Historical records matching Giacomo Santiago Antonelli, cardinal
About Giacomo Santiago Antonelli
Birth. April 2, 1806, Sonnino, diocese of Terracina, Sezze e Priverno, of a family of mercanti di campagna, recently enriched. Son of Domenico Antonelli and Loreta Mancini.
Education. Collegio Romano, Rome, 1820-1824; Seminario Romano, Rome (philosophy and law); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, February 22, 1830).
Sacred orders. Received the minor orders on September 20, 1829, in Rome. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was a secular prelate, 1830. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Signature of Grace, July 15, 1830. Substitute of the congregation of prelates of the Apostolic Chamber, 1832-1833. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1832-1834; dean of the relators, 1833. Second assessor of the Supreme Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, 1834. Papal delegate to the cities of Orvieto, 1835; Viterbo, July 4, 1836; and Macerata, 1839. Received the diaconate in 1840; was never ordained to the priesthood. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1841. Substitute of the Secretariat of State for Internal Affairs, August 13, 1841. Under treasurer (1844); pro-treasurer, 1845; and later, general treasurer (minister of Finance), April 22, 1845 until August 1847.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 11, 1847; received red hat and deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, June 14, 1847. Pro-general treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber ad beneplacitum Sanctitatis Sua, June 11, 1847. President of the College of Consultors of the State, November 2, 1847. Member of the prefecture of Public Affairs of the Church, president moderator of the Supreme Council of Public Affairs, and president of the Supreme Council of External Affairs with the States, March 10 to May 3, 1848 when he was forced out by the revolution. After the murder of Pellegrino Rossi, minister of the Interior, he advised the pope to escape to Gaeta. Prefect of the S.C. Lauretana, May 5, 1848. Charged with the conclusion of the convention with Sardinia concerning the ecclesiastical residence, October 14, 1848. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, November 1, 1848. Pro-prefect of the Public Ecclesiastical Affairs (pro-secretary of State), December 6, 1848. After French and Austrian troops defeated the revolutionary movement in 1850, he returned with the pope to Rome. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1850. Prefect of the Public Ecclesiastical Affairs (secretary of State), March 18, 1852 until his death. He opposed the Italian unification and tried to find support for his case in other European countries. He endeavored for the reorganization and preservation of the Papal States but was unable to prevent their loss. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, retaining in commendam the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, March 13, 1868. Cardinal protodeacon. After the loss of Rome in 1870, he remained at the side of Pope Pius IX as a "prisoner" in the Vatican. During his tenure as papal secretary of State, he had to deal with Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Camillo Cavour in Italy, with Napoleon III in France, and with Otto von Bismarck in Germany. He was also embroiled in the diplomacy of the American civil war for a brief time. He had to explain to rulers and their ministers the meaning and extent of the dogma of papal infallibility defined by Pope Pius IX in 1870 during the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. He and Cardinal Roberto Giovanni F. Roberti were the first cardinals who traveled by train.
Death. November 6, 1876, Rome. Buried in his family's tomb, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. There was a scandalous process after his death between his heirs and Countess Lambertini, who claimed to be his natural daughter.
Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 496-498; Coppa, Frank J. Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli and papal politics in European affairs. Albany : State University of New York Press, 1990; Falconi, Carlo. Il Cardinale Antonelli. Vita e c arriera del Richelieu italiano nella chiesa di Pio IX. Milan : Mondadori, 1983; Pirri, Pietro. "Il Cardinale Antonelli tra il mito e la storia." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XII (1958), 81-120; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 9-10, 54 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 429-431, 537, 543, 545-551, 553, 555, 559, 561, 564, 567, 573, 589-591, 594-596, 605, 608, 613-616, 618, 638, 641, 650, 673, 675, 690, 697, 700, 711, 715, 717, 719, 723, 741.
Links. His biography, in English; his biography, in German; his biography, in English, with emphasis on the Revolution of 1848; his portrait by August Weger; his portrait by Gabriele Castagnola, Museo di Roma, Rome; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Museo di Roma, Rome; his photograph by D'Allesandri, Rome. Ca 1861-62; and his engraving.