García V 'el de Nájera' Sánchez de Navarra, rey de Navarra (1005 - 1054) MP

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Nicknames: "el de Najera", "King Garcia IV of /Navarre/", "sometimes García III", "IV", "V", "or VI (also García of Nájera", "from Spanish: García el de Nájera)", "él de Nájera"
Death: Died in Atapuerca, Castille and Leon, Spain
Cause of death: killed in battle
Occupation: Roi de Navarre, Kung i Navarra 1035-1054, Rey de Pamplona desde 1035., Roi, de Navarre, Rey de Pamplona, Rey de Navarra, Rey de Pamplona (1035-1054), King, King of Navarre
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About García V 'el de Nájera' Sánchez de Navarra, rey de Navarra

García Sánchez III of Navarre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia García Sánchez III, sometimes García III, IV, V, or VI (also García of Nájera, from Spanish: García el de Nájera), was king of Navarre from 1035 to 1054. He was the eldest legitimate son and heir of Sancho the Great, thus he succeeded in his father's inheritance of Navarre. He not only received the patrimony of his family, he was given a seniority amongst his brothers, a sort of "High Kingship". However, his father divided his many conquests among García's brothers: Ramiro, the eldest but illegitimate son, received the petty kingdom of Aragón; Ferdinand, the second eldest legitimate son, received Castile (which his father received through marriage to his mother); and his youngest surviving son (legitimate), Gonzalo, received the kingdoms of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza. In 1037, Ferdinand requested García's aid against his brother-in-law, Bermudo III of León, in battle near Pisuerga. The two brothers defeated Bermudo, who died in battle, the final descendant of Pedro de Cantabria, and Ferdinand succeeded in León. By aiding Ferdinand, García received his brother's favour and, in a repartition of Castile, he expanded Navarre to the bay of Santander and incorporating the entire Basque Country. Soon he was confronted by his brother Ramiro at Tafalla (1043) and defeated him. He was one of the Christian kings to profit greatly from the weakened taifa kingdoms inhabiting the "vacuum" that was the Caliphate of Córdoba. In 1045, he conquered Calahorra. Relations eventually soured with Ferdinand and war broke out between the fraternal kingdoms, García dying in the Battle of Atapuerca, 15 September, 1054. His nickname comes from his foundation of the monastery of Santa María la Real in Nájera. [edit]Family

He was married, in 1038, to Estefanía, daughter of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, an hereditary count of Barcelona (her dowry was the Cameros), and they produced nine children (four sons, five daughters): Sancho "El de Peñalén", king of Navarre, married Placencia Ramiro (d.1083), lord of Calahorra, married Teresa Ferdinand, lord of Bucesta, married Nuña de Vizcaya Raymond the Fraticide (Ramón el Fratricida), lord of Murillo and Cameros Ermesinda, married Fortún Sánchez de Yarnoz Mayor, married Guy II of Masón. Urraca (d.1108), married García Ordóñez Jimena Mencia (d.1106), married Lope de Nájera He also had illegitimate sons: Sancho, lord of Uncastillo and Sangüesa, married Constanza, grandfather of García Ramírez, king of Navarre Ramiro After García's death, Estefanía is said to have remarried to Roger de Tosny, a Norman adventurer. Estefanía may have been a widow at the time of her marriage to García. A traditional poem tells of the marriage of an illegitimate son of García (presumed to be Sancho) to his step-sister, a daughter of Estefanía by a former husband.

-------------------- García Sánchez III, sometimes García III, IV, V, or VI (also García of Nájera, from Spanish: García el de Nájera, 1016-1054), was king of Navarre from 1035 to 1054. He was the eldest legitimate son and heir of Sancho the Great, born November 1016, and he succeeded his father to the crown of Navarre. He not only received the patrimony of his family, he was given a seniority amongst his brothers, a sort of "High Kingship". However, his father divided his many conquests among García's brothers: Ramiro, the eldest but illegitimate son, received the petty kingdom of Aragón; Ferdinand, the second eldest legitimate son, received Castile (which his father received through marriage to his mother); and his youngest surviving son (legitimate), Gonzalo, received the kingdoms of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza.

In 1037, Ferdinand requested García's aid against his brother-in-law, Bermudo III of León, in battle near Pisuerga. The two brothers defeated Bermudo, who died in battle, the final descendant of Pedro de Cantabria, and Ferdinand succeeded in León.

By aiding Ferdinand, García received his brother's favour and, in a repartition of Castile, he expanded Navarre to the bay of Santander and incorporating the entire Basque Country.

Soon he was confronted by his brother Ramiro at Tafalla (1043) and defeated him.

He was one of the Christian kings to profit greatly from the weakened taifa kingdoms inhabiting the "vacuum" that was the Caliphate of Córdoba. In 1045, he conquered Calahorra.

Relations eventually soured with Ferdinand and war broke out between the fraternal kingdoms, García dying in the Battle of Atapuerca, 15 September, 1054. His nickname comes from his foundation of the monastery of Santa María la Real in Nájera. He was married, in 1038, to Estefanía, daughter of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, an hereditary count of Barcelona (her dowry was the Cameros), and they produced nine children (four sons, five daughters):

Sancho "El de Peñalén", king of Navarre, married Placencia Ramiro (d.1083), lord of Calahorra, married Teresa Ferdinand, lord of Bucesta, married Nuña de Vizcaya Raymond the Fraticide (Ramón el Fratricida), lord of Murillo and Cameros Ermesinda, married Fortún Sánchez de Yarnoz Mayor, married Guy II of Masón. Urraca (d.1108), married García Ordóñez Jimena Mencia (d.1106), married Lope de Nájera He also had illegitimate sons:

Sancho, lord of Uncastillo and Sangüesa, married Constanza, grandfather of García Ramírez, king of Navarre Ramiro After García's death, Estefanía is said to have remarried to Roger de Tosny, a Norman adventurer. Estefanía may have been a widow at the time of her marriage to García. A traditional poem tells of the marriage of an illegitimate son of García (presumed to be Sancho) to his step-sister, a daughter of Estefanía by a former husband. -------------------- García Sánchez III, sometimes García III, IV, V, or VI (also García of Nájera, from Spanish: García el de Nájera, 1016-1054), was king of Navarre from 1035 to 1054. He was the eldest legitimate son and heir of Sancho the Great, born November 1016, and he succeeded his father to the crown of Navarre, becoming feudal overlord over two of his brothers: Ramiro, who was given lands that would serve as the basis for the kingdom of Aragón; and Gonzalo, who received the counties of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza. Likewise, he had some claim to suzerainty over brother Ferdinand, who under their father had served as Count of Castile, nominally subject to the Kingdom of León but brought under the personal control of Sancho III.

In 1037, Ferdinand requested García's aid against his brother-in-law, Bermudo III of León, at the Battle of Tamarón near Pisuerga. The two brothers defeated Bermudo, who died in battle, the final king of the male line of Pedro de Cantabria, and Ferdinand succeeded in León.

By aiding Ferdinand, García received his brother's favour and, in a repartition of Castile, he expanded Navarre to the bay of Santander, incorporating the entire Basque Country.

Soon he was confronted by his brother Ramiro at Tafalla (1043) and defeated him, but this victory resulted in the effective independence of Ramiro.

García was one of the Christian kings to profit greatly from the weakened taifa kingdoms that arose through the disintegration of central control by the Caliphate of Córdoba. In 1045, he conquered Calahorra.

Relations eventually soured with Ferdinand and war broke out between the fraternal kingdoms, García dying in the Battle of Atapuerca, 15 September, 1054.

His nickname comes from his foundation of the monastery of Santa María la Real of Najera.

[edit] Family He was married, in 1038, to Estefanía, possibly daughter of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona (her dowry was the Cameros), and they produced nine children (four sons, five daughters):

Sancho "El de Peñalén", king of Navarre, married Placencia Ramiro (d.1083), lord of Calahorra, married Teresa, daughter of count Gonzalo Salvadórez de Lara[citation needed] Ferdinand, lord of Bucesta, married Nuña de Vizcaya Raymond the Fraticide (Ramón el Fratricida), lord of Murillo and Cameros Ermesinda, married Fortún Sánchez de Yarnoz Mayor, married Guy II of Masón. Urraca (d.1108), married Castilian count García Ordóñez Jimena Mencia (d.1106), married Lope de Nájera He also had illegitimate sons:

Sancho, lord of Uncastillo and Sangüesa, jure uxoris-by right of his wife, Constanza. He was grandfather of García Ramírez, king of Navarre Ramiro After García's death, Estefanía is said to have remarried to Roger de Tosny, a Norman adventurer. Estefanía may have been a widow at the time of her marriage to García. A traditional poem tells of the marriage of an illegitimate son of García (presumed to be Sancho) to his stepsister, a daughter of Estefanía by a former husband.

Preceded by: Sancho III King of Navarre 1035–1054 Sancho IV Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garc%C3%ADa_S%C3%A1nchez_III_of_Navarre" Categories: 1054 deaths | House of Jiménez | Navarrese monarchs | Monarchs killed in action | 1016 births -------------------- García Sánchez III (después de 1020 – Atapuerca, 15 de septiembre de 1054) apodado el de Nájera, fue rey de Pamplona desde 1035. Hijo de Sancho III el Mayor y de Muniadona Sánchez de Castilla.

Biografía Heredero del trono según la costumbre, a la muerte de su padre Sancho Garcés III, pues el primogénito Ramiro que heredó Aragón era hijo ilegítimo.

Venció a su hermano Ramiro I de Aragón en Tafalla (1043), fijando la frontera oriental de su reino.

Aprovechando la debilidad de los reinos de taifas, se dedicó a aumentar por el sur sus dominios con buen éxito, logrando conquistar Calahorra en el 1045.

El 12 de diciembre de 1052 consagró el Monasterio de Santa María la Real de Nájera que había mandado construir unos años antes. Tras esto quiso enriquecerlo trayendo los cuerpos de Santos de la comarca, pidiendo su aprobación a los obispos Sancho de Pamplona, García de Álava y Gómez de Burgos. En 1052 intentó trasladar el cuerpo de Felices de Bilibio, llegando a tal acuerdo con el obispo de Álava. Éste se dirigió a los Riscos de Bilibio acompañado de muchos caballeros pero cuando abrió la sepultura, sintió separarse del túmulo y se le torció la boca, tras lo que dio inicio una fuerte tormenta. Al parecer que el cielo se oponía al traslado se marcharon, pero parece que el obispo conservaría la deformación de su cara de por vida.[1] El 29 de mayo de 1053 intentó trasladar los restos de Millán sin conseguirlo, por el milagro de los bueyes que no querían continuar con el traslado.[1] Por este milagro decidió construir un nuevo monasterio para albergar su cuerpo en el lugar donde los bueyes habían quedado parados, este sería el Monasterio de Yuso.

[editar] Relaciones con Castilla García además de recibir de Sancho el Mayor el reino patrimonial de Pamplona, heredó de su padre Álava y gran parte del Condado de Castilla (La Bureba, Trasmiera, Montes de Oca, Encartaciones y Castilla Vieja). Si bien para José María Lacarra estos territorios los dio Fernando a García por su ayuda prestada en la batalla de Tamarón,[2] en la actualidad gracias a la documentación esta teoría de Lacarra se hace imposible ya que el nombre de García antes de la batalla de Tamarón ya aparece calendando los diplomas de Valpuesta, o en la documentación del monasterio de Valvanera y San Millán reinando en Oca y en la Bureba.[3]

El propio García el año 1044 y el año 1046 describe así el territorio donde gobierna:

Reinando el rey García, que mandó hacer esta escritura, en Pamplona y en Álava y en Castilla Vieja hasta Burgos y hasta Bricia, poseyendo también Cudeyo con su término en Asturias; su hermano Fernando rey en León y en Burgos...

[4] No es de extrañar que cuando García restaura el Monasterio de Santa María del Puerto en Santoña, el escriba considere que García reinaba en Pamplona y Castilla, y Fernando en León y Galicia:

En aquel tiempo cuando reinaba el rey García en Pamplona y en Castilla y su hermano Fernando rey de León y de Galicia

[5] En el año 1037, cuando su hermano Fernando I de Castilla solicita su ayuda para combatir a su cuñado Bermudo III de León cerca del Pisuerga, éste se la presta, combatiendo los dos hermanos juntos contra el monarca leonés en la batalla de Tamarón, siendo vencido y muerto el último descendiente directo de Don Pelayo.

Debido al conflictivo reparto de las tierras castellanas estalló la lucha entre los hermanos Fernando y García, muriendo este último en la batalla de Atapuerca el 15 de septiembre de 1054.

[editar] Nupcias y descendientes García Sánchez III de Navarra se casó en 1038, en Barcelona con Estefanía de Foix, de la Casa de Cominges. Estefanía (viuda de su primer matrimonio y, según algunos estudiosos, con una hija, Constanza, que estuvo presente en su segundo matrimonio)[6] era la hija más joven de Bernardo I Roger de Carcasona, conde de Conserans, señor del País de Foix y conde consorte de Bigorra y de Garsenda, condesa de Bigorra. En su boda, García Sánchez entregó a Estefanía en arras, entre otros bienes, a ambabus Cambaribus, los dos Cameros riojanos. Con ella tuvo nueve hijos:[7]

Sancho IV el de Peñalén (* 1039 – † 4 de junio de 1076), rey de Navarra, casado con Placencia de Normandía. Urraca Garcés, señora de Alberite, Lardero y Logroño, casada en primeras nupcias hacia 1078 con el conde García Ordóñez (muerto el 30 de mayo de 1108 en la batalla de Uclés), señor de Nájera y Grañón. Ermesinda o Hermesinda Garcés († después de 1 de julio de 1110), casada con Fortún Sánchez, señor de Yarnoz y de Yéqueda. En 1076 acompañaba a su hermano Raimundo en Peñalén cuando éste asesinó al hermano mayor de ambos. Ramiro de Navarra († 6 de enero de 1083), señor de Calahorra, de Torrecilla en Cameros y de Ribafrecha y sus villas. Casado con Teresa. Murió luchando por Alfonso VI de León y Castilla, asesinado por los moros del castillo de Rueda de Jalón cuando estos simularon la rendición del castillo al rey de Castilla. Fernando de Navarra († 1068), señor de Bucesta, Jubera, Lagunilla y Oprela, casado con Nuña Íñiguez, hija de Íñigo López, conde y señor de Vizcaya y Nájera. Ramón (Raimundo) de Navarra el Fratricida († después de 1079), señor de Murillo y Agoncillo. Después del asesinato de su hermano y rey Sancho IV el de Peñalén, se refugió en Zaragoza con el rey moro Al-Muqtadir. Jimena Garcés de Navarra († después del 27 de mayo de 1085), señora de Corcuetos (Navarrete), Hornos y Daroca. Mayor Garcés de Navarra(† después de 1115), señora de Yanguas, Atayo y Velilla. No es probable que sea, por cuestión de fechas, la española Doña Mayor casada con el conde de Mâcon Guy II de Mâcon. Sancha Garcés († 1065), abadesa seglar de San Martín de Cuevagallegos, un poblado de Pancorbo. García Sánchez III de Navarra tuvo dos hijos bastardos, con madre o madres desconocidas:

Sancho Garcés, Señor de Uncastillo y Sangüesa, casado con Constanza, la hija del primer matrimonio de Estefanía de Foix y por lo tanto, hermanastra suya. Su hijo, Ramiro Sánchez de Pamplona fue el padre de García VI, el Restaurador, rey de Pamplona. Mencia Garcés, casada con Fortún Ochoa, señores ambos de Nalda, Leza y Jubera, siendo su marido el primer señor de Cameros.

-------------------- García Sánchez III, sometimes García III, IV, V, or VI (also García of Nájera, from Spanish: García el de Nájera, 1016-1054), was king of Navarre from 1035 to 1054. He was the eldest legitimate son and heir of Sancho the Great, born November 1016, and he succeeded his father to the crown of Navarre. He not only received the patrimony of his family, he was given a seniority amongst his brothers, a sort of "High Kingship". However, his father divided his many conquests among García's brothers: Ramiro, the eldest but illegitimate son, received the petty kingdom of Aragón; Ferdinand, the second eldest legitimate son, received Castile (which his father received through marriage to his mother); and his youngest surviving son (legitimate), Gonzalo, received the kingdoms of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza.

In 1037, Ferdinand requested García's aid against his brother-in-law, Bermudo III of León, in battle near Pisuerga. The two brothers defeated Bermudo, who died in battle, the final descendant of Pedro de Cantabria, and Ferdinand succeeded in León.

By aiding Ferdinand, García received his brother's favour and, in a repartition of Castile, he expanded Navarre to the bay of Santander and incorporating the entire Basque Country.

Soon he was confronted by his brother Ramiro at Tafalla (1043) and defeated him.

He was one of the Christian kings to profit greatly from the weakened taifa kingdoms inhabiting the "vacuum" that was the Caliphate of Córdoba. In 1045, he conquered Calahorra.

Relations eventually soured with Ferdinand and war broke out between the fraternal kingdoms, García dying in the Battle of Atapuerca, 15 September, 1054. His nickname comes from his foundation of the monastery of Santa María la Real in Nájera.

He was married, in 1038, to Estefanía, daughter of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, an hereditary count of Barcelona (her dowry was the Cameros), and they produced nine children (four sons, five daughters):

Sancho "El de Peñalén", king of Navarre, married Placencia

Ramiro (d.1083), lord of Calahorra, married Teresa

Ferdinand, lord of Bucesta, married Nuña de Vizcaya

Raymond the Fraticide (Ramón el Fratricida), lord of Murillo and Cameros

Ermesinda, married Fortún Sánchez de Yarnoz

Mayor, married Guy II of Masón.

Urraca (d.1108), married García Ordóñez

Jimena

Mencia (d.1106), married Lope de Nájera

He also had illegitimate sons:

Sancho, lord of Uncastillo and Sangüesa, married Constanza, grandfather of García Ramírez, king of Navarre

Ramiro

After García's death, Estefanía is said to have remarried to Roger de Tosny, a Norman adventurer. Estefanía may have been a widow at the time of her marriage to García. A traditional poem tells of the marriage of an illegitimate son of García (presumed to be Sancho) to his step-sister, a daughter of Estefanía by a former husband.

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García V el de Nájera, rey de Navarra's Timeline

1005
1005
1030
1030
Age 25
1030
Age 25
1039
1039
Age 34
Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
1047
1047
Age 42
Moncon, Spain
1050
1050
Age 45
Navarre, Spain
1054
September 1, 1054
Age 49
Atapuerca, Castille and Leon, Spain
1054
Age 49

Battle of Atapuerca
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1 September 1054 at the site of Piedrahita ("standing stone") in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García Sánchez III, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Castile and León.
The Castilians won and King García was killed in battle. Ferdinand reannexed Navarrese territory he conceded to García 17 years early after his brother's assistance at Pisuerga.

Precedents

After the death of Sancho III of Navarre, his empire was divided with Ferdinand receiving the then County of Castile and García, the Kingdom of Navarre.
In 1037, Vermudo III of Leon died without descendants in the battle of Tamarón against his brother-in-law Ferdinand of Castile. Ferdinand inherited the title of king of Leon, entering the city of León on 1038. He rewarded the help of his brother García with Castilian territories from Oca to the gates of Burgos, from Briviesca to the valley of Urbel, from Castrobarto to Bricia and from the Nervión river to Santander.
[edit]Versions

[edit]Chronicon Silense
The monk of Silos wrote several decades later that an envious García attacked Ferdinand who was visiting him at Nájera during his illness. Recovered, García visited back Ferdinand to make peace. Ferdinand set him in chains and locked him in a tower in Cea. The Navarrese escaped and declared war, rejecting the Castilian embassies.
García was buried in the nearby village of Agés and his tomb was recently discovered in the church there.
The hosts of Castile and Leon were in Atapuerca, three leagues eastwards from Burgos, already in Navarre.
García had with him Moorish auxiliary troops and maybe his brother king Ramiro I of Aragon.
[edit]Annals of Compostela
The annals attribute the death of García to one knight of his, Sancho Fortún, "whom he [the king], had offended with his wife". Several in the Navarrese retinue preferred death in combat, and also the murderer, lord of Funes, Navarre, died in battle.
[edit]Crónica Najerense
The Najerense mentions relatives of Vermudo, who furiously engaged García, disobeying Ferdinand's instructions to take him alive.
The Navarrese kept however their places until night and took the corpse to bury him in Nájera. The proclaimed on the spot the new king, an adolescent Sancho de Peñalén.
[edit]Other version
Ferdinand is in this version the reckless brother and covets the "Asturias of Santander", Old Castile, Briviesca and Rioja. Ferdinand visited his ill brother, but suspecting him fled. García visited an ill Ferdinand then, wishing to dispel his suspicions, but was locked in Cea. Upon escaping, he took his troops and some Moors into Castile. In Atapuerca the peace talks failed. Two traitor soldiers (one of them, Sancho Fortún), wounded him lethally. Ferdinand conceded the transport of the corpse to Nájera, took Briviesca, Montes de Oca and part of Rioja. The border of Navarre was set by the Ebro, and the new king Sancho IV of Navarre became Ferdinand's vassail.
[edit]El Cid?
Some sources mention El Cid as one of the battlers, but being born on 1043 or 1048 he would be too young. His father Diego Laínez probable was present though.
[edit]Later history

In 1940 a commemorative inscription was carved on a 6,000-year-old menhir at the site.
Since 1996, the people of Atapuerca and neighbour towns reenact the battle on the last or previous Sunday of August.
[edit]References

Año de 1054. Batalla de Atapuerca, leaflet by the Asociación Amigos de Atapuerca [1]

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Navarre, Spain
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Navarre, Spain