmillan, 1996 ISBN 0333627563 [edit] Further readingEudes de Mézeray, François Abrégé chronologique de l'Histoire de France 3 vols. Paris: Chez Claude Robustel, 1717. Sully, Maximilien de Béthune, Mémoires du duc de Sully, Paris: Chez Etienne Ledoux, 1828. Fleischhauer, Wolfram Die Purpurlinie, Stuttgart, 1996 A semi-academic work in the form of a novel on her life (German) --do.-- La ligne pourpre, Paris: J.-C. Lattès, 2005. Persondata Name Estrees, Gabrielle D' Alternative names Short description Date of birth 1571 Place of birth Cœuvres, France Date of death 10 April 1599 Place of death Paris, France

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Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort's Timeline

1571
1571
Mont Louis, France
1594
June 3, 1594
Age 23
Picardie, France
1596
March 26, 1596
Age 25
1598
April 23, 1598
Age 27
1599
April 10, 1599
Age 28
Paris, France
1599
Age 28
????
????
France - aka la Belle Gabrielle
????
Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône, Val-d'Oise, Île-de-France, France