Gilbert 'Strongbow' FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke

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Gilbert 'Strongbow' FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke

Also Known As: "Strongbow", "Gilbert Fitz Gilbert de Clare", "Gilbert 'Strongbow' Fitz /Gilbert/", "Gilbert Strongbow", "Fitz Gilbert", "Gilbert 'Strongbow' FitzGilbert de Clare", "1st Earl of Pembroke", "Earl of Pembroke"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Tunbridge, Kent, England
Death: Died in or 1148; Tintern Abbey, Chapel Hill, Monmouthshire, England
Place of Burial: Tintern Abbey, Chapel Hill, Monmouthshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Adeliza de Claremont
Husband of Isabel de Beaumont and Isabel de Beaumont, concubine #15 of Henry I, Countess of Pembroke
Father of Agnes Fitzgilbert de Clare; Baldwin De Clare; Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Basilia de Clare
Brother of Walter FitzGilbert de Clare; Hawise Fitz Gilbert de Saye; Lord Baldwin FitzGilbert de Clare, of Bourne; Margaret FitzGilbert de Clare; Rohesia FitzGilbert de Clare and 9 others

Occupation: 1st Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Pembroke
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gilbert 'Strongbow' FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke

Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_1st_Earl_of_Pembroke

Gilbert de Clare, 1. jarl av Pembroke http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_1._jarl_av_Pembroke

http://www.castlewales.com/clare.html

Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

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Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

[edit] History

Gilbert de Clare became a baron, obtaining the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy, the lordship of Nether Gwent and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey.

At Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on February 2, 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141. He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he was again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.

He married Isabel de Beaumont (c. 1102-c. 1172), around 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Isabel de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England.

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From Wikipedia:

Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare (c.1100 – 6 January 1147/8), son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Alice de Claremont, sometimes referred to as "Strongbow", although his son is better remembered by this name, was the first Earl of Pembroke from 1138.

Born at Tonbridge, Gilbert de Clare became a baron, that is, a tenant-in-chief, obtaining the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy, the lordship of Nether Gwent and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey. Gilbert de Clare decided to live near the roof in the Great Hall so he could see what was going on at all times.

After Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on 2 February 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141. He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.

He married Isabel de Beaumont (ca. 1102 - ca. 1172), around 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Elizabeth de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England. By her he had two daughters (Agnes and Basilia) and two sons (Baldwin and Richard Strongbow, the second earl of Pembroke).

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There has been debate about the name "Strongbow" ascribed to both Richard and his father Gilbert. In a charter in The Chronicle of Melrose issued by Richard's grandson, Richard Marshal, both Richard and Gilbert de Clare are named as "Strongbow". The men of Netherwent (Gwent) were known for their skill and use of an unusually long and strong bow; both Gilbert and Richard held the lordship of Netherwent. Since Gilbert de Clare's seal shows him holding a long arrow in his right hand, historians assume that the ability and skill to use this type of bow earned both Richard and his father Gilbert their nicknames.

Strongbow's father, grandfather, uncles and great-uncles were men favored by both King Henry I and King Stephen. On the death of Roger de Clare without legal heirs in 1130, King Henry I granted Gilbert de Clare his lands of Orbec and Bienfaite in Normandy. With the death of King Henry I in 1135, Strongbow's father, Gilbert, supported Stephen as king, and was an active military commander for Stephen during the "anarchy". When Gilbert's uncle Walter de Clare died in 1138, King Stephen granted Gilbert the lordship of Netherwent, including the castles of Chepstow and Usk. Stephen also granted Gilbert the comital title and lands of the earldom of Pembroke the same year. Gilbert and Strongbow supported King Stephen against Matilda until c.1146. In 1146 King Stephen held Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare, earl of Hertford, as a hostage for the "good behavior" of his uncle Ranulf, earl of Chester. (This Gilbert was also the nephew of Gilbert, earl of Pembroke.) When Ranulf changed sides and began to support the Empress Matilda, King Stephen forced Earl Gilbert of Hertford to surrender his castles and lands. This action immediately drove Gilbert to support Matilda, along with his uncle Earl Ranulf. Stephen, in anticipation of Earl Gilbert of Pembroke following his nephew, took the earl's lands and castles. This enraged the earl of Pembroke so that he also changed sides, following his nephew to the side of Empress Matilda and taking his sixteen-year old son, Richard, with him.

Gilbert earl of Pembroke died circa 1148, and at the age of eighteen, Strongbow inherited all of his father's lands, including Orbec and Bienfaite in Normandy, the lordship of Striguil and the earldom of Pembroke. Strongbow first appears in official records as "comes de Penbroc" in the Treaty of Westminster, November 1, 1153, but this is the last occasion in any royal document that Strongbow signs as earl of Pembroke. From this point in extant records, Strongbow signs his name as "comes de Striguil" or "comes Richardus". The records indicate that King Henry II refused to recognize Richard's right to the title and lands of Pembroke. The title of earl and the earldom of Pembroke did not come back into Richard's family until after the marriage of his sole heir, Isabel de Clare, to William Marshal in 1189. It was King John who "belted" William Marshal in 1199 creating him earl of Pembroke.

Historians have proposed different answers to the question of why King Henry II refused to recognize Richard's right to the title and lands of Pembroke. Some have believed that Henry did not trust Richard de Clare, or blamed him for holding too long to the cause of King Stephen. Some historians have stated that Henry II was determined to not recognize any claim to land based on tenure granted during the anarchy. The answer to this question may never be discovered, but the results of Henry's actions definitely contributed to Strongbow's reasons for accepting the offer of Dermot MacMurchada, king of Leinster. With King Henry denying Strongbow the title and lands of the earldom of Pembroke, and Strongbow finding himself in debt to Aaron the Jew of Lincoln, Dermot's proposal was a chance to reclaim fortune and glory.

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Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

He married Isabel de Beaumont (c. 1102-c. 1172), around 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Isabel de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England.

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http://thepeerage.com/p10466.htm#i104655

Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke was born circa 1100. He was the son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont.1 He married Isabella of Meulan, daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois. He died in 1148.
    Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.1

Children of Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabella of Meulan

Basilea de Clare2

Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke+2 b. c 1130, d. 20 Apr 1176

Citations

[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 243. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

[S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

                       -- added by Maria Edmonds-Zediker, 9/28/10

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Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

History

Gilbert de Clare became a baron, obtaining the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy, the lordship of Nether Gwent and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey.

At Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on 2 February 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141. He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he was again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.

He married Isabel de Beaumont (c1102 - c1172), around 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Isabel de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England.

-------------------- 1st Earl of Pembroke -------------------- Gilbert de Clare was sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

Gilbert became a baron, obtaining the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy, the lordship of Nether Gwent, and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey.

At Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on 2 February 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141. He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he was again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_1st_Earl_of_Pembroke for more information. -------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps06/ps06_347.htm

Gilbert, second son of his father, inherited Chepstow, with Nether-Gwent, from his uncle Walter (founder of Tinturn Abbey).{-Encycl.Brit., 1956, 5:755; 17:456.} The earldom was created in 1138 by King Stephen for Gilbert, "who, after the battle of Lincoln (1141), in which he took part, joined the party of the empress Matilda and married Henry I's mistress, Isabel, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester."

References: [Weis1],[ES],[PlantagenetA],[RD500],[AR7],[MRL], [RoyalAAF],[EnglishP] -------------------- Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.

He married Isabel de Beaumont (c. 1102-c. 1172), around 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Isabel de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England. -------------------- Acceded: 1138. 1st Earl of Pembroke. Lord of Bienfaite, Orbec, Netherwent. Known as Gilbert "Strongbow" FitzGilbert de Clare.

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Gilbert de Clare, 2nd son of Gilbert de Tonebruge, feudal Lord of Clare, and brother of Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford, having obtained from King Henry I a license to enjoy all the lands he should win in Cymru, marched a large force into Cardiganshire and brought the whole country under subjection; here he soon afterwards built two strong castles and, his power increasing, he was created by King Stephen in 1138, Earl of Pembroke. His lordship m. Elizabeth, sister of Waleran, Earl of Mellent, and dau. of Robert, Earl of Leicester, and had issue, Richard, his successor, Baldwin, and Basilia. The earl d. in 1149 and was s. by his elder son, Richard de Clare. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, London, 1883, p. 120, Clare, Earls of Pembroke] ______________

Earldom of Pembroke: Those who were created Earls of Pembroke before the rise of the Herberts from the 15th century on were predominantly close relatives of the reigning mocharch. This was not so in the first and historically most important case, however, Gilbert Fitz Gilbert or de Clare was made Earl of Pembroke in 1138 by King Stephen, his elder brother Richard Fitz Gilbert or de Clare being father of the Alice/Adelaide who married William de Percy. In the period of unrest and indecisive civil war known as the Anarchy, when followers of Stephen, Henry I's nephew, struggled with the Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter, Gilbert Earl of Pembroke sided with each one. He already held Chepstow, on the Welsh-English borders. In 1144 he pushed far into South Cymru and established himself at Carmarthen. [Burke's Peerage] ______________

GILBERT FITZGILBERT, styled also DE CLARE and probably Strongbow, was 2nd son of Gilbert FITZRICHARD, styled also DE CLARE, lord of Clare, Tonbridge and Cardigan, by Alice, daughter of HUGH, COUNT OF CLERMONT, which Alice married 2ndly, [? Bouchard] DE MONTMORENCY. He was born probably circa 1100. He attested charters of his father (died 1114 or 1117) and of his elder brother Richard (died 1136) for Clare Priory; and shortly after Richard's death he joined his mother, his 2 surviving brothers and his sister Rohese in granting a charter for Thorney Abbey. He became a great baron by obtaining the estates of his paternal uncles Roger and Walter, who both died s.p.. He succeeded Roger (living September 1131) in the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy, where he supported Stephen against the Angevin faction, and in the summer of 1136 he led an expedition against Exmes. Afterwards he succeeded his uncle Walter as lord of Nether Gwent, with the castle of Strigoil, later known as Chepstow, probably in March 1137/8, and came to England. In 1138 Stephen created him EARL OF PEMBROKE, and Gilbert besieged and captured a castle or fortified town from the rebels. Stephen also gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey. When the Ernprcss Maud landed in England in the autumn of 1139, Gilbert marched with the King to Arundel. At the battle of Lincoln (2 February 1140/1) he was one of the nobles who fled when the first division of Stephen's army was put to flight; but he was among those who rallied to the Queen after she had recovered London in June; and he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned there at Christmas 1141. Early in 1142 he accompanied the King on his progress to the north; after which Stephen sent him, with the Earl of Essex, to evict the rebels from the Isle of Ely. Gilbert joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen; but after the collapse of the conspiracy he appears to have been with Stephen at the siege of Oxford, September-December 1142. In 1144 he invaded South Cymru and, captured or built Carmarthen Castle. In 1147 he rebelled, when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 1st Earl of Hertford; whereupon the King made a forced march to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. Stephen took this castle and two others belonging to Gilbert, and invested Pevensey, but left his followers to blockade it. However the Earl appears to have made his peace before his death in the following year. During the war he was in possession of the Montfitchet fief, as guardian to his nephew, Gilbert de Montfitchet, and as such became involved in a dispute with Gloucester Abbey about certain churches. He was a benefactor to the abbey of Tintern and the priories of Lewes, Southwark and St. Neots, and the Templars. He married Isabel (or Elizabeth), daughter of Robert DE BEAUMONT, COUNT OF MEULAN and 1st EARL OF LEICESTER, by Isabel (or Elizabeth), daughter of Hugh the Great, COUNT OF VERMANDOIS, younger son of Henry I, King of France, which Isabel (Countess of Meulan) married, 2ndly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey. Gilbert died probably 6 January 1147/8, or possibly 1148/9, and was buried in Tintern Abbey. His widow was living in 1172. [Complete Peerage X:348-52] -------------------- Gilbert Fitz Gilbert or de Clare was made Earl of Pembroke in 1138 by King Stephen, his elder brother Richard Fitz Gilbert or de Clare being father of the Alice/Adelaide who married William de Percy. In the period of unrest and indecisive civil war known as the Anarchy, when followers of Stephen, Henry I's nephew, struggled with the Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter, Gilbert Earl of Pembroke sided with each one. He already held Chepstow, on the Welsh-English borders. In 1144 he pushed far into South Wales and established himself at Carmarthen.

He married Isabel de Beaumont, before 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Elizabeth de Vermandois. -------------------- Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare (c. 1100 – 6 January 1148), was created Earl of Pembroke in 1138. He was nicknamed Strongbow[a] for his skilled use of the long bow.

Life

Born at Tonbridge, Gilbert de Clare was a son of Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare and Alice de Claremont. He started out without land and wealth of his own but was closely related to very powerful men, specifically his uncles Walter de Clare and Roger de Clare.

In 1136 Gilbert fitz Gilbert led an expedition against Exmes and burned parts of the town, including the church of Notre Dame, but was interrupted by the forces of William III, Count of Ponthieu and escaped the resulting melee only after suffering heavy losses. Gilbert was a Baron, that is, a tenant-in-chief in England, and inherited the estates of his paternal uncles, Roger and Walter, which included the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy. He held the lordship of Nether Gwent and the castle of Striguil (later Chepstow). King Stephen created him Earl of Pembroke, and gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey.

After Stephen's defeat at Lincoln on 2 February 1141, Gilbert was among those who rallied to Empress Matilda when she recovered London in June, but he was at Canterbury when Stephen was recrowned late in 1141. He then joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen, but when that conspiracy collapsed, he again adhered to Stephen, being with him at the siege of Oxford late in 1142. In 1147 he rebelled when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his nephew Gilbert, 2nd Earl of Hertford, whereupon the King marched to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. However, the Earl appears to have made his peace with Stephen before his death the following year.

Family

He married Isabel de Beaumont, before 1130, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester, Count of Meulan, and Elizabeth de Vermandois. Isabel had previously been the mistress of King Henry I of England.

By her Gilbert had:

  • Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
  • Basilia who married Raymond fitz Gerald.
  • a daughter who married William Bloet.
view all 51

Gilbert 'Strongbow' FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke's Timeline

1100
September 21, 1100
Tunbridge, Kent, England
1109
1109
Age 8
Tunbridge, Kent, , England
1114
1114
Age 13
Tunbridge, Kent
1122
1122
Age 21
of, Tunbridge, Kent, England
1125
1125
Age 24
Tonbridge, Kent, England
1130
1130
Age 29
Tunbridge, Kent, England
1130
Age 29
1138
1138
Age 37
Earl of Pembroke
1138
Age 37
2nd Earl Of Pembroke
1138
Age 37
England

http://thepeerage.com/p10466.htm#i104655 -- He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.