Gange-Hrólfr 'Rollo' Ragnvaldsson de Normandie

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Gange-Hrólfr 'Rollo' Ragnvaldsson, de Normandie

Also Known As: "Gangerolf", "Rollón", "Robert I", "Gǫnguhrólfr", "the Dane", "Rolf the Walker", "the Ganger", "le danois", "Hrólfr", "Rollo the Viking", "Rollo", "Duke of Normandy", "the Viking", "Robert", "Rolf", "The Ganger", "Rolf or Rollo /Ragnvaldsson/", "The Viking", "Rolf Ganger (the Walker)", "......"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Maer, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway
Death: Died in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Place of Burial: Rouen Cathedral, Rouen, Haute-Normandie, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre and Ragnhild 'Hild' Hrólfsdóttir
Husband of Poppa of Bayeux; #2 Gisela of France and Poppa of Bayeux
Fiancé of Gisèle der Franken, lll. Ehe 912
Partner of NN moður Kaðlins Rollo´s first wife or concubine
Father of Kaðlin Hrólfsdóttir, de Normandie; Adelene of Normandie; Robert Earl of Corbeil; William Granville; William "longsword" Hrólfsson and 6 others
Brother of Ivar Ragnvaldsson Mørejarl; Thore 'The Silent'; Turstan Rognvaldsson of Bastenburg and Gutum Ragnvaldson
Half brother of Einarr "Turf" Rǫgnvaldsson, Orkneyjarl; Hallad Ragnvaldsson Orkneyjarl, . and Hrollaug Ragnvaldsson Eyjafjörður, Íslands

Occupation: Duc de Normandie, Comte de Rouen, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Normandy (911 - 932), duc de Normandie, Earl of Normandy, Viking chief, Count of Normandy, 'Agongah-woekh' Aeuello (Rollo Rognvaldsson), First Duke of Normandy, Duke of Normandy 1st
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gange-Hrólfr 'Rollo' Ragnvaldsson de Normandie

http://www.web-books.com/Classics/ON/B1/B1537/12MB1537.html Gives an interesting account of his life. 2/1/13 Myrna Huthmacher

Gangu-Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, or Rollo de Normandie was a Norse nobleman and the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. The name "Rollo" is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from the Old Norse name Hrólfr, modern Scandinavian name Rolf (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum).

  • Parents: Ragnvald Eysteinsson Mørejarl & Hild Nefja (uncertain, see below)
  • Spouses:
  • 1. Poppa de Bayeux
  • Children:
    • Vilhjalm Langaspjót (Guillaume Longue Épée)
    • Geirlaug (Gerloc) who later took the name Adela
  • 2. Gisela de France (betrothal, no children)

There might be another daughter from a relationship on Iceland, by a mistress (frille), uncertain:

  • Kaðlin (Kathlin)

BIG NEWS

French and Norwegian scientists within several fields go together in a project to extract DNA from the remains of Rollo's grandson and great grandson in Fécamp. This might give us the final answer to Rollo's origin. Excavations are expected in July 2011, results sometime autumn 2011.

Links and Resources

MEDIEVAL LANDS

[ROLLO [Hrolf "Ganger/the Walker"] (-[928]). Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name “Göngu-Hrolf”[153]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[154]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[155]. This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".

According to Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Rollo arrived in northern France in 876[156], although there is some debate about [900] being a more likely date[157]. William of Jumièges records that Rollo was chosen by lot to be leader of the Viking colonists[158]. Viking raids intensified in northern France. Although they were defeated after raiding Chartres [911], Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted the Normans land around Rouen in which to settle[159]. The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future problems between the French crown, which claimed that it was an enfeofment for which the ruler owed allegiance, and the later Dukes of Normandy who claimed it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed. A charter dated 14 Mar 918 which granted land to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés "except that part…which we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[160]. He was later known as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie].

ROLLO ["Ganger" Hrolf], son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of Möre in Norway & his wife Ragnhild ---] (-Rouen [928/33], bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[6]). The parentage of Rollo/Rolf is uncertain and the chronology of his life confused. Richer names "Rollone filio Catilli" as leader of the Vikings who raided along the Loire and against whom "Robertus Celticæ Galliæ dux" campaigned[7]. No further reference has been found to "Catillus/Ketel". Flodoard provides no information on Rollo´s ancestry. The early 12th century William of Malmesbury states that "Rollo…[was] born of noble lineage among the Norwegians, though obsolete from its extreme antiquity" and adds that he was "banished by the king´s command from his own country"[8]. The later Orkneyinga Saga is more specific, naming “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name “Göngu-Hrolf”[9]. Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[10]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[11]. This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi". Guillaume de Jumièges accords a Danish origin to Rollo, stating that his father "possédant presque en totalité le royaume de Dacie, conquit en outre les territoires limitrophes de la Dacie et de l´Alanie" and left "deux fils…l´aîné Rollon et le plus jeune Gurim"[12]. He records that the king of Denmark defeated the two brothers and killed Gorm, and that Rollo fled the country, first landing in England, where he made peace with "le roi…Alstem"[13]. If this refers to Æthelstan King of Wessex, the account must be confused given King Æthelstan´s succession in 924. Freeman suggests that Guillaume de Jumièges must be referring to "Guthrum-Æthelstan of East-Anglia"[14], although this does not resolve the chronological problems assuming that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is correct in recording Guthrum´s death in 890[15]. After recording Rollo´s expeditions in Frisia, Guillaume de Jumièges states that Rollo landed at Jumièges after sailing up the Seine in 876[16], another suspect date which Houts suggests should be corrected to [900][17]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo defeated "Renaud duc de toute la France", captured "le château de Meulan", defeated and killed Duke Renaud in another campaign, besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, and attacked Paris again while his other troops devastated Evreux where they killed "son évêque…Sibor"[18]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo attacked Chartres but withdrew after being defeated by "Richard duc de Bourgogne" and "Anselme l évêque"[19].

William of Malmesbury records that "Rollo…experienced a check at Chartres" but escaped the "plentiful slaughter" of the Vikings by the townspeople, before capturing Rouen "in 876"[20]. Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted Rollo "tout le territoire maritime qui s´étend depuis la rivière d´Epte jusqu´aux confines de la Bretagne" together with "sa fille…Gisèle", that "les princes de cette province…Béranger et Alain" swore allegiance to Rollo, and that Rollo was baptised in 912 by "l´archévêque Francon", adopting the name ROBERT after "le duc Robert" who acted as his sponsor[21].

William of Malmesbury records that "it was determined by treaty, that [Rollo] should be baptised, and hold the country of the king as his lord"[22]. The charter which confirms the original grant (assuming that there was such a document) has not survived. However, the grant of land is inferred from a charter dated 14 Mar 918, under which land was donated to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés specifying that the donation excluded "that part…which we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[23]. The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future problems between the French crown, which claimed that Normandy was an enfeofment for which the ruling duke owed allegiance, and the later dukes of Normandy, who claimed that it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed[24].

The version of events recorded by Flodoard provides a different slant and names two Viking leaders. Firstly, Flodoard records that in 923 "Ragenoldus princeps Nortmannorum" who occupied "in fluvio Ligeri" devastated "Franciam trans Isaram", that "Nortmanni" made peace in 924 "cum Francis", that King Raoul granted them "Cinomannis et Baiocæ" [Maine and Bayeux], but that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted the land between the Loire and the Seine[25]. This passage makes no mention of the supposed earlier grant of land along the shore. Secondly, the same source records that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted Burgundy in 925, that Héribert [II] Comte de Vermandois besieged Norman castles "super Sequanam", that "Nortmanni" devastated "pagum Belvacensem atque Ambianensem" [Beauvais and Amboise], while Comte Héribert and Arnoul Count of Flanders forced "Rollo princeps" from his strongholds[26]. Thirdly, Flodoard states that "Hugo filius Rotberti et Heribertus comes" campaigned against "Nortmannos" in 927, that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles at "castellum…Auga", and that "Rollo" held "filius Heriberti Odo" as a hostage in 928, which suggests some sort of alliance between Rollo and Comte Héribert[27]. William of Malmesbury records that Rollo died at Rouen[28]. The date of his death is uncertain: Flodoard names Rollo as living in 928 (see above) but the same source names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[29]. Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of Robert's body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[30], which would date the event to [1064]. He is known to history as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], although no early source has been identified which refers to him by this name or title.

[m] [firstly] ---. The identity of Rollo´s first wife or concubine is not known.

m [secondly] ([886] or after, repudiated, remarried after 912) POPPA, daughter of BERENGAR Comte de Bayeux & his wife ---. Guillaume of Jumièges records that Rollo took "Popa, fille de Bérenger, homme illustre" when he captured Bayeux and "s´unit avec elle, à la manière des Danois"[31]. According to Orderic Vitalis, Rollo "stormed and captured Bayeux, slew its count Berengar and took to wife his daughter Poppa"[32]. In another passage, the same source records that Rollo besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, killed "Berengarium comitem" and married his daughter Popa, in 886[33], although this date appears early in light of the likely birth date range of the couple's son Guillaume. The Chronico Rotomagensis records that "mortua a Gisla, accepit Rollo propriam uxorem filiam comitis Silvanectensis Widonis"[34]. Robert of Torigny combines the information, recording that "Rollo dux Northmannorum" married "Popam prius repudiatam uxorem…filiam…Berengarii comitis Baiocensis neptem vero Widonis comitis Silvanectensis"[35]. The Historia Norwegie records that, after capturing Rouen, "Rodulfus" married the daughter of its deceased count by whom he was father of "Willelmum…Longosped"[36]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that "le comte Bernard" welcomed "son neveu Richard" (grandson of Rollo) at Senlis after his escape from captivity[37], although in another passage he describes how Rollo captured Bayeux and took "une très-noble jeune fille Popa, fille de Bérenger" in the town, marrying her "à la manière des Danois"[38], in a later passage adding that Rollo married Poppa, whom he had previously repudiated, a second time after the death of his wife[39]. It would be possible to reconcile the different versions if Comte Bernard's mother was married twice, her first husband being Bérenger Comte de Bayeux.

m thirdly (912) GISELA, daughter of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks & his first wife Frederuna --- ([908/16]-before her husband). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[40]. Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted Rollo "tout le territoire maritime qui s´étend depuis la rivière d´Epte jusqu´aux confines de la Bretagne" together with "sa fille…Gisèle", and their marriage which took place after Rollo´s baptism[41]. Her marriage is recorded in the Norman annals for 912, which state that she died without issue, presumably soon after the marriage when Gisla must still have been an infant. The chronicle of Dudo of Saint-Quentin[42] describes her as of "tall stature, most elegant…", which is of course inconsistent with her supposed birth date range. The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam suam [=rex Karolus] nomine Gillam" to "Rollo"[43]. Settipani considers that the marriage did not occur, and that the Norman sources confused it with the marriage of Gisela, daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, to the Viking leader Gotfrid[44].

Rollo & his [first wife] had two children:

1. [KADLINE . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Landnáma-Boc which records that "son of Oht-here…Helge" captured and married [her daughter] "Nidh-beorg, daughter of king Beolan and Cadh-lina, daughter of Walking-Rolf [Gongo-Hrólfs]" when he "harried in Scotland", and also records their descendants[45]. No other record has been found of "king Beolan" and the accuracy of this report is unknown. m BEOLAN King [in Scotland].]

2. [NIEDERGA . Niederga is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[46] as the second daughter of Rollo by his first wife but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.]

Robert & his [second] wife had two children:

3. GUILLAUME (Rouen [900/05]-murdered Pequigny 17 Dec 942, bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[47]). Guillaume de Jumièges names "Guillaume et…Gerloc" as children of Rollo and Poppa[48]. However, the Planctus for William Longsword[49], composed shortly after the murder of Guillaume, states that he had a Christian mother of overseas origin. Dudo of Saint-Quentin states that he was born in Rouen and, in a later passage, describes him as a "young man" one year before his father's death[50]. His father chose him as heir one year before his death[51]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that he was born before his father's marriage to Gisela and his remarriage with Popa after Gisela's death[52]. Flodoard records that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles III "le Simple" at "castellum…Auga" in 927[53]. He succeeded his father in [928/33] as GUILLAUME I "Longuespee" Comte [de Normandie]. Flodoard names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[54]. He quelled a rebellion by the Viking chief Riulf after the latter besieged Rouen[55]. In return for swearing allegiance to Raoul King of France, he appears to have been granted rights to further territory along the coast in 933, maybe the Cotentin and Avranchin. If this is correct, it would have created rivalry with the dukes of Brittany. Dudo of Saint-Quentin describes Comte Guillaume's invasion of Brittany shortly after his accession to quell a rebellion against him, and his defeat of the rebels at Bayeux[56]. Responding to raids by Comte Guillaume, Arnoul I Count of Flanders invaded Ponthieu and in 939 captured Montreuil from Herluin Comte de Ponthieu, although it was recaptured by Comte Guillaume's forces. In 939, Guillaume joined the alliance against Louis IV King of France which was led by Otto I "der Große" King of Germany who raided Frankish territory. Comte Guillaume, however, met King Louis at Amiens, receiving a confirmation of the grant of his lands in Normandy. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Guillaume was tricked into a meeting on the river Seine at Pecquigny by Arnoul Count of Flanders to settle their dispute over the castle of Montreuil, but was murdered on Count Arnoul's orders, recording his death on 17 Dec[57]. The Annalibus Rotomagensibus record that "Willermus dux Normannorum filius Rollonis" was killed "943 XVI Kal Jan"[58]. Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of his body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[59], which would date the event to [1064].

[m] firstly SPROTA, daughter of ---. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Guillaume married "une très-noble jeune fille Sprota…selon l'usage des Danois"[60]. From Brittany. It is possible that Sprota was Count Guillaume's concubine rather than wife, particularly as no reference has been found to a dissolution of any marriage before she married Esperleng. She married Esperleng de Pîtres, by whom she had Rodulf [Raoul] Comte d'Ivry.

m secondly ([940]) as her first husband, LUITGARDIS de Vermandois, daughter of HERIBERT II Comte de Vermandois & his wife Adela [Capet] (before 925-14 Nov after 985, bur Chartres, Abbaye de Saint-Père). Rodulfus Glauber refers to the wife of Comte Guillaume as "sororem [Heribertum Trecorum comitem]", specifying that she was childless by her first husband, when recording her second marriage to "Tetbaldus"[61]. Guillaume de Jumièges records the marriage of Guillaume and the daughter of Heribert, specifying that it was arranged by Hugues "le Grand"[62]. The source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. She married secondly Thibaut I Comte de Blois. "Hugonis ducis, Odonis comitis, Hugonis sanctæ Bituricensis archipræsulis, Letgardis comitissæ, Bertæ comitissæ, Gauzfridi vicecomitis…" subscribed the charter dated 985 under which "Robertus" donated property to "Sancti Petri Carnotensis", on the advice of "Odonem, simul cum sua matre Ledgarde, pariterque dominam meam Bertam, ipsius æque coniugem"[63]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XVIII Kal Dec" of "Letgardis comitissa"[64]. Guillaume & his first wife had one child:

a) RICHARD (Fécamp [932]-20 Nov 996, bur Fécamp). Guillaume de Jumièges names Richard as son of Guillaume and Sprota, recording that news of his birth was brought to his father when he was returning from his victory against the rebels led by "Riulf"[65]. After the death of Richard's father, Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks briefly controlled Rouen, and kept Richard prisoner, before the latter was able to escape, whereupon he succeeded as RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte [de Normandie].

4. GERLOC (-after 969). Guillaume de Jumièges names "Guillaume et…Gerloc" as children of Rollo and Poppa, in a later passage records her marriage to "Guillaume comte de Poitou"[66]. Robert of Torigny also names "Willermum Longum Spatam et Gerloch" as children of "Rollo dux Northmannorum" and Poppa[67]. The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "Heblus…Pictavorum Comes et Dux Aquitaniæ duxit Adelam filiam Rolli Rothomagensis"[68], although this is presumably an error for Guillaume son of Ebles. She adopted the name ADELA when baptised. "Guillelmi comitis, Adeleidis comitisse" subscribed a charter recording a donation to Cluny dated [963][69]. Lothaire King of France granted her 14 Oct 962 the right to dispose of extensive property in Poitiers, la Cour de Faye, this grant effectively putting an end to the long dispute between her husband and the family of Hugues "Capet". She used the property to found the Monastery of Sainte-Trinité[70]. m (935) GUILLAUME I "Tête d'Etoupe" Comte de Poitou, son of EBLES "Mancer" Comte de Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine & his first wife Aremburga ([900]-3 Apr 963). He succeeded in 959 as GUILLAUME III Duke of Aquitaine.

Rollo's origin

He is named as Rollo and said to have come from Dacia by Dudo of St. Quentin (c. 965-after 1043), the historian of the Norman dukes and the earliest source. Dudo does not name Rollo's parents. The Orkneyinga saga, a later source (c. 1230), identifies him with Hrolf Gange, who is said to have been a son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, jarl of Møre. Modern scholars generally doubt the identification with Hrolf. See, for example, Stewart Baldwin, "Rollo of Normany" in soc.genealogy.medieval, Mar. 16, 1998.

There is much support for the claim of Rollo's homeland being Sykkylven in Sunnmøre (Møre), Norway.

Dacia, the country Dudo refers to as Rollo's homeland, was what people outside Scandinavia called the Nordic countries as a unity: Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Iceland together. Dudo describes Dacia as a country of high mountains, surrounding Rollo's estate - just like Gange-Hrolf's Fauske in Sykkylven. (see photos)

At the time the language, Old Norse (called dönsk tunga by Snorri and others) was still the same and had not started to divide into separate dialects or languages.

Fasge, the place Adam of Bremen describes as Rollo's home, can easily be placed in Sykkylven where Gangu-Hrolfr had his estate at the farm called Fauske, Aure or Aurum. The Danish historian Steenstrup identified (works from 1876-82) Fasge with the town Faxe in Denmark, but linguistic argument shows that this consonant change is highly unlikely, and that the Norwegian place-name Fauske is more probable.

The outstanding linguist Håkon Melberg argued in his dissertation that linguistic studies could shed light on the origin of the Scandinavian people and their history. In particular he opposes Steenstrup's analysis and points at several discrepancies, making Denmark improbable as Gange-Hrolf's origin.

http://books.google.com/books?hl=no&id=KGIeAAAAMAAJ&q=fauske#search_anchor

Sources

More here: http://www.eutopia.no/Gangerolv.html

Melberg, Håkon: Origin of the Scandinavian Nations and Languages : An Introduction (doctoral dissertation). University of Oslo, 1952.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%A5kon_Melberg http://books.google.com/books?id=KGIeAAAAMAAJ&hl=no&pgis=1 http://ask.bibsys.no/ask/action/show?pid=921271042&kid=biblio

Languages

Gangu-Hrolf's Languages: Old French and Old Norse (the language spoken in the Nordic countries at the time):

"Danish tounge", dansk tunga, would be the language spoken in all of Scandinavia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Norse_language

dönsk tunga: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Icelandic_language#The_Scandinavian_period_.28550.E2.80.931050.29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_French

Snorri Sturlusson

From Heimskringla, Snorri: "24. ROLF GANGER DRIVEN INTO BANISHMENT.

Earl Ragnvald was King Harald's dearest friend, and the king had the greatest regard for him. He was married to Hild, a daughter of Rolf Nefia, and their sons were Rolf and Thorer. Earl Ragnvald had also three sons by concubines, -- the one called Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug; and all three were grown men when their brothers born in marriage were still children Rolf became a great viking, and was of so stout a growth that no horse could carry him, and wheresoever he went he must go on foot; and therefore he was called Rolf Ganger. He plundered much in the East sea. One summer, as he was coming from the eastward on a viking's expedition to the coast of Viken, he landed there and made a cattle foray. As King Harald happened, just at that time, to be in Viken, he heard of it, and was in a great rage; for he had forbid, by the greatest punishment, the plundering within the bounds of the country. The king assembled a Thing, and had Rolf declared an outlaw over all Norway. When Rolf's mother, Hild heard of it she hastened to the king, and entreated peace for Rolf; but the king was so enraged that here entreaty was of no avail. Then Hild spake these lines: --

"Think'st thou, King Harald, in thy anger, To drive away my brave Rolf Ganger Like a mad wolf, from out the land? Why, Harald, raise thy mighty hand? Why banish Nefia's gallant name-son, The brother of brave udal-men? Why is thy cruelty so fell? Bethink thee, monarch, it is ill With such a wolf at wolf to play, Who, driven to the wild woods away May make the king's best deer his prey."

Rolf Ganger went afterwards over sea to the West to the Hebrides, or Sudreys; and at last farther west to Valland, where he plundered and subdued for himself a great earldom, which he peopled with Northmen, from which that land is called Normandy. Rolf Ganger's son was William, father to Richard, and grandfather to another Richard, who was the father of Robert Longspear, and grandfather of William the Bastard, from whom all the following English kings are descended. From Rolf Ganger also are descended the earls in Normandy. Queen Ragnhild the Mighty lived three years after she came to Norway; and, after her death, her son and King Harald's was taken to the herse Thorer Hroaldson, and Eirik was fostered by him." (Snorri Sturlasson )

Gange-Rolv (Göngu-Hrólfr), var en norsk vikinghøvding og sagafigur som egentlig het Hrólfr Rögnvaldsson (ca 860-932) og var sønn av Ragnvald Mørejarl, kjent som jarlen som klippet Harald Hårfagre etter at Norge var samlet til ett rike.

Gange-Rolv fikk tilnavnet fordi han var så stor at han alltid måtte gå til fots, underforstått at hesten ble for liten. I følge norsk og islandsk tradisjon er denne personen identisk med den historiske Rollo, som i 911 ble utnevnt til hertug over Normandie. Rollos opphav er imidlertid omdiskutert og nok umulig å stadfeste helt sikkert ettersom kildene spriker i alle retninger. En sannsynlig slektning, Vilhelm Erobreren av Normandie, inntok England i 1066 og grunnla et nytt normannisk kongehus i der.

Gange-Rolv var med på mange tokt i Austerled, men ble forvist fra landet av Harald Hårfagre etter et strandhogg han gjorde i Viken (Norge). I henhold til Snorre dro Rolv til Valland (Frankrike) etter landsforvisningen. Der ble han blant annet ble gift med kongsdatteren Gisela, og han skal ha blitt døpt i Saint-Clair-katedralen.

WIKIPEDIA (Eng)

Rollo (c. 860 - c. 932) was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. He is also in some later sources known as Robert of Normandy.

The name Rollo is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from Scandinavian name Hrólf (cf. the latinization of Hrólf Kraki into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum).

Historical evidence Rollo was a Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of St. Quentin, in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum (Latin), tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Dacia, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed. William of Jumièges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum however he states that he was from the Danish town of Fasge. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou, also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga.

Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified this Rollo with a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas that mention a Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker). The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae, written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair, and became a Jarl in Iceland. The nickname of that character came from being so big that no horse could carry him. [1]

The question of Rollo's Danish or Norwegian origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's 1000-year-anniversary in 1911. Today, historians still disagree on this question, but most would now agree that a certain conclusion can never be reached.'

Invasion of France In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred. Legend has it that an emissary was sent by the king to find the chieftain and negotiate terms. When he asked for this information, the Vikings replied that they were all chieftains in their own right. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy.

Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy.

Rather than pay Rollo to leave, as was customary, the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, understood that he could no longer hold back their onslaught, and decided to give Rollo the coastal lands they occupied under the condition that he defend against other raiding Vikings.

In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with King Charles, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, and in admission of defeat, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. His warrior then lifted Charles' foot up to his mouth causing him to fall to the ground. [2]

Settlement Initially, Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time he and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet. Eventually, however, Rollo's men intermarried with the local women, and became more settled as Frenchmen. At the time of his death, Rollo's expansion of his territory had extended as far west as the Vire River.

Death Sometime around 927, Rollo passed the fief in Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshipped,[citation needed] and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true God in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, some of his pagan roots surfaced at the end.

Legacy Rollo is a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. Through William, he is a direct ancestor and predecessor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The "Clameur de Haro" in the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.

Depictions in Fiction Rollo is the subject of the 17th Century play Rollo Duke of Normandy written by John Fletcher, Philip Massinger, Ben Jonson, and George Chapman.

References ^ Göngu-Hrólfs saga in Old Norse from heimskringla.no ^ Holden, A.J. (1970). Le Roman de Rou de Wace. Paris: Éditions A.J. Picard. p.54. Lines 1147-1156 D.C. Douglas, "Rollo of Normandy", English Historical Review, Vol. 57 (1942), pp. 414-436 Robert Helmerichs, [Rollo as Historical Figure] Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdom under the Carolingians, 751-987, (Longman) 1983 Dudonis gesta Normannorum - Dudo of St. Quentin Gesta Normannorum Latin version at Bibliotheca Augustana Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum - An English Translation Gwyn Jones. Second edition: A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press. (1984). William W. Fitzhugh and Elizabeth Ward. Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Smithsonian Institute Press. (2000) Eric Christiansen. The Norsemen in the Viking Age. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. (2002) Agnus Konstam. Historical Atlas of the Viking World. Checkmark Books. (2002) Holgar Arbman. Ancient People and Places: The Vikings. Thames and Husdson. (1961) Eric Oxenstierna. The Norsemen, New York Graphics Society Publishers, Ltd. (1965)

TEXT - SOURCE? Rollo was a Viking leader, probably (based on Icelandic sources) from Norway, the son of Ragnvald, Earl of Moer; sagas mention a Hrolf, son of Ragnvald jarl of Moer. However, the latinization Rollo has in no known instance been applied to a Hrolf, and in the texts which speak of him, numerous latinized Hrolfs are included. Dudo of St. Quentin (by most accounts a more reliable source, and at least more recent and living nearer the regions concerned), in his Gesta Normannorum, tells of a powerful Dacian nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Dacia, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed.(1) With his followers (known as Normans, or northmen), Rollo invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event, gives a Scandinavian origin, as does the Orkneyinga Saga, Danish or Norwegian most likely.

Unlike most Vikings whose intentions were to plunder Frankish lands, Rollo's true intentions were to look for lands to settle. Upon arrival in France, and after many battles with the Vikings, Charles the Simple understood that he could no longer hold back their advances, and decided as a tempory measure to give Rollo land around Rouen, as he did with his other barons, but under the condition that he would convert to Christianity and defend the Seine River from other raiding Vikings. In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with the French King Charles the Simple, "for the protection of the realm," Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, and in admission of defeat, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required, in conformity with general usage, to kiss the foot of King Charles, he refused to stoop to what he considered so great a degradation; yet as the homage could not be dispensed with, he ordered one of his warriors to perform it for him. The latter, as proud as his chief, instead of stooping to the royal foot, raised it so high, that the King fell to the ground. It is important to note that Rollo did stay true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, but in time Rollo and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de-facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet.

Rollo expanded his territory as far west as the Vire River and sometime around 927 he passed the Duchy of Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshiped, and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true god in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, at the end, some of Rollo's pagan roots eventually came to the surface. He was a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. By William, he was a direct ancestor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The "clameur de haro" on the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.

TEXT - SOURCE??? Rollo (later Robert) "of Normandy" Viking leader in France, d. 932.

Although he is often referred to as the first Duke of Normandy, that title is an anachronism. Probably about 911, King Charles the Simple of France ceded a district around the city of Rouen to Rollo, which eventually evolved into the duchy of Normandy. He is said to have been baptized in 912, assuming the Christian name Robert. He was still living in 928, when he was holding Eudes, son of Heribert of Vermandois, as a captive and was probably dead by 932, when his son William was mentioned as leading the Normans.

Also known as Hrolf the Ganger or Rollon, 1st Duke of Normandy from 911 to 927, called also Rolf the Walker, because, being so tall, he preferred to go afoot rather than ride the little Norwegian horses. Also shown as Rollon, Row, or Robert Originally a Norse Viking, he was noted for strength and martial prowess. In the reign of Charles II the Bald, he sailed up the Seine River and took Rouen, which he kept as a base of operations. He gained a number of victories over the Franks, and extorted the cession of the province since called Normandy. By the famous treaty which Charles the Bald and Rollo signed the latter agreed to adopt Christianity. He was born in 846 and died in 932, and was buried in the Cathedral at Rouen.

Viking Chieftain, Rollo, was so enormous no horse could carry him. Charles the Simple gave Normandy to Rollo by the treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte in 911.

The Origins Of Normandy: The founding of Normandy bears a similarity to the way Danelaw came into existence in England some years earlier. The possible founding of Normandy may have been a direct result of the difficulty they found themselves in when invading England, now that it was becoming more organized in resisting them. By the early 900s, Viking raids were common place in northern Europe, including France. To allay these attacks, Charles the Simple, in 911 made a pact with the leader of the Vikings. This Dane was known as Rollo. As a condition of the peace, he accepted baptism. In return he was given an area off the north eastern cost of France which later became known as Normandy, which loosely translates as North man. He was renamed Robert and married princess Gisele, who was the daughter of Charles the Simple. When she died a few years later, he returned to a former mistress by the name of Poppa. Poppa's father was Count Beranger of Bayeux who he had killed in battle.

The Vikings started to make their mark around the Seine and Loire areas. In 911 Rollo took control of Caen from the inhabitants of Breton and history tells us that it was ceded to him by Charles the Simple. This was the beginning of the Duchy of Normandy and William Longsword added the Cotentin peninsular in 933. A Viking longhouse was found at Cobo and also in St Helier.

The recent history of the islands can therefore be traced back quite clearly to Norman times and Islanders proudly state that their ancestors were part of the forces of Norman the Conqueror which defeated England in 1066. In fact since around 933, when Rollo's son William Longsword added the islands to the dukedom of Normandy, the inhabitants of these islands have been answerable only to the Duke of Normandy and his successors, the British sovereign. When Guillaume Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066, he became King William I as well as Duke of Normandy. However when King John lost the territory of Normandy to Philip II of France, the Channel Islands remained loyal to the English crown. In return for this loyalty, King John granted to the islands, certain rights and privileges in 1215 which enabled them to be virtually self-governing, subject only to Royal ascent and enactments through the Privy Council. In 1294 a large part of the Guernsey population were killed in French raids. In fact over the ensuing centuries, possession of the islands switched back and forth between the English and French six times. Large castles were built most of which still survive today.

Another story about Rollo the Viking [SOURCE?]: As the grizzled and aging Norsemen in 911 AD returned from an unsuccessful siege of Chartes, France, their prospects for further pillaging looked dim. Fifty years of Norse raids into France had decimated everything worth looting. But their long and bitter struggle had gained them much land in western France. The large and powerful leader of this band of mostly Danes was the Norwegian, Gangerolv (Hrolf, Gongu-Hrolfr, Hrolf the Walker-so called because his feet dragged when on horseback- Rollon, and Rollo. I suspect that in France, he was usually known as Rollon or Robert and the Latin form of Rollo did not appear until later when the English wrote about him.

Suddenly King Charles III, the Simple, also weary of fighting and being urged by Pope John X to Christianize the Norse, offered to sign a treaty at the town of St. Clair on the Ept River. This began his association with this name and veneration of the Saint, however it was from his later descendants living at St. Clair-sur-Elle that the St. Clair/Sinclair took their name.

But Charles was not dealing with just a super crafty pirate that had risen from obscurity to regional fame. No, Rollo’s father was Rognvald, The Wise, jarl (Earl) of Møre, Norway, the first jarl of Orkney, and a near relative of King Harold Fairhair. Rollo’s mother was Countess Ragnhilda, daughter of the sea King Rolf Nefia. Rollo's brother, Thorir, succeeded Rognvald to the jarldom of Møre and married King Harold's daughter, Arbota . Harold bestowed the Shetlands and Orkneys on jarl Rognvald’s family. The jarl’s brother, Sigurd, the sea King Einar, and one-eyed, ruthless and middling poet added, Caithness to their holdings and was the second jarl of Orkney. The house of Rognvald was one of the oldest lines of rulers in Norway with Rollo's brothers, Hallard and Einar also becoming the 4th and 5th Earls of Orkney. Einar’s descendant, Isobel, married William Sinclair, 11th Baron of Rossyln, a descendant of Einar’s brother Gangerolv/Rollo. This connected the Norse lines of Einar and Rollo back to Rognvald again.

About 860, when Rollo was born on the island of Giske near Ålesund in Møre, Harold began his efforts to control all of Norway. In 872 he was crowned King of Norway at the Earl of Møre’s court. Young Rollo did not like the loss of freedom and the King’s taxes. He angered King Harald by stealing his cattle and was banished upon pain of death. Other Norwegian nobility were dispossessed as Harold continued to consolidate his hold on the smaller kingdoms. Many of them went into commerce or to "Viking". Rollo, using the ship his father gave him, soon drew others discontents and retaliated with raids against his homeland. He then moved on to Scotland and France. He probably accompanied the Danish Viking chief, Siegfried in an ill fated siege of Paris in 886 or 888. He may have also joined with Guthran, a Dane, in fighting King Alfred the Great in England. These Viking armadas were made up of several nationalities.

The Normans were camped on the right bank and the French on the left bank of the Epte River in preparation for the signing of the 911 treaty which would make Rollo the Count/Duke of Rouen and secure the lands he had already gained. (The title of Duke wasn’t used much until after 1006 AD. In return Rollo promised to defend the land against other Norsemen and be baptized.) Custom then required that Rollo demonstrate his loyalty and service by kissing King Charles’ foot. But, Rollo thought it beneath himself to kneel and kiss the King’s foot. Consequently, he told one of his men, Hastings, to do it instead. His man obeyed reluctantly but as he did so, he raised Charles’ foot so high that the King tipped over backwards. Instead he pledged his fidelity by giving a bowl of water, a clod of earth and a stick and pressing the King's hands between his, gave Charles his pledge of obedience.*

In 912 AD, Rollo and his followers using more political wisdom than inner conviction, were baptized and his name was changed this time to Robert. Rollo quickly set down principals and regulations protecting each man’s person and possessions. He strengthened the towns’ defenses, gave the countryside peace and devoted himself to the interests of his fief, soon called Normandy after the Norsemen. From the beginning Norman society had an aristocratic and feudal character lacking in Denmark and the Danish settlements in England. In 1066 AD, Rollo’s great-great-great grandson, William the Conqueror, imposed this finely-tuned feudal system upon the Saxons of England.

Back in 886 AD, Rollo’s group attacked Bayeaux, Brittany and killed their Count Berenger. He then took the Count’s daughter, Poppa, as his "Danish Wife". This common practice was accepted by laymen. The two contracting parties knew that if better social or political prospects appeared, such a marriage could be ended without a complex church divorce. Rollo possibly had about fourteen children but the four known to us today were probably Poppa’s, the aristocrat's, children: Gerlotte m. Wm. Earl of Pointiers; Adele b. 897 d. 962 m. Duke Guillaune III of Aquitaine; William 2nd Duke of Normandy b.c. 915 m. d/o Count Robert de Vermandon; and Robert m. daughter of Earl of Corbuell. As part of the 911 treaty, Charles gave Rollo his daughter, Giselle, but there were no children from this marriage. Since there is no official records of this marriage, it is possible that Giselle was the 'Natural Daughter' of the King. Now he was the son-in-law of the King of France.

Rollo’s great-granddaughter, Emma married two Kings of England, Æhelred the Unready and Knut who was also King of Norway and Denmark. Her son, Edward the Confessor, from the first marriage, was King of England from 1042-1066. Rollo’s descendants have ruled England almost continually from that time unto today. Most European rulers by the thirteenth century could trace their ancestry to Rollo also.

Rollo’s enemies probably considered him cruel and arrogant, but history also indicates Rollo’s intelligence, with exceptional skills in navigation, warfare, leadership, and administration. He deepend and narrowed the Seine at Rouen. His work lasted almost 1000 years. After WWII the US Army Corps of Engineers had few improvements to make. Among his people, he was for hundreds of years, the personification of justice and good government under law. He was responsible for deepening the Seine at Rouen. Some of this project is still working today. He abdicated to his son, William I in 927 then died in Bec Hallouin Monastary in 933 and buried at Notre Dame, Rouen, France.

The Normans were Scandinavian invaders who settled Normandy from about 820. Raids by these Northmen or Norsemen up the Seine River began before the middle of the ninth century. They gradually established themselves at the mouths of the Seine and other rivers in northern France. In 911 the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, granted Rollo and his band of Northmen the district about Rouen, to which additional territory was added a few years later. Scandinavian immigrants arrived in great numbers to colonize the land, and the area became known as Normandy.

As was the custom at the time, men could have more than one wife. Rollo had a pagan wife, Poppa and two children. Even so, a priest married him to the daughter of the French King Charles The Simple (Gisela de France) in a christian ceremony. There were no children of this marriage. In 918, Rollo married his wife Poppa in a Christian ceremony and thus legitimised his son Guillaume and daughter Gerloc (baptised Adele). Poppa and Rollo had to send Guilliame to be raised by clerics to guarantee his right to succede his father as Duke of Normandy. Guillaume was later known as William Longsword.

Rollo is buried in a tomb in Notre Dame Cathedral at Rouen, France.

STORE NORSKE LEKSIKON

Rollo Gange-Rolv Ragnvaldsson, eller Rollo ? Gange-Rolv Ragnvaldsson, Fødselsår og fødested er ukjent; Dødsår og -sted er ukjent; omkring 900. Vestnorsk vikinghøvding. Foreldre: Ragnvald Mørejarl og Hild Rolvsdatter. Kildene opplyser ikke om han var gift. Halvbror av Einar Ragnvaldsson (død ca. 910).

Gange-Rolv har historisk betydning fremfor alt fordi han er blitt identifisert med Rollo, den første hertugen i Normandie. 911 sluttet den franske kongen, Karl den enfoldige, og vikinghøvdingen Rollo en avtale som gikk ut på at Rollo og hans menn skulle få slå seg ned i området rundt utløpet av Seinen mot å verge landet mot andre vikinger.

Om Gange-Rolv som norsk høvding har vi ikke mange opplysninger. Han var sønn av Ragnvald Mørejarl og Hild, datter av en ellers ukjent høvding, Rolv Nevja, som han ble oppkalt etter. Sagaene forklarer tilnavnet hans med at han var så stor at han ikke kunne sitte på en hest (norrønt Gǫngu-Hrólfr, 'Rolv som går'). Ellers sies det at han lå mye ute i viking, og at Harald Hårfagre til slutt gjorde ham fredløs etter at han også hadde herjet i Norge. Hans mor skal ha klaget over dette i en skaldestrofe som er bevart.

Norsk-islandsk historieskrivning var i middelalderen enig om at Gange-Rolv og Rollo var samme person. Det eldste skriftlige belegget finnes i den latinske Historia Norvegiæ (ca. 1180), som ble forfattet i Norge. Snorre forteller i sine kongesagaer at Gange-Rolv erobret Normandie etter først å ha herjet i området Hebridene – Irskesjøen – Frankrike, og at mange nordmenn bosatte seg i Normandie sammen med ham.

På slutten av 1800-tallet oppstod det en livlig debatt om hvem Rollo var. Diskusjonen, som delvis fulgte nasjonale skillelinjer (med danske og norske historikere på hver sin side), fikk særlig aktualitet i tiden frem mot Normandies store tusenårsfeiring 1911. Et viktig punkt i debatten ved siden av Rollos identitet var hvordan man burde forstå begreper som “nordmenn” og “daner” i de middelalderlige kildene, og også hvor “dansk” eller “norsk” bosetningen i Normandie hadde vært.

Den danske historikeren Johannes Steenstrup startet debatten. Hans hovedargument var klare utsagn hos den franske historieskriveren Dudo av St. Quentin om at Rollo var dansk. Siden Dudo skrev sitt verk om de normanniske hertugene rundt 1020, syntes han å stå begivenhetene nærmere enn sagaskriverne, slik at hans versjon måtte foretrekkes. Samtidig betonte Steenstrup, med argumenter som foregrep den senere sagakritikken, hvor lite man egentlig kunne bygge på de norrøne sagaene.

Norske historikere – fremst blant dem Gustav Storm, Alexander Bugge og Ebbe Hertzberg – trakk derimot Dudos kildeverdi i tvil, og pekte på hvor fullstendig upålitelig hans fremstilling ellers er i det han skriver om Rollo og Danmark, med historiske og geografiske opplysninger som overhodet ikke stemmer. De la også vekt på at Rollo skulle ha hatt en datter, Gerloc (Geirlaug), hvis navn snarest tydet på en norsk forbindelse, og at det også på fransk grunn, i yngre skrifter enn Dudos, finnes en tradisjon om at Rollo var norsk.

Spørsmålet om hvem Rollo var, vil aldri kunne bli definitivt besvart. Men blant så vel norske som franske og britiske historikere er det nå vanlig å mene at bedømt ut fra kildene – og i valget mellom de to foreliggende mulighetene – er det tross alt mest som taler for en norsk opprinnelse.

Svært lite er overlevert om Rollos regjering i Normandie. Kildene kan berette at han lot seg døpe 912, og han døde sannsynligvis en gang mellom 928 og 932. Rollos etterkommere satt som hertuger i Normandie frem til 1202, og hans sønnesønns sønnesønns sønn Guillaume (død 1087) ble konge i England 1066 (Vilhelm Erobreren).

25. september 1911 ble det i byparken i Ålesund under en stor folkefest avduket en statue av Rollo/Gange-Rolv. Statuen var en gave til byen fra Rouen i Normandie. Den er en bronsekopi av en originalstatue i marmor fra 1863, som står utenfor katedralen i Rouen.

Kilder og litteratur

   * Heimskringla
   * Historia Norvegiæ
   * J. Steenstrup: Normannerne, bd. 1, København 1876, s. 128–163 og 330–350
   * G. Strom: Kritiske Bidrag til Vikingetidens Historie, 1878
   * A. Bugge: “Gange-Rolv og erobringen av Normandie”, i HT, rk. 5, bd. 1, 1912, s. 160–196
   * E. Hertzberg: “Traditionen om Gange-Rolv”, ibid., s. 197–247
   * H. Koht: biografi i NBL1, bd. 4, 1929
   * L. Musset: “L'origine de Rollon”, i Studia Nordica et Normannica, Paris 1997, s. 383–388

ARTICLE by DICK HARRISON (Swedish)

Det var Gånge Rolf som tog Normandie. Han var son till en mäktig jarl på västkusten av Norge som frivilligt slöt sig till konung Harald Hårfager när denne började sitt storverk att underlägga sig hela Norge. Jarlen vann därmed ett högt anseende hos konung Harald och åtnjöt mycken gunst av honom. Han hade, utom Rolf, två söner, alla dugliga och utmärkta män; men ingen av dem vann dock den världshistoriska betydelse som Rolf gjorde, även om det från början såg helt annorlunda ut för människors ögon.

Redan från sin tidiga ungdom låg han ute i viking och svärmade omkring på haven. Så kom han en höst till öarna väster om Skottland (Hebriderna), och emedan vintern hindrade honom från att gå hem drog han till England. Här hade han efter några strider en dröm att han skulle ta sig till Frankrike. Han släppte nu de fångar han tagit lösa, och mellan honom och konung Alfred den store, som då regerade i England, uppstod därefter en trofast vänskap. Om våren skulle han då draga över till Frankrike. Han lämnade England, men blev stormdriven till ön Walcheren. Här blev han överfallen, men segrade och tågade sedan härjande omkring i frisernes land samt vände sig derpå till Hennegau.

Greve Raginer av Hennegau, en tapper och stridbar man, uppbjöd alla sina krafter för att hämma Rolfs framträngande, men förgäfves. Rolf vann seger på seger. Slutligen lade sig Raginer i bakhåll för Rolf, men blev överraskad och tillfångatagen. Nu blev bestörtningen stor i landet, och Raginers grevinna sände bud till Rolf och bjöd honom tolv i de föregående striderna tillfångatagna nordmän som lösen för sin herre och man. Sändebuden återkom med svaret att greven ögonblickligen skulle halshuggas om inte dessa tolv män genast frigavs och återsändes tillsammans med allt det silver och guld som fanns i landet. Betagen av fruktan för sin mans liv uppfyllde grevinnan de hårda vilkoren, skonande därvid inte ens kyrkorna, och alla dessa skatter sände hon till Rolf med helig försäkran att landet inte hade mer att ge.

Då kallade Rolf greven inför sig, och sedan han förebrått honom anfallet på Walcherenåtergav han honom friheten. »Jag återgiver dig, ättstore och stridbare man» - låter krönikeskrivaren honom säga - «jag återgiver dig åt din hustru, jag återgiver dig ock hälften av allt det guld och silver som hon skickat mig till lösen för dig; vare det hädanefter ingen oenighet mellan oss, utan stadig vänskap och fred!»

Rolf förvisas från Norge Sedan Rolf lämnat detta minne av storsinthet och ädelmod efter sig i Frisland drog han bort efter kusten, ämnande sig till Frankrike. Men ödet hade annorlunda beslutat. Bud kom från konung Alfred i England som begärde hans hjälp mot sina fiender. Rolf befann sig redan på väg uppför Seine då konung Alfreds bud nådde honom, och han vände genast om varpå han en tid uppehöll sig i England samt därefter åter drog ut i härnad till åtskilliga länder.

Slutligen gjorde han ett tåg inåt Östersjön, och på återvägen därifrån seglade han till fäderneslandet, men gjorde därvid enligt vikingased strandhugg i Wiken, såsom Bohus län då kallades. Med strandhugg menades att gå i land, taga och nedslakta all den boskap man kunde komma över för att förse fartygen med livsmedel.

Konung Harald, som nu genomfört sitt verk och samlat hela Norge i sin hand, var en sträng och mäktig konung som ville ha ordning och fred i sitt rike och därför förbjudit alla röverier. Det ville sig nu inte bättre än att konungen själv befann sig i Wiken när Rolf gjorde sitt strandhugg, och han blev högligen förtörnad över vad som skett och stämde genast Rolf inför sig på tinget. Med obeveklig stränghet dömde konungen här den vittfrejdade mannen till landsflykt. Förgäves var alla den gamla moderns böner om mildring i detta hårda straff. Konungen stod fast, och Rolf måste för alltid lemna sin fädernebygd.

Nu styrde han kosan till Frankrike. Det var omkring år 896. När han seglade uppför Seine fylldes bebyggarna av skräck för dessa ständigt återkommande anfall från havet, och när hans flotta närmade sig Rouen kom ärkebiskopen därstädes mot honom, bad å stadens vägnar om skydd och underkastade sig Rolf. Denne lovade skydd eftersom stadsborna var fattiga och värnlösa, och när han väl lagt sitt drakskepp vid S:t Martins-kyrkan och sett hur öde och förfallen staden var lade han råd med sina män om huruvida man skulle ta landet i besittning eller ej. De tillstyrkte det eftersom det var ett fruktbart och vackert land, och så reste sig snart åter murarna och tornen kring Rouen der Rolf själv tog sin bostad. Därefter drog han vidare uppför Seine till Pont de Varche i vars närhet den franska hären stod lägrad vid den lilla floden Eure. Här möter oss åter namnet Hasting på en nordman som nu var bosatt i Frankrike och hade Chartres i förläning - ett bevis för hur sagan älskar att förknippa rätt skilda tilldragelser vid ett för henne kärt namn.

Karl den enfaldige, Hasting och Gånge Rolf Konungen i Frankrike, som då hette Carl den enfaldige, och hans härförare rådgjorde med denne Hasting om vad som var att göra, och denne tillstyrkte underhandling samt blev själv jämte två andra nordbor utsedd till sändebud. De gick ram till stranden av Eure på vars andra strand Rolfs sändebud mötte.

Hasting ropade till de senare: »Vilka är ni och i vilken avsikt har ni kommit hit?» - »Vi är nordmän» -blev svaret - »och har kommit att underlägga oss Frankrike.» - »Hvilken är er anförare?» - frågade Hasting vidare. Härpå svarades, att de alla hade lika makt. Han frågade åter om de hade hört något talas om Hasting, som fordom drog till Frankrike med en väldig här? - »Om honom är det sagt» - svarade Rolfs män - »att han börjat manligt och stort, men att han haft föga glädje och heder av sitt slut.» - Detta var tråkigt för Hasting att höra, men han frågade dock om inte även de ville ta land i län a den franska konungen. - »Nej!» - svarades - »vi vill ta oss land med svärdet och icke underkasta oss någon.» Slutligen frågade Hasting vad de ämnade företaga sig, men fick till svar att de inte ämnade redogöra för det, varpå de gick sin väg.

När Hasting återkom överlades om man skulle våga en drabbning, men Hasting avstyrkte då han funnit att nordmannahären bestod av idel ungt och utvalt folk. Detta väckte misstankar mot honom, och en av fransmännen utropade: »Varg fångas inte med varg, räv inte med räv!» över vilket Hasting blev så upprörd att han icke vidare deltog i rådslagen. Drabbningen beslöts, och konung Carl gick över floden och anföll, men blev i grunden slagen. Alla som inte kunde fly blev tillfångatagna eller nedgjorda.

På samma sätt gick det med en ny, ännu starkare fransk här varefter Rolf drog vida omkring utan motstånd och slutligen gick tillbaka till Rouen där han blev stilla någon tid, sysselsatt med att ordna det nordmanna-nybygge, som här började uppstå. Samtidigt höll biskopar och abboter ett möte vilket öppnades med en klagan över de stora lidanden man under så många år nödgats utstå, och man fann orsaken till alla olyckor i de kristnas synder varigenom deras kraft förlamades så att de inte kunde motstå hedningarne.

Mitt härunder bröt Rolf upp och drog åter uppför Seine, på samma gång som andra vikingaskaror drog uppför Loire och Garonne, till utseeendet handlande efter en gemensamt uppgjord plan. Detta satte konung Carl i den högsta förskräckelse, så att han bad Rolf om stillestånd på tre månader.

Stillestånd, strid och uppgörelse - »Det var en skymf för Frankrike!» - skrek konungens vasaller och började genast fientligheterna efter stilleståndets slut. De hade en framgång vid Chartres, men Rolf var i själva verket den starkare, och i Frankrike såg man inte annat än undergång för ögonen. Carl sammankallade åter sina vasaller till överläggning, och nu var deras sinnen så omstämda att de fann sig böra underkasta sig vida hårdare vilkor än enbart några månaders stillestånd.

De rådde konungen att ge nordmannahövdingen ett stycke land att bebo och därtill sin dotter Gisela till gemål för att på så sätt binda honom vid Frankrike och i honom få ett värn mot nya fiender. Ärkebiskop Franco gick med dessa förlikningsvilkor till Rolf. Denne fann dem antagliga, han ingick ett nytt stillestånd, och därefter skulle man åter sammanträda för att fullborda freden. Greve Robert av Paris slöt en särskild fred, och uppmanade Rolf att antaga kristendomen, och Rolf sade till konungens utskickade: »Jag samtycker till eder konungs förslag, han skall vara för mig en fader, och jag vill vara hans son!»

När den slutliga freden gjorde supp förklarade dock Rolf att det land han fått var för litet och fordrade mera. Han fick då Bretagne, som låg alldeles invid det förra, vilket efter hans nordmän började kallas Normandie.

Kyssa franske kungen fot...? Nu ställdes gisslan på ömse sidor, och Rolf begav sig till franska konungens läger. Här beundrade alla hans höga kämpaskepnad och manliga skönhet, och Rolf lade sina händer mellan konungens till tecken av hyllning.

Efter skick och bruk, när någon mottog ett län, skulle nu Rolf kyssa konungens fot, men det vägrade han. »Jag vill aldrig böja knä för någon eller kyssa någons fot!» - sade han. Men då man envisades befallde han slutligen en av sina krigare att göra det i hans ställe. Denne gjorde detta, men på så sätt att han fattade konungens fot och lyfte den upp till sin mun så att konungen därvid föll baklänges.

Sedan konungen vederbörligen insatt Rolf i hans förläning drog han bort, men greve Robert och ärkebiskopen stannade kvar hos Rolf, vilken följande år (912) blev döpt till kristendomen.

Rolf regerade sedan med kraft och klokhet sitt land, ordnande dess inre förhållanden på ett sätt som i väsentlig mån skilde det från det övriga Frankrike. Nordbons medfödda självständighetskänsla bibehölls utan att det helas sammanhållning på något sätt rubbades. Alla var, såsom krigaren svarade Hasting, lika och erkände icke någon mellanmakt mellan sig och Rolf, och detta drag genomgår hela det normandiska länsväsendet.

Rolf dog 931 i Rouen, sedan han i nitton år varit hertig över Normandie. Hans ben vilar i domkyrkan i Rouen där man ännu i dag kan se hans gravvård, mitt emot hans sons, i ett av kyrkans kapell.

NAMNSPÅR (Swedish) Namnspår efter vikingarna i Frankrike Ur Svenska Familj-journalen 1871 från Projekt Runeberg, något språkligt moderniserad

Det var naturligt att nordmännens språk snart skulle bortblandas eftersom ganska få av dem förde hustrur med sig, utan äktade infödda kvinnor, och barnen således uppföddes i franskt tungomål. Men till en början var man noga med att barnen skulle lära sig att tala sina fäders språk, och detta har även lämnat spår efter sig som knappast någonsin helt kommer att utplånas. En mängd namn på orter i Normandie är ännu nordiska, men med de förändringar som århundraden av franskt uttal nödvändigtvis måste medföra. Så alla de ortnamn som slutar på beuf eller boeuf, där vi tydligt igenkänner det norska bo eller det svenska bo, t. ex. Elboeuf (Elfbo), Criqueboeuf (Kyrkiebo), Limboeuf (Lindbo), Daubeuf (Dalbo). Så är även förhållandet med ortnamnen på tot, som inte är annat än det norska toft, det svenska tofta, t. ex. Routot (Rolfstofta), Lintot (Lindtofta), Yvetot (Iwarstofta), Criquetot (Kyrketofta), Gonnetot (Gunnarstofta) o. s. v. Namn på fleur påminner om det fornnordiska fljot, t. ex. Fiquefleur (Fiskafljot), Honfteur (Hindarfljot). Andra ortnamn på bec, det nordiska bäck - Caudebec, Bolbec -, på dieppe, det nordiska djup, och på dale, det nordiska dal, häntyda även på sitt nordiska ursprung. Ännu en mängd ortnamn finns där det nordiska gård blivit utbytt mot det romaniska villa eller ville, men namnets första del blivit bibehållen, såsom Ingouville (Ingulfsgård), Herouville (Herjulfsgård), o. m. d.

Men även om det nordiska målet till slut försvann så låg där dock en sådan kraft i den nordiska andan att den från Normandie liksom genomträngde och upplyfte hela den nordfranska adeln både i litteratur och ridderliga idrotter.

TEXT: SOURCE NEEDED, contact CURATOR!

Rollo the Viking Died 931 A.D. I For more than two hundred years during the Middle Ages the Christian countries of Europe were attacked on the southwest by the Saracens of Spain, and on the northwest by the Norsemen, or Northmen. The Northmen were so called because they came into Middle Europe from the north. Sometimes they were called Vikings (Vi’-kings), or pirates, because they were adventurous sea-robbers who plundered all countries which they could reach by sea. Their ships were long and swift. In the centre was placed a single mast, which carried one large sail. For the most part, however, the Norsemen depended on rowing, not on the wind, and sometimes there were twenty rowers in one vessel. The Vikings were a terror to all their neighbours; but the two regions that suffered most from their attacks were the Island of Britain and that part of Charlemagne’s empire in which the Franks were settled. Nearly fifty times in two hundred years the lands of the Franks were invaded. The Vikings sailed up the large rivers into the heart of the region which we now call France and captured and pillaged cities and towns. Some years after Charlemagne’s death they went as far as his capital, Aix (aks), took the place, and stabled their horses in the cathedral which the great emperor had built. In the year 860 they discovered Iceland and made a settlement upon its shores. A few years later they sailed as far as Greenland, and there established settlements which existed for about a century. These Vikings were the first discoverers of the continent on which we live. Ancient books found in Iceland tell the story of the discovery. It is related that a Viking ship was driven during a storm to a strange coast, which is thought to have been that part of America now known as Labrador. When the captain of the ship returned home he told what he had seen. His tale so excited the curiosity of a young Viking prince, called Leif the Lucky, that he sailed to the newly discovered coast. Going ashore, he found that the country abounded in wild grapes; and so he called it Vinland, or the land of Vines. Vinland is thought to have been a part of what is now the Rhode Island coast. The Vikings were not aware that they had found a great unknown continent. No one in the more civilized parts of Europe knew anything about their discovery; and after a while the story of the Vinland voyages seems to have been forgotten, even among the Vikings themselves. So it is not to them that we owe the discovery of America, but to Columbus; because his discovery, though nearly five hundred years later than that of the Norsemen, actually made known to all Europe, for all time, the existence of the New World. II The Vikings had many able chieftains. One of the most famous was Rollo the Walker, so called because he was such a giant that no horse strong enough to carry him could be found, and therefore he always had to walk. However, he did on foot what few could do on horseback. In 885 seven hundred ships, commanded by Rollo and other Viking chiefs, left the harbours of Norway, sailed to the mouth of the Seine (San), and started up the river to capture the city of Paris. Rollo and his men stopped on the way at Rouen (rö-on’), which also was on the Seine, but nearer its mouth. The citizens had heard of the giant, and when they saw the river covered by his fleet they were dismayed. However, the bishop of Rouen told them that Rollo could be as noble and generous as he was fierce; and he advised them to open their gates and trust to the mercy of the Viking chief. This was done, and Rollo marched into Rouen and took possession of it. The bishop had given good advice, for Rollo treated the people very kindly. Soon after capturing Rouen he left the place, sailed up the river to Paris, and joined the other Viking chiefs. And now for six long miles the beautiful Seine was covered with Viking vessels, which carried an army of thirty thousand men. A noted warrior named Eudes (Ude) was Count of Paris, and he had advised the Parisians to fortify the city. So not long before the arrival of Rollo and his companions, two walls with strong gates had been built round Paris. It was no easy task for even Vikings to capture a strongly walled city. We are told that Rollo and his men built a high tower and rolled it on wheels up to the walls. At its top was a floor well manned with soldiers. But the people within the city shot hundreds of arrows at the besiegers, and threw down rocks, or poured boiling oil and pitch upon them. The Vikings thought to starve the Parisians, and for thirteen months they encamped round the city. At length food became very scarce, and Count Eudes determined to go for help. He went out through one of the gates on a dark, stormy night, and rode post-haste to the king. He told him that something must be done to save the people of Paris. So the king gathered an army and marched to the city. No battle was fought—the Vikings seemed to have been afraid to risk one. They gave up the siege, and Paris was relieved. Rollo and his men went to the Duchy of Burgundy, where, as now, the finest crops were raised and the best of wines were made. III Perhaps after a time Rollo and his Vikings went home; but we do not know what he did for about twenty-five years. We do know that he abandoned his old home in Norway in 911. Then he and his people sailed from the icy shore of Norway and again went up the Seine in hundreds of Viking vessels. Of course, on arriving in the land of the Franks, Rollo at once began to plunder towns and farms. Charles, then king of the Franks, although his people called him the Simple, or Senseless, had sense enough to see that this must be stopped. So he sent a message to Rollo and proposed that they should have a talk about peace. Rollo agreed and accordingly they met. The king and his troops stood on one side of a little river, and Rollo with his Vikings stood on the other. Messages passed between them. The king asked Rollo what he wanted. “Let me and my people live in the land of the Franks; let us make ourselves home here, and I and my Vikings will become your vassals," answered Rollo. He asked for Rouen and the neighbouring land. So the king gave him that part of Francia; and ever since it has been called Normandy, the land of the Northmen. When it was decided that the Vikings should settle in Francia and be subjects of the Frankish king, Rollo was told that he must kiss the foot of Charles in token that he would be the king’s vassal. The haughty Viking refused. “Never,” said he, “will I bend my knee before any man, and no man’s foot will I kiss.” After some persuasion, however, he ordered one of his men to perform the act of homage for him. The king was on horseback and the Norseman, standing by the side of the horse, suddenly seized the king’s foot and drew it up to his lips. This almost made the king fall from his horse, to the great amusement of the Norsemen. Becoming a vassal to the king meant that if the king went to war Rollo would be obliged to join his army and bring a certain number of armed men—one thousand or more. Rollo now granted parts of Normandy to his leading men on condition that they would bring soldiers to his army and fight under him. They became his vassals, as he was the king’s vassal. The lands granted to vassals in this way were called feuds, and this plan of holding lands was called the Feudal System. It was established in every country of Europe during the Middle Ages. The poorest people were called serfs. They were almost slaves and were never permitted to leave the estate to which they belonged. They did all the work. They worked chiefly for the landlords, but partly for themselves. Having been a robber himself, Rollo knew what a shocking thing it was to ravage and plunder, and he determined to change his people’s habits. He made strict laws and hanged robbers. His duchy thus became one of the safest parts of Europe. The Northmen learned the language of the Franks and adopted their religion. The story of Rollo is also interesting because Rollo was the forefather of that famous Duke of Normandy who, less than a hundred and fifty years later, conquered England and brought into that country the Norman nobles with their French language and customs.

…Famous Men of the Middle Ages By John H. Haaren (John Henry)

FURTHER LINKS

http://sinclair.quarterman.org/sinclair/who/rollo.html http://ice.mm.com/user/rob/Rollo/LiteraryRollo.html http://ice.mm.com/user/rob/Rollo/HistoricalRollo.html

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-------------------- The fiefdom of Normandy was created in 911 for the Viking leader Rollo (also known as Rolf).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo_of_Normandy

Rollo (c. 846 – c. 931), baptised Robert and so sometimes numbered Robert I to distinguish him from his descendants, was a Norwegian or Danish nobleman and the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. His descendants were the Dukes of Normandy.

The name "Rollo" is a Latin translation due to the clerics from the Old Norse name Hrólfr, modern Scandinavian name Rolf (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum), but Norman people called him Rouf, and later Rou too (see Wace's Roman de Rou).[1] He married Poppa. All that is known of Poppa is that she was a Christian, and the daughter to Berengar of Rennes, the previous lord of Brittania Nova, which eventually became western Normandy. -------------------- Noteringar

Nordisk vikingahövding, erhöll före 918 av Karl den enfaldige land mot löfte att värja det frankiska riket. Kring hans person har spunnits många sägner och han kallas i den islänska litteraturen för "Gånge-Rolf", därför att han var så reslig att ingen häst kunde bära honom.

-------------------- It is recorded that Count Berenger of Bayeux was killed by Duke Rollo of Normandy, who then took Berenger's daughter Popa de Bayeux and made her his (second) wife or concubine..

http://ancestoranecdotes.blogspot.com/2010/07/rollo-rolf-aka-robert-i-duke-of.html The early Norman rulers consolidated their position by marriages with the first level of French noble families. At the same time, the early rulers clung to the Scandinavian tradition of concubinage: the mothers of Counts Richard I and Richard II were probably both of relatively obscure Viking descent and recorded by the chronicler Guillaume of Jumièges as having been married "à la Danoise". Back in 886 AD, Rollo’s group attacked Bayeaux, Brittany and killed their Count Berenger. He then took the Count’s daughter, Poppa, as his "Danish Wife". This common practice was accepted by laymen. The two contracting parties knew that if better social or political prospects appeared, such a marriage could be ended without a complex church divorce This appears to have presented no obstacle to their subsequent accession as dukes.

Rollo was renamed Robert and married princess Gisele, as part of the 911 treaty, Charles gave Rollo his daughter, Giselle, but there were no children from this marriage. Since there are no official records of this marriage, it is possible that Giselle was the 'Natural Daughter' of the King. Now he was the son-in-law of the King of France. When she died a few years later, he returned to a former mistress or à la Danoise": Poppa.

Rollo possibly had about fourteen children but the four known to us today were probably Poppa’s. -------------------- Also: Robert, Rolf, the Ganger. Rollo, occasionally known as Rollo the Viking, (c. 860 - c. 932) was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. He is also in some sources known as Robert of Normandy, using his baptismal name. The name Rollo is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from Scandinavian name Hr?lf (cf. the latinization of Hr?lf Kraki into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum). Rollo separated himself from his king, Harald I of Norway and set off with a pirate band to plunder in England, Scotland, and France. Rollo's band besieged Paris, but he was defeated in the Battle of Chartres. By the Treaty of Saint-Claire-sur-Epte, The Carolingian Emperor of France, Charles III, the Simple, would grant Rollo lands in what would become Normandy in the valley of the lower Seine River, the name Normandy coming from its rulers the Norsemen who had followed Rollo. Rollo became the first Duke of Normandy, the ancestor of Geoffrey V Plantagenet and the Angevin-Plantagenet kings of England. Rather than pay Rollo to leave, as was customary, Charles the Simple realized that his armies could not effectively defend against the raids and guerrilla tactics, and decided to appease Rollo by giving him land and hereditary titles under the condition that he defend against other Vikings. Led by Rollo, the Vikings settled in Normandy after being granted the land. They subsequently established the Duchy of Normandy. The descendants who emerged from the interactions between Vikings, Franks and Gallo-Romans became known as Normans. This may explain why a noticeably higher than average rate of men living in northernwestern France today are of the (Nordic) I1 ydna haplogroup. --------------------

Given Names: Rollo Surname Prefix: Duke Of Surname: Normandy

Source: History of the Norwegian People

  

Note: The popular name is Gange Rolv. He is the son Ragnhild Rolvsdatter, which makes him a stepson of Ragnvald Morejarl Eilivssen.

Landnåmabok presenterer Rolvs slekt og opplyser kort at han vant Normandie og at han er stamfar til Englands konger. Kort historie: http://www.hf.uio.no/iln/forskning/aktuelt/aktuelle-saker/2011/gange-rolv.pdf -------------------- "Gangerolf", "Rollón", "Robert", "Rollo de Normandie", "Gǫnguhrólfr", "Gangu-Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson", "the Dane", "Rolf the Walker", "Robert of Normandy", "the Ganger", "le danois", "Robert", "Hrólfr", "Rollon el Caminante", "Ganger Rolf", "Rollo"

_________________

Was also married to Gisele (876) who had child Adela of Normandy (b. 877)

Married Poppa c. 886

Dukes of Brittany: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2b/BrittanyDukes.png

_______________

Warren researcher Norma Krchhofer has stated the following:

Rollo conquered Normandy & m Poppa

William Duke of Normandy m Adela

Richard Duke of Normandy m Gunnora d/o Danish Knight father of Geoffrey of Eu (later DeClare)

Richard the Good m Judith of Brittany had Richard & Robert

Robert the Magnificent Duke of Normandy & mistress Arletta of Falaise

William the Bastard m Queen Matilda of Flanders

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William I -

S/O Robert II the Devil of, Duke of Normandy 6th born CIR 1008 died 6/22/1035 -

S/O Richard II the Good, Duke of Normandy 4th died 8/28/1026 -

S/O Richard I the Fearless, Duke of Normandy 3rd born 933 died 11/20/996 -

S/O William I Longsword of Duke of Normandy 2nd died 942 -

S/O Robert (Rollo) of Norway Duke of Normandy I born 870 died 932 -

S/O Rolf the Ganger, Duke of Normandy 1st born 846 died 932 -

S/O Ragnvald the Wise More born ABT 872 died ABT 894 -

S/O , Gulmera, Eystein the Noisy born 788 -

S/O Ivar of the Uplands.

========================================

Rollo was so tall he couldn't ride the norweigen horses..

Normandy was raided so many times that it is said there is a bit of viking

in all of the Normans

Warren is a Norman French surname.

A common mutation linked to Cambro-Norman Surnames.[French in Ireland]

Whose origin is given as Celtic is "Iron Overload". If you have tested

and are of the C282Y group. Hemochromatosis is the

medical term.

DNA can be used to determine if you are at risk of developing a genetic

disease. Therefore being of benefit to you and your offspring.

With C282Y records go back abt 60 generations. Remember it is Celtic in

Origin.

It is from the Normans that Normandy gets its name. The word "Norman" derives from "North Man," that is, People of the North, or THE VIKINGS!

Now, if you wish to get a little more eclectic and trace migratory patterns further back, it is thought in some circles that these Vikings were descendants of the "Lost Tribe" of Dan. This theory is neither proven NOR disproven, but migratory patterns in the middle-east, Russia and eastern Europe over a 1,500 year period (700 BC - 800AD) actually DO point to this possibility!

This is just food for thought. I am not proposing this theory as truth. Being ever the skeptic, I neither attack nor defend this theory until further, more conclusive archeology brings it into the proper light. However, as genealogists, whether it is true or not, we dare not discount this possibility.

- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- -

Rollo (c. 860 – c. 932), baptised Robert, was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy.

The name Rollo is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from the Old Norse name Hrólfr (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar

Falaise castle was the home of Rollo A Danish Knight

Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in Falaise town square.Duke of NormandyReign911-927SuccessorWilliam I Born860

ScandinaviaDied932

NormandyBurialRouen Cathedral

Rollo (c. 870 – c. 932), baptised Robert and so sometimes numbered Robert I to distinguish him from his descendants, was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. The name "Rollo" is a Frankish-Latin name probably taken from the Old Norse name Hrólfr, modern Scandinavian name Rolf (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum).

_________

From earlier research another researcher has stated:

He married twice. He married Poppa de Valois Duchess of Normany 886-891. He married Gisele, Duchess of Normandy France, 912. Rollo Ganger-Hrolf was conqueror of Normandy from whom are descended the Earls of Rouen, the Dukes of Normandy, and the Kings of England. Rollo was one of the most famous Vikings of his age and had learned well the battle tactics taught by his father Rognvald The Wolf.

On account of Rollo's great stature, he was known as "Ganger Hrolf" or "Walking Rollo". His Danish name was Hrolfr or Rolf in various spellings.

The Normans were Scandinavian invaders who settled Normandy from about 820. Raids by these Northmen or Norsemen up the Seine River began before the middle of the ninth century. They gradually established themselves at the mouths of the Seine and other rivers in northern France. In 911 the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, granted Rollo and his band of Northmen the district about Rouen, to which additional territory was added a few years later. Scandinavian immigrants arrived in great numbers to colonize the land, and the area became known as Normandy. In 912 Rollo, became the first Duke of Normandy.

As was the custom at the time, men could have more than one wife. Rollo had a pagan wife, Poppa and two children. Even so, a priest married him to the daughter of the French King Charles The Simple (Gisela de France) in a christian ceremony. There were no children of this marriage. In 918, Rollo married his wife Poppa in a Christian ceremony and thus legitimised his son Guilliamme and daughter Gerloc (baptised Adele). Poppa and Rollo had to send Guilliame to be raised by clerics to guarantee his right to succede his father as Duke of Normandy. Guilliame was later known as William Longsword.

Rollo is buried in a tomb in Notre Dame Cathedral at Rouen, France.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo -------------------- Rollo (c. 846 – c. 931), baptised Robert and so sometimes numbered Robert I to distinguish him from his descendants, was a Norse nobleman of Norwegian or Danish descent and founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy. His descendants were the Dukes of Normandy, and by later extension, the King of England. The name "Rollo" is a Latin translation from the Old Norse name Hrólfr, modern Scandinavian name Rolf (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum), but Norman people called him by his popular name Rou(f) (see Wace's Roman de Rou). Sometimes his name is turned into the Frankish name Rodolf(us) or Radulf(us) or the French Raoul, that are derived from it. Rollo was a powerful Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of Saint-Quentin, in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum, tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Denmark, who had two sons, Gurim and Rollo; upon his death, Rollo was expelled and Gurim killed. William of Jumièges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum, but states that he was from the Danish town of Fakse. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou, also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga. Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified Rollo instead with Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker), a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas. The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae, written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair, and became a Jarl in Normandy. The nickname "the Walker", "Ganger" in Norse, came from being so big that no horse could carry him. In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred. Legend has it that an emissary was sent by the king to find the chieftain and negotiate terms. When he asked for this information, the Vikings replied that they were all chieftains in their own right. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy. Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. In 911 Rollo's forces launched a failed attack on Paris before laying siege to Chartres. The appeals for help of the Bishop of Chartres, Joseaume, were answered by Robert, Marquis of Neustria, Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Manasses, Count of Dijon. On 20 July 911, at the Battle of Chartres, they defeated Rollo despite the absence of many French barons and also the absence of the French King Charles the Simple. The Principality of Normandy: In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with King Charles, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name Robert. In return, King Charles granted Rollo land between the Epte and the sea as well as Brittany and according to Dudo of St. Quentin, the hand of the King's daughter, Gisela, although this marriage and Gisela herself are unknown to Frankish sources. He was also the titular ruler of Normandy, centered around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. His warrior then lifted Charles' foot up to his mouth causing the king to fall to the ground. After 911, Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, however he also continued to act like a Viking chief with attacks on Flanders. After Charles was deposed by Robert I, Rollo considered his oath to the King of France to be over. It started a period of expansion westwards. Negotiations with French barons ended with Rollo being given Le Mans and Bayeux and continued with the seizure of Bessin in 924. The following year saw the Normans attack Picardy. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de facto capital in Rouen. Eventually[when?] Rollo's men intermarried with the local women, and became more settled as Normans. Sometime around 927, Rollo passed the fief in Normandy to his son, William Longsword. Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar, 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshipped, and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true God in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity, some of his prior religious roots surfaced at the end. Rollo is the great-great-great-grandfather of William the Conqueror. Through William, he is an ancestor of the present-day British royal family, as well as an ancestor of all current European monarchs and a great many pretenders to abolished European thrones. -------------------- Conqueror of Normandy

http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gange-Rolv -------------------- "Gangerolf", "Rollón", "Robert I", "Gǫnguhrólfr", "the Dane", "Rolf the Walker", "the Ganger", "le danois", "Hrólfr", "Rollo the Viking", "Rollo", "Duke of Normandy", "the Viking", "Robert", "Rolf", "The Ganger", "Rolf or Rollo /Ragnvaldsson/", "The Viking", "Rolf Ganger (the Walker)", "......" Notre Dame, Rouen, Nornandie, Neustria

Ragnvald Mørejarl sannsynlig far. Noen kilder avviker. Fra 911 Hertug av Neustria, senere kalt Normandie. Gange-Rolv har historisk betydning fremfor alt fordi han er blitt identifisert med Rollo, den første hertugen i Normandie. 911 sluttet den franske kongen, Karl den enfoldige, og vikinghøvdingen Rollo en avtale som gikk ut på at Rollo og hans menn skulle få slå seg ned i området rundt utløpet av Seinen mot å verge landet mot andre vikinger. Om Gange-Rolv som norsk høvding har vi ikke mange opplysninger. Han var sønn av Ragnvald Mørejarl og Hild, datter av en ellers ukjent høvding, Rolv Nevja, som han ble oppkalt etter. Sagaene forklarer tilnavnet hans med at han var så stor at han ikke kunne sitte på en hest (norrønt Gangu-Hrólfr, 'Rolv som går'). Ellers sies det at han lå mye ute i viking, og at Harald Hårfagre til slutt gjorde ham fredløs etter at han også hadde herjet i Norge. Hans mor skal ha klaget over dette i en skaldestrofe som er bevart. Norsk-islandsk historieskrivning var i middelalderen enig om at Gange-Rolv og Rollo var samme person. Det eldste skriftlige belegget finnes i den latinske Historia Norvegiæ (ca. 1180), som ble forfattet i Norge. Snorre forteller i sine kongesagaer at Gange-Rolv erobret Normandie etter først å ha herjet i området Hebridene - Irskesjøen - Frankrike, og at mange nordmenn bosatte seg i Normandie sammen med ham. På slutten av 1800-tallet oppstod det en livlig debatt om hvem Rollo var. Diskusjonen, som delvis fulgte nasjonale skillelinjer (med danske og norske historikere på hver sin side), fikk særlig aktualitet i tiden frem mot Normandies store tusenårsfeiring 1911. Et viktig punkt i debatten ved siden av Rollos identitet var hvordan man burde forstå begreper som "nordmenn" og "daner" i de middelalderlige kildene, og også hvor "dansk" eller "norsk" bosetningen i Normandie hadde vært. Den danske historikeren Johannes Steenstrup startet debatten. Hans hovedargument var klare utsagn hos den franske historieskriveren Dudo av St. Quentin om at Rollo var dansk. Siden Dudo skrev sitt verk om de normanniske hertugene rundt 1020, syntes han å stå begivenhetene nærmere enn sagaskriverne, slik at hans versjon måtte foretrekkes. Samtidig betonte Steenstrup, med argumenter som foregrep den senere sagakritikken, hvor lite man egentlig kunne bygge på de norrøne sagaene. side 220Norske historikere - fremst blant dem Gustav Storm, Alexander Bugge og Ebbe Hertzberg - trakk derimot Dudos kildeverdi i tvil, og pekte på hvor fullstendig upålitelig hans fremstilling ellers er i det han skriver om Rollo og Danmark, med historiske og geografiske opplysninger som overhodet ikke stemmer. De la også vekt på at Rollo skulle ha hatt en datter, Gerloc (Geirlaug), hvis navn snarest tydet på en norsk forbindelse, og at det også på fransk grunn, i yngre skrifter enn Dudos, finnes en tradisjon om at Rollo var norsk. Spørsmålet om hvem Rollo var, vil aldri kunne bli definitivt besvart. Men blant så vel norske som franske og britiske historikere er det nå vanlig å mene at bedømt ut fra kildene - og i valget mellom de to foreliggende mulighetene - er det tross alt mest som taler for en norsk opprinnelse. Svært lite er overlevert om Rollos regjering i Normandie. Kildene kan berette at han lot seg døpe 912, og han døde sannsynligvis en gang mellom 928 og 932. Rollos etterkommere satt som hertuger i Normandie frem til 1202, og hans sønnesønns sønnesønns sønn Guillaume (død 1087) ble konge i England 1066 (Vilhelm Erobreren). 25. september 1911 ble det i byparken i Ålesund under en stor folkefest avduket en statue av Rollo/Gange-Rolv. Statuen var en gave til byen fra Rouen i Normandie. Den er en bronsekopi av en originalstatue i marmor fra 1863, som står utenfor katedralen i Rouen. Kilde: Store Norske leksikon (http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Rollo_Gange-Rolv_Ragnvaldsson/utdypning) -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo

Rollo was a powerful Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of Saint-Quentin, in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum,[3] tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Denmark, who had two sons, Gurim and Rollo; upon his death, Rollo was expelled and Gurim killed. William of Jumièges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum, but states that he was from the Danish town of Fakse. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou, also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga.

Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified Rollo instead with Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker), a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas. The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae, written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair, and became a Jarl in Normandy. The nickname "the Walker", "Ganger" in Norse, came from being so big that no horse could carry him.

The question of Rollo's origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's millennium anniversary in 1911. Today, the debate continues In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred. Legend has it that an emissary was sent by the king to find the chieftain and negotiate terms. When he asked for this information, the Vikings replied that they were all chieftains in their own right. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy.[a]

Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. In 911 the Vikings under Rollo again launched an attack on Paris before laying siege to Chartres. The Bishop of Chartres, Joseaume, made an appeal for help which was answered by Robert, Marquis of Neustria, Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Manasses, Count of Dijon. On 20 July 911, at the Battle of Chartres, Frankish forces defeated Rollo despite the absence of many French barons and also the absence of the French King Charles the Simple.[4]

-------------------- Other names were Rolf, Rollo, Rollon and Rou

Rolf, was the leader of a band of Viking raiders who, for many years, pillaged Scotland, Ireland, and Gaul. In 911, Rolf was defeated in battle at Chartres. Nevertheless, Emperor Charles III (the Simple) recognized him as a legitimate ruler and granted him and his Scandinavian followers lands in the valley of the lower Seine. Rolf was then baptized by the Archbishop of Rouen. Between 911 and 924, the boundaries of his holdings were substantially expanded to include most of the region that came to be called Normandy—because it was held by the Norsemen. He died before 933.

General Notes: Gange-Rolv, Scandinavian rover who founded the duchy of Normandy. Making himself independent of King Harald I of Norway, Rollo sailed off to raid Scotland, England, Flanders, and France on pirating expeditions and, about 911, established himself in an area along the Seine River. Charles III the Simple of France held off his siege of Paris, battled him near Chartres, and negotiated the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, giving him the part of Neustria that came to be called Normandy; Rollo in return agreed to end his brigandage. He gave his son, William I Longsword, governance of the dukedom (927) before his death. Rollo was baptized in 912 but is said to have died a pagan. From Snorre Sturlasson: Harald H�rfagre's Saga: "24. ROLF GANGER DRIVEN INTO BANISHMENT. Earl Ragnvald was King Harald's dearest friend, and the king had the greatest regard for him. He was married to Hild, a daughter of Rolf Nefia, and their sons were Rolf and Thorer. Earl Ragnvald had also three sons by concubines, -- the one called Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug; and all three were grown men when their brothers born in marriage were still children Rolf became a great viking, and was of so stout a growth that no horse could carry him, and wheresoever he went he must go on foot; and therefore he was called Rolf Ganger. He plundered much in the East sea. One summer, as he was coming from the eastward on a viking's expedition to the coast of Viken, he landed there and made a cattle foray. As King Harald happened, just at that time, to be in Viken, he heard of it, and was in a great rage; for he had forbid, by the greatest punishment, the plundering within the bounds of the country. The king assembled a Thing, and had Rolf declared an outlaw over all Norway. When Rolf's mother, Hild heard of it she hastened to the king, and entreated peace for Rolf; but the king was so enraged that here entreaty was of no avail. ... Rolf Ganger went afterwards over sea to the West to the Hebrides, or Sudreys; and at last farther west to Valland, where he plundered and subdued for himself a great earldom, which he peopled with Northmen, from which that land is called Normandy. Rolf Ganger's son was William, father to Richard, and grandfather to another Richard, who was the father of Robert Longspear, and grandfather of William the Bastard, from whom all the following English kings are descended. ..." Rolv was married first in 886 with Popa, and second in in 911 with Gisela of France. Rolv lived in Rouen, where he died in 931. Banished by King Harald I of Norway, Rollo sailed off to rai

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Gange-Hrólfr 'Rollo' Ragnvaldsson de Normandie's Timeline

860
860
Maer, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway
878
878
Age 18
spent much time plundering & raiding in the East Sea (the Baltic)
885
885
- 927
Age 25
Rouen, Normandie, France
885
- 886
Age 25

Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred second official king of the Danes. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy.

885
Age 25
Paris, Ile-de-France, France

Rollo was a lesser commander in the Viking fleet that besieged Paris under Sigfred in 885. Henry was sent to aid the besieged in 886. He died on a return voyage the following year.

891
891
Age 31
Les Epesses, Vendee, Pays de la Loire, France
891
Age 31
Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
891
Age 31
891
Age 31
Normandie, France
893
893
Age 33
Iceland