James Cudworth, Sr. (1604 - 1682)

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: North Yorkshire, UK
Death: Died in England
Occupation: Salter, gentleman, Scituate from 1634. Removed to Barnstable, but returned after a few years. Stood for fiar dealing toward the Quakers, was much opposted for this my other magistrates, was deputy, assistant majoy General in command of the United Colonies
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About James Cudworth, Sr.

[1052] Source: Records of the Cudworth Family, A History of the Ancestors and

Descendants of James Cudworth of Scituate, MA; W.

John Calder; 1941.

A Little Commonwealth, Family Life in Plymouth Colony; John

Demos; 1970.

James Cudworth was an educated man of an educated family of country

gentlemen, who lived by farming, intersperced with sheep raising, and the

sale of wool to English, and Flemish weavers of cloth. James had a clear

understanding of business methods, knew a little law, and probably had

more or less to do with colonizing the new country in America, in

connection with Timothy Hatherley, who we think, but cannot prove, was an

acting agent of the Earl of Warrick, a long time friend of the Cudworths,

amd landlord of the Stoughtons of Coggshall. James came to New England

in the ship "Charles" in company with Timothy Hatherley, and they landed

in Salem. He made a connection with Israel and Thomas Stoughton who had

arrived in the Winthrop expedition of 1630, and had settled in what is

now Dorchester, MA. He seems to have kept up his association with

Timothy Hatherley, and probably had something to do with the placing of

colonists in appropriate settlements in and around Boston and Plymouth.

He probably met and married his wife in the vicinity of Boston rather

than Plymouth. Our first knowledge of them is related to the setteling

of the village of Scituate, a promotion of Timothy Hatherley, in a former

visit to New England, in 1628, when eight families of settlers were

established there. James Cudworth and his wife, newly married, became

the nineth, and with money borowed in part from Isael Stoughton, bought

his lot of land, and built his home there. That was probably in the

winter and spring of 1634, and his letter to Rev. John Stoughton of

Aldermanbury, England who was his stepfather, is our first indication of

his new venture.

After having served for more than two decades as an Assistant, Cudworth

in 1680 acepted a mission to England, to plead for the Colony in the

delicate political negotiations then in progress. He was at the time 76

years old. He survived the long ocean voyage without difficulty, only to

contact smallpox and die within days of his arrival.

[1050] [S60] Records of the Cudworth Family; W. John Calder; 1941; p. 22

[1051] [S61] A Little Commonwealth, Family Life in Plymouth Colony; John Demos; 1970; p. 175

http://jrm.phys.ksu.edu/genealogy/needham/d0000/I1079.html

SEE ALSO

(Gen.) James Cudworth

Scituate Early Families 1623 - 1640 Family # 19

1st. Generation

(Gen.) James Cudworth, in Scituate 1632, Barnstable 1646, back in Scituate 1646

           b. 1604 in Aller, Somerset, England
           m. ca 1634 Goodma   ??   probably in Boston (b. ca 1606, d. 1674)
           d. aft. 9-15-1681 will in 1682 in London, England of smallpox.
           children:
           2nd Generation
           James          b.  5-3-1635 in Scituate
                             m .1665 Mary Howland, a Quaker, d. 1699
                             d. prior 1697
                             children:
                             3rd. Generation
                             James          b. 2-13-1665, m. 1694 Elizabeth Hatch, died in Freetown
                             Mary           b. 3-4-1667, unmarried, died ca 1699
                             Sarah           b. 4-13 1669, unmarried, died ca 1699
                             James          b. 1670, Capt., deceased Freetown 1729
                             Joanna        b. 8-8-1671, m. Zachary Coleman, 12-26-1696
                             Elizabeth     b. 3-4-1672, m. James Tripp 12-12-1702, Portsmouth, R.I.
                             John            b. 5-2-1674, m. 1-21-1702 Margaret Hatch
                             Abigail        b. 3-7-1680, m. Ebenezer Tripp
           Mary           bpt. 7-23-1637 in Scituate
                             m. Robet Whitcomb, 1660 of Marshfield's John Whetcumbe, a Quaker
                             children:
                             Isreal           b. 1661, m. 5-28-1700 Mary Stodder 
                             Robert         b.   ??  ,  m. Elizabeth Buck, died 12-25-1704
                             James          b. 1668, m. Mary Parker, a Quaker
                             Mary           b.   ??  ,  m. Joseph Parker, borther of Mary Parker
                             Elizabeth     b.   ??  
           Jonathan     b. 1638, in Scituate, died 9-24-1638
           Isreal           bpt. 4-18-1641, in Barnstable
                             d. ca 1727
                             m. Joanna   ??   b. in Barnstable
                             children:
                             Mary           b. 2-2-1678, m. Jacob Vinal
           Joanna        bpt. 3-24-1643 in Barnstable
                             d. 1718
                             m.   ??   Jones, moved to Freetown
                                                                   Pg. 1

Scituate Early Families # 19 continued

James Cudworth

           2nd. Generation
           Jonathan     b.   ??  probably in Barnstable
                             d. 1718
                             1st. m. 5-31-1667 Sarah Jackson
                             children:
                             3rd. Generation
                             Nathaniel    b. 9-7-1667, m. 2-14-Sarah Joy of Hingham
                             Bethia         b. 11-25-1671, died infant 
                             Hannah       b. 5-8-1674, m. Thomas Hatch, 3-6-1695
                             Sarah           b. 1676, m. Jonathan Merritt 6-7-1706
                             Jonathan     b. 4-16-1679, m. 11-17-1709 Elizabeth Hiland
                             James          b. 1682, m. 1-1-1712 Elizabeth White
                             Isreal           b. 10-18-1683, m. Hannah Knight
                             Rachel         b. 10-11-1689, m. Moses Simmons 1-1-1712
                             2nd. m. Elizabeth   ??  

References: "History of Scituate" by Samuel Deane

                    "Geneology Dictionary of New England" by James Savage
                    "Barnstable Town Vital Records"
                    "Cudworth Geneology" by W. John Calder
                    "Early Planters of Scituate" by Harvey Pratt

http://www.scituatehistoricalsociety.org/families_home.html

AND -----------------

From THE PILGRIM REPUBLIC OF THE COLONY OF NEW PLYMOUTH

SKETCHES OF THE RISE OF OTHER NEW ENGLAND SETTLEMENTS,

THE HISTORV OF CONGREGATIONALISM, AND THE

CREEDS OF THE PERIOD

BY

JOHN A. GOODWIN

BOSTON

TICKNOR AND COMPANY

LONDON: TRUBNER AND CO.

1888

GENERAL JAMES CUDWORTH,

who probably went to Scituate with Hatherly, was son of

Ralph Cudworth, rector of Aller, as well as chaplain to James

I., and who married Prince Henry's nurse. Another son was

that eminent and liberal Churchman, Ralph Cudworth. D.D.

Cudworth in 1639 went with Lothrop to found Barnstable, and

was sent as deputy from the new town ; but the same year

1 Perhaps the Church officers watched for

an opportunity to avenge their

wounded dignity. In 1638 Winter was fined tos. (or publishing himself to Jane

Cooper, "contrary to order and custom;" the next year, on a charge of antenuptial

intimacy, Winter was sentenced to be whipped at the post, at the Governor's

discretion, and his wife to be whipped at the cart's tail through the

street. Some aggravated misconduct must be inferred from this barbarity, but

ecclesiastical revenge is also to be suspected. Yet on a charge of the same kind

in 1648, Winter was fined £$. Was this a second marriage, or was it the commutation

of the old sentence which Bradford and Hatherly had till then held in

abeyance ?

Yet in 1658 Winter appeared as the champion of orthodoxy; for he was the

man who filed charges of heretical opinions against the Quaker emissaries, Norton

and Rouse. In 1660 he was constable of Marsbfield; but in 1669 and at

other times he was sharply examined on disgraceful charges which were merely "

not proven."

2 Hatherly married Nathaniel Tilden's widow. In his retirement, the Colony

still authorized him to conduct marriages and administer oaths. He was Chaun-

cey's strong friend, and when Vassal emigrated (1648), Hatherly bought his house

and offered it as a gift to Chauncey, Vassal's bitter enemy. On Chauncey's refusing

it as a gift, Hatherly conveyed it to the church, which gave Chauncey its

use during the remainder of his Scituate life. Afterward, the Church returned

the house to Ha(herly.

Like most enterprising people of their day, Hatherly and Cudworth indulged

in a law-suit/ (1640); the issue was a land boundary, — a common cause of litigation,

from the vagueness of the early grants, and mistakes as to lines when the

land came to be fenced. Hatherly recovered £i2. In 1639, on Hatherly's

motion, Cudworth had been "presented " for selling wine unlicensed. In 1634

Francis Sprague (of the " Anne ") was ordered to pay £20 for killing Hatherly's

t6S9] CUDWORTH'S LIBERALITY. 503

he returned to Scituate, from which place he was six times a

deputy.1

Cudworth was assistant nine years, and commissioner five.

He was filling both positions when in 1658 the Prence, or

anti-Quaker, sentiment prevented his re-election to either.

In 1659 Scituate showed proper spirit by electing him as

deputy; but the illiberals were so strong that the Court would

not receive him, Collier even declaring that he would not

remain if Cudworth were admitted.

Six months later Cudworth wrote to James Brown (subsequently

the Baptist magistrate from Swansea) , who was then

in London, and said that for two years he had opposed various

restrictions and punishments, for which reason he and

Hatherly had been left out of office, and himself cashiered

as captain of the Scituate train-band ; * John Alden had disappointed

his best friends, who prayed God that his acts be

not charged as oppressions of a high nature. The " New Plymouth

saddle is on the Bay horse," said Cudworth ; and he

added that religious matters so occupied the Government

that no time was left for civil business, and at the last session

from sixty to eighty persons were indicted for absence from

church. Brown seems to have been treacherous; for in a

few months this letter was before the Plymouth Court, and

1 Hatherly

came in the "Charles," 1632. Cudworth brought his wife and

three sons. His daughter Mary, born 1637. was in 1661 " disorderly married "

to Robert Whitcomb; that is, they were united by Henry Hobson, a non-resident

Quaker, instead of by the authorized official, and the pair were fined /, to. In

1662, they having been " orderly married, and following their callings industriously,

and attending the worship of God diligently," jf 5 was remitted, and the treasurer

was ordered to " be slow in demanding the remainder." *

James Skiff, of Sandwich, for like reason was also refused his seat as

deputy; and the Court was guilty of the high-handed act of filling these two

scats with men of their own selection; namely, Lieutenant Torrey, of Scituate,

and Thomas Tupper, the Sandwich missionary.

In 1655 the Court had rebuked the Scituate train-band for its levity In choosing "

unmeet persons" as sergeants, and electing one man sergeant when he held

the Court's commission as ensign. In 1666 the train-band again aroused magisterial

ire by making Cudworth their captain, with the gallant Michael Peirce as

lieutenant. The Court disallowed both, and ordered Sergeant Damon, the wind-

m1ller, to take charge of the company. In the earlier days William Vassal, notwithstanding

his ecclesiastical disfavor, was captain of this corps and was in the

council of war with the liberal Standish.

504 THE PILGRIM REPUIiLIC. [1673.

that body promptly disfranchised Cudworth as an " opposcr

of the law and a friend to the Quakers."

Cudworth then passed thirteen years in dignified retirement.

The royal commissioners in 1664, when calling on all

persons to present their grievances, would doubtless have

used their influence, if not their authority, in behalf of Cud-

worth, Hatherly, and Robinson; but the deposed leaders

were too manly to complain, and too patriotic to seek outside

interference in the affairs of their little republic.

In 1673 Josiah Winslow, on becoming governor, at once

secured Cudworth's recall to the public service, and public

opinion said " Amen." The Dutch, under Admiral Evcrtsen,

had then retaken New York and were threatening New England.

Plymouth had inherited a grateful recollection of the

Pilgrim asylum in Holland, and resolved to act only on

the defensive ; but for this end she set her forces in order,

and appointed Cudworth commander-in-chief, with the rank

of major.

He declined in a curious letter, saying, and justly, that his

lack of qualifications showed that God gave him no call for the

place, — vox populi was not always vox Dei. Nor could he

leave home: his wife, more than sixty-seven years old, had

no maid, and from weakness was forced to rise at daybreak,

when a pipe of tobacco must be lighted for her, and be three

or four times renewed before she could get breath enough to

stir; his hay was stacked where it grew, and must come

home; his winter's wood (December, 1673) was to be laid-in,

and there was the going to mill with no helper but an Indian

boy of thirteen. He had buried past differences, and in what

he was fitted for would serve the public so far as he might

without ruin to his family; but in his former captaincy he

was very raw, and when discharged he did for once believe

vox populi to be vox Dei ; for, as Mr. Ward saith, " the inexperience

of a captain hath been the ruin of armies."

Notwithstanding this appeal of the Old Colony Cincinnatus

to be left at the plough, he was persuaded to accept; but

fortunately was not called upon to lead their train-bands

168o-81.] CUDWORTH'S OFFICES. 505

against the veterans of the Dutch line.1 He was still in office

when Philip's War broke out; and though quite unequal to

the emergency, his hesitation checked the prevailing recklessness,

and perhaps lessened the disasters. Still, Cudworth was

advanced to the rank of general (at 6s. a day), — which office

the Colony then created for the first time. After six months

of active service he retired to civil life. Yet had his advice

been followed, it is not improbable that the war would have

ended before that time.2

But Cudworth in laying down the sword was not permitted

to resume the plough. Three years he served again as a

commissioner, and for seven successive years as an assistant.

In 1680 Winslow's rapid decay led to the election of a deputy-

governor. John Alden had long held the equivalent post of

senior assistant; but Alden's age unfitted him for higher

duties, and to supersede him would be cruel. So the new

office was created, and to it was chosen Thomas Hinckley.

Before the next election Winslow had gone to an honored

grave at Marshfield, and Hinckley succeeded to his office.

The people, still bent on reparation, then made Cudworth

deputy-governor.

During 1 68 1 the proceedings at London against Massachusetts

Colony were so sharp that Plymouth desired an agent

there to watch her interests, and sent General Cudworth (then

aged about seventy-six). Soon after his landing in England

he was attacked by that great scourge of his time, the smallpox,

and a few days ended his brave and noble life. Edward

Randolph, so justly hated at Boston, had made himself agreeable

in Plymouth, and, Episcopalian though he was, had taken

the oath of citizenship in that Colony. He had pledged his

potential aid to Cudworth for the procurement of a royal

charter for the Colony, extending its area over Rhode Island.

Had Cudworth's life been spared for another year, it is highly

probable that this would have come. Such a commonwealth

1 In 1666-7 * Hutch fleet had been sent to ravage the New England coast,

but it was broken up and turned away by a storm.

2 See Baylies' Mem., Pt. i1i. 53.

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506 THE PILGRIM REPUBLIC. 11610-65.

as New Plymouth, notable in science and the arts, rich in

manufactures and commerce, with the combined thrift and

energy of two great and liberal communities, must then have

come down to us as one of the most famous States of the

Federal Union.1 •

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

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family, I have been able, through General Ebe-

nezer W. Pierce, who has spent much time in

biographical, genealogical and historical research,

to trace our family name back to General James

Cudworth, who was a freeman in Scituate in 1634,

and elder brother of the celebrated philosopher

and divine, Reverend Ralph Cudworth, author of "

The True Intellectual System of the Universe."

General James is called, in the " History of Scituate," "

a fine representative of the more liberal

sentiment of early New England. He was a Puritan

of the best type, an Independent after the

order of John Robinson — religious, without bigotry

or intolerance. He was deprived of his offices,

and disfranchised by Governor Prince on account

of the liberality of his sentiments, particularly toward

the Quakers. He manifested his magnanimity

by a dignified silence and quiet demeanor. His

rights were afterward restored to him by Governor

Josiah Winslow."

In 1658 he, with twenty-five others, purchased

lands in Freetown, Mass., a large part of which

is now Fall River.

A Memorial of Rev. Warren H. Cudworth

By Angeline M. Cudworth 1884

http://books.google.com/books?id=IVDf8O_heecC&pg=PA8&dq=James+Cudworth+Family&lr=#PPP1,M1

Gen. James Cudworth's father was Rev. Ralph Cudworth, D.D.,

rector of Aller, Somersetshire, England, and a graduate of Emmanuel

College in Cambridge. James's brother, Rev. Ralph Cud-

worth, Jr., was Master of Christ College, Cambridge, Chaplain to

James I., and author of the "Intellectual System." "

It seems probable that the mother of both was Mary Machel of the ancient Saxon family of Machell, Lords of Crakenthorpe in

Westmoreland. (W. J. Litchfield in " Lawrence Litchfield and His

Descendants," p. 212.)

Fifty Ancestors of Henry Lincoln Clapp, who Came to

By Henry Lincoln Clapp

Published 1902

Press of D. Clapp & son

65 pages

Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison

Digitized Jul 24, 2007

  • ***

Supposedly a descendant of King Edward I of England (Edward Longshanks) through his son Thomas of Brotherton per David Faris’ Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-Century Colonists as set forth in this page, which further suggests Edward is descended from William the Conqueror (as he likely is) and a host of others including Ptolemy etc. which is more dubious.

http://www.lineagecharts.com/availablesegments.htm

  • ****************

On the Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony at Oxford Dictionary website.

...important leaders in the colony were the international traders Isaac Allerton, Peter and Anthony Collamore, and John Cushing; the ministers Charles Chauncy and Henry Dunster, who also served as presidents of Harvard College; William Vassall, who brought complaints against Massachusetts's tyranny before parliamentary committees in London; and the philosopher Ralph Cudworth's brother James, a magistrate from Scituate (the colony's largest town in the second half of the century). James Cudworth was the co-author with George Fox and John Rous of an important complaint against the persecution of New England's Quakers, published in London in 1659.

http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/93/93695.html

The descent from Edward I to James Cudworth (Edward being descended from William the Conqueror, Charlemagne, and Louis IV as well)

  1. James Cudworth II 1635-97 married Mary Howland
  2. James Cudworth 1604-82 married Mary Parker
  3. Ralph Cudworth (d 1624) married Mary Machell (1574-1634)
  4. Matthew Machell married Mary Lewknor
  5. Edward Lewknor (1521-56) married Dorothy Wroth
  6. Edward Lewknor (d 1528) married Margaret Copley
  7. Roger Copley (b 1429/30) married Ann Hoo (b 1446/7)
  8. Thomas, Lord Hoo (d 13 Feb 1455) married Eleanor Welles
  9. Lionel, 6th Baron Welles (d 29 Mar 1461) married Joan de Waterton
 10. Eudo, Lord Welles (b 1387/9) married Maud de Greystoke
 11. John, Lord Welles of Gainsby (b 30 Apr 1352) married Eleanor de Mowbray (b abt 25 Mar 1364)
 12. John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk (b 25 Jun 1340) married Eleanor suo jure Baroness Segrave (b 25 Oct 1338)
 13. John, 4th Lord Segrave (1315-1353) married Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (1320-99)
 14. Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk (1300-38) married Alice Hayles
 15. Edward I, King of England (1239-1307) married Margaret of France (1279-1317) 

+++

AND MORE

+++

19. [Major] JAMES CUDWORTH, Gent., salter, Deputy Governor Plymouth Colony, 1640, 1642; Assistant, 1656–1657, 1674–1680, Plymouth commissioner to New England Confederation, 1655, 1657, 1678, 1681, Deputy to Plymouth General Court for Barnstable, 1640, 1642, and for Scituate, 1649–1656, 1652, son and heir, baptized at Aller, Somerset 2 Aug. 1612. He married at Northam, Devon 1 Feb. 1633/4 MARY PARKER. They had five sons, James, Jonathan [1st of name], Israel, unnamed, and Jonathan [2nd of name], and two daughters, Mary (wife of Robert Whitcomb) and Joanna (wife of _____ Jones). He and his wife, Mary, immigrated to New England in 1634, where they initially settled at Scituate, Massachusetts. He was admitted freeman of Plymouth Colony 1 Jan. 1634/5. He and his wife, Mary, joined the Scituate, Massachusetts church 18 Jan. 1634/5. In 1639 he and his family removed to Barnstable, Massachusetts, but in 1646, they returned to Scituate, Massachusetts. He was sent by Scituate as a Deputy to the Plymouth General Court in 1659, but was not approved by the Court. In 1660 he was disenfranchised of his freedom of the Plymouth Colony, being found a “manifest opposer of the laws of the government” owing to his support of the Quakers. He was readmitted to freemanship 4 July 1673, and on the same day was made magistrate for Scituate. In 1673 he was authorized to solemnize marriages, grant subpoenas for witnesses, and to administer oaths to witnesses. In Dec. 1673 he was chosen to lead a military expedition against the Dutch. In 1675 he was chosen to take charge of the Plymouth Colony military forces. His wife, Mary, was living 17 Dec. 1673. [Major] JAMES CUDWORTH left a will dated 15 Sept. 1681, proved 7 July 1682; inventory dated 20 June 1682.

Deane Hist. of Scituate, Massachusetts (1831): 245–249. NEHGR 14 (1860): 101–104 (letter of James Cudworth dated 1634 names his cousin, [Zachariah] Symmes, of Charlestown, Massachusetts). Pope Pioneers of Massachusetts (1900): 125 (biog. of James Cudworth). Holman Scott Gen. (1919): 259–262. Pratt Early Planters of Scituate (1929): 210–235. Calder & Cudworth Recs. of the Cudworth Fam. (1974). Spear Search for the Passengers of the Mary & John 1630 18 (1992): 39–43. Anderson Great Migration: Immigrants to New England 1634–1635 2 (2001): 249–258 (biog. of James Cudworth). Parish Regs. of Aller, Somerset [FHL Microfilm 1517680].

From

Jewels of the Crown, newsletter, Fall 2009

http://www.charlemagne.org/Jewels%2010-29-09.pdf

The following is writing of James Cudworth in October 1658, as found in From A Library of American Literature: Early colonial literature, 1607-1675 By Mrs. Ellen Mackay (Hutchinson)

http://books.google.com/books?id=WY0PAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA390&dq=%22James+Cudworth%22&client=firefox-a&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22James%20Cudworth%22&f=false

9Iameg Cutrtoorty BOSS in England A Resident of Scltuate Mass Hi F II in London England 1682 AN OPPONENT OF PERSECUTION From George Bishop's New England Judged 1661 A LETTER FEOM JAMES CUDWORTH MAGISTRATE WRITTEN IN THE TENTH MONTH 1658 S for the state and condition of things amongst us it is sad and like so to continue the antichristian persecuting spirit is very active and that in the powers of this world He that will not whip and lash persecute and punish men that differ in matters of religion must not sit on the Bench nor sustain any office in the Commonwealth Last election Mr Hatherly and myself left off the Bench and myself discharged of my captainship because I had entertained some of the Quakers at my house thereby that I might be the better acquainted with their principles I thought it better so to do than with the blind World to censure condemn rail at and revile them when they neither saw their persons nor knew any of their principles But the Quakers and myself cannot close in divers things and so I signified to the Court I was no Quaker but must bear my testimony against sundry things that they held as I had occasion and opportunity But withal I told them that as I was no Quaker so I would be no persecutor This spirit did work those two years that I was of the Magistracy during which time I was on sundry occasions forced to declare my dissent in sundry actings of that nature which although done with all moderation of expression together with due unto the rest yet it wrought great disaffection and prejudice in them against me so that if I should say some of themselves set others work to frame a petition against me that so they might have a seeming ground from others though first moved and acted by themselves to lay me what they could under reproach I should do no wrong petition was with nineteen hands it will be too long to make rehearsal It wrought such a disturbance in our town and in our Military Company that when the Act of Court was read in the head of the Company had not I been present and made a speech to them I fear there had been such actings as would have been of a sad consequence The Court was again followed with another petition of fifty four hands and the Court return the petitioners an answer with much plausibleness of speech carrying with it great show of respect to them readily acknowledging with the petitioners my parts and gifts and how useful I had been in my place professing they had nothing at all against me only in that thing of giving entertainment to the Quakers when as I broke no law in giving them a night's lodging or two and some victuals For our law then was If any entertain a Quaker and keep him after he is warned by a magistrate to depart the party so entertaining shall pay twenty shillings a week for entertaining them Since hath been made a law If any entertain a Quaker if but a quarter of an hour he is to forfeit five pounds Another That if any see a Quaker he is bound if he live six miles or more from the constable yet he must presently go and give notice to the constable or else is subject to the censure of the Court which may be hang him Another That if the constable know or hear of any Quaker in his precincts he is presently to apprehend him and if he will not presently depart the town the constable is to whip them and send them away And divers have been whipped with us in our Patent and truly to tell you plainly that the whipping of them with that cruelty as some have been whipped and their patience under it hath sometimes been the occasion of gaining more adherence to them than if they had suffered them openly to have preached a sermon Also another law That if there be a Quaker meeting anywhere in this Colony the party in whose house or on whose ground is to pay forty shillings the preaching Quaker forty shillings every hearer forty shillings Yea and if they have meetings though nothing be spoken when they so meet which they say so it falls out sometimes our last law That now they are to be apprehended and carried before a magistrate and by him committed to be kept close prisoner until he will promise to depart and never come again and will also pay his fees which I perceive they will do neither the one nor the 1007 75 JAMES CUDWORTH 3 other and they must be kept only with the country's allowance which is but small namely coarse bread and water No friend may bring them any thing none may be permitted to speak with them nay if they have money of their own they may not make use of that to relieve themselves In the Massachusetts namely Boston Colony after they have whipped them and cut their ears have now at last gone the furthest step they can they banish them upon pain of death if ever they come there again We expect that we must do the like we must dance after their pipe Now Plymouth Saddle is on the Bay Horse viz Boston we shall follow them on the career for it is well if in some there be not a desire to be their apes and imitators in all their proceedings in things of this nature All these carnal and antichristian ways being not of God's appoint ment effect nothing as to the obstructing or hindering of them in their way or course It is only the Word and Spirit of the Lord that is able to convince gainsayers they are the mighty weapons of a Christian's warfare by which great and mighty things are done and accomplished They have many meetings and many adherents almost the whole town of Sandwich is adhering towards them and give me leave a little to acquaint you with their sufferings which is grievous unto and saddens the hearts of most of the precious saints of God It lies down and rises up with them and they cannot put it out of their minds to see and hear of poor families deprived of their comforts and brought into penury and want you may say by what means and to what end As far as I am able to judge of the end it is to force them from their homes and lawful habitations and to drive them out of their coasts The Massachusetts have banished six of their own inhabitants to be gone upon pain of death and I wish that blood be not shed But our poor people are pillaged and plundered of their goods and haply when they have no more to satisfy their unsatiable desire at last may be forced to flee and glad they have their lives for a prey As for the means by which they are impoverished these in the first place were scrupulous of an oath why then we must put in force an old law that all must take the oath of fidelity This being tendered they will not take it and then we must add more force to the law and that is if any man refuse or neglect to take it by such a time shall pay five pounds or depart the Colony When the time is come they are the same as they were then goes out the marshal and fetch eth away their cows and other cattle Well another court comes they are required to take the oath again they cannot then five pounds more On this account thirty five head of cattle as I have been 302 JAMES CUD WORTH 1607 75 credibly informed hath been by the authority of our Court taken from them the latter part of this summer and these people say If they have more right to them than themselves Let them take them Some that had a cow only some two cows some three cows and many small children in their families to whom in summer time a cow or two was the greatest outward comfort they had for their subsistence A poor weaver that hath seven or eight small children I know not whieh he himself lame in his body had but two cows and both taken from him The marshal asked him What he would do He must have his cows The man said That God that gave him them he doubted not but would still provide for him To fill up the measure yet more full though to the further emptying of Sandwich men of their outward comforts the last Court of Assistants the first Tuesday of this instant the Court was pleased to determine fines on Sandwich men for meetings sometimes on first days of the week sometimes on other days as they say they meet ordinarily twice in a week besides the Lord's day one hundred and fifty pounds whereof W Xewlaud is twenty four pounds for himself and his wife at ten shillings a meeting W Allen forty six pounds some affirm it forty nine pounds the poor weaver afore spoken of twenty pounds Brother Cook told me one of the brethren at Barn stable certified him that he was in the weaver's house when cruel Barloe Sandwich marshal came to demand the sum and said he was fully informed of all the poor man had and thought if all laid together it was not worth ten pounds What will be the end of sueh courses and practices the Lord only knows I heartily and earnestly pray that these and such like courses neither raise up among us or bring in upon us either the sword or any devouring calamity as a just avenger of the Lord's quarrel for acts of injustice and oppression and that we may every one find out the plague of his own heart and putting away the evil of his own doings and meet the Lord by entreaties of peace before it be too late and there be no remedy We are wrapped up in a labyrinth of confused laws that the freemen's power is quite gone and it was said last June Court by one that they knew nothing the freemen had there to do Sandwich men may not go to the bay lest they be taken up for Quakers William Newland was there about his occasions some ten days since and they put him in prison twenty four hours and sent for divers to witness against him but they had not proof enough to make him a Quaker which if they had he should have been whipped Nay they may not go about their occasions in other towns in our Colony but warrants lie in ambush to apprehend and bring them before a magistrate to give an account of their business Some of the Quakers in Rhode Island 1607 75 JAMES CUDWORTH 393 came to bring them goods to trade with them and that for far reason abler terms than the professing and oppressing merchants of the country but that will not be suffered So that unless the Lord step in to their help and assistance in some way beyond man's conceiving their case is sad and to be pitied and truly it moves bowels of compassion in all sorts except those in place who carry with a high hand towards them Through mercy we have yet among us worthy Mr Dunstar whom the Lord hath made boldly to bear testim ony against the spirit of persecution Our bench now is Tho Prince Governor Mr Collier Capt Willet Capt Winslow Mr Alden Lieut Southworth W Bradford Tho Hinckley Mr Collier last June would not sit on the Bench if I sat there and now will not sit the next year unless he may have thirty pounds sit by him Our Court and deputies last June made Capt Winslow a major Surely we are all mercenary soldiers that must have a major imposed upon us Doubtless the next Court they may choose us a Governor and assistants also A freeman shall need to do nothing but bear such burdens as are laid upon him Mr Alden hath deceived the expectations of many and indeed lost the affections of such as I judge were his cordial Christian friends who is very active in such ways as I pray God may not be charged on him to be oppressions of a high nature 394 LETTERS OF THE QUAKERS 1607 75

NEXT

9Iameg Cutrtoorty BOSS in England A Resident of Scltuate Mass Hi F II in London England 1682 AN OPPONENT OF PERSECUTION From George Bishop's New England Judged 1661 A LETTER FEOM JAMES CUDWORTH MAGISTRATE WRITTEN IN THE TENTH MONTH 1658 S for the state and condition of things amongst us it is sad and like so to continue the antichristian persecuting spirit is very active and that in the powers of this world He that will not whip and lash persecute and punish men that differ in matters of religion must not sit on the Bench nor sustain any office in the Commonwealth Last election Mr Hatherly and myself left off the Bench and myself discharged of my captainship because I had entertained some of the Quakers at my house thereby that I might be the better acquainted with their principles I thought it better so to do than with the blind World to censure condemn rail at and revile them when they neither saw their persons nor knew any of their principles But the Quakers and myself cannot close in divers things and so I signified to the Court I was no Quaker but must bear my testimony against sundry things that they held as I had occasion and opportunity But withal I told them that as I was no Quaker so I would be no persecutor This spirit did work those two years that I was of the Magistracy during which time I was on sundry occasions forced to declare my dissent in sundry actings of that nature which although done with all moderation of expression together with due unto the rest yet it wrought great disaffection and prejudice in them against me so that if I should say some of themselves set others work to frame a petition against me that so they might have a seeming ground from others though first moved and acted by themselves to lay me what they could under reproach I should do no wrong petition was with nineteen hands it will be too long to make rehearsal It wrought such a disturbance in our town and in our Military Company that when the Act of Court was read in the head of the Company had not I been present and made a speech to them I fear there had been such actings as would have been of a sad consequence The Court was again followed with another petition of fifty four hands and the Court return the petitioners an answer with much plausibleness of speech carrying with it great show of respect to them readily acknowledging with the petitioners my parts and gifts and how useful I had been in my place professing they had nothing at all against me only in that thing of giving entertainment to the Quakers when as I broke no law in giving them a night's lodging or two and some victuals For our law then was If any entertain a Quaker and keep him after he is warned by a magistrate to depart the party so entertaining shall pay twenty shillings a week for entertaining them Since hath been made a law If any entertain a Quaker if but a quarter of an hour he is to forfeit five pounds Another That if any see a Quaker he is bound if he live six miles or more from the constable yet he must presently go and give notice to the constable or else is subject to the censure of the Court which may be hang him Another That if the constable know or hear of any Quaker in his precincts he is presently to apprehend him and if he will not presently depart the town the constable is to whip them and send them away And divers have been whipped with us in our Patent and truly to tell you plainly that the whipping of them with that cruelty as some have been whipped and their patience under it hath sometimes been the occasion of gaining more adherence to them than if they had suffered them openly to have preached a sermon Also another law That if there be a Quaker meeting anywhere in this Colony the party in whose house or on whose ground is to pay forty shillings the preaching Quaker forty shillings every hearer forty shillings Yea and if they have meetings though nothing be spoken when they so meet which they say so it falls out sometimes our last law That now they are to be apprehended and carried before a magistrate and by him committed to be kept close prisoner until he will promise to depart and never come again and will also pay his fees which I perceive they will do neither the one nor the 1007 75 JAMES CUDWORTH 3 other and they must be kept only with the country's allowance which is but small namely coarse bread and water No friend may bring them any thing none may be permitted to speak with them nay if they have money of their own they may not make use of that to relieve themselves In the Massachusetts namely Boston Colony after they have whipped them and cut their ears have now at last gone the furthest step they can they banish them upon pain of death if ever they come there again We expect that we must do the like we must dance after their pipe Now Plymouth Saddle is on the Bay Horse viz Boston we shall follow them on the career for it is well if in some there be not a desire to be their apes and imitators in all their proceedings in things of this nature All these carnal and antichristian ways being not of God's appoint ment effect nothing as to the obstructing or hindering of them in their way or course It is only the Word and Spirit of the Lord that is able to convince gainsayers they are the mighty weapons of a Christian's warfare by which great and mighty things are done and accomplished They have many meetings and many adherents almost the whole town of Sandwich is adhering towards them and give me leave a little to acquaint you with their sufferings which is grievous unto and saddens the hearts of most of the precious saints of God It lies down and rises up with them and they cannot put it out of their minds to see and hear of poor families deprived of their comforts and brought into penury and want you may say by what means and to what end As far as I am able to judge of the end it is to force them from their homes and lawful habitations and to drive them out of their coasts The Massachusetts have banished six of their own inhabitants to be gone upon pain of death and I wish that blood be not shed But our poor people are pillaged and plundered of their goods and haply when they have no more to satisfy their unsatiable desire at last may be forced to flee and glad they have their lives for a prey As for the means by which they are impoverished these in the first place were scrupulous of an oath why then we must put in force an old law that all must take the oath of fidelity This being tendered they will not take it and then we must add more force to the law and that is if any man refuse or neglect to take it by such a time shall pay five pounds or depart the Colony When the time is come they are the same as they were then goes out the marshal and fetch eth away their cows and other cattle Well another court comes they are required to take the oath again they cannot then five pounds more On this account thirty five head of cattle as I have been 302 JAMES CUD WORTH 1607 75 credibly informed hath been by the authority of our Court taken from them the latter part of this summer and these people say If they have more right to them than themselves Let them take them Some that had a cow only some two cows some three cows and many small children in their families to whom in summer time a cow or two was the greatest outward comfort they had for their subsistence A poor weaver that hath seven or eight small children I know not whieh he himself lame in his body had but two cows and both taken from him The marshal asked him What he would do He must have his cows The man said That God that gave him them he doubted not but would still provide for him To fill up the measure yet more full though to the further emptying of Sandwich men of their outward comforts the last Court of Assistants the first Tuesday of this instant the Court was pleased to determine fines on Sandwich men for meetings sometimes on first days of the week sometimes on other days as they say they meet ordinarily twice in a week besides the Lord's day one hundred and fifty pounds whereof W Xewlaud is twenty four pounds for himself and his wife at ten shillings a meeting W Allen forty six pounds some affirm it forty nine pounds the poor weaver afore spoken of twenty pounds Brother Cook told me one of the brethren at Barn stable certified him that he was in the weaver's house when cruel Barloe Sandwich marshal came to demand the sum and said he was fully informed of all the poor man had and thought if all laid together it was not worth ten pounds What will be the end of sueh courses and practices the Lord only knows I heartily and earnestly pray that these and such like courses neither raise up among us or bring in upon us either the sword or any devouring calamity as a just avenger of the Lord's quarrel for acts of injustice and oppression and that we may every one find out the plague of his own heart and putting away the evil of his own doings and meet the Lord by entreaties of peace before it be too late and there be no remedy We are wrapped up in a labyrinth of confused laws that the freemen's power is quite gone and it was said last June Court by one that they knew nothing the freemen had there to do Sandwich men may not go to the bay lest they be taken up for Quakers William Newland was there about his occasions some ten days since and they put him in prison twenty four hours and sent for divers to witness against him but they had not proof enough to make him a Quaker which if they had he should have been whipped Nay they may not go about their occasions in other towns in our Colony but warrants lie in ambush to apprehend and bring them before a magistrate to give an account of their business Some of the Quakers in Rhode Island 1607 75 JAMES CUDWORTH 393 came to bring them goods to trade with them and that for far reason abler terms than the professing and oppressing merchants of the country but that will not be suffered So that unless the Lord step in to their help and assistance in some way beyond man's conceiving their case is sad and to be pitied and truly it moves bowels of compassion in all sorts except those in place who carry with a high hand towards them Through mercy we have yet among us worthy Mr Dunstar whom the Lord hath made boldly to bear testim ony against the spirit of persecution Our bench now is Tho Prince Governor Mr Collier Capt Willet Capt Winslow Mr Alden Lieut Southworth W Bradford Tho Hinckley Mr Collier last June would not sit on the Bench if I sat there and now will not sit the next year unless he may have thirty pounds sit by him Our Court and deputies last June made Capt Winslow a major Surely we are all mercenary soldiers that must have a major imposed upon us Doubtless the next Court they may choose us a Governor and assistants also A freeman shall need to do nothing but bear such burdens as are laid upon him Mr Alden hath deceived the expectations of many and indeed lost the affections of such as I judge were his cordial Christian friends who is very active in such ways as I pray God may not be charged on him to be oppressions of a high nature 394 LETTERS OF THE QUAKERS 1607 75 In the Colony records July 1673 it is stated Captain Cud worth by a full and clear vote is accepted and re established in the association and body of this Commonwealth He was again chosen an Assistant and served from 1674 to 1680 In 1681 he was appointed an agent for the Colony to England He was also Deputy Governor the same year The following are extracts from a letter by Mr Cudworth to Dr Stoughton of England SCITUATE the of December 1634 DEAR AND WORTHY SIR These are to let you understand that I have received your godly and pious letter full of grace and wholesome exhortations which argues your unfeigned desires and continual endeavors for the good of my soul I desire that you may be as frequent in your letters as you may for I find a great deal of sweetness in them Laboring to make some benefit to our souls of all the Lord's dealings with us whether they be mercies that they may allure us or chastisements that they may correct and amend us or judgments that they may terrify us or affliction that they may refine us so that at length we may be more than conquerors If it should please God to bring you into this land amongst us I would entreat you for your own good not to come engaged to any people till you come here yourself and see the nature of the place where you are to sit down Now as concerning my own particular I thank the Lord I have wanted nothing since I came into the Land I have I bless God as yet the best house in the plantation though but a mean one it contents us well I planted corn contrary to Mr Hatherly's mind I bless the Lord I have I think at least fifty bushels of corn So that I think I shall not need but shall have enough till next harvest My house is the meeting house because it is the biggest but we are but few as yet in number not passing sixty persons As concerning my uncles blessed be God they are both in good health and my uncle Thomas is to be married shortly to a widow that has good means and has five children Thus much I made bold to trouble you withal being all for the present only desiring to be remembered to all my brothers and sisters and all my friends and my wife likewise desires her duty to you So for the present I commend you to the protection of the Almighty and ever rest your dutiful son till death JAMES CITDWORTH To his very loving and kind father Dr Stoughton at his house in Allder manburg Mr Cudworth's will dated at Scituate in the spring of 1682 ordered his estate to be divided into six equal parts James two sixths Israel one sixth Jonathan one sixth daughter Mary's four children Israel Robert James and Mary Whitcomb one sixth daughter Hannah Jones one sixth 146 AMERICAN CHRISTIAN RULERS

THE FOLLOWING is from Google Books found

The History of New England, John Gorham Palfrey, Vol. III, P98 Footnote, Boston Little Brown and Company, 1864.

In December 1673 Cudworth was appointed by the General Court to the command of an expedition against the Dutch Plym Rec V 136 But he excused himself partly because of distrust of his capacity for so important an enterprise and partly for domestic considerations My wife he wrote to Governor Winslow as is well known to the whole town is not pnly a weak woman and has so been all along but now by reason of age being sixty seven years and upwards and nature decaying so her illness grows more strongly upon her never a day passes but she is forced to rise at break of day or before she cannot lay for want of breath and when she is up she cannot light a pipe tobacco but it must be lighted for her and until she has taken two or three pipes for want of breath she is not able to stir and she has never a maid That day your letter came to my hands my maid's year being out she went away and I cannot get nor hear of another And then in regard my occasions abroad for the tending and looking after all my creatures the fetching home my hay that is yet at the place where it grew getting of wood going to mill and for the performing all other family occasions I have none but a small Indian boy about thirteen years of age to help me Sir I can truly say that I do not in the least waive the business out of any discontent in my spirit arising from any former difl erence for the thought of all which is and shall be forever buried so as not to come in remembrance though happily such a thing may be too much fomented neither out of an effeminate or dastardly spirit but am as freely willing to serve my king and my country as any man whatsoever in what I am capable and fitted for but do not understand that a man is so called to serve his country with the inevitable ruin and destruction of his own family Letter of Cudworth January 16 1674 in Mass Hist Coll VI 81 82 a Plym Rec XI 240

http://books.google.com/books?id=A70rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA98&dq=James+Cudworth+King+Charles&cd=1#v=onepage&q=James%20Cudworth%20King%20Charles&f=true

THIS Book find shows his real estate interests and then a biography

History of Plymouth County, Massachusetts: with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, edited by D Hamilton Hurd, Philadelphia JW Lewis and Co 1884, pages 409-410 for this part other pages have other references

That part of Scituate called the Conihassctt Grant WIIH settled very early It extended Ann Vinal Rodolphus Ellms and Richard Mann were there very early and located on this grant Of these Gen James Cudworth became a very distinguished citizen of the colony His homo was near Little Musquash cut Pond nflor selling his house at Satuit Brook to Thomas Knsign He was deputy from Scituate to the Colony Court for many years also an assistant in the government and u commissioner of the colonies in 1057 Wliilu nerving in ibis capacity ho strenuously rchihicil tlic persecution of the Quakers Tn this he showed himself a man superior to tlio pivjn dices of his times He refused to sanction the severe laws against that turbulent sect for the Quakers of that day were wholly unlike those of later years and as a consequence he was for many years excluded from any share in the government and in public affairs In 1 1511 Scituatu elected him ua a deputy hut the court ut Plymouth under the influence probably of the bigoted Governor Pronce excluded him and in 1660 disfranchised him It is not unusual for men who too faithfully serve the public to be thus treated In this local history repeats itself from time to time But times of peril came the Indian wars arose and Gen Oudworth was asked to take command of the Plymouth Colony forces With his native nobility of character and lofty patriotism he put aside all memory of his wrongs and accepted the perilous and responsible service His career was one of eminent usefulness to the colony and town His descendants still live in Suituate Richard Sealis

http://books.google.com/books?id=fsUTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA409&dq=James+Cudworth+King+Charles&lr=&cd=12#v=onepage&q=James%20Cudworth%20King%20Charles&f=false

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James Cudworth was the son of Rev Ralph Cudworth. Ralph was a fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge who was first appointed vicar of Coggeshall, co Essex in 1606 and then appointed rector of Aller, Somerset in 1609, where Ralph died in 1624. Ralph had married a nurse of Henry, Prince of Wales, named Machell, who after his death married Rev John Stoughton of Aldermanbury, London. Rev Stoughton, then succeeded Ralph Cudworth, as rector of Aller. A brother to James Cudworth was that Ralph Cudworth who became a philosopher and theologian of note, and died at Cambridge in 1688.

It has been stated that James was baptised on 2 Aug 1612 at Aller. Although the parish registers of Aller have evidently not been published, the Bishop's transcript is in the IGI (Batch P019541). The entry for the child baptised on 1612, lists no first name, so we cannot be certain that this was James. It's then stated that he married Mary Parker at Northam, Devonshire, England on 1 Feb 1633/4. His wife's name was also been given as Mary Goodman, daughter of John. I have not yet found the primary sources for these connections. He himself however states, in 1673, that his wife was then "sixty-seven years and upwards".

James Cudworth, came to Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1634, but then settled at Scituate. In December 1634, James Cudworth, from New England, wrote a letter which he addresses "To his very loving and kind father, Dr Stoughton, at his house in Alldermanburg." In this letter he also mentions "As concerning my uncles... they are both in good health... my uncle Thomas is to be married shortly, to a widow that has good means and has five children." He also desires "...to be remembered to all my brothers and sisters..." In 1639, James was "presented" for having sold wine without a license. (citation) Possibly due to this, he removed to Barnstaple that same year.

In 1646, James came back to Scituate. He held various public offices such as Deputy to the Colony court 1649, Captain of the militia of Scituate 1652, Governor's assistant 1657, and Commissioner of the United Colonies 1657. When Philip's War broke out, James was advanced to the dignity of a general. (citation) James and his wife had seven known children.

James Cudworth, died in London while the agent of the Massachusetts Bay colony to England, in 1682, aged about 70. ("American Christian Rulers", compiled by Rev Edward J Giddings, 1890, "James Cudworth")

James' will was dated 15 Sep 1681 and proved 7 Jul 1682. His bequests were to "eldest son James Cudworth... my son Israel... my son Jonathan... my daughter Marye's four children Israel Whetcomme, Robert, James and Mary... my daughter Joannah Jones." He also mentions that the four grandchildren are not yet 21 years old.

"Cudworth Genealogy, edited by Arthur G. Cudworth, Sr. (revised, 1974). "http://www.goldenfrog.com/jeffman/genealogy/html/notes/not0858.html offers in 2003: "James... went to New England in 1632, in the ship "Charles" accompanied by Timothy Hatherley, and a number of colonists, and is thought to have landed at Salem. James is the father of the Werneth pedigree line in America." [...] When... James Cudworth, visiting London in 1682, as representative of the New England Colonies, [his brother Dr. Ralph Cudworth] was living, at the age of 65, and one might even presume, was a guest of his brother, and preceeding his death in London. There should be in the archives of Mass. a notification to Gov. Winslow of his death, signed, perhaps, by his brother Dr. Ralph Cudworth, who died 1688 (See any Natl. Biography)." (- Cudworth Genealogy) James came on the Charles in 1632, settled in Scituate, MA, in 1634, joined the church on 10 Mar 1635 with his wife. He was an Assist. 1656-8, capt. of the militia, and in the early part of Philip's war comm. of the whole force of Plymouth col. in 1681 dep.-gov. He was in London, as Col. agent, where he died of smallpox soon after arriving and he had derved as Commissioner of the Un. Col. in 1657. (- Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England) "Gen. James Cudworth, (salter), was a freeman in Scituate 1634. We think it probable, that he came from London to Boston, 1632, in company with Mr Hatherly, as he was Mr Hatherly's particular friend. His house in 1640, was near the bridge at the harbour, which he sold to Thomas Ensighn 1642, and removed to Barnstable. He returned before 1646, when he became one of the Conihassett Partners. After his return from Barnstable he resided for a time on the south-east of Colman's hills: which house he sold to Thomas Robinson before 1650. He then resided during life near the little Musquashcut pond. Ward Litchfield now possesses the land and house lot. In 1652, he was Capt. of the militia of Scituate. He was deputy to the Colony Court 1649, and several succeeding years. He was an assistant of the governement in 1756, 7 and 8. Also a commissioner of the United Colonies, 1657. In 1658, he fell under the displeasure of those commissioners because he would not set his hand to the severe laws which that board propounded to the several General Courts, to be enacted against the Quakers, and also under the displeasuare of Gov. Prence and the Court of Plymouth, for the stand which he took in favour of toleration. Occasion was sought to displace him. A letter was produced which it was suspected he was the author of, sent to England, and describeing the bigotry of teh government. Another letter to the Governor was produced, in which some expressions were so construed, that he was judged to be 'a manifest opposer of the government,' and he was left out of the magistracy and the board of Commissioners, and deprived of his military command 1658, and disfranchised 1660. In 1659, the town of Scituate returned him a deputy to the Court, and the Court rejected him. In all the passages of the life of this admirable man, he never manifested his magnanimity more signally, than by his dignified silence and quiet demeanor under these persecutions. He remained at home, prosecuting his agricultural pursuits, and employed in the municipal concerns of Scituate, without railing at the government. The letter above alluded to, as sent to England, was addressed to (Mr Brown?) then in England, and who had been an assistant in Plymouth Colony. On the election of Josiah Winslow Governor, 1673, he endeavored, and with success, to make honorable amends for the abuse and neglect which Cudworth had suffered from his predecessor, Gov. Prence. We notice in the Colony records, July 1673, 'Capt. Cudworth, by a full and clear vote, is accepted and reestablished, in the association and body of this Commonwealth.' He was chosed an assistant again form 1674 to 1680 inclusively. In 1675, he was chosen 'General and Commander in Chief of all the forces that are or may be sent forth against the enemy,' and he continued in that office until Philip's war was ended. In 1681, he was appointed an agent for the Colony to England. He was also Deputy Governor the same year. On his arrival in London in the autumn of 1682, he unfortunately took the small pox, of which he died. The magnanimity of Gen. Cudworth has rarely been equalled; and when we couple with it the mildness and humanity of his demeanor, his character reaches the sublime. If he was ever reproached, it was for virtues which has coevals failded to attain. He accepted the command in Philip's war, as we have stated above, and acquitted himself with honor. He had undoubtedly the talents of a brave and able commander, different indeed form those of Church, who shone in the darlings of partizan warfare, but such as were prober for his place. When he took the field in Philip's war he was past seventy years of age; there is therefore little propriety in drawing a parallel between him and Church. Of General Cudworth's family connexions in England, we have no certain information. It has been suggested by some that he was the brother of that distingished man of learning, Professor Ralph Cudworth, whose work on the philosophy of the mind has been a foundation for all subsequent writers: but this we have not made certain. It appears that Gen. Cudworth did not proceed to England on his mission, to obtain a new charter which should include Narragansett, (for this was the object of the mission), until the summer of 1682. His will is dated in the spring of that year, at Scituate, and orders his estate 'to be divided into six equal parts - James two sixths - Israel one sixth - Jonathan one sixth - daughter Mary's four children (Israel, Robert, James and Mary Whitcomb) one sixth - daughter Hannah Jones one sixth. 'Thos. Hyland, Rich'd. Curtis, witnesses.' It appears that his wife had deceased." (- History of Scituate, Massachusetts, from Its First Settlement to 1831) (Cf. http://www.rootsweb.com/~usnebook/philip/21-end/appendixpt2.html regarding his military service with the Plymouth Colony. Also see http://babbage.clarku.edu/~djoyce/gen/report/rr01/rr01_409.html and http://www.cyberancestors.com/cummins/g845.html)

-------------------- James came on the Charles in 1632, settled in Scituate, MA, in 1634, joined the chruch on 10 Mar 1635 with his wife. He was an Assist. 1656-8, capt. of the militia, and in the early part of Philip's war comm. of the whole force of Plymouth col. in 1681 dep.-gov. He was in London, as Col. agent, where he died of smallpox soon after arriving and he had derved as Commissioner of the Un. Col. in 1657.2

From Deane’s History of Scituate:6

   "Gen. James Cudworth, (salter), was a freeman in Scituate 1634. We think it probable, that he came from London to Boston, 1632, in company with Mr Hatherly, as he was Mr Hatherly's particular friend. His house in 1640, was near the bridge at the harbour, which he sold to Thomas Ensighn 1642, and removed to Barnstable. He returned before 1646, when he became one of the Conihassett Partners. After his return from Barnstable he resided for a time on the south-east of Colman's hills: which house he sold to Thomas Robinson before 1650. He then resided during life near the little Musquashcut pond. Ward Litchfield now possesses the land and house lot. In 1652, he was Capt. of the militia of Scituate. He was deputy to the Colony Court 1649, and several succeeding years. He was an assistant of the governement in 1756, 7 and 8. Also a commissioner of the United Colonies, 1657. In 1658, he fell under the displeasure of those commissioners because he would not set his hand to the severe laws which that board propounded to the several General Courts, to be enacted against the Quakers, and also under the displeasuare of Gov. Prence and the Court of Plymouth, for the stand which he took in favour of toleration. Occasion was sought to displace him. A letter was produced which it was suspected he was the author of, sent to England, and describeing the bigotry of teh government. Another letter to the Governor was produced, in which some expressions were so construed, that he was judged to be 'a manifest opposer of the government,' and he was left out of the magistracy and the board of Commissioners, and deprived of his military command 1658, and disfranchised 1660. In 1659, the town of Scituate returned him a deputy to the Court, and the Court rejected him. In all the passages of the life of this admirable man, he never manifestedc his magnanimity more signally, than by his dignified silence and quiet demeanor under these persecutions. He remained at home, prosecuting his agricultural pursuits, and employed in the municipal concerns of Scituate, without railing at the government. The letter above alluded to, as sent to England, was addressed to (Mr Brown?) then in England, and who had been an assistant in Plymouth Colony. 
   "On the election of Josiah Winslow Governor, 1673, he endeavored, and with success, to make honorable amends for the abuse and neglect which Cudworth had suffered from his predecessor, Gov. Prence. We notice in the Colony records, July 1673, 'Capt. Cudworth, by a full and clear vote, is accepted and reestablished, in the association and body of this Commonwealth.' He was chosed an assistant again form 1674 to 1680 inclusively. In 1675, he was chosen 'General and Commander in Chief of all the forces that are or may be sent forth against the enemy,' and he continued in that office until Philip's war was ended. In 1681, he was appointed an agent for the Colony to England. He was also Deputy Governor the same year. On his arrival in London in the autumn of 1682, he unfortunately took the small pox, of which he died. 
   "The magnanimity of Gen. Cudworth ahs rarely been equalled; and when we couple with it the mildness and humanity of his demeanor, his character reaches the sublime. If he was ever reproached, it was for virtues which has coevals failded to attain. 
   "He accepted the command in Philip's war, as we have stated above, and acquitted himself with honor. He had undoubtedly the talents of a brave and able commander, different indeed form those of Church, who shone in the darlings of partizan warfare, but such as were prober for his place. When he took the field in Philip's war he was past seventy years of age; there i therefore little propriety in drawing a parallel between him and Church. 
   "Of General Cudworth's family connexions in England, we have no certain information. It has been suggested by some that he was the brother of that distingished man of learning, Professor Ralph Cudworth, whose work on the philosophy of the mind has been a foundation for all subsequent writers: but this we have not made certain. 
   "It appears that Gen. Cudworth did not proceed to England on his mission, to obtain a new charter which should include narragansett, (for this was the object of the mission), until the summer of 1682. His will is dated in the spring of that year, at Scituate, and orders his estate'to be divided into six equal parts - James two sixths - Israel one sixth - Jonathan one sixth - daughter Mary's four children (Israel, Robert, James and Mary Whitcomb) one sixth - daughter Hannah Jones one sixth. 'Thos. Hyland, Rich'd. Curtis, witnesses.' 
   "It appears that his wife had deceased."6
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General James Cudworth's Timeline

1604
1604
North Yorkshire, UK
1634
1634
Age 30
1635
May 3, 1635
Age 31
Scituate, (Present Plymouth County), Plymouth Colony (Present Massachusetts), (Present USA)
1637
July 23, 1637
Age 33
Scituate/Hingham, Mass.
1638
September 16, 1638
Age 34
Scituate, (Present Plymouth County), Plymouth Colony (Present Massachusetts)
1641
April 18, 1641
Age 37
1643
1643
Age 39
1644
June 24, 1644
Age 40
1682
May, 1682
Age 78
England
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