Geoffrey "Grisgonelle", comte d'Anjou

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Geoffrey I "Grisegonnelle" Count d'Anjou, I

Nicknames: "known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle")", "Grisegonelle", "Grisegonnelle", "Of Gatinais /Geoffroi/", "Comté D' Anjou", "Geoffrey "grey gown" d'Anjou", "Count of Anjou", "Greymantle"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Anjou, Pays-de-la-Loire, France
Death: Died in France
Cause of death: Died while besieging Marçon, held by Eudes Ruffin, vassal of Eudes I de Blois
Place of Burial: Basilique Saint Martin de Tours, Châteauneuf (Present Plumereau District of Tours), Anjou (Present département d'Indre-et-Loire), (Present région Pays de la Loire), (Present France)
Immediate Family:

Son of Foulques II, comte d'Anjou and Gerberge du Maine, comtesse d'Anjou
Husband of Adélaïde de Chalon, wife of Lambert d'Autun and Geoffroy I d'Anjou and Adèle de Meaux, dite de Vermandois
Father of Maurice d'Anjou, Comte d'Anjou; Ermangarde d'Anjou, Duchess of Bretagne; Raingarde; Adela Blanca D' ANJOU, COUNTESS OF PROVENCE; Maurice d'Anjou and 3 others
Brother of Humbert I Count of Bellay; Willa de Vienne; Guy d'Anjou, Bishop of Puy; Drogon de Puy, Bishop de le Puy; Adélaïde la Blanche d'Anjou, Reine consort d'Aquitaine and 5 others

Occupation: Count of Anjou vv.960 -.987, Count of Anjou, Anjoun Kreivi 960, count of anjou
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Geoffrey I "Grisegonnelle" Count d'Anjou, I

http://www.geneall.net/F/per_page.php?id=8606'''

GEOFFROY I 958-987 --- GEOFFROY d'Anjou, son of FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d'Anjou & his first wife Gerberge --- ([938/40]-Marso 21 Jul 987, bur Châteauneuf, église Saint-Martin).

The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "primogenitus Gofridus…Guido…episcopus Podii…tertius minor Drogo" as the three sons of "Fulco Pius"[91]. He succeeded his father in 958 as GEOFFROY I "Grisegonelle" Comte d'Anjou.

"Teutbaldi comitis, Teutbaldi junioris, Gausfredi comitis, Hugonis comitis Cenomannorum…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 960 under which "Aremburgis" donated property to Saint-Florent de Saumur[92]. "Gaufridus…Andecavorum comes", with the consent of "fratre meo Widone abate", established the right of the comtes d'Anjou to appoint abbots of Saint-Aubin d'Angers, by charter dated 19 Jun 966[93].

He succeeded as Comte de Chalon from his second marriage until his death in 987.

The Chronico Sancti Michaelis records the death in 987 of "Gaufredus comes Andegavensis pater Fulconis"[94]. The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Gaufridus Andecavorum comes, pater Fulconis comitis" was killed "XII Kal Aug in obsidione Marsonis super Odonem Rufinum facta"[95]. The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "XIV Kal Aug 987" of "Gaufridus Andegavensis comes, pater Fulconis in obsidione Marsonis"[96]. The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records the burial of Geoffroy "in ecclesia Beati Martini Castri Novi"[97]. The Annales Sancti Albini Andegavensis record the death "XII Kal Aug…in obsidione Narsonis super Odonem Rufinum facta" of "Gaufridus comes, pater Fulchonis"[98]. --- m firstly ([965] or before) ADELA de Meaux, daughter of ROBERT Comte de Meaux et de Troyes & his wife Adelais [de Bourgogne] ([950]-974 after 6 Mar).

Adela, wife of Comte Geoffroy, is named as daughter of Comte Robert in two 12th century Angevin genealogies[99]. Her marriage date is estimated based on the estimated birth date of her oldest daughter.

"Adela" donated property to Saint-Aubin d'Angers by charter dated 6 Mar 974 which names "seniore meo Gauzfredo comite" and is subscribed by "Gauzfredi comitis, Fulconis filii eius, Gauzfredi filii eius"[100]. The Chronicæ Sancti Albini names "Adela comitissa…et marito suo Gaufrido" as present at the ordination of "Rainaldus episcopus" in 1074[101]. "Fulco Andecavorum comes" relinquished rights to the bishop of Angers "pro anima patris mei Gauffredi et matris Adelæ" by charter dated 17 Jan 1020[102].

m secondly (2 or 9 Mar 979) as her second husband, ADELAIS, widow of LAMBERT Comte de Chalon, daughter of --- (-after 18 Oct 984).

"Gausfredus comes [et]…Adeleidis uxor mea" jointly donated land in "pago Cabilonensi" by charter dated Mar 979, her first marriage being deduced from "Hugo filius Lanberti comitis" acting jointly with them and signing "Hugonis filii eius" directly after "Adeleidis" in the subscriptions[103]. "Gauzfredi comitis, Adaleidis comitissa" subscribed a charter dated 18 Oct 984[104].

The origin of Adelais has been the subject of much speculation. Settipani has suggested[105] that she was the daughter of Hugues Comte en Bourgogne & his wife Willa von Thurgau. Chaume suggested[106] that she was the daughter or granddaughter of Charles Constantin Comte de Vienne. Bouchard sets out several different theories concerning Adelaide's origin, with the aim mainly of explaining Lambert's accession to Chalon by inheritance through his wife. However, none appears to be based on any primary source and the author concludes that she prefers "to leave Adelaide's origins unknown"[107].

Comte Geoffroy I & his first wife had [four] children:

1. ERMENGARDE d'Anjou (before 965-after 982). Rodulfus Glaber records that Conan married the sister of Foulques of Anjou but does not name her[111]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. She was presumably born before 965 if it is correct that her first child was born in 980. m (973) CONAN Comte de Rennes, son of JUDICAËL BERENGAR Comte de Rennes & his wife Gerberge --- (-killed in battle Conquereil 27 Jun 992). He succeeded in 990 as CONAN I "le Tort" Duke of Brittany.

2. FOULQUES d'Anjou ([970]-Metz 21 Jun 1040, bur Beaulieu-lez-Loche, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre). The Historiæ Andegavensis, allegedly written by Foulques IV "Rechin" Comte d'Anjou, names "Goffridus Grisagonella pater avi mei Fulconis"[112]. He succeeded his father in 987 as FOULQUES III "Nerra/the Black" Comte d'Anjou.

3. GEOFFROY (-after 6 Mar 974). "Adela" donated property to Saint-Aubin d'Angers by charter dated 6 Mar 974 which names "seniore meo Gauzfredo comite" and is subscribed by "Gauzfredi comitis, Fulconis filii eius, Gauzfredi filii eius"[113].

4. GERBERGE d'Anjou (974 or before-after 1 Apr 1040). The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the marriage of "comes…Engolismæ Willelmus" and "Girberga sorore comitis Fulconis"[114]. The Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis names "Giberta sorore Comitis Guillermi Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillermus Comes Engolismensis"[115]. "Gaufredus et uxor mea Petronilla" donated property "ecclesiam Sancti Pauli…in Sanctonensi territorio subter castrum…Botavilla" to Sauvigny on the advice of "Vuillelmi comitis Engolismensis et uxoris eius dominæ Girbergiæ patris…mei et matris et domini Elduini fratris mei" by charter dated before 1028[116]. m (before 1000) GUILLAUME IV Comte d'Angoulême, son of ARNAULD "Mancer" Comte d'Angoulême & his first wife Raingarde --- ([978]-murdered 6 Apr 1028, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard). He was poisoned by his daughter-in-law Alaisia.

Comte Geoffroy I & his second wife had one child:

5. MAURICE d'Anjou ([980]-1012, bur Châteauneuf, église Saint-Martin). The cartulary of Paray-le-Monial includes a charter (undated) of "filius eius Hugo" which is subscribed by "Hugonis comitis et episcopi, Adelaidis com, Mauricii…"[117]. "Hugo comes" donated property to Cluny "pro absolutione patris Lantberti" by charter dated to [988] which also names "mater mea Adelaydis et frater meus Mauricius"[118]. "Cabilonensium comes domnus Hugo et mater eius Adeleidis et domnus Mauricius frater eius" donated property "in villa Paion" to Paray-le-Monial by undated charter[119]. The fact that he was his mother's son by her second marriage is confirmed by "Fulco comes Mauriciusque frater eius" accusing "Rainaldus Andecavorum episcopus" of corruption, recorded in a charter dated [24 Oct 996/12 Jun 1005] which names "patri eorum Goffrido"[120]. "Domnus Hugo comes atque mater sua Adeleidis" donated property "in pago Cabilonensi" to the abbey of Paray-le-Moniale by an undated charter signed by "Hugo comes, Adeleidis matris suæ, Mauritii filii eius, Enrici ducis, Garlindis uxoris eius"[121]. The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records that "Mauricius Gosfridi Grisæ Tunicæ filius" succeeded his father as Comte d'Anjou, and that Foulques "Nerra" was the son of Maurice and succeeded his father[122]. The Historia Comitum Andegavorum repeats these statements, chronologically impossible, concerning the alleged accession of Maurice and his succession by his son Foulques "Nerra"[123]. The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records the burial of "Mauricius…in ecclesia Beati Martini Castri Novi iuxta patrem suum"[124]. m --- de Saintes, daughter of AIMERY Comte de Saintes & his wife ---. The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "de Alverniensi pago filiam Hamerici consulis Santonici, neptem Raimundi Pictavensis comitis" as wife of "Mauricius Gofridi Grisæ Tunicæ filius", stating (incorrectly) that "Fulconem Neram" was their son[125]. "Raimundis Pictavensis comitis" may refer to Raymond-Pons Comte de Toulouse, who was also for a time duke of Aquitaine, the Aquitainian title being closely associated with the county of Poitou. This would also be chronologically acceptable, assuming that "neptem" in the Gesta can be translated as granddaughter. Maurice & his wife had [two] children.

References:

[61] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, pp. 66 and 67. [62] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome I, 2, p. 4. [63] Saint-Phalle, E. de 'Les comtes de Gâtinais aux X et XI siècles', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 239, citing Chaume, M. (1925) Les origines du duché de Bourgogne (Dijon) Vol. I, p. 534. [64] Merlet, R. (ed.) (1896) La Chronique de Nantes (Paris) XXXVII, pp. 107-8. [65] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 75. [66] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 75. [67] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1884) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Chaffre du Monastier et Chronique de Saint-Pierre du Puy (Montbéliard, Paris) (“Saint-Chaffre”), Chronicon Monasterii Sancti Petri Aniciensis, CCCCXII, p. 152, and CCCCXV, p. 153. [68] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome I, 2, p. 4. [69] Saint-Chaffre, Chronicon Monasterii Sancti Petri Aniciensis, CCCCXII, p. 152. [70] Saint-Chaffre CXLIV, p. 70. [88] Obituaires de Lyon II, Prieuré Saint-Pierre de Mâcon, p. 482. [89] Manteyer (1908), p. 274, quoting Biblioth. Méjanes ms. 812, recueil Bouquier, t. 1, pp. 145-6, Catal. des mss. Départements, t. XVI, Aix, 1894 ms. 915. [90] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 75. [91] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 75. [92] Latouche, R. (1910) Histoire du comté du Maine pendant le X et le XI siècle (Paris), Pièces Justificatives 1, p. 161. [93] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome I, 2, p. 4. [94] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF X, p. 175. [95] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, p. 9. [96] Urseau, C. (ed.) L'Obituaire de la Cathédrale d'Angers (Angers). [97] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 87. [98] Halphen, L. (1903) Recueil d´annales Angelines et vendômoises (Paris), Annales Sancti Albini Andegavensis, p. 2. [99] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 233, citing Halphen, L. and Poupardin, R. (1913) Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou et seigneurs d'Amboise (Paris), p. 249. [100] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome I, 3, p. 7. [101] Chronicæ sancti Albini Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 20. [102] Angers 22, p. 52. [103] Cluny Tome II, 1474, p. 528. [104] Cluny Tome II, 1701, p. 723. [105] Christian Settipani 'Les origines maternelles d'Otte-Guillaume', Annales de Bourgogne, Tome 66, 1994, pp 48-49. [106] Chaume, M. (1925-1931) Les origines du duché de Bourgogne 2 Vols. reprint 1977 (Dijon), Vol. 1, p. 447 n. 2, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 309. [107] Bouchard (1987), p. 309. [108] Lot, F. (1891) Les derniers Carolingiens (Paris), pp. 323-34, and Poupardin, R. (1907) Le royaume de Bourgogne (888-1038): Etude sur les origines du royaume d'Arles (Paris), pp. 206 and 417, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 309. [109] Duchesne, A. Histoire de Vergy, p. 46, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 307. [110] Duchesne, A. (1619) Histoire des roys, ducs et comtes de Bourgogne (Paris), p. 387, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 309. [111] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum II.4, p. 59. [112] Fragmentum Historiæ Andegavensis, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 376. [113] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome I, 3, p. 7. [114] Chavanon, J. (ed.) (1897) Adémar de Chabannes, Chronique (Paris) III, 41, p. 163. [115] Historia Pontificum et comitum Engolismensis, RHGF X, p. 248. [116] Bernard, A. (ed.) (1853) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Sauvigny (Paris) 633, p. 310. [117] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1891) Cartulaire du Prieuré de Paray-le-Monial et visites de l'ordre de Cluny (Paris, Montbéliard) 5, p. 6. [118] Cluny Tome III, 1794, p. 49. [119] Paray-le-Monial 180, p. 90. [120] Angers 25, p. 56. [121] Paray-le-Moniale 193, p. 97. [122] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, pp. 87-8. [123] Historia Comitum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 320. [124] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 89. [125] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 88. ---------------------- From the English Wikipedia page on Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou (with additions from the French Wikipedia page): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_I,_Count_of_Anjou

Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.[1]

He succeeded his father Fulk II The Good as head of the House of Ingegeriens (his mother was Gerberge, possibly de Gatinais). He cultivated the loyal support of a group of magnates, some of whom he inherited from his father,[2] others whom he recruited: men such as Alberic of Vihiers, Cadilo of Blaison, Roger I (le "vieux") of Loudon, Joscelin of Rennes, castellan of Baugé, Suhard I of Craon, Tobert of Buzençais and members of the Bouchard clan, and encouraged them to see their own dynastic interests as tied to the success of the Angevin count.[3]

(French Wikipedia says he was a Carolingian count, that is, he supported the Carolingian kings Lothair and Louis V while acknowledging the hold of the Robertians in Anjou. He continued the policy of his predecessors, which was to defend his western frontier by the control of the County of Nantes and advancing on Poitou.)

(He began his reign by installing loyalists to various castles and organized well the defenses of his county. He then participated with King Lothair and Comte de Blois Thibaut I the Cheater in a campaign against Duke Richard I de Normandie, but could not prevent the seizure of Nantes by the Normans. Afterward, he was forced to hold a new line of defense against the County of Nantes.)

(The death of Theobald the Cheater separated the two houses of Blois and Anjou. The new count Odo I acted unfriendly, and in 978 he began a war between Anjou and Blois that lasted 70 years. In 981, the two counts competed for the County of Nantes, with Conan I Le Tort supported by Blois and Guerech supported by Anjou. The clash of armies took place in Conquereuil, where Geoffroy crushed Conan.)

(Geoffroy had alliances where he exercised his influences beyond the boundaries of Anjou. However, this was under the control of his overlord, Hugh Capet, Gatinais - perhaps his mother -, Vexin - his brother was the Comte Gautier -, Vermandois - by his first wife -, Perche and Auvergne - his brother Stephen was Viscomte Gevauden and his brother Guy was Bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay.)

(He also made himself known in the south, taking the cities of Loudon and Mirebeau after defeating Guillaume Fier-a-Bras, Duc d'Aquitaine and Comte de Poitiers in the Battle of Roches in 970. He allied himself with the Vicomte de Thouars and married his daughter to a Comte d'Angouleme.)

He succeeded in establishing a group of fideles upon whom his son, Fulk called "Nerra", was able to depend in establishing Anjou as a cohesive regional power in an age of territorial disintegration.[4] In preparing the way, Geoffrey was the first count in the west of France to associate his son in the comital title.[5]

Geoffrey allied with the Count of Nantes against the Count of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France.

French Wikipedia expands further: The son of Lothair, the future King Louis V and his wife Adelaide d'Anjou, a sister-in-law of Geoffroy, separated in 983. In 984, Guerech sought to free himself from the tutelage allegiance he had with through the Angevin to King Lothair of France, but Geoffroy caught Guerech when he returned to Nantes. Geoffroy took the opportunity to strengthen the Angevin possessions in the south of Nantes, including the constrocution of the Pallet tower. Guerech was not released until he recognized the suzerainty of Geoffroy in 985. The fight then moved to between the King and the Comte de Anjou, after which he was approached by Capet for an alliance.

In 987, Hugh Capet, who was just crowned King of France, and Geoffroy Bouchard, Comte de Vendome, besieged the Chateau Marcon held by Odo Ruffin, a vassal of Odo, Comte de Blois. It was during this siege that Geoffroy was killed.

In religious terms, he made a pilgrimage to Rome in 962, and then founded and endowed several religious establishments. With his brother Guy, Bishop of Puy, he fostered ecclesiastical reform and introduced the rules of St-Benedict in several Angevin monasteries and abbeys.

Geoffroy Grisegonelle was cited in a text written 1100-1140 by an Angevin monk at the request of Foulque Le Rechin (1043-1109), his great grandson by Ermengarde d'Anjou.

Family and children

He married Adele of Meaux (934–982, French Wikipedia says d. 974) in 965, daughter of Robert I of Vermandois, Comte de Meaux and Troyes, and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:

1.Fulk III Nerra of Anjou (d. 1040). 2.Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 965, d. 992), married Conan I Le Tort, Comte de Rennes, and later Duc de Bretagne. 3.Gerberga (b. 973), married Count William IV Taillefer of Angoulême. (and French Wikipedia says 4. Geoffroy, living in 974)

He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Chalon in Mar 979 and had one child:

1.Maurice of Anjou (980 - 1012), married to a daughter of Aimery, Count of Saintes and had one son.

French Wikipedia expands: A charter of Foulque III Nerra dating from 1003 mentioned a brother named Maurice, curiously absent from the charts of Adelaide de Vermandois. This Maurice was killed before 1038 in a war against Gautier de Langeais. Genealogists conclude that Maurice came from a second marriage of Geoffroy. This second wife is identified by various reasons as Adele, the widow of Lambert, Comte de Chalon.

Notes

1.^ Refer to Bernard S. Bachrach, "Fulk Nerra: Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040" (California, 1993) 261 and 262 for a useful genealogy of the Angevin comital line. 2.^ "Although the documentation for the later ninth and early tenth centuries in Anjou is not good, enough material does survive to suggest a noteworthy continuity in the entourage of the Angevins counts" concludes Bernard S. Bachrach, "Enforcement of the Forma Fidelitatis: The Techniques Used by Fulk Nerra, Count of the Angevins (987-1040)" Speculum 59.4 (October 1984:796-819) p. 801, note 26. 3.^ Bachrach 1984:799f. 4.^ Other exceptions to the disintegration of the pagus, in addition to the example of Anjou, were Normandy and Flanders. (François Marignier, "Political and monastic structures in France at the end of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh centuries", in Frederic L. Cheyette, ed. and tr., Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe (New York) 1967:106, 125. 5.^ Bachrach 1984:802.

Sources

Mabille, Emile. Introduction aux chroniques des comtes d'Anjou (Paris) 1871.

French Wikipedia cites:

1.↑ Geoffrey I of Anjou on the FMG website 2.↑ BnF Gallica : Father Anselm - Family History and chronology of the royal house of France Peers , Grand Officer of the crown and the royal household , and barons . Sixth volume - Paris - 1730 3.↑ Chronicle the exploits of the Counts of Anjou -------------------- Unattributed summary:

Geoffroy succeeded his father Foulques II as count of Anjou sometime between September 958, when Foulques was still alive [Morice (1742) 1: 346-7], and September 960, when a count Gausfredus signed a donation to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur by a certain Éremburge. Geoffroy was killed on 21 July 987 while besieging a certain Odo Rufinus at Marçon, near Château-du-Loire, France -------------------- From the French Wikipedia page on Geoffroy d'Anjou: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffroy_Ier_d'Anjou

Geoffroy Ier (Gaufridus ou Gauzfredus) d'Anjou, dit Grisegonelle, né probablement avant 935, tué le 21 juillet 987 au siège de Marçon, près de Château-du-Loir fut comte d'Anjou de 960 à 987. Il était de la famille des Ingelgeriens et fils de Foulque II le Bon, comte d'Anjou, et de Gerberge (de Gâtinais ?).

Il fut un comte caroligien, c’est-à-dire qu'il soutint les rois carolingiens Lothaire et Louis V, tout en reconnaissant tenir l'Anjou des robertiens. Il continua la politique de ses prédécesseurs, qui consistait à défendre sa frontière ouest par le contrôle du comté de Nantes et à progresser vers le Poitou.

Biographie

Il commence par installer des fidèles au commandement des différents châteaux et organise ainsi la défense de son comté. Puis il participa avec le roi Lothaire et le comte de Blois Thibaut Ier le tricheur à une campagne contre le duc Richard Ier de Normandie, mais ne peut empêcher la prise de Nantes par les Normands. Il doit alors organiser une nouvelle ligne de défense face au comté de Nantes.

La mort de Thibaut le tricheur amena distance entre les maisons de Blois et d'Anjou. Le nouveau comte Eudes Ier, agit de manière inamicale, et en 978 débute une guerre entre l'Anjou et le Blésois qui se prolongera pendant soixante dix ans. En 981, deux comtes se disputent Nantes : Conan Ier le Tort, soutenu par Blois, et Guérech, soutenu par l'Anjou. Le choc des armées eut lieu à Conquereuil, où Geoffroy écrasa Conan.

En plus de l'Anjou, Geoffroy possède des domaines et des alliances dans plusieurs régions où il exerce son influence, cependant sous le contrôle de son suzerain, Hugues Capet : le Gâtinais (probablement par sa mère), le Vexin (son beau-frère est le comte Gautier, le Vermandois (par sa première épouse), le Perche et l'Auvergne (son beau-frère fut Étienne, vicomte de Gévaudan et son frère Guy fut évêque du Puy-en-Velay).

Il s'entendit également vers le sud en prenant les villes de Loudun et de Mirebeau, après avois vaincu à la bataille des Roches en 970 Guillaume Fier-à-Bras, duc d'Aquitaine et comte de Poitiers. Il s'allia avec les vicomtes de Thouars et maria sa fille à un comte d'Angoulême.

Le fils de Lothaire, le futur Louis V et sa femme Adélaïde d'Anjou, un sœur de Geoffroy, se séparèrent en 983.

En 984, Guérech cherche à s'affranchir de la tutelle angevine en faisant allégeance directement eu roi de France Lothaire, mais Geoffroy capture Guérech lorsque ce dernier retourne à Nantes. Geoffroy en profite pour fortifier les possessions angevines au Sud de Nantes, notamment par la construction du donjon du Pallet. Guérech ne sera libéré qu'en 985 en reconnaissant la suzeraineté de Geoffroy. La brouille s'installa alors entre le roi et le comte d'Anjou, qui se rapprocha et s'allia à Hugues Capet.

En 987, Hugues Capet, qui vient d'être sacré roi de France, Geoffroy et Bouchard, comte de Vendôme assiègent le château de Marçon, tenu par Eudes Ruffin, un vassal du comte Eudes de Blois. C'est au cours de ce siège que Geoffroy fut tué.

Sur le plan religieux, il avait effectué un pèlerinage à Rome en 962, puis fonda et dota plusieurs établissement religieux. Avec son frère Guy, évêque du Puy, il favorisa également la réforme ecclésiatique, et introduisit la règle de Saint-Benoît dans plusieurs monastères et abbayes angevins.

Geoffroy Grisegonelle est cité dans "la Chronique des exploits des Comtes d'Anjou", texte écrit de 1100 à 1140 par un moine angevin, à la demande de Foulques le Réchin.

Mariages et enfants

Il avait épousé en premières noces vers 965 Adélaïde de Vermandois († 974), fille de Robert Ier de Vermandois, comte de Meaux et de Troyes, et d'Adélaïde Werra. Ils donnèrent naissance à :

1. Foulque III Nerra († 1040), comte d'Anjou 2. Geoffroy, vivant en 974 3. Ermengarde mariée à Conan le Tort († 992), comte de Rennes, puis duc de Bretagne. 4. Gerberge, mariée à Guillaume III Taillefer, comte d'Angoulême

Une charte de Foulque III Nerra datant de 1003 mentionne un frère nommé Maurice, curieusement absent des chartes d'Adélaïde de Vermandois. Ce Maurice fut tué avant 1038 au cours d'une guerre contre Gautier de Langeais. Les généalogiques en ont conclu que Maurice était issu d'un second mariage de Geoffroy. Cette seconde épouse est identifiée pour diverses raisons à Adèle, veuve de Lambert, comte de Châlon.

Geoffroy Ier d'Anjou, comte d'Anjou Précédé par Foulque II le Bon d'Anjou Suivi par Foulque III Nerra Règne: 958-987 Dynastie: Ingelgeriens Titre complet : Comte d'Anjou

Biographie Naissance: vers 938/940 Décès: 21 juillet 987 - Marçon

Père: Foulque II le Bon Mère: Gerberge

Conjoint(s): Adelaïde de Vermandois

Descendance 1. Foulque III Nerra 2. Geoffroy 3. Ermengarde 4. Gerberge

Notes et Références

1. ↑ Généalogie de Geoffroy Ier d'Anjou sur le site FMG http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ANJOU,%20MAINE.htm#_Toc256354721

2. ↑ BnF Gallica : Père Anselme - Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France des Pairs, Grands officiers de la couronne et de la Maison du roi; et des grands barons. Tome sixième - Paris - 1730 http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k76080b.image.f11

3. ↑ la Chronique des exploits des Comtes d'Anjou http://jouet.patrick.pagesperso-orange.fr/royaumes_angevins/CCA.htm

LIens externes

FranceBalade http://www.francebalade.com/anjou/anjcomte2.htm#GeoffroyIGrisegonnelle

Geoffroy I "Grisegonelle" http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/geoff001.htm

Chronique des Comtes d'Anjou http://jouet.patrick.pagesperso-orange.fr/royaumes_angevins/CCA.htm -------------------- Unattributed (possibly older Wikipedia article?):

Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.[1] He succeeded his father Fulk II.

He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:

  1. Fulk III of Anjou.
  2. Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 965), married Conan I of Rennes.
  3. Gerberga (b. 973), married Count William IV of Angoulême.

He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Chalon in Mar 979 and had one child:

  1. Maurice of Anjou (980 - 1012), married to a daughter of Aimery, Count of Saintes and had one son.

Sources:

1. Bernard S. Bachrach, "Fulk Nerra: Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040" (California, 1993) 261 and 262

2. Mabille, Emile. Introduction aux chroniques des comtes d'Anjou (Paris) 1871. -------------------- A Sénéchal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. In the French administrative system of the Middle Ages, the Sénéchal was also a royal officer in charge of justice and control of the administration in southern provinces, equivalent to the northern French “Bailli”. The most basic function of a seneschal was to supervise feasts and domestic ceremonies; in this respect, they were equivalent to stewards and majordomos. Sometimes, seneschals were given additional responsibilities, including the dispensing of justice and high military command.

The term is probably of Gothic origin. In the Holy Roman Empire this officer had the title Drussard, or Truchsess (from Old High German truhtsâzo; "sitting in front of" the truht, the "Tross"; Latin Dapifer, French Écuyer de cuisine, Dutch Drossaard, Drost, Baljuw, Swedish Drots). -------------------- Hampered by revolt, himself in character little more than a bold, dashing soldier, Geoffry Greygown sank almost into a vassal of his powerful neighbors, the Counts of Blois and Champagne. [WBH - England] ------------------- From Ancestry/Ernie Anderson:

Son of Fulke II, le Bon, Count d'anjou; 2nd husband of Adelheid; father of Ermengarde. [Ped. of Charlemagne, Vol. I, p. 269]

b. 938, d. 987 [Judy Martin]

Count of Anjou, Seneschal of France; known as "Grisgonelle"; m.c. 968 Adelaide de Troyes; father of Fulk Nersa, Conte d'Anjou. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 3301, 3338]

Geoffrey Greygown, whose prowess was the stuff of legend, ruled Anjou from 960-87. Skilful soldier in the French manner, stout-hearted and strong and most successful in battle. [Plantagenet Chronicles, p. 19]

Killed the giant Dane Ethelulf in single combat. He sliced off his head and gave it to a miller to take back to the king of France. The miller identified him by his grey gown and the king ordered that therafter he should be called "Greygown". Succeeded by his son, Count Maurice. [Plantagenet Chronicles, p. 24]

d. 987. Son of Fulk the Good; count of Anjou (960-87). The CHRONICLE OF THE COUNTS OF ANJOU describes him as 'stout-hearted and strong and most successful in battle' and tells of his single-handed victory against Ethelulf the dane, a Goliath-like figure. He was known as Greygown after a witness to the contest picked him out at the French court by the colour of his robes. [The Plantagenet Encyclopedia, p. 84] --------------------- www.aragon10.free-online.co.uk/charlemagne.htm

http://books.google.com/books?id=CfUKAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA142&dq=grisegonelle&ei=iGfaSOndMZWszAS4z-zrDg#PPA139,M1 -------------------- From an unattributed profile page on Geoffrey I "de Anjou" (no sources):

Count GEOFFREY I Grisegonde de ANJOU of Anjou ABT 0938 - 21 Jul 0987 ID Number: I29549

TITLE: Count

RESIDENCE: FR

BIRTH: ABT 0938, Anjou, France DEATH: 21 Jul 0987 RESOURCES: See: [S790] [S2016] [S2199] [S2721] Father: FULK II "The Good" de ANJOU Count of Anjou Mother: GERVERGA de GATINAIS of Maine

Family 1 : ADELAIS de VERMANDOIS Countess of Anjou MARRIAGE: 2 Mar 0951 +FULK III "Le Noir" de ANJOU of Anjou +ERMANGARDE de ANJOU +GERBERGA de ANJOU +ADELA (Blanca) de ANJOU Notes

Aka: Geoffrey I "Grisegonnel" -------------------- From the Francogene page on Geoffroy d'Anjou: http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/129/129058.php

The family of Geoffroy Ier d'ANJOU and Adélaïs de VERMANDOIS [129058] ANJOU (d'), Geoffroy Ier (..)

  • married 959 France ? (France)

VERMANDOIS (de), Adélaïs (..) 1) Adèle dite Blanche, married about 980 Guillaume II de PROVENCE

Bibliographie : Essai sur l'histoire des comtes souverains de Provence; Histoire de la maison royale de France (Père Anselme) -------------------- From the German page on Gottfried I (Anjou): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_I._%28Anjou%29

Gottfried I., genannt Graujacke, französisch Geoffroy Ier Grisegonelle, englisch Geoffrey († 21. Juli 987) war ein Graf von Anjou aus der Familie des ersten Hauses von Anjou. Er war ein Sohn des Grafen Fulko II. dem Guten († 958) und dessen erster Ehefrau Gerberge.

Leben

Zu Beginn seiner Herrschaft unterstützte Gottfried zusammen mit Theobald I. von Blois den König Lothar gegen den Normannenherzog Richard I. Langschwert und verteidigte dabei Nantes. Im Jahr 970 schlug er bei Roches den Herzog Wilhelm IV. von Aquitanien, welcher versucht hatte Gottfrieds Besitzungen im Poitou (Loudun, Mirebeau) zu gewinnen.

Der Tod des Grafen Theobald I. von Blois 975 veränderte nachhaltig das Verhältnis zwischen den Häusern Anjou und Blois, die fortan zu erbitterten Feinden im Kampf um die Vorherrschaft im Nordosten Frankreichs werden sollten, denn der Nachfolger Theobalds, Odo I., betrieb eine Expansionspolitik, die gegen die Interessen Anjous verlief. Schauplatz des Kampfes war die Bretagne, wo Odo den Grafen Conan den Krummen von Rennes gegen den Grafen von Nantes unterstützte, der wiederum ein Protege Gottfrieds war. In der ersten Schlacht von Conquereuil (981) wehrte Gottfried einen Angriff Conans ab, danach übernahm Gottfried 984 die direkte Kontrolle über Nantes, nachdem dessen Graf Gueréch versuchte, aus der Bevormundung Gottfrieds auszubrechen, indem er sich mit König Lothar verbündete. Gottfried aber, ein getreuer Gefolgsmann des Robertiners Hugo Capet, ließ den Grafen einsperren und errichtete vor Nantes die Burg Le Pallet.

Gegen Blois gerichtet stärkte Gottfried seinen Einfluss in der Touraine und im Berry, indem er die Kontrolle über mehrere Abteien (u. a. Saint-Martin de Tours) übernahm und sich mit lokalen Herren, wie denen von Preuilly, verbündete. Die Feindschaft zwischen den beiden Häusern spiegelte sich auch im Machtkampf um den Königsthron zwischen Robertinern und Karolingern wider, während Gottfried zu Hugo Capet hielt, unterstützte Odo den König Lothar und nach ihm dessen Bruder Karl von Niederlothringen. Verbündet mit dem Grafen Burchard dem Ehrwürdigen von Vendôme belagerte Gottfried 987 die Burg Marçon (Sarthe), die Odo von Blois gehörte, und wenige Monate später unterstützte er die Wahl Hugo Capets zum König von Frankreich.

Der Dynastiewechsel von den Karolingern zu den Robertiner/Kapetingern brachte für Gottfried und seine Nachfolger einige Veränderungen mit sich. Waren er und seine Vorfahren als Grafen von Anjou (bzw. Vizegrafen von Angers) nur Vasallen der Robertiner in deren Eigenschaft als Herzöge von Franzien (bzw. Markgrafen von Neustrien), sollten seine Nachkommen nun Kronvasallen werden, da das Herzogtum Franzien mit der Thronbesteigung Capets faktisch aufhörte zu existieren. Andere mächtige Vasallen, wie eben die Grafen von Blois oder Toulouse, wie auch die Herzöge von Aquitanien, verweigerten Hugo Capet die Anerkennung und betrachteten ihn als Usurpator. In dieser Folge avancierten die Grafen von Anjou zu den bedeutendsten natürlichen Verbündeten des neuen Königshauses und wurden diesem in den folgenden Generationen eine wichtige Stütze.

Gottfried starb am 21. Juli 987, drei Wochen nach der Krönung und Salbung Hugo Capets.

Ehen und Nachkommen

Gottfried heiratete um 965 Adele von Vermandois († 974), eine Tochter des Grafen Robert von Vermandois und der Adelais „Wera“ von Burgund. Beider Kinder waren:

1. Ermengarde († nach 982) ∞ 973 Conan der Krumme, Graf von Rennes, seit 990 Herzog der Bretagne

2. Fulko III. Nerra (* um 970; † 21. Juni 1040), Nachfolger als Graf von Anjou

3. Gottfried († 974)

4. Gerberge (* 974 oder danach; † April 1040) ∞ vor 1000 Graf Wilhelm III. Taillefer von Angoulême († 6. April 1028) (Haus Taillefer)

Eine zweite 979 geschlossene Ehe Gottfrieds, aus der ein Sohn namens Maurice hervor ging, sorgt für genealogische Verwirrung. Die zweite Frau mit Namen Adelais/Adelheid († 984) wird als Witwe des Grafen Lambert I. von Chalon genannt und war eine Tochter des Herzogs Giselbert von Burgund. Da aber Gottfrieds Schwiegervater ebenfalls mit einer gleichnamigen Tochter des Burgunderherzogs verheiratet war, bei der es sich möglicherweise um die gleiche Frau des Grafen Lambert gehandelt hat, hätte Gottfried also die Mutter seiner ersten Frau geheiratet. Eine im 17. Jahrhundert aufgekommene Theorie geht davon aus, dass Herzog Giselbert zwei Töchter namens Adelais gehabt und Gottfried sich statt mit der Mutter mit der Tante seiner ersten Frau vermählt hatte.

Weblinks

FranceBalade (französisch) http://www.francebalade.com/anjou/anjcomte2.htm#GeoffroyIGrisegonnelle

Gottfried Graujacke bei Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (englisch) http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ANJOU,%20MAINE.htm#_Toc196292184

Graf von Anjou 958–987 Vorgänger: Fulko II. Nachfolger: Fulko III. Nerra -------------------- From the English Wikipedia page on Geoffrey d'Anjou http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_I_of_Anjou

Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.[1]

He succeeded his father Fulk II. He cultivated the loyal support of a group of magnates, some of whom he inherited from his father,[2] others whom he recruited: men such as Alberic of Vihiers, Cadilo of Blaison, Roger I (le "vieux") of Loudon, Joscelin of Rennes, castellan of Baugé, Suhard I of Craon, Tobert of Buzençais and members of the Bouchard clan, and encouraged them to see their own dynastic interests as tied to the success of the Angevin count.[3]

He succeeded in establishing a group of fideles upon whom his son, Fulk called "Nerra", was able to depend in establishing Anjou as a cohesive regional power in an age of territorial disintegration.[4] In preparing the way, Geoffrey was the first count in the west of France to associate his son in the comital title.[5]

Geoffrey allied with the Count of Nantes against the Count of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France.

Family and children

He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:

1. Gottfried of Anjou (-987) 2. Fulk III of Anjou. 3. Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 965), married Conan I of Rennes. 4. Gerberga (b. 973), married Count William IV of Angoulême.

He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Chalon in Mar 979 and had one child:

1. Maurice of Anjou (980 - 1012), married to a daughter of Aimery, Count of Saintes and had one son.

Notes

1. ^ Refer to Bernard S. Bachrach, "Fulk Nerra: Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040" (California, 1993) 261 and 262 for a useful genealogy of the Angevin comital line. 2. ^ "Although the documentation for the later ninth and early tenth centuries in Anjou is not good, enough material does survive to suggest a noteworthy continuity in the entourage of the Angevins counts" concludes Bernard S. Bachrach, "Enforcement of the Forma Fidelitatis: The Techniques Used by Fulk Nerra, Count of the Angevins (987-1040)" Speculum 59.4 (October 1984:796-819) p. 801, note 26. 3. ^ Bachrach 1984:799f. 4. ^ Other exceptions to the disintegration of the pagus, in addition to the example of Anjou, were Normandy and Flanders. (François Marignier, "Political and monastic structures in France at the end of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh centuries", in Frederic L. Cheyette, ed. and tr., Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe (New York) 1967:106, 125. 5. ^ Bachrach 1984:802.

Sources

Mabille, Emile. Introduction aux chroniques des comtes d'Anjou (Paris) 1871.

Count of Anjou 960–987 Preceded by Fulk II Succeeded by Fulk III

External links

FMG on Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ANJOU,%20MAINE.htm#GeoffroyIdied987A ------------------------ From the France Balade page on Chateauneuf: http://www.francebalade.com/tours/plumereau.htm

Au milieu du XIVème siècle la ville de Tours se constitue à partir de trois agglomérations: l'ancienne cité Comtale et Episcopale autour de la Cathédrale Saint Gatien, le bourg de Chateauneuf au pied de la Basilique Saint Martin et, plus dispersées, les habitations entourant l'Abbaye Saint Julien.

Chateauneuf (Plumereau)

Chateauneuf, animé par le flux des pélérins venant prier sur le tombeau de Saint Martin, est la partie la plus active de cet ensemble. C'est là que se construisent beaucoup d'Hotels et de Maisons Bourgeoises. C'est la zone que l'on appelle maintenant le Quartier Plumereau.

Chateauneuf s'est développé au nord de l'Abbaye Saint Martin, le bourg s'articule autour de trois places. La place du Grand Marché, la place Plumereau et la place de Chateauneuf au pied du chevet de la Basilique et de la Tour Charlemagne, c'est là que se trouve aussi l'Hotel des Ducs de Touraine.

A l'ouest de la Basilique se trouvait l'église Saint Clément (disparue), au nord de la place Plumereau l'église St Pierre le Puellier et le Couvent des Carmes (maintenant Saint Saturnin). Bien d'autres églises existaient dans Chateauneuf qui au départ était une cité religieuse.

Le quartier Plumereau était dans un triste état quand sa rehabilitation fut engagée à la fin des années 1960. Cet aménagement est une grande reussite.

In English:

In the mid-14th century, the city of Tours was formed from three cities: the ancient county seat around the Episcopal Cathedral of St. Gatien, the village of Chateauneuf at the foot of the Basilica of Saint Martin , and the more scattered houses near the Abbey of Saint Julien.

Chateauneuf (Plumereau)

Chateauneuf, animated by the flow of pilgrims coming to pray at the tomb of Saint Martin, was the most active part of these three. This is where many buildings and townhouses were built. This is the area that is now called the Neighborhood Plumereau.

Chateauneuf developed north of the Abbey of Saint Martin, the town has three seats. Alongside the Grand Market, the Place Plumereau, and Place de Chateauneuf at the foot of the apse of the Basilica and the Charlemagne Tower, this is also the location of the "Hotel des Ducs de Touraine" or Ducal Palace of Tours.

To the west of the Basilica was the St. Clement church (extinct), north of Place Plumereau was the Church of St Pierre le Puellier and the Carmelite Convent (now St Saturnin). Many other churches existed in Chateauneuf which initially was a religious city.

The district Plumereau was in a sad state when rehabilitation was started in the late 1960s. Its restoration has been a great success. ------------------------- From the France Balade page on the Basilique Saint Martin de Tours: http://www.francebalade.com/tours/trstmartin.htm

Histoire de la Basilique

Le premier édifice a été construit à l'initiative de l'évêque Saint Brice, successeur de Saint Martin, en 437. C'est une petite chapelle en bois qui pourtant attire un grand nombre de pélerins.

Vers 465-470, l'Eveque Saint Perpet, propagateur actif du culte de Saint Martin, fait construire une grande Basilique. Le Tombeau du Saint est placé dans l'abside. En 507, après sa victoire sur les Wisigoths à Vouillé, c'est dans cette église que le roi des Francs, Clovis, recoit de l'Empereur d'Orient Anastase les insignes de Consul. Sa femme la Reine Clotilde vient terminer ses jours près du Tombeau de Saint Martin. Tours avec sa Basilique est alors le centre de la Gaule Mérovingienne.

La Basilique est considérée comme un asile inviolable aussi de nombreux proscrits viennent s'y réfugier. Au milieu du VIème siècle, Chramne, révolté contre son père le Roi Clotaire, y trouve refuge. L'incendie provoquée par ses poursuivants n'aura heureusement que des conséquences minimes.

A la fin du VIème siècle l'évêque Grégoire de Tours fait restaurer les peintures et Dagobert charge Saint Eloi d'enrichir d'orfèvrerie le Tombeau.

L'Epoque Carolingienne est faste pour l'Abbaye et en 813 le Concile de Chalons considère comme équivalent les pélerinages de Tours et de Rome. Le pélerinage de Tours s'étndait aussi à l'Abbaye de Marmoutier et à l'église de Candes, lieu de la mort du Saint.

Les Normands

Les Normands apparaissent devant Tours pour la première fois en novembre 853. Le 8 ils pillent et incendient la Basilique, cependant par mesure de précaution le corps du Saint avait été transporté à Orléans. Il est ramené à Tours en 854, mais il faut éloigner les reliques à nouveau car en 856 les Normands sont de retour.

Ils sont encore là en 872, les Chanoines de l'Abbaye ont emporté les reliques à Auxerre. Treize ans plus tard, le Préfet de Touraine, Ingelger Vicomte d'Angers, conduit une expédition pour ramener les reliques que l'éveque d'Auxerre, récalcitrant, refuse de redonner. Elles sont de nouveau à Tours le 13 décembre 885 et une fete est instituée pour commémorer cet épisode: la Révision de Saint Martin, tous les 13 décembre.

En 887 nouvelle apparition des Normands, mais cette fois la ville a relevé ses fortifications. Enfin en mai 904, la dernière tentative des Vikings échoue, bien que la Basilique soit de nouveau incendiée. La Chasse de Saint Martin est portée sur les remparts et à sa vue les Normands reculent. Ils subissent une première défaite à la sortie de la ville dans le faubourg Saint Pierre (appelé des Corps, en souvenir des nombreux Normands tués alors). Poursuivis, les Normands sont vaincus un peu plus loin à l'est à Saint Martin le Beau (12 mai 904).

La Basilique est reconstruite entre 904 et 918 avec une abside et un déambulatoire, elle préfigure ainsi les Cathédrales des siècles à venir. En meme temps des fortifications entourent le batiment et les habitations environnantes.

Foulques le Bon, Comte d'Anjou, tenait beaucoup à son titre de Chanoine de l'Abbaye Saint Martin de Tours, il était ami du Tourangeau Saint Odon, premier Abbé de Cluny, qui a terminé sa vie dans l' Abbaye Saint Julien. L'église est incendiée en 994 suite à la prise de Tours par le Comte d'Anjou Foulques Nerra.

Une nouvelle église s'élève de 1003 à 1014 sous l'impulsion du Trésorier de l'Abbaye, Hervé de Buzancais. La chasse de Saint Martin est replacée dans l'église le jour de sa consécration, le 4 juillet 1014. Elle est remaniée dans la seconde partie du XIème siècle. Elle est endommagée par plusieurs incendies en 1096, 1122 et 1202 qui conduisent à la modifier substantiellement.

In English:

History of the Basilica

The first basilica was built at the initiative of Bishop Saint Brice, successor to St. Martin, in 437. It was a small wooden chapel which nevertheless attracted a large number of pilgrims.

Around 465-470, Bishop St Perpet, active propagator of the cult of St. Martin, built a larger basilica. The tomb of the saint was placed in the apse. In 507, after his victory over the Visigoths in Vouillé, the Frankish King Clovis received in this church from the Emperor of the East Anastasius his office of Consul. His wife, Queen Clotilde, ended her days near the tomb of Saint Martin. Tours, with its Basilica, was a center of Merovingian Gaul.

The Basilica was considered an inviolable sanctuary where many outlaws took refuge. In the mid-6th century, Chramne rebelled against his father King Clotaire, and found refuge there. The fire caused by his pursuers had fortunately minimal consequences.

At the end of the 6th century Bishop Gregory of Tours had restored its murals and Dagobert enriched the Tomb of Saint Eloi with jewels.

The Carolingian period was auspicious for the Abbey, and in 813 the Council of Chalons considered a pilgrimage to Tours the equivalent of a pilgrimage to Rome. Tours pilgrimages also included those going to the Marmoutier Abbey and the church at Candes, the place of death for the saint.

The Normans

The Normans appeared before Tours for the first time on 8 November 853. They burned and looted the Basilica. As a precaution, the saint's body was transported to Orleans. It was returned to Tours in 854, but the relics were taken back when the Normans returned in 856.

The Normans were still there in 872 when the Canons of the Abbey took the relics to Auxerre. Thirteen years later, the Prefect of Tours, Ingelger, Vicomte d'Angers, led an expedition to bring the relics back from the Bishop of Auxerre, who refused to give them back. They were again in Tours on 13 December 885, and a festival was created to commemorate their return: the Restoration of St. Martin, held on 13 December.

In 887, the Normans returned, but this time the city had raised fortifications. Finally in May 904, the Vikings last attempt on the city failed, but the basilica was burned again. La Chasse de St-Martin fortified the ramparts after the Norman retreat. They suffered a first defeat on the outskirts of the town, in the suburbs of St-Pierre (called Corps, in memory of the many Normans killed there). While being pursued, the Normans were defeated a little farther east at St-Martin-le-Beau (12 May 904).

The Basilica was rebuilt between 904 and 918 with an apse and ambulatory, an innovation that would be copied by cathedrals for centuries to come. At the same time, new fortifications were built around the basilica and surrounding houses.

Fulk "le Bon", Comte d'Anjou, sought the title of Canon of the Abbey of St-Martin-de-Tours, as he was a friend of Tours resident Saint Odo, the first Abbot of Cluny, who died in the Abbaye de St-Julien. The church was burned in 994 following the acquisition of Tours by Fulk Nerra, Comte d'Anjou (Geoffroy's son).

A new church was built between 1003 and 1014 under the leadership of Herve de Buzancais, treasurer of the Abbaye. The hunting grounds of Saint Martin was given over to the church on the day of his consecration, 4 July 1014. It was redesigned in the second half of the 12th century. It was damaged by several fires in 1096, 1122, and 1202 that lead to substantial changes. -------------------- Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987. He succeeded his father Fulk II. He cultivated the loyal support of a group of magnates, some of whom he inherited from his father, others whom he recruited: men such as Alberic of Vihiers, Cadilo of Blaison, Roger I (le "vieux") of Loudon, Joscelin of Rennes, castellan of Baugé, Suhard I of Craon, Tobert of Buzençais and members of the Bouchard clan, and encouraged them to see their own dynastic interests as tied to the success of the Angevin count. He succeeded in establishing a group of fideles upon whom his son, Fulk called "Nerra", was able to depend in establishing Anjou as a cohesive regional power in an age of territorial disintegration. In preparing the way, Geoffrey was the first count in the west of France to associate his son in the comital title.

Geoffrey allied with the Count of Nantes against the Count of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France. Family and children

He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:

  1. Fulk III of Anjou.
  2. Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 965), married Conan I of Rennes.
  3. Gerberga (b. 973), married Count William IV of Angoulême.

He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Chalon in Mar 979 and had one child:

  1. Maurice of Anjou (980 - 1012), married to a daughter of Aimery, Count of Saintes and had one son.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_I_of_Anjou -------------------- Comte d'Anjou (960-987)

Sénéchal de France -------------------- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.[1] He succeeded his father Fulk II. He cultivated the loyal support of a group of magnates, some of whom he inherited from his father,[2] others whom he recruited: men such as Alberic of Vihiers, Cadilo of Blaison, Roger I (le "vieux") of Loudon, Joscelin of Rennes, castellan of Baugé, Suhard I of Craon, Tobert of Buzençais and members of the Bouchard clan, and encouraged them to see their own dynastic interests as tied to the success of the Angevin count.[3] He succeeded in establishing a group of fideles upon whom his son, Fulk called "Nerra", was able to depend in establishing Anjou as a cohesive regional power in an age of territorial disintegration.[4] In preparing the way, Geoffrey was the first count in the west of France to associate his son in the comital title.[5]

Geoffrey allied with the Count of Nantes against the Count of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France.

-------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_197.htm

Geoffrey I began an expansionist policy which brought back to the original count-ship the district of Loudun (from the Duke of Aquitaine) and the district of Saumur. The great Plantagenet house really begins with him. He reigned as Count 960-987. -------------------- Geoffrey I of Anjou (died July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.[1] He succeeded his father Fulk II. He cultivated the loyal support of a group of magnates, some of whom he inherited from his father,[2] others whom he recruited: men such as Alberic of Vihiers, Cadilo of Blaison, Roger I (le "vieux") of Loudon, Joscelin of Rennes, castellan of Baugé, Suhard I of Craon, Tobert of Buzençais and members of the Bouchard clan, and encouraged them to see their own dynastic interests as tied to the success of the Angevin count.[3] He succeeded in establishing a group of fideles upon whom his son, Fulk called "Nerra", was able to depend in establishing Anjou as a cohesive regional power in an age of territorial disintegration.[4] In preparing the way, Geoffrey was the first count in the west of France to associate his son in the comital title.[5]

Geoffrey allied with the Count of Nantes against the Count of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France.

Family and children

He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:

  1. Gottfried of Anjou (-987)
  2. Fulk III of Anjou.
  3. Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 965), married Conan I of Rennes.
  4. Gerberga (b. 973), married Count William IV of Angoulême.

He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Chalon in Mar 979 and had one child:

  1. Maurice of Anjou (980 - 1012), married to a daughter of Aimery, Count of Saintes and had one son.

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http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/3/2828.htm

•Name: Geoffroi I 1 2 •Sex: M •ALIA: /Grisegonnelle/ •Title: Count of Anjou •Birth: ABT 938 in Anjou, France 3 •Death: 21 JUL 987 3

Father: Foulques II b: 909 in Anjou, France Mother: Gerberge Du Maine b: 913 in Maine, France

Marriage 1 Adelaide De Vermandois b: ABT 934 in Vermandois, Normandy, France •Married: 2 MAR 950/51 in France 3

Adelaide was pregnant when she married Geoffry. Ivo de Tallibois and Fulk III are often the same person.

Geoffrey Plantagent, descent from the House of Angevin Kings follows: From Princess Plantina, sister of the Fairy Princess Melusine………(missing generations)................C.800 (1) THERTULLUS (Tortulf the Woodman of Nide de Merle) , wife PETRONELLA, daughter of Conrad, Count of Paris; ( 2) INGELERUS I, married Adeline of Challon; (3) FULK, "the red", born 888, died 938, wife Roscilla of Blois; ( 4) FULK II, The Good, Count of Anjou, died 958, married Gerberga of Catinais; ( 5) GEOFFREY I, Count of Anjou, died 21 July 987, married Adelaide de Vermandois, also known as Adelaide de Chalons, born 950, died 975-78; (6) FULK III, "the Black" Count of Anjou, born 970, died 21 June 1040, married, second, after 1000, Hildegarde, who died 1 April 1109, married, fifth, Bertrade de Montfort; (9) FULK V, "The Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, born 1092; died 10 Nov. 1143, who, as above stated, was the father of GEOFFREY V "PLANTAGENET", Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, who, on 3 April 1127, married MATILDA of ENGLAND, daughter of HENRY I, of England. NOTE: Also being given below, is the descent of Geoffrey V of Anjou, (called "Plantagenet") husband of Matilda (Maud), of England, from KING EDWARD THE GREAT.

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/dragons/esp_sociopol_dragondescent6.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_I_of_Anjou

Cte Geoffroy (Gausfred) "Grisegonelle" (Greymantle) D' ANJOU

http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/3/2828.htm

-------------------- Geoffrey V Plantagenet Maximilian Family Tree Birth: Aug 24 1113 - Anjou, France Marriage: May 22 1127 - Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou, France Death: Sep 7 1151 - Chateau, Eure-Et-Loire, Normandy, France Parents: Fulk V The Younger Of Anjou, Ermengarde (Ermentrude) Du Maine Wife: Matilda The Empress, Hedgwige Of Silesia, Adelaide Of Angers Children: Henry Ii Fitzempress Plantagenet, Geoffrey Vi Plantagenet, William Plantagenet, Emma Plantagenet, Mary Of Shaftesbury, Hamelin Plantagenet, Hamelin Plantagenet Siblings: Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Isabella Of Anjou, Helias Of Mayenne, Sybil Of Anjou, Helias

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Geoffrey "Grisgonelle", comte d'Anjou's Timeline

926
926
Of, Angouleme, Charente, France
940
November 11, 940
Anjou, Pays-de-la-Loire, France
958
November 11, 958
Age 18
Duchy of Anjou (now Pays de la Loire, France)
November 11, 958
- July 21, 987
Age 18
Anjou, France
958
Age 17
960
960
Age 19
962
962
Age 21
Anjou, Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
962
Age 21
3rd count of Anjou
964
964
Age 23
France, Lot-et-Garonne, Aquitaine, France
979
March 979
Age 38