Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania

public profile

Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania 's Geni Profile

Records for Gediminas

32 Records

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Related Projects

Gediminas

Russian: Гедимин
Also Known As: "Gedymin", "Giedymin", "Гедимин", "Гядиминас", "Гедзімін", "Гедимін", "Гедымін Вялікі"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Lithuania
Death: Died in Raudonė, Lithuania
Cause of death: Poisoning (presumably he was killed in time of coup d'état)
Place of Burial: Veliuona, Veliuona, Lithuania
Immediate Family:

Son of Pucuwerus Rex Lethowie; Roman gleboveech,duke of ryazan glyeboveech; (Daughter of Skolomendas) and Princess mariya svyatoslavna
Husband of Gvidona of Kurland; Jewna / Jaunė Jonaitė?; Vinda Princess of Kurland, Princess and Olga Смоленская, Princess
Father of Narimont Gleb of Pinsk; Algirdas Koriat Michał, didysis kunigaikštis; Manvydas / Mantvydas Gediminaitis; Jaunutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania; Aigusta Anastasia Grand Princess of Vladimir-Moscow and 21 others
Half brother of Viten; Teodor and Voint

Occupation: Ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1316–1341, Liettuan Suuriruhtinas
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania

http://viduramziu.istorija.net/gediminas.htm

http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00081643&tree=LEO

==============

(The first 1.wife Wida (Gvidona), second 2.wife Olga, third 3.wife Jauné/ Jaune/ Jewna, according genealogy Jagiellon). - - - Gediminas (ca. 1275 – winter 1341) was the monarch of medieval Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the title didysis kunigaikštis (Belarusian: вялікі князь) which would be literally translated as Grand Duke, but more correctly High King according to the contemporary perception. The later construct for its translation is Grand Duke (for its etymology, see Grand Prince). He was the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1316–1341, which chiefly meant monarch of Lithuanians and much of Rus'. He was the true founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as an empire. He has a reputation of inveterate pagan who fiercely resisted all attempts to christianize his country, though the case is actually somewhat more complex.

Contents

1 Title used in correspondence

2 Origin

3 Choice of religion

3.1 Rowell's view

4 Incorporation of Slavic lands

5 Domestic affairs

6 Notes

7 References

8 See also

Title used in correspondence

Gediminas' normal Latin style is as follows:

Gedeminne Dei gratia Letwinorum et multorum Ruthenorum rex[1]

Which translates as:

"Gediminas, by the grace of God, of the Lithuanians and many Rus'ians, king"[1]

In his letters to the papacy in 1322 and 1323, he adds Princeps et Duke Semigallie (Prince and Duke of Semigallia).[2] In contemporary Low German he is styled simply Koningh van Lettowen, mirroring the Latin Rex Lethowye (both "King of Lithuania").[1] Gediminas' right to use Latin rex, which the papacy had been claiming the right to grant from the 13th century, was controversial in some Catholic sources. So for instance he was called rex sive dux ("King or Duke") by one source; Pope John XXII, in a letter to the King of France, refers to Gediminas as "the one who calls himself rex"; however the pope did call Gediminas rex when addressing him (regem sive ducem, "king or duke").[2]

Origin

Gediminas Tower named after the founder of Vilnius, although it was built considerably later.He was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the ostler of Vytenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, but more probably he was Vytenis' younger brother and the son of Butvydas (Pukuwer), another Lithuanian grand duke. In any case, his purported Rurikid origin was a later fake. According to the latest research, even his grandfather cannot be named with certainty. Gediminas became Grand Duke (didysis kunigaikštis) of Lithuania in 1316 at the age of 40 and ruled for 25 years.

Choice of religion

He inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Red Russia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes against the common enemy; but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not merely secure but mighty, and for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See. At the end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and desiring that legates should be sent to receive him also into the bosom of the church.

Gediminas memorial in VilniusOn receiving a favorable reply from the Holy See, Gediminas issued circular letters, dated 25 January 1325, to the principal Hansa towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil. The immigrants were to choose their own settlements and be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were also invited to come and build churches at Vilnius and Navahradak. In October 1323 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, when Gediminas confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was then signed at Vilnius, in the name of the whole Christian World, between Gediminas and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges.

But the Christianizing of Lithuania was by no means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they used every effort to nullify Gediminas far-reaching design. This, unfortunately, was too easy to do. Gediminas chief object was to save Lithuania from destruction at the hands of the Germans. But he was still a pagan reigning over semi-pagan lands; he was equally bound to his pagan kinsmen in Samogitia, to his Orthodox subjects in Belarus, and to his Catholic allies in Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and ambiguous, and, might very readily be misinterpreted.

A peace agreement between Gediminas and the OrderThus his raid upon Dobrzyń, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod at Elbing questioned the authority of Gediminas letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith; his Orthodox subjects reproached him with leaning towards the Latin heresy; while the pagan Lithuanians accused him of abandoning the ancient gods. Gediminas disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive the papal legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by dismissing the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently retrogressive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality.

At the same time Gediminas through his ambassadors privately informed the papal legates at Riga that his difficult position compelled him for a time to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptized, and the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighboring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gediminas and the archbishop of Riga. Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the church, resumed the war with Gediminas, who had in the meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, whose son Casimir III now married Gediminas' daughter Aldona.

Rowell's view

An alternative view of the supposed readiness of Gediminas to be converted to Christianity is taken by Stephen Christopher Rowell in the book Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe 1295-1345. Rowell believes that Gediminas never intended to become a Christian himself, since that would have offended the staunchly pagan inhabitants of Žemaitija and Aukštaitija, the ethnic heartland of Lithunania. Rather, his strategy was to gain the support of the Pope and other Catholic powers in his conflict with the Teutonic Order by granting a favourable status to Catholics living within his realm and feigning a personal interest in the Christian religion.

Rowell points out that the formulation of the letter to Pope John XXII of 1322 was intentionally vague, and that the phrase "fidem catholicam recipere" could be interpreted as "accept Catholicism for himself", or simply "welcome the Catholic faith to Lithuania (i.e. allow Catholics to practice their religion there)". As he states on page 197 of his book:

The ambiguity of the phrase "fidem recipere" is surely deliberate. It gives the impression that the grand duke is asking for baptism and indeed it does mean this. However it is also so vague that it could simply mean that the Catholics were welcome in Lithuania. This is the admittedly casuistical meaning Gediminas later chose to give to the periphrases his letters employ for conversion.

Rowell also shows that while Gediminas allowed Catholic clergy to enter his realm for the purpose of ministering to his Catholic subjects and to temporary residents, he savagely punished any attempt to convert pagan Lithuanians or to insult their native religion. Thus in about 1339-40 he executed two Franciscan friars from Bohemia, Ulrich and Martin, who had gone beyond the authority granted them and had publicly preached against the Lithuanian religion. Gediminas ordered them to renounce Christianity, and had them killed when they refused. Five more friars were executed in 1369 for the same offence.

Rowell describes the cremation of Gediminas in 1342 as being a fully pagan ceremony, including human sacrifice, with a favourite servant and several German slaves being burned on the pyre with the corpse. All these facts demonstrate that Gediminas remained faithful to his native Lithuanian religion, and that his feigned interest in Catholicism was simply a ruse designed to gain allies against the Teutonic Order.

Rowell points out that the Templar Order had been suppressed only two decades previously by the King Philip IV of France with the connivance of the Pope Clement V, and that that had encouraged Gediminas and other enemies of the Teutonic Order (eg the King of Poland and the Archbishop of Riga)to believe that a similar suppression of that Order might be achieved with Papal blessing. The letter of 1322 is to be understood in that political context.

Incorporation of Slavic lands

Gediminas castle in Lida (reconstruction).While on his guard against his northern foes, Gediminas from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Slavonic principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gediminas triumphal progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halych-Volynia; was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the Galician prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest.

While exploiting Slavic weakness in the wake of the Mongol invasion, Gediminas wisely avoided war with the Golden Horde, a great regional power at the time, while expanding Lithuania's border towards the Black Sea. He also secured an alliance with the nascent grand duchy of Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grand duke Simeon. But he was strong enough to counterpoise the influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and assisted the republic of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to break away from Great Novgorod.

Domestic affairs

His internal administration bears all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the Orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous castles in towns including Vilnius, the capital to be. At first he moved the capital to the newly built town of Trakai, but in 1323 re-established a permanent capital in Vilnius.

An oak in Raudone under which Gediminas is reputed to have been mortally wounded.Gediminas died in the last week of 1341 (presumably he was killed in time of coup d'état). He was married three times, and left seven sons and six daughters. Two of his sons perished in battle. Jaunutis initially ruled Vilnius after the death of his father and was formally Grand Duke of Lithuania until his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis returned from military campaigns in Ruthenia and forced him to abdicate his throne in their favor.

--------------------

Gediminas (ca. 1275 – winter 1341) was the monarch of medieval Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the title didysis kunigaikštis (Belarusian: вялікі князь) which would be literally translated as Grand Duke, but more correctly High King according to the contemporary perception. The later construct for its translation is Grand Duke (for its etymology, see Grand Prince). He was the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1316–1341, which chiefly meant monarch of Lithuanians and much of Rus'. He was the true founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as an empire. He has a reputation of inveterate pagan who fiercely resisted all attempts to christianize his country, though the case is actually somewhat more complex

--------------------

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giedymin_(wielki_ksi%C4%85%C5%BC%C4%99_litewski)

--------------------

Wikipedia:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gediminas

Gediminas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to:navigation, search

Head of the statue

Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas - engraving of XVII ct.

Modern Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Gediminas

Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas on stamp. Issued on August 25, 1920.

Gediminas (ca. 1275 – winter 1341) was the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1316–1341. He is credited with founding this political entity and expanding its territory. As part of his legacy he obtained a reputation of being an inveterate pagan who fiercely resisted all attempts to Christianize his country, although the matter has been debated from different perspectives.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Title used in correspondence
   * 2 Origin
   * 3 Choice of religion
         o 3.1 Rowell's view
   * 4 Incorporation of Slavic lands
   * 5 Domestic affairs
   * 6 Family
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 References
   * 9 See also

[edit] Title used in correspondence

Gediminas' normal Latin style is as follows:

   * Gedeminne Dei gratia Letwinorum et multorum Ruthenorum rex[1]

Which translates as:

   * "Gediminas, by the grace of God, of the Lithuanians and many Rus'ians, king"[1]

In his letters to the papacy in 1322 and 1323, he adds Princeps et Duke Semigallie (Prince and Duke of Semigallia).[2] In contemporary Low German he is styled simply Koningh van Lettowen, mirroring the Latin Rex Lethowye (both "King of Lithuania").[1] Gediminas' right to use Latin rex, which the papacy had been claiming the right to grant from the 13th century, was controversial in some Catholic sources. So for instance he was called rex sive dux ("King or Duke") by one source; Pope John XXII, in a letter to the King of France, refers to Gediminas as "the one who calls himself rex"; however the pope did call Gediminas rex when addressing him (regem sive ducem, "king or duke").[2]

[edit] Origin

Gediminas Tower named after the founder of Vilnius, although it was built considerably later.

He was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the hostler of Vytenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, but more probably he was Vytenis' younger brother and the son of Butvydas (Pukuwer), another Lithuanian grand duke. In any case, his purported Rurikid origin was a later fake. According to the latest research, even his grandfather cannot be named with certainty. Gediminas became Grand Duke (didysis kunigaikštis) of Lithuania in 1316 at the age of 40 and ruled for 25 years. More about theories and facts illuminating his origins: Gediminids, origins.

[edit] Choice of religion

He inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Navahradak, Podlachia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes against the common enemy; but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not merely secure but mighty, and for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See. At the end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and desiring that legates should be sent to receive him also into the bosom of the church.

On receiving a favorable reply from the Holy See, Gediminas issued circular letters, dated 25 January 1325, to the principal Hansa towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil. The immigrants were to choose their own settlements and be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were also invited to come and build churches at Vilnius and Navahradak. In October 1323 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, when Gediminas confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was then signed at Vilnius, in the name of the whole Christian World, between Gediminas and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges.

But the Christianizing of Lithuania was by no means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they used every effort to nullify Gediminas far-reaching design. This, unfortunately, was too easy to do. Gediminas chief object was to save Lithuania from destruction at the hands of the Germans. But he was still a pagan reigning over semi-pagan lands; he was equally bound to his pagan kinsmen in Samogitia, to his Orthodox subjects in Belarus, and to his Catholic allies in Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and ambiguous, and, might very readily be misinterpreted.

A peace agreement between Gediminas and the Order

Thus his raid upon Dobrzyń, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod at Elbing questioned the authority of Gediminas letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith; his Orthodox subjects reproached him with leaning towards the Latin heresy; while the pagan Lithuanians accused him of abandoning the ancient gods. Gediminas disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive the papal legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by dismissing the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently retrogressive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality.

At the same time Gediminas through his ambassadors privately informed the papal legates at Riga that his difficult position compelled him for a time to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptized, and the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighboring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gediminas and the archbishop of Riga. Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the church, resumed the war with Gediminas, who had in the meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, whose son Casimir III now married Gediminas' daughter Aldona.

[edit] Rowell's view

An alternative view of the supposed readiness of Gediminas to be converted to Christianity is taken by Stephen Christopher Rowell in the book Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe 1295-1345. Rowell believes that Gediminas never intended to become a Christian himself, since that would have offended the staunchly pagan inhabitants of Samogitia or Žemaitija and Upper Lithuania or Aukštaitija, the ethnic heartland of Lithuania. Rather, his strategy was to gain the support of the Pope and other Catholic powers in his conflict with the Teutonic Order by granting a favourable status to Catholics living within his realm and feigning a personal interest in the Christian religion.

Rowell points out that the formulation of the letter to Pope John XXII of 1322 was intentionally vague, and that the phrase "fidem catholicam recipere" could be interpreted as "accept Catholicism for himself", or simply "welcome the Catholic faith to Lithuania (i.e. allow Catholics to practice their religion there)". As he states on page 197 of his book:

   The ambiguity of the phrase "fidem recipere" is surely deliberate. It gives the impression that the grand duke is asking for baptism and indeed it does mean this. However it is also so vague that it could simply mean that the Catholics were welcome in Lithuania. This is the admittedly casuistical meaning Gediminas later chose to give to the periphrases his letters employ for conversion.

Rowell also shows that while Gediminas allowed Catholic clergy to enter his realm for the purpose of ministering to his Catholic subjects and to temporary residents, he savagely punished any attempt to convert pagan Lithuanians or to insult their native religion. Thus in about 1339-40 he executed two Franciscan friars from Bohemia, Ulrich and Martin, who had gone beyond the authority granted them and had publicly preached against the Lithuanian religion. Gediminas ordered them to renounce Christianity, and had them killed when they refused. Five more friars were executed in 1369 for the same offence.

Rowell describes the cremation of Gediminas in 1342 as being a fully pagan ceremony, including human sacrifice, with a favourite servant and several German slaves being burned on the pyre with the corpse. All these facts demonstrate that Gediminas remained faithful to his native Lithuanian religion, and that his feigned interest in Catholicism was simply a ruse designed to gain allies against the Teutonic Order.

Rowell points out that the Templar Order had been suppressed only two decades previously by the King Philip IV of France with the connivance of the Pope Clement V, and that that had encouraged Gediminas and other enemies of the Teutonic Order (e.g. the King of Poland and the Archbishop of Riga)to believe that a similar suppression of that Order might be achieved with Papal blessing. The letter of 1322 is to be understood in that political context.

[edit] Incorporation of Slavic lands

Gediminas Castle in Lida (reconstruction).

While on his guard against his northern foes, Gediminas from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Slavonic principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gediminas triumphal progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halych-Volynia; was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the Galician prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest.

While exploiting Slavic weakness in the wake of the Mongol invasion, Gediminas wisely avoided war with the Golden Horde, a great regional power at the time, while expanding Lithuania's border towards the Black Sea. He also secured an alliance with the nascent grand duchy of Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grand duke Simeon. But he was strong enough to counterpoise the influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and assisted the republic of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to break away from Great Novgorod.

[edit] Domestic affairs

His internal administration bears all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the Orthodox clergy; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous castles in towns including Vilnius, the capital to be. At first he moved the capital to the newly built town of Trakai, but in 1323 re-established a permanent capital in Vilnius.

An oak in Raudone under which Gediminas is reputed to have been mortally wounded.

Gediminas died in the last week of 1341 (presumably he was killed in time of coup d'état).

[edit] Family

There is considerable doubt about how many times Gediminas married. He is said to have married Jaunė and to have left seven sons and six daughters including:

   * Manvydas (ca. 1288–1348)
   * Narimantas
   * Karijotas
   * Jaunutis initially ruled Vilnius after the death of his father
   * Algirdas
   * Kęstutis
         o Vytautas the Great
   * Maria
   * Aldona
   * Elzbieta
   * Eufemija
   * Liubartas

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b c Rowell, Lithuania Ascending, p. 63.
  2. ^ a b Rowell, Lithuania Ascending, p. 64.

[edit] References

   * This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
   * (Lithuanian) Nikžentaitis, Alvydas (1989). Gediminas. Vilnius: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija.
   * Rowell, S. C. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 149. ISBN 9780521450119.

[edit] See also

   * House of Gediminas – family tree of Gediminas
   * Gediminids – dynasty named after Gediminas
   * Columns of Gediminas

Preceded by

Vytenis Monarch of Lithuania

1316–1341 Succeeded by

Jaunutis

[hide]

v • d • e

Monarchs of Lithuania

Early Grand Dukes

Mindaugas (House) · Treniota · Vaišvilkas · Shvarn · Traidenis · Daumantas

Gediminids

Butigeidis · Butvydas · Vytenis · Gediminas (House) · Jaunutis · Algirdas (House) · Jogaila · Kęstutis (House) · Skirgaila · Vytautas · Švitrigaila · Sygismund Kestutian · Casimir Jagellon · Alexander · Sigismund I the Old · Sigismund II Augustus

Elected

Henry III of Valois · Anna the Jagiellonian · Stefan Batory · Sigismund III Vasa · Ladislaus IV Vasa · John II Casimir Vasa · Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki · John III Sobieski · Augustus II the Strong · Stanisław Leszczyński · August III the Saxon · Stanisław August Poniatowski

---------------------------------------------------------------

http://genealogy.euweb.cz/jagelo/jagelo.html

Gédyminas, Great Duke of Lithuania (1316-41), *ca 1260, +k.a.1341 (one of the first victims of shooting gun in Europe!); 1m: Wida, dau.of Widmund N; 2m: Olga, dau.of Vsevolod of Smolensk (+1344); 3m: Jevna (+1344) dau.of Pr Ivan of Polotzk; He had issue:

   * A1. [1m.] Manvydas (Monvid), Pr of Kirnovo/Karachev and Slonim, +ca 1341
   * A2. [1m.] Narimantas, baptized Orthodox as Gleb in 1333, Pr of Pinsk and Mozyr, Pr of Ladoga and Korela, *ca 1277, +2.2.1348; m.Marija, dau.of Khan Tokhtai
         o B1. Alexander, Pr of Podolia, *1338, †before 1386
               + C1. Patrikey Alexandrovich, Pr of Zwenihorod, +1383/87; m.Yelena N
                     # D1. Pr Fyodor Patrikeievich, +1426
                           * E1. Pr Vasily of Khovan; his issue are Princes Khovansky, for which see HERE
                     # D2. Pr Yury Patrikeievich, boyar in Moscow; +after 1437/ca 1447; m.Anna of Moscow, dau.of Dmitriy I Donskoi of Moscow by Eudoxia of Suzdal
                           * E1. Pr Vasily Patrikeyev, boyar, +1450; m.Maria N
                                 o F1. Pr Ivan "Bulgak", boyar 1475, +14.4.1498; m.Ksenia Ivanovna Vsevolzhskaya
                                       + G1. Pr Ivan Bulgakov "Moshok", *1466, +12.6.1495
                                       + G2. Pr Dmitry Bulgakov, +after 1514
                                       + G3. Pr Mikhail Bulgakov "Galitsa", boyar, +1554; his issue are Princes Galitsyn, for which see HERE
                                       + G4. Pr Andrey Bulgakov "Kuraka", boyar, +after 1521; his issue are Princes Kurakin, for which see HERE
                                 o F2. Pr Daniil "Shchenia", voevoda of Ivan III, boyar 1475, +1515/16; m.N Shuiska, dau.of Ivan Shuiski "Gorbaty"; his issue were Princes Shcheniatiev
                                       + G1. Pr Mikhail Shcheniatev, voevoda of Vasily III, boyar 1513, +1534
                                             # H1. Pr Vasily Shcheniatev, boyar 1544, +1547
                                             # H2. Pr Pyotr Shcheniatev, boyar 1547, +1568
                                             # H3. a daughter; m.Ivan Belski (+1542)
                           * E2. Pr Ivan Patrikeyev, boyar 1462, +after 1499; m.Eudoxia Vladimirovna Khovrina
                                 o F1. Pr Mikhail "Kolyshka", +12.6.1495
                                 o F2. Pr. Vasily (Vassian) "Kosoy", boyar 1495, a monk from 1499, +St.Joseph's Monastery after 1531
                                 o F3. Pr Ivan "Munynna", a monk 1499, +after 1527
                                 o F4. Pss Irina/Maria; m.Pr Simeon Ivanovich Belski (Ryapolovski?) (+5.2.1499)
                           * E3. Pss Yelena; m.Ivan Mikhailovich Chelyadnin
                     # D3. Alexander Patrikeievich, Pr of Starodub 1397, Pr of Korec 1408, +1433; his issue were Princes Korecki, for which see HERE
         o B2. Pr Yury Glebovich Rozhinski, Pr of Bely (1390-92); his (possible) issue were Princes Rozhinski
         o B3. Mikhail Glebovich, Pr of Pinsk; his issue were Princes Pinski
               + C1. Wasyl
                     # D1. Fedor
                     # D2. Semen
                     # D3. Mikhail
                     # D4. Yuriy
               + C2. [parentage uncertain] Yourij
               + C3. [parentage uncertain] Semion
               + C4. [parentage uncertain] Konstanty, +after 1431; his issue were Princes Kurcewitch, Buremlski
         o B4. [parentage uncertain] Simeon Glebovich, +after 1386
   * A3. [1m.] a daughter; m.before 1319 David, Starost in Grodno
   * A4. [2m.] Algirdas (Olgierd), Pr of Kréva and Vitebsk, Great Duke of Lithuania (1345-77), *ca 1296, +24.5.1377; 1m: 1318 Maria of Vitebsk (+1346); 2m: 1346/50 Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver (*ca 1325 +1392)
         o B1. [1m.] Vigund (Andrey), Pr of Pskov (1341-48)+(1377-86), Pr of Polotzk (1348-77), baptized Moscow 1342, *1325, +k.a.Borskla River 12.8.1399; m.NN
               + C1. Ostey (Michael), +k.a.Moscow 1382/85
               + C2. Simeon, +1387
               + C3. Ivan, Pr of Pskov (1389-99), +after 1437; m.NN
                     # D1. Alexander, Pr of Pskov in 1439, +1442
         o B2. [1m.] Dmitriy, Gr Pr of Briansk ca 1372, Starodub and Trubchevsk, *1327, +k.a.Vorskla River 12.5.1399; m.Pss Anna Ivanovna of Druck
               + C1. Mikhail
                     # D1. Pr Simeon, Pr of Trubchevsk
                           * E1. Ivan, Pr of Trubchevsk; his issue are Princes Trubetzkoi, for which see HERE
               + C2. Ivan, +k.a.Vorskla River 12.5.1399
               + C3. Andrey, +k.a Vorskla River 12.5.1399
         o B3. [1m.] Konstantin, Pr of Chernigov, Pr of Czartorysk, +1386/before 30.10.1390; m.NN
               + C1. Vasiliy, Pr of Czartorysk, fl 1393, +1416; m.Hanna N; he was ancestor of the Princes Czartoryski for which see HERE
               + C2. Gleb, fl 1389-90
         o B4. [1m.] Vladimir, Gr Pr of Kiev (1362-95), Pr of Sluck, Pr of Kopylsk 1395, +after X.1398; m.NN
               + C1. Alexander (Olelko), Pr of Kiev 1441, Pr of Sluck and Kopylsk, +1454; m.22.8.1417 Anastasia of Moscow (+1470); They were ancestors of Princes Olelkowicz-Slucki, for which see HERE
               + C2. Ivan, Stattholder of Vielki Nowgorod (1445-46), Pr of Biely, +1446; m.ca II.1422 Pss Vasilisa Andreevna Holszanska (+before 1484), dau.of prince Andrzej Holszanski by Aleksandra Drucka; They were ancestors of Princes Bielski, for which see HERE
               + C3. Andrey, ksiaze na Ainie, Slowensku, Mohilnie, Kamiencu, Lohojsku i Polonnym, +1457; m.Maria N
                     # D1. Gleb, +1457
                     # D2. Eudoxia; m.Pr Ivan Rohatynski
               + C4. Anastasia, +1396; m.end of 1384 Pr Vasily III Dmitrievich of Kashina (+after 1426)
         o B5. [1m.] Feodor, Pr of Ratnie (1387-94), +ca 1400; m.Olga N
               + C1. Roman, Pr of Kobrynsk (1387-1417)
                     # D1. Simeon, Pr Kobrynski (1431-55), +1460; m.Pss Juliana Holczanska (+1500)
                           * E1. Ivan Pr Kobrynski (1465-87), +1490; m.before 1473 Feodora Rohatynska (+VII/VIII.1512), dau.of Iwan Rohatynski
                           * E2. Maria, +before 1512; m.Ivan Krasny
                           * E3. Anna, +II/III.1519; 1m: 1481 Pr Fjodor Bielski; 2m: ca 1502 Waclaw Kostewicz (+1532)
               + C2. Hurko, fl 1412-16; he had issue
               + C3. Sanguszko, Pr of Ratnie (ksiaze na Ratnie) (1433-43), Kowlu, Lubomli i Wizwie, +after 1454 ; m.Hanna N (+after 1475); They were ancestors of Princes Sanguszko, for which see HERE
         o B6. [1m.] Feodora; m.after 1376 Pr Svyatoslav Titovich of Karachev and Zwenigorod
         o B7. [1m.] a daughter; m.Pr Ivan of Novosilsk and Odoiev
         o B8. [1m.] Agrafena (Maria), +1393; m.1354 Pr Boris of Nizhni-Novgorod and Suzdal (+12.5.1394)
         o B9. [1m.] Skirgajllo (Ivan), Pr of Lithuania (1386-92), Pr of Trock 1382, Pr of Polotzk 1387, Pr of Kiev 1395, baptized 1383/84, *1354, +11.1.1397
         o B10. [2m.] Wladislaw II Jagiello (Jogailo), Great Duke of Lithuania (1377-XI.1381)+(3.8.1382-5.8.92), King of Poland (1386-1434) -cr Krakow 18.2.1386, *ca 1351, +1.6.1434; 1m: Krakow 18.2.1386 Hedwige (Jadwiga) d'Anjou (*15.2.1372 +17.7.1399); 2m: 29.1.1402 Anna von Cilly (*1380, +21.5.1416); 3m: 2.5.1417 Elzbieta of Pilcza (*ca 1372 +12.5.1420), dau.of Otto of Pilcza, Voivode of Sandomir, and Jadwiga; 4m: 7.2.1422 Sofia Holszanska (*1405 +21.9.1461), dau.of Andrzej Holszanski and Aleksandra Drucka
               + C1. [4m.] Wladislaw III "Warnenczyk", King of Poland (1434-44), King of Hungary (1440-44) as Ulászló I -cr 17.7.1440, *31.10.1424, +k.a.Varna (Bulgaria) 10.11.1444
               + C2. [4m.] Kazimierz, +16.5.1426, +2.3.1427
               + C3. [4m.] Kazimierz IV "the Great", Great Duke of Lithuania (29.6.1440-1492), King of Poland (1446-92), *30.11.1427, +Grodno 7.6.1492; m.Krakow 10.2.1454 Elisabeth von Habsburg (*1436/37 +30.8.1505)
                     # D1. Wladyslav II, King of Bohemia (1471-1516), King of Hungary (1490-1516) as Ulászló II -cr 18.9.1490, King of Croatia (1490-1516), *Krakow 1.3.1456, +Buda 13.3.1516, bur Székesfehérvár; 1m: Frankfurt a.O. 20.8.1476 (div 7.4.1500) Barbara, dau.of Elector Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg (*Ansbach 30.5.1464, +Ansbach 4.9.1515); 2m: secretly 4.10.1490 (div 7.4.1500) Béatrice d'Aragon (*14.9.1457 +23.9.1508); 3m: Buda 6.10.1502 Anne de Foix (*1484, +26.7.1506)
                           * E1. [3m.] Anna, *Prague 23.7.1503, +Prague 27.1.1547; m.Linz 25.5.1521 Ferdinand I von Habsburg (*10.3.1503, +25.7.1564)
                           * E2. [3m.] Ludwik II, King of Bohemia (1516-26) as Ludv&iacutek, King of Hungary (1516-26) as Lajos II -cr 4.6.1508, King of Croatia (1516-26), *Prague 1.7.1506, +k.a.Mohács 29.8.1526, bur Székesfehérvár; m.Prague 13.1.1522 Marie of Flanders (*15.9.1505 +XII.1558)
                     # D2. Jadwiga, *Krakow 21.9.1457, +Burghausen 19.2.1502, bur Raitenhaslach; m.Landshut 15.11.1475 Georg von Bayern-Landshut (*15.8.1455, +1.12.1503)
                     # D3. St.Kazimierz, canonised 7.11.1602, *3.10.1458, +4.3.1484
                     # D4. Jan I Albrecht, Great Duke of Lithuania (1483-92), King of Poland (1492-1501), Duke of Glogau (1490-98), *27.12.1459, +Torun 17.6.1501
                     # D5. Alexander I, Great Duke of Lithuania (1492-1501), King of Poland (1501-06), *Krakow 5.8.1461, +Vilnius 19.8.1506; m.Vilnius 15.2.1495 Yelena of Kiev (*19.5.1476, +20.1.1513)
                     # D6. Sophie, *6.4.1464, +5.10.1512; m.Frankfurt a.O. 14.2.1479 Friedrich V von Hohenzollern (*Ansbach 8.5.1460, +Ansbach 4.4.1536)
                     # D7. Elisabeth, *9.5.1465, +9.5.1466
                     # D8. Zygmunt I "Stary" (Sigismund "the Old"), Great Duke of Lithuania (20.10.1506-44), King of Poland (1506-48), Duke of Glogau (ksiaze glogowski) (1498-1506) and Oppeln (ksiaze opawski) (1501-06), *1.1.1467, +1.4.1548; 1m: 28.2.1512 Barbara Zapolya (*1495, +2.10.1515); 2m: 18.4.1518 Bona Sforza (*13.2.1495, +Bari 7.11.1558)
                           * E1. [1m.] Jadwiga, *25.3.1513, +7.2.1573; m.29.8./1.9.1535 Kurfürst Joachim II von Brandenburg (+3.1.1571)
                           * E2. [1m.] Anna, *1.7.1515, +8.5.1520
                           * E3. [2m.] Elisabeth, *18.1.1519, +15.9.1559; m.23.2.1539 János I of Zapolye, King of Hungary (*1487 +22.7.1540)
                           * E4. [2m.] Zygmunt II August, Great Duke of Lithuania (6.10.1544-1569), King of Poland (1548-72) elected 1529, *1.8.1520, +7.7.1572; 1m: 5.5.1543 Archdss Elisabeth of Austria (*9.7.1526 +15.6.1545); 2m: 28.7.-6.8.1547 Pss Barbara Radziwill (*6.12.1523 +8.5.1551); 3m: shortly after 23.6.1553 Archdss Katharina of Austria (*15.9.1533 +28.2.1572)
                                 o F1. [illegitimate by Barbara Gizawka (+1589)] Barbara, +after 5.6.1615; m.before 6.12.1593 Jakub Zawadzki
                           * E5. [2m.] Olbracht (Wojciech), *and +20.9.1527
                           * E6. [2m.] Sofia, *13.7.1522, +28.5.1575; m.25.2.1556 Duke Heinrich II von Braunschweig (+11.6.1568)
                           * E7. [2m.] Anna, Queen of Poland 1575, *18.10.1523, +9.9.1596; m.1.5.1576 Stefan Báthory, Pr of Transylvania, King of Poland (*27.9.1533 +22.12.1586)
                           * E8. [2m.] Catharina, *1.11.1526, +16.9.1583; m.4.10.1562 King Johann III of Sweden (+17.11.1592)
                           * E9. [illegitimate by Katarzyna Telniczenka (+1528)] Jan, Bp of Wilen 1519, Bp of Poznan (Posen) 1536, *8.1.1499, +18.2.1538
                           * E10. [illegitimate by Katarzyna Telniczenka (+1528)] Regina, *1500/01, +20.5.1526; m.ca 20.10.1518 Hieronim von Szafraniec, Starost of Teschen (+1556/59)
                           * E11. [illegitimate by Katarzyna Telniczenka (+1528)] Katharina, *1503, +before 9.9.1548; m.after 1522 Gf Georg II von Montfort (+1544)
                     # D9. Friedrich, Bp of Krakow 1488, Archbp of Gnezden and Cardinal 1493, *27.4.1468, +14.3.1503
                     # D10. Elisabeth, *13.5.1472, +after 1480
                     # D11. Anna, *Nessau 12.3.1476, +Ückermunde 12.8.1503 m.Stettin 2.2.1491 Bogislaw X of Pomerania (*3.6.1454 +5.10.1523)
                     # D12. Barbara, *Sandomir 15.7.1478, +Leipzig 15.2.1534; m.Leipzig 21.11.1496 Georg of Saxony (*Meissen 27.8.1471, +Dresden 17.4.1539)
                     # D13. Elisabeth, *13.11.1482, +16.2.1517; m.21.11.1515 Friedrich II von Schlesien-Liegnitz (*12.2.1480, +17.9.1547)
               + C4. [1m.] Elzbieta Bonifacia, *Krakow 22.6.1399, +Krakow 13.7.1399
               + C5. [2m.] Jadwiga, *8.4.1408, +8.12.1431; engaged 8.4.1421 to Mgve Friedrich von Brandenburg
         o B11. [2m.] Korybut (Dmitriy), Pr of Novgorod Severskiy (1386-92), baptized 1386, +after 1404; m.Anastasia of Riazan
               + C1. Ivan, +after 1431
               + C2. Sigismond, pretender to the Bohemian throne, +1435
               + C3. Feodor, living 1422-40; He was ancestor of Princes Zbaraski-Wisniowiecki, for which see HERE
               + C4. Anastasia; m.before 1400 Pr Vasiliy III of Tver (+1426)
               + C5. Helena, +after 2.3.1449; m.before 16.1.1407 Johann II Ferreus, Duke of Troppau (*ca 2.2.1375, +1424)
               + C6. Maria; m.Pr Fiodor Worotynsky (+after 1455)
         o B12. [2m.] Lingweni (Simeon), Pr of Novgorod and Mstislavsk, baptized 1386, +after 19.6.1431; 1m: 14.6.1394 Maria (+15.5.1399), dau.of Great Pr Dmitriy of Moscow and Eudoxia of Suzdal; 2m: winter 1406/07 N, a woman from Moscow
               + C1. Yuriy Pr of Mstislavsk (1422-56); m.Sofia N (+ca 1450)
                     # D1. Ivan Pr of Mstislavsk (1443-83), +1483/89; m.Juliana N (+before 1495)
                           * E1. Anastasia, +after 1523; m.after 1496 Simeon Pr Olelkowicz-Slucki (+1505)
                           * E2. Yuliana, heiress of Mstislavsk, +before 1507; m.autumn 1499 Pr Mikhail Zaslawski (+ca 1529)
               + C2. Yaroslav Fiodor, *1410, +k.a.1435
         o B13. [2m.] Korigajllo (Kasimir), Chancellor in Mstislawsk, baptized Krakow 14.2.1386, +k.a.Vilno 1390/92
         o B14. [2m.] Wigunt (Alexander), Pr of Kirnovo, baptized Krakow 14.2.1386, +28.6.1392; m.before 25.1.1390 Pss Hedwig of Oppeln (*before 26.3.1367)
         o B15. [2m.] Svidrigaila (Boleslav), Pr of Podolsk (1400-02), Pr of Czernichov (1419-30), Great Duke of Lithuania (7.10.1430-1.9.1432), Lord of Volinia 1437, *1355, +Lutzk 10.2.1452; m.1430/31 Anna Sofia of Tver (+1471-84)
         o B16. [2m.] Helena (Yevpraxia), +15.9.1438; m.winter 1371/72 Pr Vladimir Andreievich of Borovsk, Pr Serpuchovskiy (*1353 +V.1410)
         o B17. [2m.] Kenna (Alexandra), *ca 1350, +27.4.1368; m.after 1360 Duke Casimir IV of Pomerania (+2.1.1377)
         o B18. [2m.] Maria; m.1354 Boris, Great Pr of Suzdal (+1394) /OR!/ 1m: 1379 Wojdylo, Starost of Lidzk (+1382); 2m: Davyd Pr of Grodno
         o B19. [2m.] Alexandra, +19.6.1434; m.1387 Ziemovit IV Piast, Pr of Mazovia (*before 1357, +30.4.1426)
         o B20. [2m.] Wilhejda (Yekaterina), +after 4.4.1422; m.1388 Johann II von Mecklenburg-Stargard (+1416)
               + Johann III, +1438
         o B21. [2m.] Jagwiga, +after 13.5.1400; m.1394 Duke Hanus III von Auschwitz (+after 1.9.1405)
   * A5. [3m.] Jaunutis (Ievnut), Great Duke of Lithuania (13412-45), Pr of Zaslzvl (after 1345), baptized as Ivan in Moscow 25.9.1345, +1366; m.NN
         o B1. Semjon, living 1386
         o B2. Mikhail, Pr of Izheslavl 1386, +k.a.at river Worskla 12.8.1399; m.NN
               + C1. Alexander, Pr of Izheslavl
               + C2. Andrey, Pr of Izheslavl, +after 1433
               + C3. Yuriy, Pr of Izheslavl, +after 1455; he was ancestor of the Princes Zaslavski (Izheslaski) and Mstislavski, for which see HERE
   * A6. [2m.] Késtutis (never baptized, thus was never called Alexander), Pr of Trakai (1337-81), Great Duke of Lithuania (XI.1381-82), *ca 1297, +murdered in Krevsk 3/15.8.1382; 1m: ca 1351 NN; 2m: Biruta N (+murdered 15.8.1382)
         o B1. [1m.] Patirg, living 1348-65
         o B2. [1m.] Woidat Pr of Novogrodeck, +after 1362
               + C1. Yuriy, Pr of Novogrodeck 1384
         o B3. [1m.] Woiswil, +ca 1387
         o B4. [1m.] Butaw (Henryk), baptized Königsberg 25.7.1365, +after 1380; m.NN
               + C1. Wajduta, +after 1380/89
         o B5. Vytautas "The Great" (Witold), Great Duke of Lithuania (1392-1430), baptized (cath) 21.10.1383 as Wiganda, (orth) 1384 as Alexander, *1344/50, +Lutzk 27.10.1430; 1m: before 1387 Anna (+31.7.1418), dau.of Great Pr Svyatoslav of Smolensk; 2m: 19.11.1418 Pss Juliana Holszanska (*1375 +1448), dau.of Iwan Pr Holszanski
               + C1. [1m.] Sofia, *ca 1370, +15.6.1453; m.9.1.1391 Great Pr Vasiliy I of Moscow (*30.12.1371 +7/27.2.1425)
         o B6. [2m.] Towtiwil (Conrad), Pr of Novogrodeck 1401, baptized 21.10.1383, +IX.1390; m.Juliana N
               + C1. [parentage not certain] Hedwig, +after 1.12.1405; m.1397/98 Duke Barnim V of Pomerania on Slupsk (+after 13.5.1403)
         o B7. [2m.] Sigismond Korybut, Pr of Trakai, Pr of Mozhaisk 1383, Pr of Starodub 1406, Great Duke of Lithuania (1.9.1432-1440), baptized (cath) 1383, *after 1350, +murdered 20.3.1440; 1m: N, a dau.of Pr Andrej Odynczewicz; 2m: I.1416 NN
               + C1. Michael Boleslaw, *before 1406, +shortly before 10.2.1452; 1m: before 28.5.1427 Anna of Mazovia (*13.6.1407-1413, +before 7.2.1435), dau.of Ziemovit IV of Mazovia; 2m: shortly before 7.2.1435 Euphemia of Masovia (*before 1420, +before 3.3.1436); 3m: 1440/45 Catherine of Masovia (+after 29.3.1475)
         o B8. [2m.] Mikova=Maria, +1404; m.1375 Great Pr Ivan of Tver (+22.5.1425)
         o B9. [2m.] Danuta (Anna), *1362, +25.5.1448; m.shortly before 27.9.1376 Pr Janusz I of Warsaw (+8.12.1429)
         o B10. [2m.] Rymgajla (Elisabeth), +1433; 1m: 4.2.-30.6.1392 Pr Henryk of Masovia, Bp of Plock (+1392/93); 2m: 1419 (div 1421) Voivode Alexandru of the Moldau (+1430/31)
   * A7. [3m.] Karijotas (Michail), Pr of Novogrodeck, Pr of Podol (1362-63), +1347/after 1358; m. ca 1356 N, dau.of Pr Iwan II of Moscow
         o B1. Alexander Pr of Podolsk, +1380; m.N, a dau.of Great Pr Semion of Moscow
         o B2. Constantin, Pr of Podolsk, +1390, ancestor of the Princes Koryatowicz and Kurcewicz
         o B3. Jerzy Pr of Podolsk, +after 1374; m.Anastasia of Moldau (+1420)
               + C1. Anna, +20.5.1420; m.ca 1405 Hospodar Alexandru of Moldova (+1430/31)
         o B4. Feodor Pr of Podolsk, Comes of Máramaros and Bereg, +1415; m.Fedora N
               + C1. Anna, fl 1429-55; m.Imre Marczali, from Pécz family (+k.a.1448)
               + C2. Maria
         o B5. Lew, +k.a.at river Worskla 12.8.1399
         o B6. Wasyl
         o B7. Dymitr, +k.a.at river Worskla 12.08.1399; m.1356 Maria, dau.of Pr Iwan II of Moscow
   * A8. [2m.] Liubartas (Dimitriy), Pr Vladimir-Volynsk (1325-40), Pr of Galitzia and Volynya (1340-44), Pr of Volynya (1344-84), +1384/85; 1m:1321/23 Eufemia of Volynya (+by 1349); 2m: after 1349 Olga, dau.of Pr Konstantin of Rostov and Maria of Moscow
         o B1. Feodor, Pr Vladimir-Volynsk, *1351, +VIII.1431
         o B2. Lazar
         o B3. Simeon
   * A9. [2m.] Maria, *1305, +1348; m.winter 1319/20 Pr Dmitriy of Tver (+15.9.1326)
   * A10. Narymunt (Norimantas), Pr of Pinsk, *1277, +1348
   * A11. [2m.] Dannila (Elzbieta), +1364; m.before 6.12.1320 Pr Waclaw of Plock (+23.5.1336)
   * A12. Aldona (Anna), *1309, +26.5.1339; m.16.10.1325 King Kazimierz III of Poland (*30.4.1310, +5.11.1370)
   * A13. [2m.] Gaudemunda (Eufemia), *ca 1316, +5.2.1342; m.1331 Pr Boleslav II of Halicz (+7.4.1340)
   * A14. Augusta Anastasia, +11.3.1345; m.winter 1333 Great Pr Simeon of Vladimir (*7.11.1317 +27.4.1353)

--------------------

Gediminas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gediminas (ca. 1275 – winter 1341) was the monarch of medieval Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the title didysis kunigaikštis (Belarusian: вялікі князь) which would be literally translated as Grand Duke, but more correctly High King according to the contemporary perception. The later construct for its translation is Grand Duke (for its etymology, see Grand Prince). He was the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1316–1341, which chiefly meant monarch of Lithuanians and much of Rus'. He was the true founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as an empire. He has a reputation of being an inveterate pagan who fiercely resisted all attempts to christianize his country, though the case is actually somewhat more complex.

Title used in correspondence

Gediminas' normal Latin style is as follows:

Gedeminne Dei gratia Letwinorum et multorum Ruthenorum rex[1]

Which translates as:

"Gediminas, by the grace of God, of the Lithuanians and many Rus'ians, king"[1]

In his letters to the papacy in 1322 and 1323, he adds Princeps et Duke Semigallie (Prince and Duke of Semigallia).[2] In contemporary Low German he is styled simply Koningh van Lettowen, mirroring the Latin Rex Lethowye (both "King of Lithuania").[1] Gediminas' right to use Latin rex, which the papacy had been claiming the right to grant from the 13th century, was controversial in some Catholic sources. So for instance he was called rex sive dux ("King or Duke") by one source; Pope John XXII, in a letter to the King of France, refers to Gediminas as "the one who calls himself rex"; however the pope did call Gediminas rex when addressing him (regem sive ducem, "king or duke").[2]

[edit]Origin

He was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the ostler of Vytenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, but more probably he was Vytenis' younger brother and the son of Butvydas (Pukuwer), another Lithuanian grand duke. In any case, his purported Rurikid origin was a later fake. According to the latest research, even his grandfather cannot be named with certainty. Gediminas became Grand Duke (didysis kunigaikštis) of Lithuania in 1316 at the age of 40 and ruled for 25 years.

[edit]Choice of religion

He inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Navahradak, Podlachia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes against the common enemy; but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not merely secure but mighty, and for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See. At the end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and desiring that legates should be sent to receive him also into the bosom of the church.

On receiving a favorable reply from the Holy See, Gediminas issued circular letters, dated 25 January 1325, to the principal Hansa towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil. The immigrants were to choose their own settlements and be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were also invited to come and build churches at Vilnius and Navahradak. In October 1323 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, when Gediminas confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was then signed at Vilnius, in the name of the whole Christian World, between Gediminas and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges.

But the Christianizing of Lithuania was by no means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they used every effort to nullify Gediminas far-reaching design. This, unfortunately, was too easy to do. Gediminas chief object was to save Lithuania from destruction at the hands of the Germans. But he was still a pagan reigning over semi-pagan lands; he was equally bound to his pagan kinsmen in Samogitia, to his Orthodox subjects in Belarus, and to his Catholic allies in Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and ambiguous, and, might very readily be misinterpreted.

Thus his raid upon Dobrzyń, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod at Elbing questioned the authority of Gediminas letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith; his Orthodox subjects reproached him with leaning towards the Latin heresy; while the pagan Lithuanians accused him of abandoning the ancient gods. Gediminas disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive the papal legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by dismissing the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently retrogressive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality.

At the same time Gediminas through his ambassadors privately informed the papal legates at Riga that his difficult position compelled him for a time to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptized, and the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighboring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gediminas and the archbishop of Riga. Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the church, resumed the war with Gediminas, who had in the meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, whose son Casimir III now married Gediminas' daughter Aldona.

[edit]Rowell's view

An alternative view of the supposed readiness of Gediminas to be converted to Christianity is taken by Stephen Christopher Rowell in the book Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe 1295-1345. Rowell believes that Gediminas never intended to become a Christian himself, since that would have offended the staunchly pagan inhabitants of Žemaitija and Aukštaitija, the ethnic heartland of Lithuania. Rather, his strategy was to gain the support of the Pope and other Catholic powers in his conflict with the Teutonic Order by granting a favourable status to Catholics living within his realm and feigning a personal interest in the Christian religion.

Rowell points out that the formulation of the letter to Pope John XXII of 1322 was intentionally vague, and that the phrase "fidem catholicam recipere" could be interpreted as "accept Catholicism for himself", or simply "welcome the Catholic faith to Lithuania (i.e. allow Catholics to practice their religion there)". As he states on page 197 of his book:

The ambiguity of the phrase "fidem recipere" is surely deliberate. It gives the impression that the grand duke is asking for baptism and indeed it does mean this. However it is also so vague that it could simply mean that the Catholics were welcome in Lithuania. This is the admittedly casuistical meaning Gediminas later chose to give to the periphrases his letters employ for conversion.

Rowell also shows that while Gediminas allowed Catholic clergy to enter his realm for the purpose of ministering to his Catholic subjects and to temporary residents, he savagely punished any attempt to convert pagan Lithuanians or to insult their native religion. Thus in about 1339-40 he executed two Franciscan friars from Bohemia, Ulrich and Martin, who had gone beyond the authority granted them and had publicly preached against the Lithuanian religion. Gediminas ordered them to renounce Christianity, and had them killed when they refused. Five more friars were executed in 1369 for the same offence.

Rowell describes the cremation of Gediminas in 1342 as being a fully pagan ceremony, including human sacrifice, with a favourite servant and several German slaves being burned on the pyre with the corpse. All these facts demonstrate that Gediminas remained faithful to his native Lithuanian religion, and that his feigned interest in Catholicism was simply a ruse designed to gain allies against the Teutonic Order.

Rowell points out that the Templar Order had been suppressed only two decades previously by the King Philip IV of France with the connivance of the Pope Clement V, and that that had encouraged Gediminas and other enemies of the Teutonic Order (eg the King of Poland and the Archbishop of Riga)to believe that a similar suppression of that Order might be achieved with Papal blessing. The letter of 1322 is to be understood in that political context.

[edit]Incorporation of Slavic lands

While on his guard against his northern foes, Gediminas from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Slavonic principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gediminas triumphal progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halych-Volynia; was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the Galician prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest.

While exploiting Slavic weakness in the wake of the Mongol invasion, Gediminas wisely avoided war with the Golden Horde, a great regional power at the time, while expanding Lithuania's border towards the Black Sea. He also secured an alliance with the nascent grand duchy of Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grand duke Simeon. But he was strong enough to counterpoise the influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and assisted the republic of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to break away from Great Novgorod.

[edit]Domestic affairs

His internal administration bears all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the Orthodox clergy; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous castles in towns including Vilnius, the capital to be. At first he moved the capital to the newly built town of Trakai, but in 1323 re-established a permanent capital in Vilnius.

Gediminas died in the last week of 1341 (presumably he was killed in time of coup d'état). He was married three times, and left seven sons and six daughters. Two of his sons perished in battle. Jaunutis initially ruled Vilnius after the death of his father and was formally Grand Duke of Lithuania until his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis returned from military campaigns in Ruthenia and forced him to abdicate his throne in their favor.

[edit]Notes

^ a b c Rowell, Lithuania Ascending, p. 63.

^ a b Rowell, Lithuania Ascending, p. 64.

[edit]References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

(Lithuanian) Nikžentaitis, Alvydas (1989). Gediminas. Vilnius: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija.

Rowell, S. C. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 149. ISBN 9780521450119.

--------------------

--------------------

рождение ребёнка: ♀ ? (Daughter of Gediminas) [Gediminid]

--------------------

Gediminas-Didysis Lietuvos kunigaikštis (Dux Magnus Lituanus),įkūręs dabartnę Lietuvos sostinę Vilnių bei ant vienos iš jo kalvų pastatęs pilį (Gedimino pilis).

-------------------- Giedymin.PNG 1316 — 1341

(1/4) ▶
   ^ Liv-, Est-, und Kurlandisches Urkundenbuch. T. 2, №746. P. 332.
   Hiedymin // Zaprudnik J. Historical dictionary of Belarus. — Lamham. — London: Scarecrow Press, 1998.— 338 p. ISBN 0-8108-3449-9.

Apie Gediminas, Lietuvos Didysis Kunigaikštis (Lietuvių)

Gediminas (~1275-1341) – pirmasis (?) Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis iš Gediminaičių dinastijos. ~1295(?)-1316 m. – LDK submonarchas (ar bent jau Žemaičių kunigaikštis), 1316–1341 m. – LDK.

Gedimino kilmė

Lietuvos metraščių legendinėje dalyje ir visoje ikimokslinėje LDK istoriografijoje Gediminas pristatomas kaip Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Vytenio sūnus. Nuo XIX a. pabaigos istoriografijoje ilgai vyravo vienu Rygos miesto tarybos Gediminui rašytu laišku (jame Vytenis įvardytas kaip Gedimino „brolis ir pirmtakas“) grįsta nuomonė, kad Gediminas buvęs Vytenio brolis ir Butvydo sūnus (plg., pats Gediminas savo laiškuose Vytenį mini vien kaip savo „pirmtaką“).

XX a. pab. keletas istorikų, besiremiančių XIV a. pab. rusų poemoje Zadonščina („Uždonė“) fiksuotu dviejų Algirdo sūnų liudijimu apie jų kilmę iš Gedimino tėvo ar uošvio „Skolomendo“ bei atsižvelgiančių į tai, kad žodis „brolis“ viduramžių Lietuvoje turėjo platesnę reikšmę nei mūsų laikais, ėmėsi populiarinti alternatyvią Gedimino kilmės versiją. Anot jos, šis lietuvių karvedys ir valdovas buvo kunigaikščio Komanto (Skomanto) sūnus arba žentas.

Gedimino valdymas

Lietuvos Didžiojo kunigaikščio sostą Gediminas užėmė po Vytenio mirties (galimas daiktas, po 1315 ar 1316 m. įvykusio dinastinio perversmo). Iki tol, kaip LDK submonarchas, valdė Trakų kunigaikštystę (nuo XIII a. pabaigos jis greičiausiai rezidavo jo paties iniciatyva sumūrytoje Trakų pilyje); XIV a. pradžioje išgarsėjo kaip gabus karvedys (XIII ir XIV a. sandūroje Gedimino vadovaujama lietuvių kariuomenė ne kartą atrėmė Vokiečių ordino bandymus įsitvirtinti Žemaitijoje). Tačiau Gedimino, kaip Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio, valdymo laikotarpis nepasižymi didesnėmis karinėmis lietuvių pergalėmis, išskyrus gal tik Medininkų mūšį (1320 m.).

LDK užsienio politiką Gediminas vykdė atremdamas kryžininkų agresiją ir, daugiausia diplomatinėmis priemonėmis, varžydamasis su Aukso orda bei tuometine jos sąjungininke – XIV a. I pusėje nedideles rusų kunigaikštystes pradėjusia vienyti Maskvos DK.

LDK sienas ir įtakos sferos ribas Gediminas nukėlė toli į rytus bei pietus. Jam valdant prie LDK buvo prijungti Vitebskas (1320 m.) ir Volynė (1340 m.), į vasalinę priklausomybę pateko Pskovas (~1320 m.), Černigovas (~1323 m.), Severėnų Naugardas (~1323 m.), Smolenskas (~1325 m.), Kijevas (iki 1330 m.), Perejaslavlis (iki 1330 m.). LDK plotas Gedimino laikais padidėjo maždaug trečdaliu.

~1325 m. kautynėse prie Irpenės upės sumušęs jungtinę Kijevo, Perejaslavlio, Briansko ir kt. Kijevo sąjungininkų kariuomenę, sau pavaldžiu Kijevo kunigaikščiu Gediminas paskyrė lietuvį Mintautą Fiodorą ar Algimantą Fiodorą (dauguma istorikų jį laiko Gedimino giminaičiu). Kita vertus, visą Fiodoro valdymo Kijeve laikotarpį (1325(?)-1363 m.) ir net kurį laiką po Kijevo kunigaikštystės prijungimo prie LDK (bent 1363–1374 m.) Kijevo-Perejaslavlio žemė (kaip ir visas Černigovo-Severėnų kraštas bei Podolė) mokėjo „tradicinę“ duoklę Aukso ordai.

1322 m. Gedimino valdoma LDK sudarė karinę sąjungą su Mazovija, o 1325 m. – ir su Lenkija (tais pačiais metais Gedimino duktė Aldona buvo ištekinta už Lenkijos karaliaus Vladislovo Lokietkos sūnaus Kazimiero). Abi šios karinės sąjungos buvo nukreiptos prieš Vokiečių ordiną.

Gedimino mėginimai suvakarietinti LDK visuomenę

Gediminas yra bene pirmasis Lietuvos valdovas, suformulavęs plačią LDK europietinimo programą. Siekdamas ją įgyvendinti, 1323–1324 ir 1341 m. jis nesėkmingai mėgino apsikrikštyti. Kryžiuočiai visais įmanomais būdais stengėsi sutrukdyti Lietuvai apsikrikštyti savarankiškai. Pirmojo savo bandymo apsikrikštyti metu Gediminas pasiekė tik tiek, kad 1324 m. iš Rygos į Vilnių atvykę popiežius legatų (pasiuntinių) atstovai tų metų pab. patvirtino 4 metų paliaubas tarp Lietuvos ir Vokiečių ordino. Netrukus po to Gediminas sudarė sąjungą su Lenkija (kaip viena jos išdavų paminėtinas 1326 m. įvykęs sėkmingas jungtinės Lenkijos ir Lietuvos kariuomenės žygis į Brandenburgo valstybę) ir bandė suartėti su Vengrija.

Bene kritiškiausiu Lietuvai XIV a. pirmos pusės tarpsniu, t. y. po kryžiuočių 1329 m. žygio į Žemaitiją ir 1337–1338 m. lietuvių prie Nemuno žemupio patirtų pralaimėjimų, Gediminas nutarė dar kartą mėginti apsikrikštyti ir šia intencija užmezgė ryšius su Čekijos pranciškonais. 1341 m. į Lietuvą krikštyti Gedimino ir jo pavaldinių buvo atvykę čekų misionieriai, tačiau tų metų paskutinę savaitę Gediminas buvo nužudytas (įmanoma, nunuodytas). Šio nužudymo iniciatoriais galėjo būti tiek Vokiečių ordino vadovybė, tiek senosios tautinės lietuvių religijos šalininkai, tiek LDK stačiatikiai. Kai kurie tyrinėtojai spėja, kad apie sąmokslą nužudyti Gediminą žinojo, bet jokių veiksmų prieš sąmokslininkus nesiėmė jo sūnus Jaunutis – būtent jis, tuoj po tėvo mirties, tapo naujuoju LDK kunigaikščiu.

Reikšmingiausi LDK pasiekimai Gedimino valdymo laikotarpiu

  1. Panaikinta LDK politinė izoliacija iš Vakarų Europos pusės.
  2. Žymiai sustiprėjo LDK karinė galia.
  3. LDK iš vidutinio dydžio valstybės tapo viena didesnių Europoje.
  4. Vilnius ėmė virsti europinio tipo miestu.

LITERATŪRA

Iš laisvosios interneto enciklopedijos Vikipedija. Prieigą per internetą, žiūrėtą 2014-11-18 <http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gediminas>

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

Гедимин или Гедымин - великий князь литовский, сын Лютувера или Литавора. Подобно брату своему Витену, которому он наследовал в 1316 г., Гедимин, соединяя под своей властью не только собственно литовские, но и многие русские земли, в значительной степени опирался на русский элемент; в сношениях с иноземными государствами он принимал титул короля Литвы и Руси, назначал русских людей в посольства; русским был и наиболее видный сподвижник его - Давид , староста гродненский. Из русских земель под властью Гедимина находились: Черная Русь, присоединенная литовцами еще в начале XIII в.; земля Полоцкая, присоединенная при Миндовге и при Гедимине управлявшаяся братом его, Воином; княжества Минское, Пинское и Туровское, попавшие под власть Литвы, вероятно, в конце XIII или начале XIV веков, и княжество Витебское. Рассказ о походе Гедимина в 1320 - 21 годах на Волынь и Киев и завоевании этих областей относится, как думает профессор Антонович , к области исторических легенд и возник уже в XVI в. Иного мнения держится новейший русский историк Литвы - профессор Любавский . Гедимин старался распространить свое влияние и на другие соседние русские земли, главным образом на Псков и Новгород. Он помогал псковичам в их борьбе с Ливонским орденом, поддерживал в Пскове против Ивана Калиты и позднее укрывал в своих владениях князя Александра Михайловича , стоял на стороне псковичей в их стремлении достигнуть полной независимости от Новгорода в церковном отношении. С новгородцев Гедимин, захватив однажды новгородского владыку и бояр, взял обещание дать кормление сыну его Наримунту. Обещание это было исполнено в 1333 г., когда Новгород, теснимый Иваном Калитою, дал Наримунту в отчину Ладогу, Ореховец, Корельскую землю и половину Копорья. Впрочем, Наримунт жил больше в Литве, а в 1338 г., когда он не только не явился на зов Новгорода защищать его против шведов, но и отозвал своего сына Александра, всякие связи его с новгородцами порвались. При Гедимине намечались основы той политики великих князей литовских по отношению к русским землям, которая впоследствии приводила их к столкновениям с князьями московскими; но в данное время непосредственные сношения обоих государств носили еще мирный характер, и в 1333 г. Симеон Иванович даже женился на дочери Гедимина, Айгусте, в крещении Анастасии. Внимание Гедимина сосредоточивалось в особенности на борьбе с теснившим литовцев Ливонским орденом. В 1325 г. он принял предложение союза со стороны польского короля Владислава Локотка, выдал за его сына и наследника, Казимира, свою дочь Альдону, в крещении Анну, и предпринял совместно с поляками ряд удачных походов на крестоносцев, причем особенно сильное поражение последние потерпели в битве под Пловцами в 1331 г. Вместе с тем Гедимин вмешался и во внутренние дела Ливонии, где в это время шла междоусобная война между архиепископом рижским и городом Ригою, с одной стороны, и орденом, с другой; он принял сторону первых против ордена и успел значительно ослабить крестоносцев, так что в последние годы его жизни они уже не совершали больших походов на Литву. Гедимину приписывается построение городов Трок и Вильны. Оставаясь сам до конца жизни язычником, Гедимин отличался веротерпимостью: жители подвластных ему русских областей свободно исповедовали православную веру, и он не препятствовал литовцам принимать ее; в Вильне было два католических монастыря. Полоцкий архиерей, управлявший православной церковью в пределах владений Гедимина, принимал участие в поместных соборах русского духовенства; сын Гедимина, Глеб-Наримунт, принял православие при жизни отца. Гедимин умер в 1340 или 1341 годы, убитый при осаде одной из крепостей крестоносцев выстрелом из огнестрельного оружия, только что входившего в употребление. После него осталось 7 сыновей, разделивших его владения на уделы (см. Гедиминовичи ). - См. Никитский , "Кто такой был Гедимин" ("Русская Старина", 1871, том IV); В.Б. Антонович , "Монографии по истории западной и юго-западной России" (том I, Киев, 1885); Stadnicki, "Synowie G." ("Rozprawy wydz. hist. Akademii" (Краков, 1875, том III); "Kоryat Gedyminowicz i Koryatowicze" (там же, 1887, том VII); Jozef Wolf, "Rod Gedymina" (Краков, 1886); М.С. Грушевский , "Очерк истории Киевской земли" (Киев, 1891); его же, "Iсторiя Украiни-Руси", том IV (1907); А.С. Грушевский, "История турово-пинского княжества" ("Киевские Университетские Известия", 1904); Любавский, "История Литвы" (Москва, 1911). В. М-н. ок. 1275? рождение:

рождение ребёнка: ♀ Мария [Гедиминовичи] ум. 1349

брак: ♀ # Евна (Ева) [?] ум. 1344

рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Кориат (Михаил) [Гедиминовичи] ум. после 1358

рождение ребёнка: ♀ Августа (Анастасия) [Гедиминовичи] ум. 1345

ок. 1292? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Наримунт (Наримонт) Гедиминович [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1292? ум. 2 февраль 1348

с 1295 по 1316 титул: Соправитель Литвы (или князь Жмудский)

ок. 1296? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Ольгерд [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1296? ум. 24 май 1377

ок. 1297? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Кейстут [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1297? ум. 15 август 1382

ок. 1300? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Явнутий (Евнутий, Евнут) [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1300? ум. ок. 1366?

ок. 1300? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Любарт (Дмитрий) Гедиминович [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1300? ум. 1383

ок. 1300? рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Монтвид (Монтовид) [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1300? ум. 1348

ок. 1310? рождение ребёнка: ♀ Офка [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1310? ум. 5 февраль 1342

1311 рождение ребёнка: Литва, ♀ # Алдона Анна Гедиминовна [Гедиминовичи] р. 1311 ум. 25 май 1339

с 1316 по 1341 титул: Великий князь Литовский

1341 смерть: Гедымін Зьвесткі зь Вікіпэдыі — вольнай энцыкляпэдыі. Перайсьці да: навігацыі, пошуку Гедымін Вялікі Гедымін Вялікі(уяўны партрэт) Невядомы мастак, 1709 10-ы вялікі князь літоўскі Папярэднік Віцень Наступнік Яўнут Асабістыя зьвесткі Нарадзіўся каля 1275 Памёр 1341 Нашчадкі

сыны: Манівід, Нарымонт-Глеб, Альгерд, Кейстут, Любарт-Фёдар, Карыят-Міхал, Яўнут-Іван

дачкі: Альдона-Ганна, Данміла-Лізавета, Бірута (умоўнае імя), Марыя Старэйшую, Аўгустп-Анастасія, Марыя Малодшая і Яўхімія Дынастыя Гедымінавічы Жонка 1-я: Віда 2-я: Вольга Ўсеваладаўна 3-я: Леанідыя

Ґедымін[1], Ґедзімін (у пісьмовых крыніцах Кгидимин, Кгедимин, Скиндимин, Jedimin, Giedimont, Giedymin[2]; каля 1275—1341) — вялікі князь літоўскі (1316—1341).

У часы Гедыміна Вялікае Княства Літоўскае зрабілася моцнай ўсходне-эўрапейскай дзяржавай, яго тэрыторыя павялічылася ўдвая. Апрача Вільні, мураваныя замкі зьявіліся ў Медніках, Лідзе, Крэве, Віцебску. Узмацнілася запазычаньне элемэнтаў заходне-эўрапейскай культуры. Адначасна Гедымін паклаў падмурак рускаму вэктару палітыкі ВКЛ, які разьвіваўся ў наступныя дзесяцігодзьдзі. Яго шматлікія нашчадкі ўтварылі дынастыю Гедзімінавічаў[3]. Зьмест

   1 Біяграфія
       1.1 Паходжаньне і радавод
       1.2 Валадараньне
   2 Галерэя
   3 Глядзіце таксама
   4 Крыніцы
   5 Літаратура
   6 Вонкавыя спасылкі

Біяграфія Паходжаньне і радавод

Позьняя традыцыя, зафіксаваная ў літоўскіх (беларускіх) летапісах, лічыла Гедыміна сынам Віценя, аднак у дыпляматычным ліставаньні Гедыміна з рыскім магістратам ён завецца братам Віценя[4]. Некаторыя сучасныя дасьледнікі лічаць, што Гедымін быў сынам ці зяцем яцьвяга Скаламенда, а іншыя — што ягоным бацькам быў Лютавер.

Гедымін меў тры шлюбы. Зь першай жонкай, жамойткай Відай, ён меў сыноў Вітаўта (іншым разам лічыцца мітычнай асобай), Манівіда, Нарымонта-Глеба. З другой, з полацкай князёўнай Вольгай Усеваладаўнай — Альгерда і Кейстута. З трэцяй, смаленскай ці тураўскай князёўнай Леанідыяй (яе на падставе зьвестак Тэадора Нарбута часам завуць Еўнай) — Любарта-Фёдара, Карыята-Міхала, Яўнута-Івана. Іхныя шматлікія нашчадкі ўтварылі дынастыю Гедымінавічаў. Апроч таго, меў 7 дачок — Альдону-Ганну, Данмілу-Елізавету, Біруту (умоўнае імя), Марыю Старэйшую, Аўгусту-Анастасію, Марыю Малодшую і Яўхімію.

Воін-Васіль Полацкі і Фёдар Кіеўскі часам лічацца братамі Гедзіміна і, адпаведна, сынамі Віценя, але хутчэй за ўсё ня мелі дачыненьня да роду Гедыміна, хоць і дзейнічалі ў хаўрусе зь ім. Валадараньне

Княжаньне Гедыміна распачалося паміж кастрычнікам 1315 году (апошняя згадка пра Віценя) і чэрвенем 1317 году. Пачатак ягонага валадараньня вызначыўся ўтварэньнем у Вялікім Княстве Літоўскім самастойнай Літоўскай праваслаўнай мітраполіі, падпарадкаванай беспасярэдне канстантынопальскаму патрыярху (існавала ў 1317—1330 гадох, цэнтар — Новагародак), і спробай нармалізаваць адносіны з каталіцкім Захадам. Уяўныя партрэты Гедыміна З хронікі А. Гваньіні «Апісаньне эўрапейскай Сарматыі» (1578)

Не пазьней за 1320 год Гедымін заснаваў мураваны замак у Вільні, які зрабіўся яго галоўнай рэзыдэнцыяй.Таксама ў гэтым жа годзе засанаваў Беласток. Каля 1321 году Гедымін збудаваў у Вільні касьцёл для манахаў-францішканаў і аднавіў іх касьцёл у Новагародку, збудаваны яшчэ Віценем і спалены ў выніку нападу крыжакоў.

У 1318 годзе сын Гедыміна Альгерд ажаніўся з дачкой апошняга віцебскага князя з Рагвалодавічаў, а ў 1320 годзе пачаў княжыць у Віцебску. У 1320 годзе шлюбам дачкі Гедыміна Марыі зь вялікім князем цьвярскім Дзьмітрыем Міхайлавічам быў замацаваны хаўрус зь Вялікім княствам Цьвярскім. У 1322 годзе другі зяць Гедыміна і яго намесьнік у Горадні Давыд Даўмонтавіч быў кароткі час князем Пскова, што прывяло да выйсьця Пскова з-пад кантролю Ноўгараду. Каля 1322 году пад уладу Вялікага Княства Літоўскага перайшлі Берасьцейшчына і Падляшша, пра што паведамляюць позьнія літоўскія (беларускія) летапісы (ускосна пацьвярджаецца пералікам ваяводаў Галіцка-Валынскага княства 1335 году, у якім адсутнічаюць ваяводы з гэтых зямель). У 1323 годзе адбыўся набег літоўскага войска на наўгародзкую воласьць Вялікія Лукі. Пад беспасярэднюю ўладу Гедыміна адыйшлі ў 1320-я гады Таропецкае і Ржэўскае княствы на поўначы Смаленскай зямлі.

У траўні 1323 году Гедымін праз Рыгу зьвярнуўся з шэрагам лістоў да Рымскай Курыі, Ганзэйскага хаўрусу, саксонскіх рэзыдэнцыяў францішканскага і дамініканскага ордэнаў. У гэтых лістах Гедымін, тытулаваны як «кароль Літвы і Русі, уладар і князь Жамойці», запрашаў у Вялікае Княства Літоўскае манахаў і майстроў розных спэцыяльнасьцяў, гарантаваў ім розныя прывілеі. 20 кастрычніка 1323 году Гедымін склаў мір з рыскім арцыбіскупам і магістратам Рыгі (гэтак званая Дамова 1323 году). Межы Вялікага Княства Літоўскага і Лівонскага ордэна абвяшчаліся адкрытымі для гандлю і вольнага перамяшчэньня людзей. Адносіны з Тэўтонскім ордэнам на прускай мяжы засталіся варожымі, у пачатку 1324 адбыўся шэраг нападаў на Жамойць, у ліпені — аблога войскамі Вялікага Княства Літоўскага ордэнскага замка Хрыстмэмэль. У кастрычніку 1324 году рымскі папа Ян XXII накіраваў сваіх легатаў, упаўнаважаных ахрысьціць Гедыміна. Аднак у апошні момант Гедымін адмовіўся ад прыняцьця каталіцтва, бо задаволіўся мірам з Тэўтонскім ордэнам, складзеным у лістападзе 1324 году з дапамогай легатаў. Адначасна вялікі князь наладзіў добрыя стасункі з Польшчай і ў 1325 годзе выдаў сваю дачку Альдону-Ганну за Казімера, сына караля Ўладзіслава Лакетка. Дуб каля Баэрбургу, ля якога, паводле паданьня, загінуў Гедымін

Полацкі князь Воін-Васіль і менскі князь Фёдар Сьвятаслававіч зваліся «братней» Гедыміна, гэта значыць былі ў васальнай залежнасьці ад яго, хоць і мелі высокі статус, бо зваліся «братамі» (відаць, малодшымі), а не «сынамі». З гэтага бачна, што пачатыя яшчэ пры Войшалку стасункі Вялікага Княства Літоўскага з Полацкай зямлёй не перапыняліся. Гэтыя князі ў 1326 годзе былі пасламі Гедыміна ў Ноўгарадзе (Воін-Васіль узначальваў яго), вынікам якога было складаньне міру з Ноўгарадам і аднаўленьне міру зь Інфлянтамі. Сфэра ўплыву Гедыміна на Русі няўхільна пашыралася. З 1327 па 1329 год у Пскове пасьля Давыда княжыў цьвярскі князь Аляксандр Міхайлавіч, які абапіраўся на падтрымку Гедыміна.

У 1326 годзе Гедымін накіраваў войска ў 1200 вершнікаў на чале з Давыдам Гарадзенскім, якое спустошыла зямлю варожага Польшчы Брандэнбурскага маркграфства. А ў 1328 годзе ўмяшаўся ў канфлікт паміж рыскім магістратам і Лівонскім ордэнам, напэўна, спадзеючыся, што гэта прывядзе да ліквідацыі ордэна. Увосень 1329 году ён на просьбу рыжанаў спустошыў уладаньні ордэна, а ўвесну 1330 году — уладаньні рыскага арцыбіскупа. Аднак закалот скончыўся паразай месьцічаў і дакананьнем імі міру з ордэнам (30 сакавіка 1330 году), што прывяло да аднаўленьня вайны паміж Вялікім Княствам Літоўскім і крыжакамі. Супольны напад прускай і лівонскай галін ордэна на Жамойць адбыўся ўжо ў сакавіку 1330 году. У адказ у верасьні таго ж году Гедымін паслаў войска на дапамогу польскаму каралю, які ажыцьцявіў напад на Прусію. У далейшым напады ордэнскіх рыцараў на Вялікае Княства Літоўскае зрабіліся рэгулярнымі: яны адбываліся ў 1332, 1333 (да Полацку), 1334 (да Полацку), 1339, 1340. Дынастыя Гедзімінавічаў-Ягелонаў. Л. Дыцэюс, 1521

Аднаўленьне вайны на захадзе не спыніла рускіх справаў Гедыміна, хоць і ўскладніла іх. Хаўрусьнік Гедыміна цьвярскі князь Аляксандар у 1329 годзе страціў Пскоў, але ў 1331 годзе ў другі раз атрымаў яго пры дапамозе Гедзіміна і заставаўся пскоўскім князем да 1337 году. У 1331 годзе Гедымін зрабіў няўдалую спробу правесьці на вакантную пасаду пскоўскага япіскапа свайго вылучэнца Арсенція. Пра памер уплыву Гедыміна на Русі ў гэты час сьведчыць тое, што другі кандыдат у япіскапы, якога Гедымін імкнуўся захапіць, праехаў у Ноўгарад з Валыні толькі вакольным шляхам праз Бранск і Таржок, прычым ля Кіева яго ледзь не захапіў кіеўскі князь Фёдар.

Хаўрусьнікамі Гедыміна ў той час былі смаленскі князь Іван Аляксандравіч (называў Гедыміна «братъ мой стареиший Кедименъ»[5]), казельскі князь Аляксандр Мсьціслававіч — зяць Гедыміна. У 1331 годзе Гедымін аддаў сваю дачку Яўфімію за галіцка-валынскага князя Баляслава-Юрыя. У 1333 годзе сын Гедыміна Нарымонт-Глеб быў запрошаны князем у Ноўгарад, што было праявай палітычнага зьвязу паміж Вялікім Княствам Літоўскім і Ноўгарадам, накіраванага супраць маскоўскага валадара Івана Каліты. Аднак Гедымін пазьбягаў наўпростага супрацьстаяньня з Масквой і ў 1333 годзе аддаў дачку Аўгусту за Сямёна Гордага, сына Каліты. Да 1338 году Нарымонт зьехаў з Ноўгараду і пачаў княжыць у Полацку і, магчыма, таксама ў Пінску, але захаваў сваіх намесьнікаў у шэрагу воласьцяў, падараваных яму ноўгародцамі (Ладазе, Арэшку, Карэле і палове Капор’я).

Літоўскія летапісы паведамляюць пра заваяваньне Гедымінам Кіеўскай зямлі, але гэты сюжэт большасьць дасьледнікаў лічыць мітычным. Тым часам у Кіеве ў 1322—1363 гадох княжыў Фёдар — хутчэй за ўсё брат Гедыміна (роднае імя Фёдара было, імаверна, Міндоўг). Запісы канцылярыі маскоўскага мітрапаліта Феагноста называюць князя Фёдара «братам Гедыміна»[6]. Існуюць зьвесткі, што князь Фёдар падпарадкоўваўся татарскаму баскаку. У 1340 годзе памёр апошні галіцка-валынскі князь Баляслаў-Юры, што дазволіла ўладкавацца на Валыні малодшаму сыну Гедыміна Любарту. Канчатковы падзел галіцка-валынскай спадчыны паміж Вялікім Княствам Літоўскім, Ардой і Польшчай адбыўся ўжо пасьля сьмерці Гедыміна. Ён загінуў узімку 1341—1342 гадоў, напэўна, пры аблозе ордэнскага замка Баэрбург. На падставе чэскай крыніцы існуе вэрсія пра атручваньне Гедыміна[7].

Крыніцы

   ^ Ґедымін = Giedymin // Слоўнік беларускай мовы (клясычны правапіс) / Уклад. калектыў супрацоўнікаў выдавецтва «Наша Ніва». — Наша Ніва, 2001.
   ^ М. І. Ермаловіч. Гедзімін // Энцыклапедыя гісторыі Беларусі. У 6 т. Т. 2: Беліцк — Гімн / Беларус. Энцыкл.; Рэдкал.: Б. І. Сачанка (гал. рэд.) і інш.; Маст. Э. Э. Жакевіч. — Мн.: БелЭн, 1994. С. 501.
   ^ Вячаслаў Насевіч. Гедзімін // Вялікае княства Літоўскае: Энцыклапедыя. У 3 т. / рэд. Г. П. Пашкоў і інш. Т. 1: Абаленскі — Кадэнцыя. — Мінск: Беларуская Энцыклапедыя, 2005. С. 520.
   ^ Вячаслаў Насевіч. Гедзімін // Вялікае княства Літоўскае: Энцыклапедыя. У 3 т. / рэд. Г. П. Пашкоў і інш. Т. 1: Абаленскі — Кадэнцыя. — Мінск: Беларуская Энцыклапедыя, 2005. С. 519.
   ^ Ф. М. Шабульдо. Земли Юго-Западной Руси в составе Великого княжества Литовского. — Киев: «Наукова Думка», 1987. [1]
   ^ М. І. Ермаловіч. Гедзімін // Энцыклапедыя гісторыі Беларусі. У 6 т. Т. 2: Беліцк — Гімн / Беларус. Энцыкл.; Рэдкал.: Б. І. Сачанка (гал. рэд.) і інш.; Маст. Э. Э. Жакевіч. — Мн.: БелЭн, 1994. С. 502.

Літаратура

   Вялікае княства Літоўскае: Энцыклапедыя. У 3 т. / рэд. Г. П. Пашкоў і інш. Т. 2: Кадэцкі корпус — Яцкевіч. — Мінск: Беларуская Энцыклапедыя, 2005. — 788 с.: іл. ISBN 985-11-0378-0.
   Энцыклапедыя гісторыі Беларусі. У 6 т. Т. 2: Беліцк — Гімн / Беларус. Энцыкл.; Рэдкал.: Б. І. Сачанка (гал. рэд.) і інш.; Маст. Э. Э. Жакевіч. — Мн.: БелЭн, 1994. — 537 с., [8] к.: іл. ISBN 5-85700-142-0.
   Хто такі Гедзімін // 150 пытанняў і адказаў з гісторыі Беларусі / Уклад. Іван Саверчанка, Зьміцер Санько. — Вільня: Наша Будучыня, 2002.— 238 с. ISBN 9986-9229-6-1.