Gerónimo Zambrano Márquez de la Vega

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Gerónimo Zambrano Márquez de la Vega

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, España
Death: Died in Acomilla del Rio Abajo, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
Immediate Family:

Son of Hernan Munoz Sambrano and María de la Vega
Husband of Ana de Zaldívar y Oñate
Father of Juan Márquez; Francisco Márquez de Zaldivar; Hernando Sambrano de Márquez; María de la Vega Márquez; Pedro Hernando Márquez and 1 other
Half brother of Pedro Hernandez and Juan Diaz

Occupation: Maese de Campo
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gerónimo Zambrano Márquez de la Vega

Gerónimo Márquez was the Maese de Campo of the troops, which joined Oñate in 1600. He brought his wife and five grown sons. At the time he was forty years old, a native of Sanlucar de Barrameda and the son of Hernán Muñoz. The Puana muster-roll of 1697, shows that he held the rank of capítan of artillery. Throughout the Oñate annals, Oñate mentions him, calling him an adventurous leader. He was living at his estancia atAcomilla in the Río Abajo district as late as 1631.

~The Origins of New México Families, pg. 69 --------------------

   * DESCRIPTION: swarthy and black bearded
     1598 [2434]
   * RESIDENCE: his estancia
     BEF 1631, Acomilla, Rio Abajo, New Mexico [2435] [2436]
   * RESIDENCE: the valley of San Bartolome
     ABT 1597, Nueva Viscaya, Nueva España [2437] [2438]
   * BIRTH: 1560, San Lucar la Mayor, Andalusia, España [2431] [2432] [2433]
   * DEATH: AFT 1631, Acomilla, Rio Abajo, New Mexico
   * EVENT: as Capitan of Artillery
     position: 1597 [2439]
   * EVENT: party sent to punish four deserters and horse thieves
     Member of the: 12 SEP 1598 [2440] [2441]
   * EVENT: party led by Juan Zaldivar that was attacked at Acoma
     Member of the: 11 DEC 1598 [2442] [2443]
   * EVENT: peace mission to Acoma
     Member of the: ABT MAR 1604 [2444] [2445]
   * EVENT: Onate expedition that left San Gabriel bound for the South Sea
     Member of the: 7 OCT 1604 [2446] [2447]
   * EVENT: loyal minority during the large scale desertion
     Member of the: OCT 1601, San Gabriel del Yunque, New Mexico [2448] [2449] [2450]
   * EVENT: loyal minority during the large scale desertion
     Member of the: OCT 1601, San Gabriel del Yunque, New Mexico [2451] [2452] [2453]
   * EVENT: an un-named woman named Diego,
     Had child with: ABT 1602, San Gabriel del Yunque, New Mexico [2454]
   * EVENT: member 98 Oñate: 18 AUG 1598 [2455] [2456] [2457]
   * EVENT: escorts of 1609: 5 MAR 1609 [2458]
   * EVENT: of offenses and exiled from New Mexico
     was accused: 1614 [2459] [2460] [2461] 

[2435] Up the Rio Puerco from Acomilla, we find that a large and old Márquez family has long lived at the village of Márquez, settled in 1866, now in Sandoval County. The village was known at one time as Juan Tafoya, but the Márquez name is found on the cañon and mesa west of the village.

[2437]San Bartolome (El Valle de Allende) was about 30 miles east of Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara was a mining town of about 30 familias Españoles and some indians in 1596 and is mentioned as being the most northerly town in Nueva España at the time. San Bartolome, Mina Todos Santos and Rancho de Fuensalida appear to have been considered as one community in many records.

[2431]He also reported his birth place as San Lucar de Barrameda in Cadiz, David H. Snow suggests that this may be a scribes error. Geronimo, a 12g and a quadruple 13g-father of Marlin Aker Jr., was the son of Hernan Martin Sambrano.

[2440]Capitan MARQUEZ, Capitan Gaspar Perez de Villagrá and three soldiers were sent by Oñate to punish the "evildoers". The four were brothers Juan and Matias Rodriguez and Manuel Portugues and Juan Gonzalez, the later two citizens of Portugal. All four had been involved in a threatened mutiny that erupted only a few days after the main party of colonists arrived at what was soon to be called San Juan de los Caballeros on August 18, 1598. One of the ringleaders of that mutiny was Capitan Aguilar who was again condemned to death by strangulation but escaped because the friars and many of the solders pleaded for his life. Recall that this was the same Aguilar who had been sent to secretly scout the first pueblo encountered after the colonists had entered Nuevo Mexico. Against the specific orders of Oñate, Aguilar had entered the pueblo. This so displeased Oñate that he was on that occasion also sentenced to death by strangulation but was pardoned. It seems that Aguilar was a person whom Oñate would have loved to choke to death! On August 21, Oñate had given what is referred to as "the famous sermon of tears and universal peace", hoping to put the mutiny to rest. Writing concerning the occasion Oñate stated that because of his leniency "A spark of this great fire remained hidden in the ashes."

Oñate assumed that the flight of these four was one of these sparks that remained from the earlier incident. They were deemed to be guilty of theft and in violation of royal military orders and were thus to be punished severely. He wrote to the Viceroy that he commanded Villagrá and MARQUEZ to pursue and overtake them. Villagrá later said that "Our orders were to execute the deserters promptly wherever we apprehended them." MARQUEZ and Villagrá were considered by Oñate to be among the bravest and most loyal officers in the colony. It is possible that some of the horses stolen were of the 35 head belonging to MARQUEZ.

The four deserters had a big head start and were not overtaken until they had reached el Rio San Pedro in Nueva Viscaya, beyond the legal jurisdiction of Oñate. That they were apprehended beyond Oñate's jurisdiction was a fact that would later plague Oñate, MARQUEZ and Villagrá. Upon overtaking the fugitives they were tricked into surrender with promises of leniency. When they realized that they were to be executed they pleaded to be taken to the mining town of Todos Santos where they could confess to a priest, and possibly hoped to secure help from family living there to avoid execution. The Rodriguez brothers escaped but Manuel Portugues and Juan Gonzalez were soon beheaded and their right hands cut off and pickled in salt to prove their deaths to Oñate. MARQUEZ and Villagrá then proceeded to Santa Barbara for supplies and to send a letter to the Viceroy in Monterey to inform him of the "goodness, richness and fertility" of Nuevo Mexico and to claim a huge population of Indians just waiting to welcome the colony and be converted.

[2442]As GERÓNIMO and Capitan Villagrá were returning home from pursuit of the four deserters, Villagrá raced ahead toward San Juan but as he reached Puaray (between Sandia and Santo Domingo) he learned that Oñate had passed through several days ago on his way to another exploratory journey in search of the South Sea (Pacific Ocean). Alone, Villagrá turned west in an attempt to overtake Oñate. As he approached Acoma he was threatened by men of Acoma under the command of Zutucapán who were guarding the trail, "like so many crouching tigers ready to pounce upon their prey," as he later described them. He spurred his horse on, eluded them and forged on in the heavy snow that caused some of Oñates's horses to run away. His horse fell into a pit trap dug by the Acomas. The horse died instantly, possibly impaled on sharpened stakes. Villagrá shed his armor, shield and harquebus. For a while he placed his shoes on backward to elude trackers and stealthily pushed on to the west for 4 days. Three of Oñate's soldiers came upon him as they were searching for the horses that had run away during the storm. His urgency in reaching Oñate must have been based on something he learned in Santa Barbara concerning the mood of the Viceroy or other important news from Nueva España.

In the meantime, Capitan MÁRQUEZ had reached San Juan. But as soon as he arrived he was pressed into service by Juan de Zaldivar, who had been instructed to leave San Juan to join Oñate upon the return of his brother, Vicente, from his buffalo hunt to the East Plains. When Juan and MÁRQUEZ reached Acoma with 31 men they negotiated a trade of hatchets and other items for ground corn. The Acomas said it would take several days to grind the volume required. Juan set up camp some distance from Acoma. A few days later, likely December 11th, 1598, Juan left Capitan MÁRQUEZ in charge of the camp and took 18 of his men and a few Indian servants to go with him to the top of Acoma to receive the ground corn. Lead by Zutucapán, Juan and his party were attacked late in the evening upon a signal by a large number of the people of Acoma. Zutucapán killed Juan with a blow to the head. Ten soldiers and 2 servants were killed, including Pedro ROBLEDO when he attempted to jump to safety from the top. Pedro was Marlin's 11th great grand-uncle, the brother of Luisa LOPEZ ROBLEDO, Marlin's 11g and a double 12g-grand mother. Several other men who jumped landed in deep sand and survived, but Pedro hit a projecting wall of rock and was instantly killed. Bernabe de las Casas, who had stayed below with 3 soldiers to guard the horses saw Pedro and Juan de Olague jump. Capitan Gaspár Lopez Tabora and two other men had escaped by going down the back of the mesa. ( A second version of the sequence of events, told by accusers of Oñate in the 1601 Valverde investigation and again during Oñate's residencia in 1613, says that Juan Zaldivar first received some corn per the agreement, left peacefully, and then returned a day or so later to seize more, an action which led to the attack. Either way it appears that Zutucapán was planning an attack at some point in time.)

The surviving 7 men, four badly injured, made their way back to the temporary camp with the bad news. Capitan MÁRQUEZ took command. He sent Capitan Lopez Tabora west to locate Oñate to tell him what had happened and send messengers to warn the priests working at several of the western pueblos to return to San Juan. Then he and the rest of the troop hastily set out for San Juan. Capitan Lopez Tabora was not successful in finding Oñate and presently returned to San Juan also.

The surviving party under Capitan MÁRQUEZ successfully returned to San Juan. It is reported that Vicente then sent out Bernabe de las Casas and a heavily armed few men to warn Oñate. There does not seem to be enough time for Bernabe to have gone all the way to San Juan before he was sent out, but at any rate he found Oñate camped at El Morro on the 14th and told him of the death of Juan and the 12 others. Oñate returned to San Juan on December 21. Early the following morning he made an appeal to the friars with these words, "Don Juan Oñate, Governor, Capitan General, and Adelantado of the provinces of New Mexico requests an opinion as to what conditions are necessary in order to wage a just war. In the event of such a war, what steps must be taken against those warred upon and against their possessions." The priests, lead by Fray Martinez, agreed to make a reply but proceedings were delayed because of the celebration of the colonists' first Christmas in Nuevo Mexico. On December 28, judicial proceedings were started, with Juan Oñate presiding. Oñate took testimony from every surviving member of Juan Zaldivar task force and received recommendations from all officers. Capitan GERÓNIMO MÁRQUEZ said that if Acoma "was not leveled and its inhabitants punished, there will be no security in all of New Mexico, nor could it be settled, as the natives of pueblos are watching what we do at Acoma and whether we punish them." Many others voiced similar opinions. All statements were made under oath and recorded with signatures and certifications of authenticity.

The priests determined that Oñate had both the authority and good reason to declare and wage a just war "for the purpose of attaining and preserving peace". They stated stipulated that before war could commence the Acomas "must be permitted to make peace and if they refused they were alone responsible for the consequences".

So by a process of law they deemed appropriate, the colony declared "war by blood and fire" on Acoma. Oñate elected to send the attack force of 72 under the command of Sargento Mayor Vicente de Zaldivar. They all went to confession, received the sacraments and set out on January 12, 1599. Among the force were Capitans Marcos Farfan de los Godos, Gaspár Perez de Villagrá, GERÓNIMO MÁRQUEZ, Alonzo Sanchez and the twice condemned Pablo Aguilar. They were each heavily armed and carried two brass artillery pieces known as culverins. After a nine day trip they arrived at Acoma on January 21. They circled the mesa three times to survey the defenses and as a show of force. The Acomas were not impressed. They jeered and insulted the intruders. Zaldivar, according to the plan, called for surrender and submission to the rule of Oñate. The response was a rain of arrows, spears, stones, chunks of ice and threats to kill all the Spaniards and then punish the pueblos that had been friendly to them. The war was on!

The next day at 3 PM Zaldivar rode to the base of the mesa and announced that he would attack. With a blare of trumpets he attacked the main path up to the top of the mesa. With most of the defenders drawn to that point, Zaldivar, Villagrá, Aguilar and nine others slipped to the back side of the mesa and climbed to the top. They were soon discovered but held their position until morning. They brought up more soldiers, a beam to span the gap to the main part of the mesa and the culverins. The culverins were extremely effective, and the advancing force set fires which killed many. Many inhabitants leaped to their death and some committed suicide in their homes. Several hundred died and about 400, mostly women and children were taken prisoner. According to Villagrá, only one Spaniard died, Lorenzo Salado de Ribadeneira, who was accidently shot by Asencio de ARECHULETA, Marlin's 12th great-grandfather. Other sources say Ribadeneira survived and later testified as to the events of this day.

Back at San Juan Oñate and the other colonists waited. One day after the war party left, an alarm was sounded in San Juan by the Indians who said they had received a message that neighboring pueblos, aware that many of the soldiers were away to Acoma were planning an attack. Oñate ordered his thin troops to defensive positions. The women, lead again by Doña Eufemia, took to the roofs, armed with anything they could find. The women maintained their positions all during the long cold night, very visibly defending their homes. The next day the alert was cancelled, the attackers apparently deterred by the rapid response.

Diego de Zubia, quartermaster of the colony, rode to San Juan to inform Oñate of the victory. Oñate went downriver to meet the victorious force and their captives at Santo Domingo on February 9 1599. The trial was started immediately. Capitan Alonso Gómez Montesinos was appointed to defend the Acomas, who largely claimed they were away working in their fields when Juan Zaldivar was killed and that they wanted to surrender to Vicente but were not permitted to do so.

By February 12 the trial was over. Sentences were pronounced:

1. Twenty four males over age 25 to have the point of one foot cut off and 20 years of servitude.

2. Males age 12 to 25, twenty years of servitude.

3. Females over age 12, twenty years of servitude.

4. Children under 12 to be handed over to Zaldivar and Fray Martinez for a Christian upbringing. (Sixty of the girls were sent to convents in Ciudad de Mexico and never returned.)

5. Two Moquis to have their right hand cut off and to be set free to carry the message home as a warning to their people.

The sentences of mutilation were ordered to be carried out at Santo Domingo and nearby pueblos over several days. Those condemned to servitude were taken to San Juan. Note that the sentence of mutilation stated "the point of the foot." Much has been made of this sentence. One must consider what is meant by "point of the foot". Does this mean toes? Secondly, was the sentence ever carried out? Records show that several priests and others made an appeal to Oñate to stay to sentence. No documentation exists which records the accomplishment of the sentence. Third, no records exist that mutilated Acomas were serving for the 20 years specified. In fact, within 6 years many inhabitants of Acoma were back home, as will be discussed later, when in 1604 Capitan MÁRQUEZ accompanied a group of Franciscans to Acoma on a peaceful mission.

[2444]Early in the year Oñate, recognizing that many of the inhabitants of Acoma had returned to their mesa and were rebuilding their homes, sent a group to seek some accord with them. Friars Velasco, Escalona, and Escobar were accompanied by a troop of soldiers under command of MARQUEZ. The fact that many inhabitants were now back at Acoma raises questions as to just what extent the sentences of the 1599 trial had been carried out. Certainly, the 20 year servitude provision was not effectively enforced. Leaving two of the Franciscans at Acoma, Velasco and MARQUEZ with 12 soldiers made a trip to the west past Zuni and Moqui, visiting the Cruzados in central Arizona, gathering ore samples and tales of the South Sea which all believed was not far away. They returned to San Gabriel by summer.

[2446]Oñate was determined to find the South Sea (Pacific Ocean). He gathered thirty soldiers, mostly newcomers who had come with the last group of friars, for what was to be his last and most successful attempt to get to the coast. This left only about 50 people behind at San Gabriel. Capitan GERONIMO MARQUEZ, JUAN RUIZ, Fray Escobar, a lay brother and a man who had sailed on one of Vizcaino's voyages up the Pacific coast were members of the party. (There were several men named Juan Ruiz in the colony, one of which was a 12g-grand father of Marlin. Which one of the Ruiz men was on this trip is not clear.) They followed the now well worn trail past Acoma, Zuni and the region of the Moquis. They entered the Arizona Verde Valley, followed what is now known as the Bill Williams River to the Rio Colorado, and then down the Colorado through the country of the Yuman peoples. In Late January of 1605 Oñate was elated to finally look at what he thought was just an inlet or relatively small bay of the South Sea. He still believed that the peninsula of Southern California was an island as had been the common belief to early explorers. Oñate waded in to his waist, struck the water with his sword and pronounced that he was taking "possession in the name of the King, our Lord." The lay brother, Juan de San Buenaventura, in like manner, but with a crucifix in hand took possession in the name of the church. The sailor from the Vizcaino fleet pronounced that this was "one of the best sites he had ever seen for a port." Juan Ruiz made a dive and said the water was of good depth. Fray Escobar was adept at languages and was, by the time they made their way back through the Yumans, able to speak with them. The Yumans told tales of people not far away that had huge ears that drug the ground, others that had just one huge foot and others that sleep standing up and others that sleep under water. Some in the party remembered hearing that similar stories had been told to their grandfathers when they first landed in the new world in the Caribbean. The party then struggled homeward, eating some of their now thin horses to survive. By mid April they arrived at El Morro where Oñate or someone in the party made the first identifiable inscription by a European.

Paso por aqui el adelantado don juan

deOñate del descubrimiento de la mar

del sur a 16 de Abril de 1605

Passed by here the Adelantado Don Juan

de Oñate from the discovery of the Sea

of the South on the 16th of April 1605.

Nine days later on April 25 they reached San Gabriel with all personnel accounted for. A report was prepared for the new Viceroy, the marquis de Montesclaros. Oñate and Fray Escobar set out to deliver the report, but for some reason Oñate turned back somewhere near Santa Barbara. Excobar continued on and made the report to the Viceroy. Even thought he was glad to hear of the contact with the South Sea, he was not impressed with the future of Nuevo Mexico and recommended that Oñate be replaced. He noted that Nuevo Mexico would continue to be a major economic drain to the crown but could not be abandoned as long as there were any converts there who needed the services of the church and the administration of the state. The Viceroy's conclusions regarding Oñate were shared in many other quarters and his ultimate removal was now just a matter of time.

[2448]By October 2, 1601, Capitan GERÓNIMO MÁRQUEZ was selected as spokesman by some 23 loyalist men who described the group of discontents as "disloyal, treacherous cowards." MÁRQUEZ took statements from about 12 of the loyalists and assembled a document in defense of Oñate to deliver to the Viceroy, the Count of Monterey. He set out to deliver the document to the viceroy, leaving on October 5th. On October 25, 1601, the mutineers departed San Gabriel, leaving the loyalists behind. Oñate did not return from his expedition to Quivira until November 24th. He immediately started legal actions against the traitors and imprisoned Sosa Peñalosa, holding him with demands that he sign a document stating that the deserters had forced him to let them go. Peñalosa refused. It is not know how long he was held or what happened to him and his wife, Eufemia. The papers delineating the charges and condemning the traitorous capitans to death by beheading have been lost, but details were reported by Fray Francisco de San Miguel. Vicente de Zaldivar was sent to pursue, capture and punish the deserters. Vicente took just twelve days, averaging over 22 leguas (58 miles) per day, to reach Santa Barbara on December 6th. Upon arriving in Santa Barbara they found the deserters were already there, beyond the jurisdiction of Oñate and under the protection of the authorities of Nueva Vizcaya. The deserters composed letters defending their position for delivery to the Viceroy, one large issue raised by the friars claimed the cruelty of Oñate made it difficult for them to win converts. Zaldivar sent a message back to his uncle, Governor Oñate, informing him that he was continuing on to Ciudad de Mexico and even to Madrid if necessary to defend Oñate. He was in Ciudad de Mexico in May of 1602 and appeared before the Viceroy and the Audiencia with his own account and the message carried by MÁRQUEZ. He described Nuevo Mexico in glowing terms and accused the mutineers with dereliction of duty, treachery and a host of other crimes. He demanded that the mutineers be required to return and the viceroy provide 300 new soldiers and more missionaries and Oñate would finance 100 soldiers to put the colony back on its feet. The viceroy stalled since Vicente Zaldivar had already announced he had plans to take the matter to the Crown in person.

The Viceroy heard the charges of cruelty and mismanagement leveled against Oñate by the mutineers. Who to believe? He decided "the matter is greatly complicated" in a message to the King in Madrid, Felipe III. The Viceroy then convened a council composed of the great theological and legal minds at his disposal to come to a conclusion regarding the status of the deserters. They concluded that the colonists were to first order, just settlers and not soldiers, and therefore could not be charged with desertion under military law nor could they by thus ordered to return to Nuevo Mexico. They also decided that Oñate should be investigated.

Not content with the handling of the matter, Zaldivar proceeded to make arrangements for sea passage on to Madrid to petition the King, which seemed to please the Viceroy since the matter would then be out of his hands. What MÁRQUEZ did during the next few months is not clear, but he was back at San Gabriel by the spring of 1603 and may have escorted the four new Franciscans who arrived at that time.

[2451]By October 2, 1601, Capitan GERÓNIMO MÁRQUEZ was selected as spokesman by some 23 loyalist men who described the group of discontents as "disloyal, treacherous cowards." MÁRQUEZ took statements from about 12 of the loyalists and assembled a document in defense of Oñate to deliver to the Viceroy, the Count of Monterey. He set out to deliver the document to the viceroy, leaving on October 5th. On October 25, 1601, the mutineers departed San Gabriel, leaving the loyalists behind. Oñate did not return from his expedition to Quivira until November 24th. He immediately started legal actions against the traitors and imprisoned Sosa Peñalosa, holding him with demands that he sign a document stating that the deserters had forced him to let them go. Peñalosa refused. It is not know how long he was held or what happened to him and his wife, Eufemia. The papers delineating the charges and condemning the traitorous capitans to death by beheading have been lost, but details were reported by Fray Francisco de San Miguel. Vicente de Zaldivar was sent to pursue, capture and punish the deserters. Vicente took just twelve days, averaging over 22 leguas (58 miles) per day, to reach Santa Barbara on December 6th. Upon arriving in Santa Barbara they found the deserters were already there, beyond the jurisdiction of Oñate and under the protection of the authorities of Nueva Vizcaya. The deserters composed letters defending their position for delivery to the Viceroy, one large issue raised by the friars claimed the cruelty of Oñate made it difficult for them to win converts. Zaldivar sent a message back to his uncle, Governor Oñate, informing him that he was continuing on to Ciudad de Mexico and even to Madrid if necessary to defend Oñate. He was in Ciudad de Mexico in May of 1602 and appeared before the Viceroy and the Audiencia with his own account and the message carried by MÁRQUEZ. He described Nuevo Mexico in glowing terms and accused the mutineers with dereliction of duty, treachery and a host of other crimes. He demanded that the mutineers be required to return and the viceroy provide 300 new soldiers and more missionaries and Oñate would finance 100 soldiers to put the colony back on its feet. The viceroy stalled since Vicente Zaldivar had already announced he had plans to take the matter to the Crown in person.

The Viceroy heard the charges of cruelty and mismanagement leveled against Oñate by the mutineers. Who to believe? He decided "the matter is greatly complicated" in a message to the King in Madrid, Felipe III. The Viceroy then convened a council composed of the great theological and legal minds at his disposal to come to a conclusion regarding the status of the deserters. They concluded that the colonists were to first order, just settlers and not soldiers, and therefore could not be charged with desertion under military law nor could they by thus ordered to return to Nuevo Mexico. They also decided that Oñate should be investigated.

Not content with the handling of the matter, Zaldivar proceeded to make arrangements for sea passage on to Madrid to petition the King, which seemed to please the Viceroy since the matter would then be out of his hands. What MÁRQUEZ did during the next few months is not clear, but he was back at San Gabriel by the spring of 1603 and may have escorted the four new Franciscans who arrived at that time.

[2454] See the note concerning his marriage toi Ana.

[2455]He is reported by Fray Angelico to have come to Nuevo Mexico with a wife, 5 grown sons and a daughter. Geronimo reported he came with 4 sons and a daughter. Geronimo's count is consistant with Diego being born later, specifically in 1602. See the discussion relative to Geronimo's wife Ana. He brought, among other things, a complete set of armor and thirty five horses. He was later appointed as the Maese de Campo of the troops who came to San Gabriel in 1600. In the Puana muster-roll of 1597, he had held the rank of "Capitan of Artillery".

[2459]In the same trial, Oñate was sentenced on May 13, 1614 for offenses which included ordering MARQUEZ and Villagrá to execute the four deserters in 1598. The accusation and sentence of MARQUEZ arose specifically from his part in the execution of two of the deserters and horse thieves, but the vigor of his prosecution was likely also driven by his very close friendship with Juan Oñate and for his defense of Oñate following the large scale desertion in 1601. He may have never actually left Nuevo Mexico as a result of the sentence, but if he did, it is possible that he soon returned and later seemed to be in good standing. Another possibility is that one of his sons, as mentioned by Villagrá, was also known as Geronimo, and that he indeed was the person living in Acomilla in 1631.

[120446]The identity of Geronimo's wives, whether one or two is uncertain. Various assumptions have been made. It is possible that Ana de Mendoza, who did not come to Nuevo Mexico with him was the mother of the first five children and that Geronimo fathered Diego by an unknown woman in Nuevo Mexico. It is, however, more likely that Ana was the mother of Diego, born in about 1602, because Geronimo was known to have returned south on several occasions. For sure he was in Nueva Viscaya in December of 1601, in Ciudad de Mexico in May of 1602 and did not return to San Gabriel until sometime in 1603.

[2428] [S2194] ONMF, p. 112

[2429] [S2194] ONMF, p. 112

[2430] [S2194] ONMF, p. 112

[2434] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2436] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2438] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg 12

[2432] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2433] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg. 21, 54

[2439] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2441] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 119-123

[2443] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 128-146

[2445] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 172

[2447] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 173-177

[2449] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 167-171

[2450] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg. 21, 42, 76, 85 note 6

[2452] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 167-171

[2453] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg. 21, 42, 76, 85 note 6

[2456] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2457] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg. 21, 38, 42

[2458] [S2162] New Mexico's First Colonists

   * PAGE: pg. 73

[2460] [S2200] ORIGINS OF NM FAMILIES

   * PAGE: pg 69

[2461] [S2577] Conquistador, The Last

   * PAGE: pg 188

-------------------- He was a soldier accompanying Don Juan de Oñate on the Oñate Expedition of 1598-1608, and a founding resident of Santa Fe, Nueva España.

view all 12

Gerónimo Zambrano Márquez de la Vega's Timeline

1560
1560
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, España
1584
1584
Age 24
Zacatecas, Reino de Nueva Galicia, Reino de Nueva España
1588
1588
Age 28
Ciudad de México, Reino de México, Reino de Nueva España
1593
1593
Age 33
1595
1595
Age 35
Reino de México, Reino de Nueva España
1597
1597
Age 37
Santa Fe, Provincia de Nuevo Mexico, Virreinato de Nueva España
1601
1601
Age 41
Santa Fé, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1602
1602
Age 42
Cádiz, Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain
1631
1631
Age 71
Acomilla del Rio Abajo, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
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