Gudröd "Crovan" Haraldsson, King of the Isle of Man and of Dublin (c.1040 - c.1095) MP

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Nicknames: "Godred Crovan", "King Orry", "Gudrød ll Crovan", "King of Mann and of the Isles and of Dublin", "Gudröd "Crovan" Haraldsson", "King of the Isle of Man and of Dublin"
Place of Burial: Scotland, Hebriderna, Islay, Great Britain
Birthplace: Söderöarna, Norway
Death: Died in Isle of Man
Occupation: King of Man 1079-95, King of the Isles and Dublin (1091-94, King of the Isle of Man and of Dublin
Managed by: Jahn Edgar Michelsen
Last Updated:

About Gudröd "Crovan" Haraldsson, King of the Isle of Man and of Dublin

Gudröd I (Crovan) HARALDSSON

Yrke: Kung på Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095

Far: Harald (den svarte) GUDRÖDSSON (980 - 1040)

Mor: NN RAGNFREDSDOTTER (975 - 1030)

Född: omkring 1030 Skottland, Hebriderna 1)

Död: omkring 1095 Skottland, Hebriderna, Islay 2)

Familj med Ragnhild Maria av NORGE (1047 - 1080)

Vigsel: omkring 1062 1)

Barn: Olof I (Bitling) GUDRÖDSSON (1080 - 1153)

Noteringar

Gudröd gick i den norske kungen Harald 'Hårdrådes' tjänst och deltog i det berömda slaget vid Stamford Bridge den 25 september 1066. Engelsmännen besegrade norrmännen och Gudröd tog sin tillflykt till Isle of Man. Han insåg snart att öns försvar var svagt. Efter en tid for Gudröd till Norge, värvade en styrka på 600 man och bortåt 10 skepp, satte kurs mot öriket och erövrade det 1079. Gudröd var en stor krigare och utvidgade sitt rike till att omfatta Hebriderna och till en tid även Dublin med omgivande landskap Leinster. (Källa: Jämten 1969, C.R. Carlsson)

År 1098 drar Magnus 'Barfot' till Orkneyöarna, som de facto är ett oavhängigt jarladöme nu. Han lyckas infånga två bröder som heter Pål Jarl och Erland Jarl och skickar dem till Norge. I deras ställe sätter han ett norskt regeringskollegium med sin åttaårige son Sigurd som toppfigur. På Hebriderna och Man härskar en hövding som heter Gudröd Crovan. Magnus 'Barfot' underlägger sig utan svårighet dennes rike. (Källa: Alf Henriksson)

Från 1000-talets mitt känner man till de olika regenterna på Isle of Man genom en krönika kallad Chronicon Regum Manniae. I denna krönika nämns Godfred Crovan kallad 'kung Orry', som den förste bland en rad regenter. På Isle of Man finns en grav strax utanför Laxey, som kallas för 'kung Orres grav'. Själv begrovs kung Orre på ön Islay i Hebriderna. Godfred regerade från år 1079, då han vann slaget vid Skyhill (väster om Ramsey) över sina medtävlare om makten. Han fördrevs dock år 1093 av den norske kungen Magnus 'Barfot'. Efter Godfred var samtliga regenter av nordiskt ursprung och de var alla underställda Norges kung. Men i praktiken var de suveräna. Efter ett sjöslag år 1156 delades Söderöarna i två delar och Hebriderna bildade ett eget rike med Islay som centrum. (Källa: Statens historiska museum, Lars G. Holmblad)

Kung Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095. (Källa: Regentlängd för Isle of Man)

Birsay var en gång säte för för Orkneyjarlen. Kyrkan byggdes av jarlen Torfinn den mäktige (död år 1065) efter sin återkomst från en pilgrimsresa till Rom. Han styrde ett rike som omfattade nio jarldömen i Skottland, Hebriderna, Isle of Man samt även stora delar av Irland. Efter hans död rasade väldet samman, Isle of Man och Hebriderna blev egna stater. (Källa: Nordisk Vikingaguide 1995, Lars G. Holmblad)

Källor

1) Tom Björnstad, Norge (webbplats)

2) Stewart Baldwin, England (webbplats)

Senast uppdat. 010306

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http://www.look.no/anita/slekt

Gudrod Crovan - died at Islay in 1095. He participated in the battle of Stanford bridge in 1066. When he came home from the battle, he made several attempts to win the throne of the Isle of Man, and finally succeeded. Gudrod became a great King at Man and acknowledged King Magnus Barefoot as his overlord.

Occupation Konge Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095

Alias/AKA Gudröd II Crovan

--------------------

Godred Crovan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Godred Crovan

King of Mann and the Isles and King of Dublin

Reign 1079–1095

Birthplace Isle of Man

Died 1095

Place of death Islay (Inner Hebrides)

Predecessor Fingal Gofredson

Successor Magnus Barefoot

Offspring Lagmann, Olaf and Harald

Father ?Ímar mac Arailt

Godred Crovan (Old Irish: Gofraid mac meic Arailt, Gofraid Méranech; Guðrøðr[1]) (died 1095) was a Norse-Gael ruler of Dublin, and King of Mann and the Isles in the second half of the 11th century. Godred's epithet Crovan may mean "white hand" (Middle Irish: crobh bhan).[2] In Manx folklore he is known as King Orry.

Ancestry and early life

The notice of Godred's death in the Annals of Tigernach calls him Gofraid mac meic Aralt or Godred, son of Harald's son. As a result, it has been suggested that Godred was a son, or nephew, of the Norse-Gael king Ímar mac Arailt (or Ivar Haraldsson) who ruled Dublin from 1038 to 1046, who was in turn a nephew of Sigtrygg Silkbeard and grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán. The Chronicles of Mann call Godred the son of Harald the Black of Iceland,[3] and make him a survivor of Harald Hardraade's defeat at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066. They say that he took refuge with his kinsman Godred Sigtryggsson, then King of Mann and the Isles. Irish annals record that Godred was subject to the Irish King of Dublin, Murchad son of Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó of the Uí Cheinnselaig. Godred Sigtryggsson and Murchad both died in 1070 and the rule of the Isle of Man passed to Godred's son Fingal.

Invasions of the Isle of Man

Main article: Battle of Skyhill

In 1079, the Chronicles of Mann say that Godred invaded the Isle of Man three times:

“ In the year 1056 [1079], Godred Crovan collected a number of ships and came to Mann; he gave battle to the natives but was defeated, and forced to fly. Again he assembled an army and a fleet, came to Mann, encountered the Manxmen, was defeated and put to fight. A third time he collected a numerous body of followers, came by night to the port called Ramsey, and concealed 300 men in a wood, on the sloping brow of a hill called Sky Hill. At daylight the men of Mann drew up in order of battle, and, with a mighty rush, encountered Godred. During the heat of the contest the 300 men, rising from the ambuscade in the rear, threw the Manxmen into disorder, and compelled them to fly. ”

Conquest and loss of Dublin

The Chronicles say, and Irish sources agree, that Godred then took Dublin although the date is unknown. In 1087 the Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall" were killed on an expedition to the Isle of Man. In 1094 Godred was driven out of Dublin by Muircheartach Ua Briain. He died the following year, "of pestilence" according the Annals of the Four Masters, on Islay.

Issue and legacy

Godred left three known sons, Lagmann, Olaf and Harald. Harald was blinded by Lagmann and disappears from the record, but the descendants of Lagmann and Olaf ruled the Kingdom of the Isles until the rise of Somerled and his sons, and ruled the Isle of Man until the end of the kingdom 1265 and its annexation by Alexander III, King of Scots. Even as late as 1275 Godred son of the last King of Mann tried to seize the island.

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Fingal Godredson King of Mann and the Isles

1079–1095 Succeeded by

Magnus Barefoot

Preceded by

Énna mac Diarmata

or

Donnchad mac Domnaill Remair King of Dublin

1086–1094 Succeeded by

Domnall (mac Muirchertaig) Ua Briain

________________________________________________

GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval

The Kings of the Isle of Man

compiled by Stewart Baldwin

Table 4: The kings of Chronicon Regum Manniae prior to Godred Crovan

The Chronicle of the Kings of Man (Chronicon Regum Manniae, abbreviated "CRM") is the principle native source for the history of the kings of Man. It gives two kings of Man before Godred Crovan, Godred [called "ii" here] and his son Fingal. It names an otherwise unknown Sitric as the father of Godred ii, but if that name is wrong, it is possible that he was the same person as Goffraidh son of Amlaibh (Olaf) son of Ragnall, the king of Dublin who died in 1075 (see the appendix below). AU records the death at Man of a certain Sitric son of Amlaib in the year 1073, but he seems too late to identify with the father of Godred.

                Sitric(?)
                   |
                Godred ii, d. ca 1070/5
                king of Man
                   |
                Fingal, king of Man
                dethroned by Godred Crovan

(.gif version of Table 4)

The Ancestry of Godred Crovan


The ancestry of Godred Crovan (d. 1095), king of Dublin and Man, is not well documented, and there are differing opinions regarding his parentage and immediate ancestors. Rather than try to give a definitive solution to the problem, the basic evidence will be outlined, and several possible alternatives will be given, along with their strengths and weaknesses. Since the basic raw data is itself somewhat contradictory, none of the suggested alternatives will fit all of the primary evidence.

The basic raw data is as follows. First, the Annals of Tigernach [AT] for the year 1091 refer to him as the son of the son of Harald ["Goffraidh mac Maic Arailt, rí Atha Cliath."]. Then, there is the Chronicle of the Kings of Man [CRM], which states that Godred was the son of Harald the Black of "Ysland" (Iceland), without further identifying this Harald. Finally, there is the Welsh collection of Norse pedigrees in "Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru" [ABT, in EWGT, pp. 95-110], which includes a genealogy of the kings of Man, as follows:

ABT.6c: Rhanallt m. Gwythryg m. Afloyd m. Gwrthryt mearch m. Harallt ddu m. Ifor gamle m. Afloyd m. Swtrig.

Changing the names from these Welsh forms to the more familiar English forms gives:

Reginald [king of Man, d. 14 Feb 1229], son of

Godred [king of Man, d. 10 Nov 1187], son of

Olaf [king of Man, d. 29 June 1153], son of

Godred [Crovan, king of Dublin and Man, d. 1095], son of

Harald ddu [i.e., the Black], son of

Ivar gamle [i.e., the Old], son of

Olaf [presumably Olaf Cuaran, king of Dublin and York], son of

Sitric [d. 927]

It may be that the above genealogy was composed during the reign of Reginald (d. 1229), since he is the latest person mentioned in the genealogy. There is no way of knowing whether copying mistakes were made between that time of composition and the surviving manuscripts.

We now list several possibilities regarding the ancestry of Godred Crovan, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each possibility (some of which are valid for more than one case, and are therefore repeated). While there are other scenarios which could be listed, they would seem less likely than the ones given below.

Possibility 1: The genealogy of ABT is to be accepted as it is.

 Strengths:  It requires no emendation of the genealogy in ABT.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".
 Weaknesses:  No son of Olaf Cuaran named Ivar is known from the Irish records.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 2: In the process of copying the pedigree, a "Harald" was accidently omitted between Ivar and Olaf Cuaran, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Harald the Black son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].

 Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".  The chronology fits better than Possibilities 1 and 3.
 Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 3: In the process of copying the pedigree, Harald and Ivar were accidently switched, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].

 Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which call Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.
 Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees the the Chronicle of the kings of Man, which make Godred the son of Harald the Black.

Possibility 4: The pedigree in ABT is wrong, and Godred was not a descendant of Olaf Cuaran, but was instead descended somehow from the kings of the Isles who ruled in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries.

 Strengths:  It would explain Godred's claim to the kingship of Man.  The known names used by the early dynasty of the kings of the Isles were Guthfrith (i.e., Godred), Harald, Lagman, Olaf, and Rognvald, which were exactly the names which were common in the family of Godred Crovan (including the rare name Lagman), so this possiblity has some onomastic support.
 Weakness:  It requires abandoning the manuscript genealogy of ABT, so there is no direct supporting evidence.  The onomastic argument is mitigated somewhat by the fact that the names Guthfrith, Harald, Olaf, and Rognvald were all common among the Hiberno-Norse in general, so that only the rare name Lagman carries significant weight in the onomastic argument.

Before I was aware of the genealogy in ABT, I favored possibility 4. Now that I know about the ABT genealogy, I think Possibility 2 is the most likely one. However, I think that none of the four possibilities can be ruled out, given the currently known evidence.

Discussions of this material can also be found in Broderick (1980), Duffy (1992), and Thornton (1996). I have not yet seen a copy of the Broderick article.


Table 5: The Kings of Man of the dynasty of Godred Crovan

Unless othewise stated, all genealogical statements in this table come from CRM, as translated in ESSH, with chronological data taken from NHI and HBC.

                  Godred iii Crovan, d. 1095
                   k. Man and Dublin
   _______________________|______________
  |                 |                    |

Lagmann ii, k. Man Harald Aufrica md. Olaf i, k. Man ~ various

d. 1096/7? | dau. of | d. 29 June 1153 | concubines

 ___________________|      Fergus,  |  md. Ingibjorg,  |
|       |           |      lord of  |  dau. of Hakon,  |

son Reginald ii son Galloway | jarl of Orkney |

     k. Man 1153        ____________|  [see Note 1]    |
                       |      _________________________|____
                       |     |             |       |        |
                       |  Reginald iii  Lagmann  Harald    dau. md.
                       |  k. Man 1164                      Somerled
                       |                                   d. 1164
            NN md. Godred iv, k. Man md. Findguala
                |  d. 10 Nov 1187     |  of Ireland
   _____________|      |____________  |_______________
  |                    |     |      |                 |

Reginald iv, k. Man Ivar dau. Aufrica md. Olaf ii, k. Man

d. 14 Feb 1229 ________| John de Courcy d. 21 May 1237

md. sister of | (no issue?) md. 1. Lavon

Lavon (see right) Reginald, bishop md. 2. Christina,

  |               of the Islands                  dau. of Ferchar,
  |                                               earl of Ross
  |________     ______________________________________|____
  |        |   |           |                 |             |

Godred Dond | Godred Harald i, k. Man Reginald v Magnus, k. Man

d. ca. 1231 | d. 1238 d. Oct/Nov 1248 k. Man, d. d. 24 Nov 1265

  |        |           md. Cecilia, dau.  30 May 1249  md. Mary, dau.
  |        |           of Hakon, king        |         Ewen of Argyle

Harald ii | of Norway | [see Note 4]

d. 1250/2 |________________________ | _|___

k. Man | |? |? | ? |

       daughter,   Rhanullt,     others?  Mary, heiress  ?   Godred
       md. Thomas  md. Gruffudd  [see     of Man, md.    ?   d. 1275
       son of      ap Llywelyn   Note 3]  John Waldboef  ?   claimant
       Alan of     prince of              [see Note 6]   ?   [see
       Galloway    North Wales                           ?   Note 5]
                   [see note 2]    ???????????????????????
                                   ?
                              Aufrica de Connaught, heiress of Man,
                              quitclaimed rights to Simon de Montagu
                              [see Note 6]

(.gif version of Table 5)

Note 1: According to the Icelandic sagas [see ESSH, vol. 2, p. 191], Olaf md. Ingibjorg, daughter of Hakon, jarl of Orkney, by whom he was father of Godred. In contradiction to this, CRM states that Godred was the son of Aufrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway. Although there seems to be no good reason to doubt that Olaf was also married to Ingibjorg, the native source of CRM is to be preferred regarding the identity of Godred's mother.

Note 2: According to BWG, Rhanullt appears in several Welsh manuscript genealogies, of which the earliest one is Peniarth MS. 131, by Gutun Owain, ca. 1480. The marriage is plausible enough, but better documentation would be desirable.

Note 3: BWG mentions two other children. For one, a son Hywel, the only source cited is Lewys Dwnn's visitation of Wales (late sixteenth century). For the other, an unnamed daughter who married Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd, the only source cited is a secondary one, Lloyd's History of Wales, pp. 588, 617 (to which I do not have access to see if it cites a primary source).

Note 4: According to The Complete Peerage (under Strathearn), Malise, earl of Strathearn (d. 1271) md. 4th, Mary, widow of Magnus, king of Man, dau. of Ewen of Argyll.

Note 5: Godred's brief attempt to claim the throne in 1275 is mentioned in the Chronicle of Lanercost. See ESSH, vol. 2, pp. 672-3.

Note 6: In 1266, the kingdom of Man was transferred to Alexander III, king of Scotland, and the line of native rulers of Man ended (except for the brief attempt mentioned above in note 5). According to English Genealogy by Anthony Wagner (2nd ed., Oxford, 1972), p. 79, two heiresses attempted to get their rights recognized in 1293. They were Aufrica de Connoght, kinswoman and heiress of king Magnus of Man, who made over her rights to Simon Montagu/Montacute (see the Complete Peerage under Montagu), and Mary, daughter of Reginald, who married John Waldboef. I was able to verify Mary's status from the Roll of Parliament for 33 Edward III (Rolls Series 98), p. 131, but I do not know what primary source gives Aufrica's status as heiress of Magnus, nor do I know the source of the statement of the Dictionary of National Biography (under Simon Montacute) that Aufrica was the daughter of a certain Fergus and "sister of Orray, king of Man" (whoever that was). According to The Complete Peerage, there is no evidence to support the statement of DNB that Aufrica married Simon.

--------------------

He was known as"white hands" for wearing white gauntlets into battle. Other sources say "Crovan" may refer to him as "crippled" .

His father is thought to be either Harold the Black of Ysland (Iceland), or Ivar Haraldsson, King of Dublin 1038-1046. In the Annals of Tigenach - his name is listed on his death records as "Imar Mac Arailt" which means son of Harald. In the "Chronicles of Mann" he is described as the "son of Harald" We will never know, so I decided to go with Harold the Black - w/ the 2 references noted - but I could be wrong......

--------------------

Godred's parentage is only suggested, not proven. Researchers believe he was born in Ireland, son of Harld Olafsson. His last name "Crovan" is gaelic in origen (Crobhan). His childhood was spent in Man - possibly his father was a member of Thorfinn the Mighty's army, who controlled the western seaboard of Scotland and the Irish Sea at this time. Godred was an ally of Harald Hardraada at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, in which they were defeated. He retreated to Man, where he eventually defeated Fingal, son of Godred Sitricson, King of Dublin in 1079 to control Man. He eventually had control of Man, the Isles, and the Hebrides. He established The Tynwald - the first Parlament, still present today. He also established the Christian church under Bishop Rolf. He became King of Dublin in 1091. He spent most of his time at his home in Islay, and in Dublin. Sources have no verified spouses although it is thought he had several. Maria Haakonsdtr is mentioned, also a daughter of Harold Haardrada. In the folklore of Man, he is also known as "King Orry".

--------------------

Godred Crovan

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Godred Haraldsson, mest kjent som Godred Crovan (muligens er Crovan avledet fra norrønt kroppin, krokete), også kjent som Godred eller Guthfrid Kvithand, ble født en gang før 1066, erobret og ble konge av Man og døde i 1095 på øya Islay i Indre Hebridene i nåværende Skottland. Svært få detaljer kjennes fra hans liv.

Innhold [skjul]

1 Flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær

2 Erobringen av Man

3 Strid og opprør

4 Fotnoter

5 Se også

6 Eksterne lenker


[rediger] Flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær

Godred Crovan er den første kongen av Man som beskrives i Krøniken til kongene av Man og Øyene, skjønt norrøne menn hadde kommet til øya lenge før ham. Han nevnes som sønn av en Harald Svarte fra Island[1], og kommer dramatisk inn i historien som en flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær som gikk på overveldende nederlag i det tre dager lange og blodige slaget ved Stamford Bridge i England i 1066. Det har vært spekulert om Godred Crovan ble utpekt som høvding eller overhode over Man av kong Harald, og således markerte begynnelsen på direkte norsk innflytelse på øya i Irskesjøen.

[rediger] Erobringen av Man

Det kan leses fra Krøniken til kongene på Man og Øyene, som ble satt sammen i 1257, at Godred Crovan først ble tatt vel imot av den daværende herskeren på Man. 13 år senere, i 1079, har Godred Crovan en annen hensikt for øya ved at han samlet en veldig hær. Han kom i kamp med innbyggerne, ble beseiret og jagd på flukt. En tid senere kom han tilbake for andre gang, men med samme resultat. Den tredje gangen skulle derimot avgjøre øya skjebne.

Godred Crovans hær invaderte nordlige Man i havnen Ramsay om natta. Han lot tre hundre mann skjule seg i skogen opp mot fjellet som ble kalt for Skakafjell (eller dagens Sky Hill[2]). Om morgen kom manxmennene i kamp med Godred Crovans hær. De gjorde det bra mot de invaderende inntil de tre hundre falt dem i ryggen og tvang dem på flukt ut på et nes. Deres bedende skrik om nåde fikk i henhold til Krøniken Godred Crovan til å fatt omsorg for dem og han holdt hæren sin tilbake fra å massakrere de overlevende. Deretter ble Man delt, den nordlige delen ble forbeholdt plyndring, mens den sørlige delen for ham selv. Således ble Man kongens egen eiendom, i henhold til Krøniken, og for ham alene. I tillegg kom Godred Crovan også til å kontrollere Dublin og større deler av Leinster i Irland, og deler av de ytre øyene i løpet av sin tid.

[rediger] Strid og opprør

Det har vært spekulert om Godred Crovan faktisk hadde fortid på Man før 1066, og kanskje også vokst opp der. Han styrte Man i 16 år, muligens fra Dublin, før han trakk seg tilbake til Islay hvor han dør i 1095. Han etterlot seg tre sønner, Lagman, Harald og Olav. De eldste, Lagman, griper makten. Harald gjorde deretter opprør mot Lagman, men tapte. Lagman fikk brorens øyne stukket ut og lot ham kastrere. Deretter, sannsynligvis i 1096, viste Lagman anger for sin udåd, han frasa seg frivillig kongedømmet, «lot seg merke med tegnet til Herrens kors» og dro på en pilegrimsreise til Jerusalem hvor han døde.

Hans sønn yngste sønn Olav Godredsson, også kalt Olav Kleining (den lille) og senere også dennes sønn, Godred Olavsson, skulle komme til å bli konger av Man.

Noen forskere mener at Godred Crovan huskes av folk på Man som den legendariske kong Gorree eller Orry. En stor rullestein av granitt sto helt opp til moderne tid i nærheten av St. Marks på Man og ble kalt for «Godred Crovans stein».

[rediger] Fotnoter

^ Krønikens latinske originaltekst kaller stedet for «Ysland» hvilket kan leses som som Island, men det minner også om øya Islay, som han betegnende nok døde på.

^ Sky Hill er dagens navn på fjellet rundt 40 km sør for Ramsay, Mans nordligste by, og det navn som engelsk litteratur henviser til. Krønikens latinske navn for stedet er derimot av norrøn opprinnelse, «Scacafel», hvilket kan leses som «Skakafjell» slik dagens Snaefell kan leses som «Snøfjell».

[rediger] Se også

Liste over kongene av Man

--------------------

Godred Crovan (Old Irish: Gofraid mac meic Arailt, Gofraid Méranech; Guðrøðr[1]) (died 1095) was a Norse-Gael ruler of Dublin, and King of Mann and the Isles in the second half of the 11th century. Godred's epithet Crovan may mean "white hand" (Middle Irish: crobh bhan).[2] In Manx folklore he is known as King Orry.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Ancestry and early life
   * 2 Invasions of the Isle of Man
   * 3 Conquest and loss of Dublin
   * 4 Issue and legacy
   * 5 See also
   * 6 Notes
   * 7 References

[edit] Ancestry and early life

The notice of Godred's death in the Annals of Tigernach calls him Gofraid mac meic Aralt or Godred, son of Harald's son. As a result, it has been suggested that Godred was a son, or nephew, of the Norse-Gael king Ímar mac Arailt (or Ivar Haraldsson) who ruled Dublin from 1038 to 1046, who was in turn a nephew of Sigtrygg Silkbeard and grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán. The Chronicles of Mann call Godred the son of Harald the Black of Ysland, variously interpreted as Islay, Ireland or Iceland,[3] and make him a survivor of Harald Hardraade's defeat at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066. They say that he took refuge with his kinsman Godred Sigtryggsson, then King of Mann and the Isles. Irish annals record that Godred was subject to the Irish King of Dublin, Murchad son of Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó of the Uí Cheinnselaig. Godred Sigtryggsson and Murchad both died in 1070 and the rule of the Isle of Man passed to Godred's son Fingal.

[edit] Invasions of the Isle of Man

Main article: Battle of Skyhill

In 1079, the Chronicles of Mann say that Godred invaded the Isle of Man three times:

“ In the year 1056 [1079], Godred Crovan collected a number of ships and came to Mann; he gave battle to the natives but was defeated, and forced to fly. Again he assembled an army and a fleet, came to Mann, encountered the Manxmen, was defeated and put to fight. A third time he collected a numerous body of followers, came by night to the port called Ramsey, and concealed 300 men in a wood, on the sloping brow of a hill called Sky Hill. At daylight the men of Mann drew up in order of battle, and, with a mighty rush, encountered Godred. During the heat of the contest the 300 men, rising from the ambuscade in the rear, threw the Manxmen into disorder, and compelled them to fly. ”

[edit] Conquest and loss of Dublin

The Chronicles say, and Irish sources agree, that Godred then took Dublin although the date is unknown. In 1087 the Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall" were killed on an expedition to the Isle of Man. In 1094 Godred was driven out of Dublin by Muircheartach Ua Briain. He died the following year, "of pestilence" according the Annals of the Four Masters, on Islay.

[edit] Issue and legacy

Godred left three known sons, Lagmann, Olaf and Harald. Harald was blinded by Lagmann and disappears from the record, but the descendants of Lagmann and Olaf ruled the Kingdom of the Isles until the rise of Somerled and his sons, and ruled the Isle of Man until the end of the kingdom 1265 and its annexation by Alexander III, King of Scots. Even as late as 1275 Godred son of the last King of Mann tried to seize the island.

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Fingal Godredson King of Mann and the Isles

1079–1095 Succeeded by

Magnus Barefoot

Preceded by

Énna mac Diarmata

or

Donnchad mac Domnaill Remair King of Dublin

1086–1094 Succeeded by

Domnall (mac Muirchertaig) Ua Briain

[edit] See also

   * Early Medieval Ireland 800–1166
   * Lord of the Isles
   * Uí Ímair

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Seán Duffy, ‘Godred Crovan (d. 1095)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
  2. ^ His other epithet, Méranech, means "furious", Crovan might also derive from Irish crúbach, "claw", or Old Norse kruppin, "cripple"; Hudson, p. 173.
  3. ^ Hudson notes that Ysland in the Manx Chronicle may represent "Ireland"; Hudson, p. 171.

[edit] References

   * The Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys published by the Manx Society (1874) at A Manx Note Book
   * CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach and the Four Masters as well as Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress
   * Crawford, Barbara (1987), Scandinavian Scotland, Leicester: Leicester University Press, ISBN 0-7185-1282-0 
   * Hudson, Benjamin (2005), Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516237-4 
   * McDonald, R. Andrew (1997), The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard c.1100–c.1336, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, ISBN 1-898410-85-2

-------------------- Godfred I Crovan, King of Dublin and Man, was King of Dublin in Ireland between 1072 and 1075; he was King of Man between 1075 and 1095.

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p354.htm#i15027 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Konge af the Sudreys. Kæmpede sammen med Harald Hardråde (sin svigerfar) mod Harald Godwinson i slaget ved Stamford Bridge år 1066. Harald Hardråde faldt, og Godred Crovan rejste til Man og boede hos en slægtning - senere erobrede han øen og tog selv magten.

-------------------- Gudröd I (Crovan) HARALDSSON

Yrke: Kung på Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095

Far: Harald (den svarte) GUDRÖDSSON (980 - 1040)

Mor: NN RAGNFREDSDOTTER (975 - 1030)

Född: omkring 1030 Skottland, Hebriderna 1)

Död: omkring 1095 Skottland, Hebriderna, Islay 2)

Familj med Ragnhild Maria av NORGE (1047 - 1080)

Vigsel: omkring 1062 1)

Barn: Olof I (Bitling) GUDRÖDSSON (1080 - 1153)

Noteringar

Gudröd gick i den norske kungen Harald 'Hårdrådes' tjänst och deltog i det berömda slaget vid Stamford Bridge den 25 september 1066. Engelsmännen besegrade norrmännen och Gudröd tog sin tillflykt till Isle of Man. Han insåg snart att öns försvar var svagt. Efter en tid for Gudröd till Norge, värvade en styrka på 600 man och bortåt 10 skepp, satte kurs mot öriket och erövrade det 1079. Gudröd var en stor krigare och utvidgade sitt rike till att omfatta Hebriderna och till en tid även Dublin med omgivande landskap Leinster. (Källa: Jämten 1969, C.R. Carlsson)

År 1098 drar Magnus 'Barfot' till Orkneyöarna, som de facto är ett oavhängigt jarladöme nu. Han lyckas infånga två bröder som heter Pål Jarl och Erland Jarl och skickar dem till Norge. I deras ställe sätter han ett norskt regeringskollegium med sin åttaårige son Sigurd som toppfigur. På Hebriderna och Man härskar en hövding som heter Gudröd Crovan. Magnus 'Barfot' underlägger sig utan svårighet dennes rike. (Källa: Alf Henriksson)

Från 1000-talets mitt känner man till de olika regenterna på Isle of Man genom en krönika kallad Chronicon Regum Manniae. I denna krönika nämns Godfred Crovan kallad 'kung Orry', som den förste bland en rad regenter. På Isle of Man finns en grav strax utanför Laxey, som kallas för 'kung Orres grav'. Själv begrovs kung Orre på ön Islay i Hebriderna. Godfred regerade från år 1079, då han vann slaget vid Skyhill (väster om Ramsey) över sina medtävlare om makten. Han fördrevs dock år 1093 av den norske kungen Magnus 'Barfot'. Efter Godfred var samtliga regenter av nordiskt ursprung och de var alla underställda Norges kung. Men i praktiken var de suveräna. Efter ett sjöslag år 1156 delades Söderöarna i två delar och Hebriderna bildade ett eget rike med Islay som centrum. (Källa: Statens historiska museum, Lars G. Holmblad)

Kung Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095. (Källa: Regentlängd för Isle of Man)

Birsay var en gång säte för för Orkneyjarlen. Kyrkan byggdes av jarlen Torfinn den mäktige (död år 1065) efter sin återkomst från en pilgrimsresa till Rom. Han styrde ett rike som omfattade nio jarldömen i Skottland, Hebriderna, Isle of Man samt även stora delar av Irland. Efter hans död rasade väldet samman, Isle of Man och Hebriderna blev egna stater. (Källa: Nordisk Vikingaguide 1995, Lars G. Holmblad)

Källor

1) Tom Björnstad, Norge (webbplats)

2) Stewart Baldwin, England (webbplats)

Senast uppdat. 010306

--------------------

http://www.look.no/anita/slekt

Gudrod Crovan - died at Islay in 1095. He participated in the battle of Stanford bridge in 1066. When he came home from the battle, he made several attempts to win the throne of the Isle of Man, and finally succeeded. Gudrod became a great King at Man and acknowledged King Magnus Barefoot as his overlord.

Occupation Konge Isle of Man och Hebriderna 1079-1095

Alias/AKA Gudröd II Crovan

--------------------

Godred Crovan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Godred Crovan

King of Mann and the Isles and King of Dublin

Reign 1079–1095

Birthplace Isle of Man

Died 1095

Place of death Islay (Inner Hebrides)

Predecessor Fingal Gofredson

Successor Magnus Barefoot

Offspring Lagmann, Olaf and Harald

Father ?Ímar mac Arailt

Godred Crovan (Old Irish: Gofraid mac meic Arailt, Gofraid Méranech; Guðrøðr[1]) (died 1095) was a Norse-Gael ruler of Dublin, and King of Mann and the Isles in the second half of the 11th century. Godred's epithet Crovan may mean "white hand" (Middle Irish: crobh bhan).[2] In Manx folklore he is known as King Orry.

Ancestry and early life

The notice of Godred's death in the Annals of Tigernach calls him Gofraid mac meic Aralt or Godred, son of Harald's son. As a result, it has been suggested that Godred was a son, or nephew, of the Norse-Gael king Ímar mac Arailt (or Ivar Haraldsson) who ruled Dublin from 1038 to 1046, who was in turn a nephew of Sigtrygg Silkbeard and grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán. The Chronicles of Mann call Godred the son of Harald the Black of Iceland,[3] and make him a survivor of Harald Hardraade's defeat at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066. They say that he took refuge with his kinsman Godred Sigtryggsson, then King of Mann and the Isles. Irish annals record that Godred was subject to the Irish King of Dublin, Murchad son of Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó of the Uí Cheinnselaig. Godred Sigtryggsson and Murchad both died in 1070 and the rule of the Isle of Man passed to Godred's son Fingal.

Invasions of the Isle of Man

Main article: Battle of Skyhill

In 1079, the Chronicles of Mann say that Godred invaded the Isle of Man three times:

“ In the year 1056 [1079], Godred Crovan collected a number of ships and came to Mann; he gave battle to the natives but was defeated, and forced to fly. Again he assembled an army and a fleet, came to Mann, encountered the Manxmen, was defeated and put to fight. A third time he collected a numerous body of followers, came by night to the port called Ramsey, and concealed 300 men in a wood, on the sloping brow of a hill called Sky Hill. At daylight the men of Mann drew up in order of battle, and, with a mighty rush, encountered Godred. During the heat of the contest the 300 men, rising from the ambuscade in the rear, threw the Manxmen into disorder, and compelled them to fly. ”

Conquest and loss of Dublin

The Chronicles say, and Irish sources agree, that Godred then took Dublin although the date is unknown. In 1087 the Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall" were killed on an expedition to the Isle of Man. In 1094 Godred was driven out of Dublin by Muircheartach Ua Briain. He died the following year, "of pestilence" according the Annals of the Four Masters, on Islay.

Issue and legacy

Godred left three known sons, Lagmann, Olaf and Harald. Harald was blinded by Lagmann and disappears from the record, but the descendants of Lagmann and Olaf ruled the Kingdom of the Isles until the rise of Somerled and his sons, and ruled the Isle of Man until the end of the kingdom 1265 and its annexation by Alexander III, King of Scots. Even as late as 1275 Godred son of the last King of Mann tried to seize the island.

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Fingal Godredson King of Mann and the Isles

1079–1095 Succeeded by

Magnus Barefoot

Preceded by

Énna mac Diarmata

or

Donnchad mac Domnaill Remair King of Dublin

1086–1094 Succeeded by

Domnall (mac Muirchertaig) Ua Briain

________________________________________________

GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval

The Kings of the Isle of Man

compiled by Stewart Baldwin

Table 4: The kings of Chronicon Regum Manniae prior to Godred Crovan

The Chronicle of the Kings of Man (Chronicon Regum Manniae, abbreviated "CRM") is the principle native source for the history of the kings of Man. It gives two kings of Man before Godred Crovan, Godred [called "ii" here] and his son Fingal. It names an otherwise unknown Sitric as the father of Godred ii, but if that name is wrong, it is possible that he was the same person as Goffraidh son of Amlaibh (Olaf) son of Ragnall, the king of Dublin who died in 1075 (see the appendix below). AU records the death at Man of a certain Sitric son of Amlaib in the year 1073, but he seems too late to identify with the father of Godred.

               Sitric(?)
                  |
               Godred ii, d. ca 1070/5
               king of Man
                  |
               Fingal, king of Man
               dethroned by Godred Crovan

(.gif version of Table 4)

The Ancestry of Godred Crovan

The ancestry of Godred Crovan (d. 1095), king of Dublin and Man, is not well documented, and there are differing opinions regarding his parentage and immediate ancestors. Rather than try to give a definitive solution to the problem, the basic evidence will be outlined, and several possible alternatives will be given, along with their strengths and weaknesses. Since the basic raw data is itself somewhat contradictory, none of the suggested alternatives will fit all of the primary evidence.

The basic raw data is as follows. First, the Annals of Tigernach [AT] for the year 1091 refer to him as the son of the son of Harald ["Goffraidh mac Maic Arailt, rí Atha Cliath."]. Then, there is the Chronicle of the Kings of Man [CRM], which states that Godred was the son of Harald the Black of "Ysland" (Iceland), without further identifying this Harald. Finally, there is the Welsh collection of Norse pedigrees in "Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru" [ABT, in EWGT, pp. 95-110], which includes a genealogy of the kings of Man, as follows:

ABT.6c: Rhanallt m. Gwythryg m. Afloyd m. Gwrthryt mearch m. Harallt ddu m. Ifor gamle m. Afloyd m. Swtrig.

Changing the names from these Welsh forms to the more familiar English forms gives:

Reginald [king of Man, d. 14 Feb 1229], son of

Godred [king of Man, d. 10 Nov 1187], son of

Olaf [king of Man, d. 29 June 1153], son of

Godred [Crovan, king of Dublin and Man, d. 1095], son of

Harald ddu [i.e., the Black], son of

Ivar gamle [i.e., the Old], son of

Olaf [presumably Olaf Cuaran, king of Dublin and York], son of

Sitric [d. 927]

It may be that the above genealogy was composed during the reign of Reginald (d. 1229), since he is the latest person mentioned in the genealogy. There is no way of knowing whether copying mistakes were made between that time of composition and the surviving manuscripts.

We now list several possibilities regarding the ancestry of Godred Crovan, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each possibility (some of which are valid for more than one case, and are therefore repeated). While there are other scenarios which could be listed, they would seem less likely than the ones given below.

Possibility 1: The genealogy of ABT is to be accepted as it is.

Strengths:  It requires no emendation of the genealogy in ABT.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".
Weaknesses:  No son of Olaf Cuaran named Ivar is known from the Irish records.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 2: In the process of copying the pedigree, a "Harald" was accidently omitted between Ivar and Olaf Cuaran, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Harald the Black son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].

Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".  The chronology fits better than Possibilities 1 and 3.
Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 3: In the process of copying the pedigree, Harald and Ivar were accidently switched, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].

Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which call Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.
Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees the the Chronicle of the kings of Man, which make Godred the son of Harald the Black.

Possibility 4: The pedigree in ABT is wrong, and Godred was not a descendant of Olaf Cuaran, but was instead descended somehow from the kings of the Isles who ruled in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries.

Strengths:  It would explain Godred's claim to the kingship of Man.  The known names used by the early dynasty of the kings of the Isles were Guthfrith (i.e., Godred), Harald, Lagman, Olaf, and Rognvald, which were exactly the names which were common in the family of Godred Crovan (including the rare name Lagman), so this possiblity has some onomastic support.
Weakness:  It requires abandoning the manuscript genealogy of ABT, so there is no direct supporting evidence.  The onomastic argument is mitigated somewhat by the fact that the names Guthfrith, Harald, Olaf, and Rognvald were all common among the Hiberno-Norse in general, so that only the rare name Lagman carries significant weight in the onomastic argument.

Before I was aware of the genealogy in ABT, I favored possibility 4. Now that I know about the ABT genealogy, I think Possibility 2 is the most likely one. However, I think that none of the four possibilities can be ruled out, given the currently known evidence.

Discussions of this material can also be found in Broderick (1980), Duffy (1992), and Thornton (1996). I have not yet seen a copy of the Broderick article.

Table 5: The Kings of Man of the dynasty of Godred Crovan

Unless othewise stated, all genealogical statements in this table come from CRM, as translated in ESSH, with chronological data taken from NHI and HBC.

                 Godred iii Crovan, d. 1095
                  k. Man and Dublin
  _______________________|______________
 |                 |                    |

Lagmann ii, k. Man Harald Aufrica md. Olaf i, k. Man ~ various

d. 1096/7? | dau. of | d. 29 June 1153 | concubines

___________________|      Fergus,  |  md. Ingibjorg,  |

| | | lord of | dau. of Hakon, |

son Reginald ii son Galloway | jarl of Orkney |

    k. Man 1153        ____________|  [see Note 1]    |
                      |      _________________________|____
                      |     |             |       |        |
                      |  Reginald iii  Lagmann  Harald    dau. md.
                      |  k. Man 1164                      Somerled
                      |                                   d. 1164
           NN md. Godred iv, k. Man md. Findguala
               |  d. 10 Nov 1187     |  of Ireland
  _____________|      |____________  |_______________
 |                    |     |      |                 |

Reginald iv, k. Man Ivar dau. Aufrica md. Olaf ii, k. Man

d. 14 Feb 1229 ________| John de Courcy d. 21 May 1237

md. sister of | (no issue?) md. 1. Lavon

Lavon (see right) Reginald, bishop md. 2. Christina,

 |               of the Islands                  dau. of Ferchar,
 |                                               earl of Ross
 |________     ______________________________________|____
 |        |   |           |                 |             |

Godred Dond | Godred Harald i, k. Man Reginald v Magnus, k. Man

d. ca. 1231 | d. 1238 d. Oct/Nov 1248 k. Man, d. d. 24 Nov 1265

 |        |           md. Cecilia, dau.  30 May 1249  md. Mary, dau.
 |        |           of Hakon, king        |         Ewen of Argyle

Harald ii | of Norway | [see Note 4]

d. 1250/2 |________________________ | _|___

k. Man | |? |? | ? |

      daughter,   Rhanullt,     others?  Mary, heiress  ?   Godred
      md. Thomas  md. Gruffudd  [see     of Man, md.    ?   d. 1275
      son of      ap Llywelyn   Note 3]  John Waldboef  ?   claimant
      Alan of     prince of              [see Note 6]   ?   [see
      Galloway    North Wales                           ?   Note 5]
                  [see note 2]    ???????????????????????
                                  ?
                             Aufrica de Connaught, heiress of Man,
                             quitclaimed rights to Simon de Montagu
                             [see Note 6]

(.gif version of Table 5)

Note 1: According to the Icelandic sagas [see ESSH, vol. 2, p. 191], Olaf md. Ingibjorg, daughter of Hakon, jarl of Orkney, by whom he was father of Godred. In contradiction to this, CRM states that Godred was the son of Aufrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway. Although there seems to be no good reason to doubt that Olaf was also married to Ingibjorg, the native source of CRM is to be preferred regarding the identity of Godred's mother.

Note 2: According to BWG, Rhanullt appears in several Welsh manuscript genealogies, of which the earliest one is Peniarth MS. 131, by Gutun Owain, ca. 1480. The marriage is plausible enough, but better documentation would be desirable.

Note 3: BWG mentions two other children. For one, a son Hywel, the only source cited is Lewys Dwnn's visitation of Wales (late sixteenth century). For the other, an unnamed daughter who married Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd, the only source cited is a secondary one, Lloyd's History of Wales, pp. 588, 617 (to which I do not have access to see if it cites a primary source).

Note 4: According to The Complete Peerage (under Strathearn), Malise, earl of Strathearn (d. 1271) md. 4th, Mary, widow of Magnus, king of Man, dau. of Ewen of Argyll.

Note 5: Godred's brief attempt to claim the throne in 1275 is mentioned in the Chronicle of Lanercost. See ESSH, vol. 2, pp. 672-3.

Note 6: In 1266, the kingdom of Man was transferred to Alexander III, king of Scotland, and the line of native rulers of Man ended (except for the brief attempt mentioned above in note 5). According to English Genealogy by Anthony Wagner (2nd ed., Oxford, 1972), p. 79, two heiresses attempted to get their rights recognized in 1293. They were Aufrica de Connoght, kinswoman and heiress of king Magnus of Man, who made over her rights to Simon Montagu/Montacute (see the Complete Peerage under Montagu), and Mary, daughter of Reginald, who married John Waldboef. I was able to verify Mary's status from the Roll of Parliament for 33 Edward III (Rolls Series 98), p. 131, but I do not know what primary source gives Aufrica's status as heiress of Magnus, nor do I know the source of the statement of the Dictionary of National Biography (under Simon Montacute) that Aufrica was the daughter of a certain Fergus and "sister of Orray, king of Man" (whoever that was). According to The Complete Peerage, there is no evidence to support the statement of DNB that Aufrica married Simon.

--------------------

He was known as"white hands" for wearing white gauntlets into battle. Other sources say "Crovan" may refer to him as "crippled" .

His father is thought to be either Harold the Black of Ysland (Iceland), or Ivar Haraldsson, King of Dublin 1038-1046. In the Annals of Tigenach - his name is listed on his death records as "Imar Mac Arailt" which means son of Harald. In the "Chronicles of Mann" he is described as the "son of Harald" We will never know, so I decided to go with Harold the Black - w/ the 2 references noted - but I could be wrong......

--------------------

Godred's parentage is only suggested, not proven. Researchers believe he was born in Ireland, son of Harld Olafsson. His last name "Crovan" is gaelic in origen (Crobhan). His childhood was spent in Man - possibly his father was a member of Thorfinn the Mighty's army, who controlled the western seaboard of Scotland and the Irish Sea at this time. Godred was an ally of Harald Hardraada at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, in which they were defeated. He retreated to Man, where he eventually defeated Fingal, son of Godred Sitricson, King of Dublin in 1079 to control Man. He eventually had control of Man, the Isles, and the Hebrides. He established The Tynwald - the first Parlament, still present today. He also established the Christian church under Bishop Rolf. He became King of Dublin in 1091. He spent most of his time at his home in Islay, and in Dublin. Sources have no verified spouses although it is thought he had several. Maria Haakonsdtr is mentioned, also a daughter of Harold Haardrada. In the folklore of Man, he is also known as "King Orry".

--------------------

Godred Crovan

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Godred Haraldsson, mest kjent som Godred Crovan (muligens er Crovan avledet fra norrønt kroppin, krokete), også kjent som Godred eller Guthfrid Kvithand, ble født en gang før 1066, erobret og ble konge av Man og døde i 1095 på øya Islay i Indre Hebridene i nåværende Skottland. Svært få detaljer kjennes fra hans liv.

Innhold [skjul]

1 Flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær

2 Erobringen av Man

3 Strid og opprør

4 Fotnoter

5 Se også

6 Eksterne lenker

[rediger] Flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær

Godred Crovan er den første kongen av Man som beskrives i Krøniken til kongene av Man og Øyene, skjønt norrøne menn hadde kommet til øya lenge før ham. Han nevnes som sønn av en Harald Svarte fra Island[1], og kommer dramatisk inn i historien som en flyktning fra Harald Hardrådes hær som gikk på overveldende nederlag i det tre dager lange og blodige slaget ved Stamford Bridge i England i 1066. Det har vært spekulert om Godred Crovan ble utpekt som høvding eller overhode over Man av kong Harald, og således markerte begynnelsen på direkte norsk innflytelse på øya i Irskesjøen.

[rediger] Erobringen av Man

Det kan leses fra Krøniken til kongene på Man og Øyene, som ble satt sammen i 1257, at Godred Crovan først ble tatt vel imot av den daværende herskeren på Man. 13 år senere, i 1079, har Godred Crovan en annen hensikt for øya ved at han samlet en veldig hær. Han kom i kamp med innbyggerne, ble beseiret og jagd på flukt. En tid senere kom han tilbake for andre gang, men med samme resultat. Den tredje gangen skulle derimot avgjøre øya skjebne.

Godred Crovans hær invaderte nordlige Man i havnen Ramsay om natta. Han lot tre hundre mann skjule seg i skogen opp mot fjellet som ble kalt for Skakafjell (eller dagens Sky Hill[2]). Om morgen kom manxmennene i kamp med Godred Crovans hær. De gjorde det bra mot de invaderende inntil de tre hundre falt dem i ryggen og tvang dem på flukt ut på et nes. Deres bedende skrik om nåde fikk i henhold til Krøniken Godred Crovan til å fatt omsorg for dem og han holdt hæren sin tilbake fra å massakrere de overlevende. Deretter ble Man delt, den nordlige delen ble forbeholdt plyndring, mens den sørlige delen for ham selv. Således ble Man kongens egen eiendom, i henhold til Krøniken, og for ham alene. I tillegg kom Godred Crovan også til å kontrollere Dublin og større deler av Leinster i Irland, og deler av de ytre øyene i løpet av sin tid.

[rediger] Strid og opprør

Det har vært spekulert om Godred Crovan faktisk hadde fortid på Man før 1066, og kanskje også vokst opp der. Han styrte Man i 16 år, muligens fra Dublin, før han trakk seg tilbake til Islay hvor han dør i 1095. Han etterlot seg tre sønner, Lagman, Harald og Olav. De eldste, Lagman, griper makten. Harald gjorde deretter opprør mot Lagman, men tapte. Lagman fikk brorens øyne stukket ut og lot ham kastrere. Deretter, sannsynligvis i 1096, viste Lagman anger for sin udåd, han frasa seg frivillig kongedømmet, «lot seg merke med tegnet til Herrens kors» og dro på en pilegrimsreise til Jerusalem hvor han døde.

Hans sønn yngste sønn Olav Godredsson, også kalt Olav Kleining (den lille) og senere også dennes sønn, Godred Olavsson, skulle komme til å bli konger av Man.

Noen forskere mener at Godred Crovan huskes av folk på Man som den legendariske kong Gorree eller Orry. En stor rullestein av granitt sto helt opp til moderne tid i nærheten av St. Marks på Man og ble kalt for «Godred Crovans stein».

[rediger] Fotnoter

^ Krønikens latinske originaltekst kaller stedet for «Ysland» hvilket kan leses som som Island, men det minner også om øya Islay, som han betegnende nok døde på.

^ Sky Hill er dagens navn på fjellet rundt 40 km sør for Ramsay, Mans nordligste by, og det navn som engelsk litteratur henviser til. Krønikens latinske navn for stedet er derimot av norrøn opprinnelse, «Scacafel», hvilket kan leses som «Skakafjell» slik dagens Snaefell kan leses som «Snøfjell».

[rediger] Se også

Liste over kongene av Man

--------------------

Godred Crovan (Old Irish: Gofraid mac meic Arailt, Gofraid Méranech; Guðrøðr[1]) (died 1095) was a Norse-Gael ruler of Dublin, and King of Mann and the Isles in the second half of the 11th century. Godred's epithet Crovan may mean "white hand" (Middle Irish: crobh bhan).[2] In Manx folklore he is known as King Orry.

Contents

[hide]

  * 1 Ancestry and early life
  * 2 Invasions of the Isle of Man
  * 3 Conquest and loss of Dublin
  * 4 Issue and legacy
  * 5 See also
  * 6 Notes
  * 7 References

[edit] Ancestry and early life

The notice of Godred's death in the Annals of Tigernach calls him Gofraid mac meic Aralt or Godred, son of Harald's son. As a result, it has been suggested that Godred was a son, or nephew, of the Norse-Gael king Ímar mac Arailt (or Ivar Haraldsson) who ruled Dublin from 1038 to 1046, who was in turn a nephew of Sigtrygg Silkbeard and grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán. The Chronicles of Mann call Godred the son of Harald the Black of Ysland, variously interpreted as Islay, Ireland or Iceland,[3] and make him a survivor of Harald Hardraade's defeat at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066. They say that he took refuge with his kinsman Godred Sigtryggsson, then King of Mann and the Isles. Irish annals record that Godred was subject to the Irish King of Dublin, Murchad son of Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó of the Uí Cheinnselaig. Godred Sigtryggsson and Murchad both died in 1070 and the rule of the Isle of Man passed to Godred's son Fingal.

[edit] Invasions of the Isle of Man

Main article: Battle of Skyhill

In 1079, the Chronicles of Mann say that Godred invaded the Isle of Man three times:

“ In the year 1056 [1079], Godred Crovan collected a number of ships and came to Mann; he gave battle to the natives but was defeated, and forced to fly. Again he assembled an army and a fleet, came to Mann, encountered the Manxmen, was defeated and put to fight. A third time he collected a numerous body of followers, came by night to the port called Ramsey, and concealed 300 men in a wood, on the sloping brow of a hill called Sky Hill. At daylight the men of Mann drew up in order of battle, and, with a mighty rush, encountered Godred. During the heat of the contest the 300 men, rising from the ambuscade in the rear, threw the Manxmen into disorder, and compelled them to fly. ”

[edit] Conquest and loss of Dublin

The Chronicles say, and Irish sources agree, that Godred then took Dublin although the date is unknown. In 1087 the Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall" were killed on an expedition to the Isle of Man. In 1094 Godred was driven out of Dublin by Muircheartach Ua Briain. He died the following year, "of pestilence" according the Annals of the Four Masters, on Islay.

[edit] Issue and legacy

Godred left three known sons, Lagmann, Olaf and Harald. Harald was blinded by Lagmann and disappears from the record, but the descendants of Lagmann and Olaf ruled the Kingdom of the Isles until the rise of Somerled and his sons, and ruled the Isle of Man until the end of the kingdom 1265 and its annexation by Alexander III, King of Scots. Even as late as 1275 Godred son of the last King of Mann tried to seize the island.

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Fingal Godredson King of Mann and the Isles

1079–1095 Succeeded by

Magnus Barefoot

Preceded by

Énna mac Diarmata

or

Donnchad mac Domnaill Remair King of Dublin

1086–1094 Succeeded by

Domnall (mac Muirchertaig) Ua Briain

[edit] See also

  * Early Medieval Ireland 800–1166
  * Lord of the Isles
  * Uí Ímair

[edit] Notes

 1. ^ Seán Duffy, ‘Godred Crovan (d. 1095)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
 2. ^ His other epithet, Méranech, means "furious", Crovan might also derive from Irish crúbach, "claw", or Old Norse kruppin, "cripple"; Hudson, p. 173.
 3. ^ Hudson notes that Ysland in the Manx Chronicle may represent "Ireland"; Hudson, p. 171.

[edit] References

  * The Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys published by the Manx Society (1874) at A Manx Note Book
  * CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach and the Four Masters as well as Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress
  * Crawford, Barbara (1987), Scandinavian Scotland, Leicester: Leicester University Press, ISBN 0-7185-1282-0 
  * Hudson, Benjamin (2005), Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516237-4 
  * McDonald, R. Andrew (1997), The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard c.1100–c.1336, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, ISBN 1-898410-85-2

-------------------- Godfred I Crovan, King of Dublin and Man, was King of Dublin in Ireland between 1072 and 1075; he was King of Man between 1075 and 1095.

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p354.htm#i15027 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Konge af the Sudreys. Kæmpede sammen med Harald Hardråde (sin svigerfar) mod Harald Godwinson i slaget ved Stamford Bridge år 1066. Harald Hardråde faldt, og Godred Crovan rejste til Man og boede hos en slægtning - senere erobrede han øen og tog selv magten. -------------------- Gudrod deltog i slaget vid Stanford bridge 1066. Efter slaget gjorde han flera försök på att vinna tronen på Isle of man. han lyckades och blev en stor kung och erkände Magnus Barfota som sitt överhuvud.

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Godfred II Crovan, King of Man, Dublin & the Isles's Timeline

1040
1040
Söderöarna, Norway
1075
1075
Age 35
Man - son of G0dred Crovan
1079
1079
- 1095
Age 39
Great Britain
1080
1080
Age 40
Isle of Man, England
1095
1095
Age 55
Isle of Man
1177
1177
Age 55
????
X-Unknown
????
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