García VI 'el Restaurador' Ramírez, rey de Navarra (c.1105 - 1150) MP

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Nicknames: ""El Restaurador"", "el Restaurador (the Restorer)", "King Garcia V of /Navarre/", "the restorer Garcia el Restaurador IV", "The /Restorer/", "el Restaruador", ""The Restorer"", "The Restorer", "Garcia Ramirez (The Restorer)"
Death: Died in Lorca, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
Occupation: King, Roi de Navarre, King of Pamplona, Roi, de Navarre, roi de Navarre, Rey de Navarra, Rey de Navarre, Kung i Navarra, Rey de Pamplona de 1134 a 1150., Rei de Navarra, Rey de Navarra & Pamplona (1134-1150), Rey de Navarre - 'El Restaurador'
Managed by: Nancy Sawalich
Last Updated:

About García VI 'el Restaurador' Ramírez, rey de Navarra

García Ramírez de Navarra

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

García Ramírez (n. ? - † Lorca (Navarra), 21 de noviembre de 1150), rey de Navarra (1134-1150). Primer rey que abandona definitivamente el título de Rey de Pamplona.


Estatua de García Ramírez en Pamplona (1750-53).

Elegido por los magnates y obispos navarros como rey al no acatar las disposiciones testamentarias de Alfonso I, "el Batallador".

Hijo del infante Ramiro Sánchez, señor de Monzón, y de Cristina, hija del Cid Campeador.

Parece que buscando una solución a la separación de los reinos de Aragón y Navarra, que habían sido gobernados conjuntamente desde la muerte de Sancho, "el de Peñalén", hasta la muerte de Alfonso, "el Batallador", propusieron que el rey-monje de Aragón fuese el "padre" y García Ramírez el "hijo". Los dos conservarían su respectivo reino, sin embargo, la primacía sobre el pueblo sería de Ramiro.

Al entrar en Zaragoza Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y rendirle vasallaje los aragoneses, se acentúa la separación entre los dos reinos, que en su día fueron feudo de Sancho Garcés III.

Aliado con Alfonso I de Portugal, en 1137 se enfrentó a Alfonso VII de Castilla, a quien había prestado vasallaje. Firmaron la paz entre 1139 y 1140.

Los navarros ocuparon Tauste en el 1146, pero Alfonso VII actuó como árbitro entre los dos reinos.

En 1144, después de enviudar, se casó con una hija de Alfonso, Urraca, siendo a partir de esa fecha parientes del emperador leonés-castellano los reyes de Navarra y Aragón; Ramón Berenguer era cuñado y García Ramírez yerno. Ambos se reconocieron vasallos del emperador Alfonso VII.

A partir de esa fecha vemos a García Ramírez auxiliando a Alfonso VII en sus campañas de reconquista, concretamente en la campaña de Almería, que fue conquistada por las tropas cristianas en 1147.

En 1149 firmó un tratado de paz con Ramón Berenguer, por el cual el catalán se casaría con su hija Blanca, a pesar de estar prometido con Petronila de Aragón, pero al morir García Ramírez no se llevó a cabo el compromiso.

Murió el 21 de noviembre de 1150 en Lorca, cerca de Estella.

Casado después de 1130 con Margarita de l'Aigle, tuvieron como descendencia a:

Sancho VI, "El Sabio", rey de Navarra, casado con Sancha de Castilla.

Blanca de Navarra, n. después de 1133, que se casó con Sancho III de Castilla "El Deseado".

Margarita de Navarra, casada con Guillermo I, Rey de Sicilia.

Casado en segundas nupcias el 24 de junio de 1144, en León, con Urraca, hija bastarda del rey Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y de Guntroda, teniendo como descendencia a:

Sancha de Navarra, casada con Gastón V, Vizconde de Béarn, fallecido en 1170. Casada en segundas nupcias con el conde Pedro Manrique de Lara, II Señor de Molina y Mesa, XIII Vizconde de Narbona

Rodrigo Garcés, Conde de Montescaglioso.

Casado en terceras nupcias con Ganfreda López.

Predecesor:

Alfonso I de Aragón Rey de Navarra

1134 - 1150 Sucesor:

Sancho VI

--------------------

García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother was Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, the Cid's daughter.

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

--------------------

García Ramírez of Navarre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

Early years

García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother was Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, the Cid's daughter.

[edit]Rise to power

When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

[edit]García's heirs

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII and Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

[edit]Sources

Lourie, Elena. "The Will of Alfonso I, 'El Batallador,' King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment." Speculum, Vol. 50, No. 4. (Oct., 1975), pp 635–651.

Grassotti, H. "Homenaje de García Ramírez a Alfonso VII." Principe de Viana. 94–95 (1964).

Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longmans: London, 1970.

[

--------------------

García VI Ramírez (Garsias Ranimiriz, also García IV, because he was only the fourth García of the Jiménez dynasty; died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García V of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother was Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, the Cid's daughter.

When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII and Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 12 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

--------------------

Falleció a consecuencia de una caída de caballo. Rey de Navarra 1134, fundó la ciudad de Vitoria.

--------------------

Elegido por los magnates y obispos navarros como rey al no acatar las disposiciones testamentarias de Alfonso I, "el Batallador".

Hijo del infante Ramiro Sánchez, Señor de Monzón, Señor de Logroño, y de Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, hija del Cid Campeador.

Parece que buscando una solución a la separación de los reinos de Aragón y Navarra, que habían sido gobernados conjuntamente desde la muerte de Sancho, "el de Peñalén", hasta la muerte de Alfonso, "el Batallador", propusieron que el rey-monje de Aragón fuese el "padre" y García Ramírez el "hijo". Los dos conservarían su respectivo reino, sin embargo, la primacía sobre el pueblo sería de Ramiro.

Al entrar en Zaragoza Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y rendirle vasallaje los zaragozanos, se acentúa la separación entre los dos reinos, que en su día fueron feudo de Sancho Garcés III.

Aliado con Alfonso I de Portugal, en 1137 se enfrentó a Alfonso VII de Castilla, a quien había prestado vasallaje. Firmaron la paz entre 1139 y 1140.

Los navarros ocuparon Tauste en el 1146, pero Alfonso VII actuó como árbitro entre los dos reinos.

En 1144, después de enviudar, se casó con una hija de Alfonso, Urraca, siendo a partir de esa fecha parientes del emperador leonés-castellano los reyes de Navarra y Aragón; Ramón Berenguer era cuñado y García Ramírez yerno. Ambos se reconocieron vasallos del emperador Alfonso VII.[cita requerida]

A partir de esa fecha vemos a García Ramírez auxiliando a Alfonso VII en sus campañas de reconquista, concretamente en la campaña de Almería, que fue conquistada por las tropas cristianas en 1147.

En 1149 firmó un tratado de paz con Ramón Berenguer, por el cual el catalán se casaría con su hija Blanca, a pesar de estar prometido con Petronila de Aragón, pero al morir García Ramírez no se llevó a cabo el compromiso.

Murió el 21 de noviembre de 1150 en Lorca, cerca de Estella.

   * Casado después de 1130 con Margarita de L'Aigle, tuvieron como descendencia a:
         o Sancho VI, "El Sabio", rey de Navarra, casado con Sancha de Castilla.
         o Blanca de Navarra, n. después de 1133, que se casó con Sancho III de Castilla "El Deseado".
         o Margarita de Navarra, casada con Guillermo I, Rey de Sicilia.
   * Casado en segundas nupcias el 24 de junio de 1144, en León, con Urraca, hija bastarda del rey Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y de Guntroda, teniendo como descendencia a:
         o Sancha de Navarra, casada con Gastón V, Vizconde de Béarn, fallecido en 1170. Casada en segundas nupcias con el conde Pedro Manrique de Lara, II Señor de Molina y Mesa, XIII Vizconde de Narbona
         o Rodrigo Garcés, Conde de Montescaglioso.
   * Casado en terceras nupcias con Ganfreda López.

--------------------

García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

Contents [hide]

1 Early years

2 Rise to power

3 García's heirs

4 Sources

5 Notes


[edit] Early years

García was born in the early twelfth century. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother Cristina was a daughter of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid.

[edit] Rise to power

When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

[edit] García's heirs

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanche, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María la Real in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Santa María de la Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

[edit] Sources

Lourie, Elena. "The Will of Alfonso I, 'El Batallador,' King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment." Speculum, Vol. 50, No. 4. (Oct., 1975), pp 635–651.

Grassotti, H. "Homenaje de García Ramírez a Alfonso VII." Príncipe de Viana. 94–95 (1964).

Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun, 1130–1194. London: Longmans, 1970.

[edit] Notes

1.^ Lourie, 642–643.

2.^ Ibid, 647.

3.^ Ibid, 649 n49.

4.^ Ibid, 650.

5.^ Grassotti, 60.

6.^ Lourie, 650.

7.^ Ibid, 651.

8.^ Norwich, 258.

Preceded by

Alfonso King of Navarre

1134 – 1150 Succeeded by

Sancho VI

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garc%C3%ADa_Ram%C3%ADrez_of_Navarre"

Categories: 1150 deaths | House of Jiménez | Navarrese monarchs

--------------------

García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

Contents [hide]

1 Early years

2 Rise to power

3 García's heirs

4 Sources

5 Notes


[edit] Early years

García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother was Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, the Cid's daughter.

[edit] Rise to power

When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

[edit] García's heirs

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

[edit] Sources

Lourie, Elena. "The Will of Alfonso I, 'El Batallador,' King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment." Speculum, Vol. 50, No. 4. (Oct., 1975), pp 635–651.

Grassotti, H. "Homenaje de García Ramírez a Alfonso VII." Príncipe de Viana. 94–95 (1964).

Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun, 1130–1194. London: Longmans, 1970.

[edit] Notes

^ Lourie, 642–643.

^ Ibid, 647.

^ Ibid, 649 n49.

^ Ibid, 650.

^ Grassotti, 60.

^ Lourie, 650.

^ Ibid, 651.

^ Norwich, 258.

Preceded by

Alfonso King of Navarre

1134 – 1150 Succeeded by

Sancho VI

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garc%C3%ADa_Ram%C3%ADrez_of_Navarre"

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REYES DE NAVARRA Y ARAGÓN

1) Significado: Procede del nombre vasco Nafarroa.

2) Casa solar: Reino de Navarra, España.

3) Armas: Las Armas primitivas (siglo XI) fueron: En campo de oro, un águila de sable. En epoca de Sancho VII de Navarra (siglo XIIII) fueron las que aparecen más abajo (De gueules, aux rais d'escarboucle d'or). El tercer escudo de esta página, corresponde a las Armas de la Baja Navarra (Bearn francés) (De gueules, aux rais d'escarboucle, réunies en orle d'or et allumées en coeur de sinople). Otra variante, más abajo: De gueules, aux chaînes d'or, en croix, en sautoir et en orle, allumées en coeur de sinople.

4) Antepasados:

—Dinastía Íñiga: entronca con la Dinastía Jimena.

I. Jimeno de Pamplona, a través de los Reyes de Castilla) nació hacia el año de 745. Murió hacia 805. Tuvo por hijo a

II. Íñigo Jiménez de Pamplona nació hacia el año de 765. Casó con Faquilene y tuvo por hijo a

III. Íñigo Íñiguez Arista de Pamplona nació en los condados pirenaicos hacia el año de 790. Fue el primer régulo de Navarra. Gobernar de 842 a 851. Murió el 8-VII-857. Casó con Onneca, y tuvieron por hijos a Ausona de Pamplona (c.805, casada con Muza Ibn Muza, hijo de Muza Ibn Fortún, y nieto de Ibn Quasi Fortunius, linaje descendiente, al parecer, de Mahoma "el Profeta": ver Omeyas) y García Íñiguez de Pamplona (c.810, que sigue).

IV. García Íñiguez de Pamplona nació antes del año de 810. García Íñiguez gobernó desde el 851 al 882. Según la tradicion murio en la batalla de Aibar en 882. De Urraca Fernández, su mujer, tuvo por hijos a Fortún Garcés (830, que sigue), Sancho (c.840, que tuvo por hijo a Aznar Sánchez, que casó con su prima hermana Onneca de Pamplona: ver más abajo) y Onneca (c.850, que casó con Aznar Galindo II de Aragón: ver Condes de Aragón). Ver nota 1.

V. Fortún Garcés "el Monje" de Pamplona nació en el año de 830. Gobernó de 882 a 905. Casó con su sobrina segunda Auria ben Muza (hija de su primo hermano Lupo ben Muza y de Ayab Al Bulatya). Tuvo por hijos a Onneca Fortúnez de Pamplona (c.855, que sigue), Belasco e Íñigo Fortúnez (c.860, que casó con Sancha Garcés, hija de García Jiménez de Pamplona: ver dinastía Jimena). Lope García de Salazar afirma en sus Bienandanzas e Fortunas que un descendiente de Íñigo Fortúnez fue Ordoño, conde de Gaviria, que nació hacia el año de 1120, y del cual procede el linaje vizcaino de Zamudio: ver Zamudio.

VI. Onneca Fortúnez de Pamplona nació hacia el año de 855. Casó en primeras nupcias con su tío, Aznar Sánchez de Pamplona (hijo de Sancho Garcés de Pamplona), y tuvieron por hija a Toda Aznárez de Pamplona (c.880, que casó con Sancho Garcés I de Navarra: ver abajo, dinastía Jimena). En segundas nupcias casó con Abd Allah I de Córdoba, nacido el 7-III-1843/44, hijo de Mohammed de Córdoba y nieto de Abd Al Rhaman II de Córdoba (ver Dinastía Omeya de Córdoba). De este segundo matrimonio tuvo por hijo a Zahabon Ibn Zayd de Córdoba, que fue cuarto abuelo de Ermesenda González de Amaya, mujer de Nuño González de Lara, y padres de Jimena Núñez de Lara, en la cual, según una de las hipótesis descutidas, Alfonso VI de Castilla tuvo por hijas a Teresa Alfonso (casada con Enrique de Borgoña: ver Casa de Borgoña) y Elvira Núñez (casada con Raimundo IV de Saint Gilles, conde de Toulouse: ver Condes de Toulouse). De todos estos personajes desciende don Juan Manuel de Castilla y, por tanto, nuestra familia (ver Reyes de Castilla).

—Dinastía Jimena : entronca con tres ramas de antepasados de nuestra familia.

I. Jimeno de Pamplona, a través de los Reyes de Castilla nació hacia el año de 815, en los condados pirenaicos. Murió hacia el 850. Tuvo por hijos a García Jiménez de Navarra (c.835, que sigue) y Jimena Garcés (c.842, que casó con Alfonso III "el Magno" de Asturias y tuvieron por hijo a Ordoño II, rey de León: ver Reyes de Asturias y León).

II. García Jiménez de Pamplona nació en el Pirineo Navarro hacia el año de 835. De Onneca Rebelle de Sangüesa, su primera mujer, tuvo por hija a Sancha Garcés de Pamplona (c.880, que en segundas nupcias casó con Galindo Aznar II de Aragón: ver Condes de Aragón) y, de Dadildis de Pallars (hija de Lupo de Bigorra y una hija de Raimundo I de Rouergue, conde de Toulouse, que estaba casado con Berta de Reims, una biznieta de Carlomagno: ver Condes de Toulouse y Carolingios) tuvo por hijo a Sancho Garcés I de Navarra (c.880, que sigue).

III. Sancho Garcés I, rey de Navarra nació hacia el año de 880. Fue el cuarto rey de Navarra (los tres primeros fueron de la dinastía Íñiga), y gobernó de 905 a 925. Murió el 6-III-925/26. Caso, hacia el año 900, con Toda Aznárez de Pamplona (hija de Aznar Sánchez de Pamplona y de Onneca Fortúnez de Pamplona: ver Condes de Aragón). Tuvieron por hijos a Lupa de Navarra (c.900, casada con un tío abuelo suyo, llamado Dat Donato II de Bigorra, hermano de su abuela Dadildis), Sancha Sánchez de Pamplona (c.903, que casó sucesivamente con Ordoño II de León, Álvaro Herrameliz de Álava y Fernán González de Castilla: ver Reyes de Castilla), Urraca Sánchez de Pamplona (c.905, que casó con Ramiro II de León: ver Reyes de León) y García Sánchez I de Navarra (c.919, que sigue).

IV. García Sánchez I, rey de Navarra nació el año de 919. Murió en 970. Fue el quinto rey de Navarra. Gobernó de 925 a 970. Contrajo matrimonio con Andregoto Galíndez de Aragón (c.910, hija de Galindo Aznar II de Aragón y Sancha Garcés de Pamplona: ver Condes de Aragón), con quien procreo a Sancho Garc´s II "Abarca" (940, que sigue). En segundas nupcias casó con Teresa de León (hija de Ramiro II de León y Adosinda Gutiérrez), y tuvieron por hija a Urraca Garcés de Navarra (c.960, que casó con Ramiro III de León, y tuvieron por hija a Velasquita de León: ver Reyes de León).

V. Sancho Garcés II "Abarca", rey de Navarra nació el año 940. Murió en 994. Fue el sexto rey de Navarra. Gobernó de 970 a 994. Casó en 962 con Urraca Fernandez (hija de Fernán González, Conde de Castilla, y Sancha Sánchez de Pamplona: ver Reyes de Castilla), y fueron padres de

VI. García Sánchez II "el Trémulo", rey de Navarra nació hacia el año de 964. Murió el 3-III-1000. Fue el septimo rey de Navarra, de 994 a 1000. Caso con Jimena Fernández (hija de Fernando Bermúdez de León, y tataranieta de Ordoño I de Asturias: ver Reyes de Asturias). Fueron padres de Sancho III de Navarra (992, que sigue) y Urraca Garcés (c.995, que casó con Alfonso V de León, y tuvieron por hija a Jimena, que fue la abuela materna de Jimena Díaz, la esposa del Cid: ver ascendencia y descendencia del Cid).

VII. Sancho Garcés III "el Mayor", rey de Navarra, a través de los Reyes de Castilla nació el año de 992. Murió el 28-I-1035/36. Fue el octavo rey de Navarra, de 1000 a 1035. Caso en 1010 con Elvira (o Munia) de Castilla, de quien por hijos: Fernando I (primer rey de Castilla: ver Reyes de Castilla), Garcia III (noveno Rey de Navarra: que sigue en las ramas 2 y 3) y Gonzalo, conde de Sobrarbe y de Ribagorza. Fuera de matrimonio tuvo por hijo, en Sancha de Aibar a Ramiro I (primer rey de Aragón, que sigue en la Rama 1).

—Rama 1: Primeros Reyes de Aragón. Entronca con la Casa de Ayala y a través de ella con las Casas de Gamboa, Marroquín, Murga, Ugarte y Zamudio.

VIII. Ramiro I, a través de los linajes de Murga y Ayala nació hacia el año de 1010. Fue el primer rey de Aragon, de 1035 a 1063. Entro en batalla contra sus hermanos, mas le fue adversa la fortuna. Tuvo mejor suerte en sus luchas contra los moros. Casó con Ermesinda de Conserans (hija del conde Bernard I Roger de Foix y Garsinda de Bigorra), de quien tuvo por hijo a Sancho Ramírez. Además, según cuenta la leyenda, tuvo por hijo, fuera del matrimonio, al conde don Vela (c.1030), fundador de la Casa de Ayala.

—Rama 2: entronca con los Reyes de Castilla.

VIII. García Sánchez III "el de Nájera", rey de Navarra nació después del año 1020 y murió el 12-XII-1054, en la batalla de Atapuerca. Casó con Estefanía de Foix (hija de Bernard I Roger de Foix y Garsinda de Bigorra), con la que tuvo por hijo a Sancho García de Navarra (c.1039, ver rama 3) y con otra mujer tuvo por hijo a Sancho Garcés de Navarra (c.1045, que sigue).

IX. Sancho Garcés de Navarra nació hacia 1045. Tuvo por hijo a

X. Ramiro Sánchez de Navarra, señor de Monzón nació hacia 1075. Casó con Cristina Rodríguez de Vivar (hija del Cid Campeador y doña Jimena: ver ascendencia y descendencia del Cid) y tuvieron por hijo a

XI. GARCÍA RAMÍREZ VI "EL RESTAURADOR", REY DE NAVARRA nació entre 1110 y 1115, Murió el 20-III-1150/51 en Lorca, España. Casó con MARGARITA DE L'AIGLE ROTROU (hija de Gilberto de L'Aigle, originario de L'Aigle, y de Juliana de Mortagne, originaria de Normandía: ver Dinastía normanda de Le Coz). Margarita murió el 21-IX-1141. Tuvieron por hija a Blanca de Navarra.

XII. Blanca de Navarra, a través de los Reyes de Castilla nació después de 1133. Murió el 9-XII-1156. Casó el 30-I-1150/51 con Sancho III "el Deseado", rey de Castilla, y tuvieron por hijo a Alfonso VIII de Castilla.

—Rama 3: entronca con la Casa de Haro.

VIII. García Sánchez III "el de Nájera", rey de Navarra nació después del año 1020 y murió el 12-XII-1054, en la batalla de Atapuerca. Casó con Estefanía de Foix (hija de Bernard I Roger de Foix y Garsinda de Bigorra), con la que tuvo por hijo a Sancho García de Navarra (c.1039, que sigue) y con otra mujer tuvo por hijo a Sancho Garcés de Navarra (c.1045, ver rama 2).

IX. Sancho García de Navarra nació hacia 1039. Murió el 18-IV-1083. Casó con Constanza de Marañón y tuvieron por hijo a

X. Sancho Sánchez de Navarra nació hacia el año de 1065. Murió hacia 1120. Casó con Urraca Ordoñez de León (hija de Orodoño Ordóñez de León, nieta de Ordoño Ramírez de León y bizieta de Ramiro III de León: ver Reyes de León). Tuvieron por hija a

XI. Munia Sánchez de Navarra, a través de los linajes de Murga, Salazar, Butrón y Haro nació hacia 1095. Casó con Diego López "el Blanco" de Haro, señor de Bizkaia. Tuvieron por hijos a Lope, Sancho, Fortún y Gil Díaz. De Sancho Díaz, señor de Tovia, procede el linaje de Butrón.

NOTAS:

  • Primeros príncipes pamploneses: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 245. Desde Íñigo Arista (m. 851) hasta Sancho Garcés I (905-925).
  • Reyes de Pamplona: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 359. Desde García Jiménez (c.870) hasta García Sánchez III (1035-1054).
  • Ver cuadro genealógico de los descendientes de Sacho el Mayor, rey de Navarra de 1004 a 1035, en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo V, p. 375. Se pueden ver los enlaces matrimoniales de los reyes de Portugal, León, Castilla, Navara. Aragón y Cataluña, desde el siglo X hasta el siglo XIV.

[1] Los textos navarros del llamado "Códice de Roda", que parece que fue escrito en los últimos años del siglo X, dicen lo siguiente sobre García Iñiguez, hijo de Iñigo Arista: "Garcea Enneconis accepit uxor domna (espacio en blanco) filia de (espacio en blanco) et genuit Fortunio Garceanis et Sancio Garceanis et domna Onneca qui fuit uxor de Asnari Galindones de Aragone". Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada en su obra "De rebus hispaniae" dice que García Iñiguez casó con Urraca, de sangre real, y otros dicen que con Urraca y después con Leodigundia de León. Cerrando el Codice de Roda está el texto del epitalamio de la reina Leodigunda, hija de un rey Ordoño de León posiblemente Ordoño I: "pulcra Ordonii filia" que casó con un rey de Pamplona (puede que con García Iñiguez, pero no es seguro). Otros le atribuyen otros maridos Solo es seguro que casó con un rey de Pamplona y fue reina (aporte de María Emma Escobar Uribe).

  • Resumen de algunas de las ideas —dice María Emma Escobar Uribe— y se copio literalmente unas frases de Claudio Sánchez Albornoz en "Origenes del reino de Pamplona y su vinculación con el valle del Ebro" sobre los Jimenos: "Constituye la historia de esta familia uno de los problemas todavía sin resolver del pasado del reino de Pamplona. Y temo que mientras nuevos documentos no vengan en nuestra ayuda, el problema seguirá constituyendo un enigma histórico absolutamente indescifrable". El resumen, más o menos es el siguiete: Claro que hay muchas teorías sobre el tema, y alguna puede que sea correcta. Pérez de Urbel pensaba que los Jimenos eran parientes del duque de Gascuña, destituído en 816, que habían venido a España, cerca de sus parientes, los Arista, y en una vicisitud en que estos (los Arista) no habían podido estar cerca del trono, se habían quedado con ese trono. Hay otros datos que sugieren otra interpretación: los Anales Laurissensses y los Anales Reales Carolingios dicen: "destruída Pamplona, subyugados los vascones españoles y también los navarros..." ¿se podría entender este texto como una referencia a dos grupos regionaels diferentes con diferentes caudillos?. Otro códice: el Fragmentum codici Fontenellensis dice: "En el mes de Junio del año 850 tuvo Carlos una reunión en su palacio de Verberia. Allí se presentaron los enviados de Iñigo y Jimeno, duques de los navarros ofreciéndole dones...." Frente a estos textos, los citados Anales hablan otras veces de pamploneses y navarros como el mismo pueablo con el mismo jefe, así que es difícil sacar conclusiones claras, ni negar ninguna de las dos opciones. Para algunos historiadores, Iñigos y Jimenos descendían de un tronco común. ¿Podría ser ese tronco el "Jimeno el Fuerte" con el que se cruzó Abd al Rahman en 781 cuando fue a tierras cispirenaicas? ¿Por eso dice el Códice de Roda : "Garcia Scemenonis et Eneco Scemenonis fratres fuerunt". De momento y según Sánchez Albornoz, no hay bases para sostener fundamentadamente ninguna de estas teorías. Este agregado es mío: Ahora, puestos a hacer hipótesis, que cada uno haga la que quiera, porque será difícil que aparezcan más papeles, aunque nunca se debe perder la esperanza! (Aporte de María Emma Escobar Uribe, 1-I-2005, en Red Iris).

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BIOGRAPHY: d. Nov. 21, 1150, Lorca, Navarre [Spain]

byname GARCÍA THE RESTORER, Spanish GARCÍA EL RESTAURADOR, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1134 to 1150, grandson of Sancho IV and son of El Cid's daughter Cristina and Ramiro Sánchez, lord of Monzón.

When Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died in 1134 and the Aragonese proclaimed the succession for his brother Ramiro II, the Navarrese rebelled and restored their own ancient line in the person of García Ramirez. García IV broke the union of Aragon and Navarre by declaring himself a vassal of Alfonso VII of Castile, "emperor" of Spain, but a year later he broke with Castile and allied himself with the Portuguese against Castile and Aragon. After Ramiro's abdication (1137), there ensued a period of warfare and intrigue among the kingdoms of Spain, ending in 1149. In spite of these wars García IV collaborated with Alfonso VII against the Muslim Almohads and took part in the conquest of Almeria (1147). On his death, he was succeeded by his son Sancho VI.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

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García Ramírez de Pamplona

García Ramírez llamado «el Restaurador» (fallecido en Lorca (Navarra), 21 de noviembre de 1150), fue rey de Pamplona de 1134 a 1150.

Elegido por los magnates y obispos navarros como rey al no acatar las disposiciones testamentarias de Alfonso I el Batallador.

Hijo del infante Ramiro Sánchez, señor de Monzón y de Logroño; y de Cristina Rodríguez Díaz, hija del Cid Campeador.

Parece que buscando una solución a la separación de los reinos de Aragón y Pamplona, que habían sido gobernados conjuntamente desde la muerte de Sancho el de Peñalén hasta la muerte del Batallador, propusieron que Ramiro II de Aragón fuese el "padre" y García Ramírez el "hijo". Los dos conservarían su respectivo reino, sin embargo, la primacía sobre el pueblo sería de Ramiro II el Monje.

Al entrar en Zaragoza Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y rendirle vasallaje los zaragozanos, se acentúa la separación entre los dos reinos, que en su día fueron feudo de Sancho el Mayor.

Aliado con Alfonso I de Portugal, en 1137 se enfrentó a Alfonso VII de Castilla, a quien había prestado vasallaje. Firmaron la paz entre 1139 y 1140.

Los navarros ocuparon Tauste en el 1146, pero Alfonso VII actuó como árbitro entre los dos reinos.

En 1144, después de enviudar, se casó con una hija de Alfonso, Urraca, siendo a partir de esa fecha parientes del emperador leonés-castellano los reyes de Navarra y Aragón; Ramón Berenguer era cuñado y García Ramírez yerno. Ambos se reconocieron vasallos del emperador Alfonso VII.[cita requerida]

A partir de esa fecha vemos a García Ramírez auxiliando a Alfonso VII en sus campañas de reconquista, concretamente en la campaña de Almería, que fue conquistada por las tropas cristianas en 1147.

En 1149 firmó un tratado de paz con Ramón Berenguer, por el cual el catalán se casaría con su hija Blanca, a pesar de estar prometido con Petronila de Aragón, pero al morir García Ramírez no se llevó a cabo el compromiso.

Murió el 21 de noviembre de 1150 en Lorca, cerca de Estella.

Casado después de 1130 con Margarita de L'Aigle, tuvieron como descendencia a:

Sancho VI, "El Sabio", rey de Navarra, casado con Sancha de Castilla.

Blanca de Navarra, n. después de 1133, que se casó con Sancho III de Castilla "El Deseado".

Margarita de Navarra, casada con Guillermo I, Rey de Sicilia.

Casado en segundas nupcias el 24 de junio de 1144, en León, con Urraca, hija bastarda del rey Alfonso VII de León y Castilla y de Guntroda, teniendo como descendencia a:

Sancha de Navarra, casada con Gastón V, Vizconde de Béarn, fallecido en 1170. Casada en segundas nupcias con el conde Pedro Manrique de Lara, II Señor de Molina y Mesa, XIII Vizconde de Narbona

Rodrigo Garcés, Conde de Montescaglioso.

Casado en terceras nupcias con Ganfreda López.

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García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (in Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions. Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro. Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession. García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question. On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief. Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own. On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garc%C3%ADa_VI_of_Navarre for more information.

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García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother was Cristina Rodríguez Díaz de Vivar, the Cid's daughter.

Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca, born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile, while the younger, Margaret, named after her mother, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Sant María de La Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture. -------------------- García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.

Early yearsGarcía was born in the early twelfth century. His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, a son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother Cristina was a daughter of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid.

[edit] Rise to powerWhen Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro. Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]

Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among García's other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord — the Pact of Vadoluongo — of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]

Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

[edit] García's heirsSometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle. She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters who each married kings. The elder, Blanche, born after 1133, was to marry Raymond Berengar IV, as confirmed by a peace treaty in 1149, in spite of the count's existing betrothal to Petronilla of Aragon, but García died before the marriage could be carried out. Instead she married Sancho III of Castile. The younger, Margaret, married William I of Sicily. García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo, whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144, in León, García married Urraca, called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María la Real in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn. He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Santa María de la Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.

[edit] SourcesLourie, Elena. "The Will of Alfonso I, 'El Batallador,' King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment." Speculum, Vol. 50, No. 4. (Oct., 1975), pp 635–651. Grassotti, H. "Homenaje de García Ramírez a Alfonso VII." Príncipe de Viana. 94–95 (1964). Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun, 1130–1194. London: Longmans, 1970.

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García VI el Restaurador, rey de Navarra's Timeline

1105
1105
1130
1130
Age 25
1130
Age 25
1132
1132
Age 27
1137
1137
Age 32
1144
June 24, 1144
Age 39
Leon, Spain
1148
1148
Age 43
1150
November 25, 1150
Age 45
Lorca, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
1150
Age 45
Pamplona, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
1992
September 15, 1992
Age 45
SLAKE