Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, King of the Britons (c.1020 - 1064) MP

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Birthplace: Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales
Death: Died in Gwynedd, Britain
Occupation: "King of the Britons." Ruler of Wales from 1055-his death, KING OF GWYNEDD-1039 KING OF DEHEUBARTH 1055-, King of Wales, Ruler of all Wales, King of all Wales (1039 - 1063), King of Gwynedd and Powys, Ruler of Wales, King of the Brittons, King
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, King of the Britons

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1020–August 5, 1064) was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. Known as King of the Britons, he was great-great-grandson to Hywel Dda and King Anarawd ap Rhodri of Gwynedd.

Genealogy and early life

Gruffydd was the eldest of two sons of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, who had been able to rule both Gwynedd and Powys. On Llywelyn's death in 1023, a member of the Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd. Gruffydd according to an early story had been a lazy youth, but one New Year's Eve, he was driven out of the house by his exasperated sister. Leaning against the wall of another house, he heard a cook who was boiling pieces of beef in a cauldron complain that there was one piece of meat which kept coming to the top of the cauldron, however often it was thrust down. Gruffydd took the comment to apply to himself, and began his rise to power.

King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

In 1039 Iago ab Idwal was killed by his own men (his son Cynan ap Iago, who may have been as young as four, was taken into exile in Dublin) and Gruffydd, already the usurper-king of Powys, was able to become king of Gwynedd. Soon after gaining power he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing its leader, Edwin, the brother of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. He then attacked the neighbouring principality of Deheubarth which was now ruled by Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in a battle at Pencader in 1041 and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of Deheubarth in about 1043, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded as returning with a Danish fleet to the mouth of the River Tywi to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd however defeated and killed him in a close fought fight.

Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster.

King of Wales 1055-1063

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgar, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its Norman castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter attacking, and seems to have built a fortification at Longtown in the Golden Valley of Herefordshire before refortifying Hereford. Shortly afterwards Ælfgar was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded.

Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056 he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. He now claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English.

Death and aftermath

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgar in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led the fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to Brut y Tywysogion. The Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan ap Iago in 1064, whose father Iago ab Idwal had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039. [1] Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. Walter Map has preserved a comment from Gruffydd himself about this:

   Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam.

Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold.

Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1069 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle.

Marriage and issue

Gruffydd married Edith (Aldgyth) Ealdgyth Swan-neck, daughter of Ælfgar, they had the following:

   * Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1069)
   * Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1069)
   * Nesta verch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichard of Richard's Castle

-------------------- Gruffydd ap Llywelyn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1007 – August 5, 1063), was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. He was great-great-grandson to Hywel Dda and King Anarawd ap Rhodri of Gwynedd.

Genealogy and early life

Gruffydd was the eldest of two sons of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, who had been able to rule both Gwynedd and Powys. On Llywelyn's death in 1023, a member of the Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd. Gruffydd according to an early story had been a lazy youth, but one New Year's Eve, he was driven out of the house by his exasperated sister. Leaning against the wall of another house, he heard a cook who was boiling pieces of beef in a cauldron complain that there was one piece of meat which kept coming to the top of the cauldron, however often it was thrust down. Gruffydd took the comment to apply to himself, and began his rise to power. [edit]King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

In 1039 Iago ab Idwal was killed by his own men (his son Cynan ap Iago, who may have been as young as four, was taken into exile in Dublin) and Gruffydd, already the usurper-king of Powys, was able to become king of Gwynedd. Soon after gaining power he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing its leader, Edwin, the brother of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. He then attacked the neighbouring principality of Deheubarth which was now ruled by Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in a battle at Pencader in 1041 and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of Deheubarth in about 1043, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded as returning with a Danish fleet to the mouth of the River Tywi to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd however defeated and killed him in a close fought fight. Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster. [edit]King of Wales 1055-1063

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgār, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its Norman castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter attacking, and seems to have built a fortification at Longtown in Herefordshire before refortifying Hereford. Shortly afterwards Ælfgār was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded. Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056, he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. Now a true King of Wales, he claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English. Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor."[1] [edit]Death and aftermath

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgār in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led the fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to Brut y Tywysogion. The Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan ap Iago in 1064, whose father Iago ab Idwal had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039. [2] Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. According to Walter Map, Gruffydd said of this: Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam. Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold. Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1069 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle. [edit]Marriage and issue

Gruffydd married Edith of Mercia (Ealdgȳð), daughter of Ælfgār, they had the following children: Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1069) Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1069) Nesta verch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichard of Richard's Castle

-------------------- Gruffyd ap Llywelyn, Brenin Cymru, first married Guerta of Deheubarth circa 1030.

He drove Hywel ap Edwin in flight from the kingdom in 1039 in Deheubarth, Wales.

He was already probably established in Powys, and when Iago ap Idwal of Gwynedd was murdered by his own men, perhaps with Gruffydd as an accomplice, he emerged as the claimant for the northern kingdom in 1039.

He succeeded Hywell II to the throne of Deheubarth in 1039. He was the first (and only) native king of all of Wales in 1039; he was Prince of Gwynedd between 1039 and 1063.

He fought a hard struggle to make himself ruler of the southern kingdom of Wales, but he was thwarted by two determined kings for fifteen years between 1040 and 1055.

He married Ealdgyth of Mercia, daughter of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and Ælfgifu of the Seven Boroughs.

He was restored to the Deheubarth kingship following Griffith II in 1055.

He was totally ruthless, his hands stained with the blood of rivals and opponents, but in retrospect his reign was seen as a period of outstanding achievement.

He was slain on 5 August 1063 at the age of 52 in battle while fighting an invading army of Saxons under Earl Harold (later Harold I) According to the Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur (1063): "In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn was slain, after innumerable victories, through the treachery of his own men. He had been head and shield and protector to the Britons."

He was the last "High King of Wales."

See "My Lines" ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p346.htm#i7150 ) from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. Called King of the Britons in the Annals of Ulster and Brut y Tywysogion, he was great-great-grandson to Hywel Dda and King Anarawd ap Rhodri of Gwynedd.

-------------------- Died due to the attack on his court by Harold Godwinson. His own men killed him. His head was roughly taken from his body & taken to Harold, Earl of Wessex.

Sources:

The book, 'Wales'

The book, 'They Came With The Conqueror'

The book, 'The Oxford History of the British Monarchy'

The book, 'Kings & Queens of Great Britain' -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruffydd_ap_Llywelyn

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

See also Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1000–August 5, 1063) was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. Known as King of the Britons, he was of a cadet branch of the princely house of Mathrafal of Powys.Contents [hide]

1 Genealogy and early life

2 King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

3 King of Wales 1055-1063

4 Death and aftermath

5 Marriage and issue

6 Notes

7 References

[edit]

Genealogy and early life

Gruffydd was the only son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, who had been able to seize both Gwynedd and Powys from their traditional dynasties. On Llywelyn's death in 1033, a member of the traditional Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd. Gruffydd according to tradition had been a lazy youth, but one New Year's Eve, he was driven out of the house by his exasperated sister. Leaning against the wall of another house, he heard a cook who was boiling pieces of beef in a cauldron complain that there was one piece of meat which kept coming to the top of the cauldron, however often it was thrust down. Gruffydd took the comment to apply to him, and began to work to gain power.

[edit]

King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

In 1039 Iago ab Idwal was killed by his own men (his son Cynan ap Iago went into exile in Dublin) and Gruffydd, already the usurper-king of Powys, was able to become king of Gwynedd by 1039. Soon after gaining power he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing its leader, Edwin, the brother of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. He then attacked the neighbouring principality of Deheubarth which was now ruled by Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in a battle at Pencader in 1041 and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of Deheubarth in about 1043, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded as returning with a Danish fleet to the mouth of the River Tywi to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd however defeated and killed him.

Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had suddenly attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster.

[edit]

King of Wales 1055-1063

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgar, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its Norman castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter attacking, but was not able to penetrate very far. Shortly afterwards Ælfgar was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded.

Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056 he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. He now claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English.

[edit]

Death and aftermath

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgar in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led to fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to Brut y Tywysogion. The Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan ap Iago, whose father Iago ab Idwal had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039. [1] Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. Walter Map has preserved a comment from Gruffydd himself about this:

Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam.

Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold.

Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1070 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle.

[edit]

Marriage and issue

Gruffydd married Ealdgyth, daughter of Ælfgar, they had the following:

Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1070)

Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1070)

Nesta verch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichardPreceded by

Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig King of Gwynedd

1039—1063 Succeeded by

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn

King of Powys

1039—1063

Preceded by

Meurig ap Hywel King of Gwent

1055—1063 Succeeded by

Cadwgan ap Meurig

Preceded by

Gruffydd ap Rhydderch King of Glywysing

1055—1063

King of Deheubarth

1055—1063 Succeeded by

Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin

[edit]

Notes

^ Davies, J A history of Wales p. 101

[edit]

References

John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)

John Davies A history of Wales (Penguin Books) ISBN 0-14-014581-8 -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruffydd_ap_Llywelyn -------------------- Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1007 – August 5, 1063) was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. Called King of the Britons in the Annals of Ulster and Brut y Tywysogion, he was great-great-grandson to Hywel Dda and King Anarawd ap Rhodri of Gwynedd.

King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

In 1039 Iago ab Idwal was killed by his own men (his son Cynan ap Iago, who may have been as young as four, was taken into exile in Dublin) and Gruffydd, already the usurper-king of Powys, was able to become king of Gwynedd. Soon after gaining power he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing its leader, Edwin, the brother of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. He then attacked the neighbouring principality of Deheubarth which was now ruled by Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in a battle at Pencader in 1041 and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of Deheubarth in about 1043, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded as returning with a Danish fleet to the mouth of the River Tywi to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd however defeated and killed him in a close fought fight.

Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster.

[edit]King of Wales 1055-1063

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgār, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its Norman castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter attacking, and seems to have built a fortification at Longtown in Herefordshire before refortifying Hereford. Shortly afterwards Ælfgār was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded.

Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056, he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. Now a true King of Wales, he claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English[citation needed]. Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor."[1]

[edit]Death and aftermath

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgār in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led the fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to Brut y Tywysogion. The Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan ap Iago in 1064, whose father Iago ab Idwal had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039.[2] Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. According to Walter Map, Gruffydd said of this:

Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam.

Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold.

Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1069 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle.

[edit]Marriage and issue

Gruffydd married Edith of Mercia (Ealdgȳð), daughter of Ælfgār, they had the following children:

Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1069)

Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1069)

Nesta verch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichard of Richard's Castle -------------------- Prince and ruler of all of Wales -------------------- GRUFFUDD ap LLYWELYN (bu f. 1063), brenin Gwynedd a Phowys, ac ar 61 1055 brenin Cymru oil; mab Llywelyn ap Seisyll (bu f. 1023) ac Angharad ferch Maredudd ab Owain, brenin Deheubarth. Prin yw'r wybodaeth am ei ieuenctid ond cadwyd rhai traddodiadau yn straeon Gwallter Map [q.v.]. Fel llanc yr oedd yn araf a diantur, meddir, ond yn ddiweddarach fe'i trowyd gan uchelg.iis yn wr dewr, beiddgar, wedi'i ddonio a dychymyg ac unplygrwydd. Pan laddwyd lago ab Idwal yn 1039 gan ei wyr ei hun, daeth GrufTudd ap Llywelyn yn frenin Gwynedd a Phowys. Yn union wedyn trawodd ergyd yn erbyn Saeson Mercia ym mrwydr Rhydygroes-ar-Hafren a gyrrodd hwynt yn waedlyd ar ffo. Dug y fuddugoliaeth hon ef i amlygrwydd, ac o hyn hyd ei farwolaeth parhaodd yn darian i'w wlad ac yn ddychryn i'w gelynion. Ar 61 taro gwyr Mercia a sicrhau'r gororau troes ei sylw at y Deheubarth, He yr oedd Hywel ab Edwin yn frenin. Ni wyddys llawer am yr ymrafael rhwng y ddau, ond yn 1040 ymosododd Gruffudd ar Geredigion a llosgi Llanbadarn-fawr. Yn 1041 bu Gruffudd eilwaith yn fuddugol ar Hywel ym mrwydr Pencader, ond ni Iwyddodd i'w Iwyr drechu, achos yn 1042 gorchiygodd Hywel lu'r Cenhedloedd Duon yn Mhwlldyfach (heddiw Pwlldyfarch) ger Caer-fyrddin. Dwy flynedd wedyn (1044) dug Hywel lynges o'r Cenhedloedd Duon gydag ef o Iwerddon ond fe'i lladdwyd mewn brwydr ffyrnig yn erbyn Gruffudd yn Abertywi. Hyd yn oed ar 61 hyn ni allodd Gruffudd feddiannu Deheubarth; cododd Gruffudd ap Rhydderch ap lestyn i'w wrthwynebu. Yn 1045, yn 61 B.T. (Pen. MS. 20, 18a) ), bu twyll mawr a brad rhwng Gruffudd ap Rhydderch a'i frawd Rhys ap Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. Bu'n rhaid i Ruffudd gael help Swegen fab Godwin i geisio cynnal ei awdurdod yn Neheubarth. Yn 1147 lladdwyd tua 140 o 'deulu' Gruffudd drwy dwyll uchelwyr Ystrad Tywi, ac i ddial hynny anrheithiodd Gruffudd Ddyfed ac Ystrad Tywi; ond ni allodd wneud mwy na hynny ac am yr wyth mlynedd ar 61 hynny yr oedd gan Ruffudd ap Rhydderch afael sicr ar Ddeheubarth. Troes Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ei egn'ion i gyfeiriad arall; yn gynnar yn haf 1052 cyrchodd i wlad Henffbrdd a gorchfygodd lu cymysg o Saeson a Normaniaid ger Llanllieni. Yn 1055 lladdodd Ruffudd ap Rhydderch a chael meddiant o Ddeheubarth o'r diwedd. Hefyd, mewn cynghrair ag Elfgar o Fercia, ymosododd ar Saeson a Normaniaid Henffordd o dan iarll Ralph, gyrrodd hwynt ar ffo a llosgodd y dref. Gyrrwyd Harold Iarll i ddial yr ymosodiad ond ni Iwyddodd ond i atgyweirio Henffordd a dod i delerau gydag ./Elfgar. Yn 1056 dug Leofgar, esgob Henffordd, fyddin yn erbyn Gruffudd ac ar 16 Mehefin bu brwydr rhyngddynt yn nyffryn Machawy. Unwaith eto bu Gruffudd yn fuddugol. Wedyn trwy ymdrechion yr ieirll Harold, Leofric o Fercia, ac Ealdred o Gaerwrangon daethpwyd i gytundeb a thyngodd Gruffudd ffyddlondeb i'r brenin Edward. Tua'r adeg yma hefyd priododd Gruffudd Ealdgyth ferch yElfgar, a phan alltudiwyd ^Elfgar drachefn yn 1058 helpodd Gruffudd ef, gyda chynhorthwy Magnus Haroldson, i ennill ei diroedd yn ol. Yr oedd y cytundeb agos rhwng Gruffudd ac ^Elfgar yn sicrhau diogelwch i Gymru, ond tua diwedd 1062, pan oedd Jilfgar wedi marw, ymosododd Harold Iarll yn ddirybudd ar lys Gruffudd yn Rhuddlan ond llwyddodd Gruffudd i ddianc. Yn 1063 lladdwyd GrufTudd 'drwy dwyll ei wyr ei hun,' medd B.T., wedi iddo fod 'yn ben ac yn darian ac yn amddiffynnwr i'r Brytaniaid.' Gadawodd GrufTudd ddau fab, Maredudd (bu f. 1070) ac Idwal (bu f. 1070), ac un ferch, Nest, yr hon a briododd Osbern FitzRichard.

Ann. C.; B.T. (Pen. 20), 1941; Walter Map, De Mig. Cur, Dist. xxii-xxiii; Lives of Edward the Confessor (ed. Luard), 425; Sax. Chron.; Trans. Cymm., 1899-1900; Hist. W., ii. 35aff. T.JO. ...........................................

GRUFFUDD ap LLYWELYN (d. 1063), king of Gwynedd and Powys, and after 1055 king of all Wales; son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll (q.v.) and Angharad, daughter of Maredudd ab Owain (d. 1072) (q.v.), king of Deheubarth. Not much information about his youth is available but some traditions have been preserved in the tales of Walter Map. As a youth he is said to have been slow and spiritless, but ambition later turned him into a man of valour and boldness and developed in him imagination and steadfastness of purpose. After Iago ab Idwal had been slain by his own men in 1039 Gruffudd ap Llywelyn became king of Gwynedd and Powys. Immediately afterwards, he struck a blow against the Saxons of Mercia in the battle of Rhyd-y-groes on the Severn and drove them to flight. This victory made him a prominent figure; and thenceforth until his death he continued to be the shield of his country and the terror of its enemies. Having struck the men of Mercia and made the Marches safe he turned his attention to Deheubarth, where Hywel ab Edwin (q.v.) was king. There is not much information about the conflict between the two; but in 1040 Gruffudd again attacked Ceredigion and burned Llanbadarnfawr. In 1041 Gruffudd again defeated Hywel in the battle of Pencader, but he did not succeed in overpowering him completely for in 1042 Hywel defeated a host of ?Black Gentiles? at Pwlldyfach (today, Pwlldyfarch), near Carmarthen. Two years later (1044), Hywel brought with him from Ireland a fleet of the ?Black Gentiles,? but he was slain in a fierce encounter with Gruffudd in the estuary of the Towy. Even after this Gruffudd failed to gain possession of Deheubarth; Gruffydd ap Rhydderch ap Iestyn (q.v.) rose up against him. According to ?Brut y Tywysogion? (Pen. MS. 20, 18a), great deceit and treachery took place in 1045 between Gruffydd ap Rydderch and his brother Rhys and Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. The latter was forced to call in the help of Swegen son of Godwin, in his endeavour to uphold his authority in Deheubarth. In 1047 about 140 of Gruffudd's war-band were slain through the treachery of the men of Ystrad Tywi, and to avenge them Gruffudd plundered Dyfed and Ystrad Tywi; but that was all he succeeded in doing and for the next eight years Gruffydd ap Rhydderch was in sure possession of Deheubarth. Gruffudd ap Llywelyn directed his efforts in another direction; early in the summer of 1052 he invaded the land of Hereford and defeated a combined host of Saxons and Normans near Leominster. In 1055 he slew Gruffydd ap Rhydderch and thus at last gained possession of Deheubarth. Moreover, leagued with Aelfgar of Mercia he attacked the Saxons and Normans of Hereford under earl Ralph, drove them to flight and set fire to the town. Earl Harold was sent to avenge this attack but all he succeeded in doing was to repair Hereford and to come to terms with Aelfgar. In 1056 Leofgar, bishop of Hereford, led an army against Gruffudd, and on 16 June a battle took place between them in the valley of the Machawy. Once again Gruffudd was victorious. Then, through the efforts of earl Harold, earl Leofric of Mercia, and Ealdred of Worcester, an agreement was reached and Gruffudd swore fealty to king Edward. About this time too Gruffudd m. Ealdgyth, daughter of Aelfgar, and when Aelfgar was again exiled in 1058 Gruffudd, with the help of Magnus Haroldson, assisted him in regaining his lands. The close alliance between Gruffudd and Aelfgar ensured security for Wales, but towards the close of the year 1062, when Aelfgar had died, earl Harold without warning fell upon Gruffudd's court at Rhuddlan, but Gruffudd made good his escape. In 1063 Gruffudd was slain ?through the treachery of his own men,? according to ?Brut y Tywysogion,? after he had been ?the head and shield and defender of the Britons.? Gruffudd left two sons, Maredudd (d. 1070) and Idwal (d. 1070) and one daughter, Nest, who m. Osbern FitzRichard. Bibliography: Ann. C.; B.T (Pen. 20), 1941; Walter Map, De Nug. Cur., xxii-iii; Lives of Edward the Confessor (ed. Luard), 425; Sax. Chron.; Trans. Cymm., 1899-1900; Hist. W., 358 ff. Author: Professor Thomas Jones, D.Litt., Aberystwyth .................................................

A.D. 1063. This year went Earl Harold, after mid-winter, from Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging belonging thereto; and put him to flight. Then in the gang-days went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Cymru; where he made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages. Tosty meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered the land. But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war that he waged with Earl Harold. He was king over all the Welsh nation. And his head was brought to Earl Harold; who sent it to the king, with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. King Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent and Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings. [Anglo Saxon Chronicle] .............................................

1039In this year Iago of Gwynedd was slain. And in his place Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ruled who throughout his reign hounded the Pagans and the Saxons in many battles. And first he defeated Leofrig of Mercia at Rhydd-y-Groes.

1041In this year was the battle of Pencadair where Gruffudd defeated Hywel ab Edwin, and he seized Hywel's wife and took her for his own.

1042In this year was the battle of Pwlldyfach where Hywel defeated the Gentiles. And in that year Gruffudd was captured by the men of Dublin.

1044In this year Hywel ab Edwin gathered a fleet of the Gentiles of Ireland to ravage the kingdom. And Gruffudd encountered him and there was a mighty battle at the mouth of the Tywi. And there Gruffudd prevailed and Hywel was slain.

1045In this year there was great treachery and deceit between the sons of Rhydderch, Gruffudd and Rhys, and Gruffudd ap Llywelyn.

1047In this year about seven score of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn's war-band were slain through the treachery of the leading men of Ystrad Twyi. And thereafter Gruffudd ravaged Dyfed and Ystrad Tywi.

1049In this year all Deheubarth was ravaged. 1052In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn fought the Saxons and their French allies at Llanllieni.

1056In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn took Gruffudd ap Rhydderch's kingdom and his life. And after that Gruffudd moved a host against the Saxons, with Ranulf as their leader. And after bitter-fierce fighting the Saxons turned to flight. And Gruffudd pursued them to within the walls of Hereford and there he massacred them and destroyed the walls and burnt the town. And with vast spoil he returned home eminently worthy. [Chronicles of Ystrad Fflur]

Reigned 1039-1063 King of Gwynedd & Powys Reigned 1044-1063 King of Deheubarth Reigned 1055-1063 King of All Cymru ...........................................

Gruffydd ab Llewelyn (d 1063) king of the Welsh, was the son of Llewelyn, the son of Seisyll. His father, who according to a late authority, had married Angharad, daughter of Maredudd, son of Owain, a descendant of Hywel Dda, had been a vigorous ruler over Gwynedd. On Llewelyn's death in 1023 the old line of North Welsh kings had been restored in the person of Iago, son of Idwal. In 1039 Gruffydd defeated and slew Iago, and made himself king over Gwynedd. In the same year he led a destructive foray against England, and won a battle at Crossford (Rhyd y Gross) on the Severn, in which Eadwine brother of the great Mercian earl Leofric, and many other good men were slain. But his main energies were directed towards the subjection of the rival Welsh princes. In 1039 he drove out Hywal, sonof Edwin, from the throne of Deheubarth after a battle at Llanbadarn in northern Ceredigion. Hywel sought the support of the Irish Norsemen, and made a long series of attempts to win back his territories. In 1041 Gruffydd won another victory over him at Pancadar, halfway between Carmarthen and Lampeter. Here hs captured Hywel's wife, and took her as his concubine; 'this was only one Grufydd's actions,' says the Gwentian chronicler, 'which displeased the wise.' Next year Hywel's Danish allies triumphed at Pwll Dyvach. Gruffyd was now for a time the prisoner of the 'black pagans' of Dublin, who, if the 'Gwentian Brut' could be trusted, endeavoured to restore Cynan, son of Idwal, to the North Welsh throne. But Gruffydd soon regained his power. In 1044 Hywel again appeared with a fleet from Ireland, and entered the mouth of the Towy. Gruffydd defeated him wiht vast slaughter at Abertowy and the death of Hywel in the battle secured for Gruffydd the permanent possession of Deheubarth.

In 1045 Grufydd and Rhys, sons of Rhydderch, whom the sons of Edwin had expelled from the throne of Deheubarth, stirred up sedition agains Gruffydd. Gruffydd, who had prudently abstained from attacking England since 1039, and had been rewarded for his fidelity by the grant of all the English land which lay to the west of the Dee, now seems to have joined his forces with Swegen, son of Godwine, the earl of the southern border lands, in an expedition against the sons of Rhydderch. But in 1047 the nobles of Ystrad Towy and Dyved rose against their northern master and treacherously cut off 140 men of his household. In revenge Gruffydd laid waste to all Ystrad Towy and Dyved. Two years later occurred a cruel ravaging of Deheubarth by the Irish allies of Bruffyd ab Rhydderch. At last in 1055 Bruffydd ravaged Herefordshire 'until he cam nigh unto Leominster,' and 'on the same day on which thirteen years before Eadwine had been slain he slew many of the English as well as Frenchmen of the castle.' Soon after the death of the southern Gruffydd chance gave him an opportunity of inflicting a severe blow on the English. Aelfgar, son of Leofric, and brother of the Eadwine slain by Gruffydd in 1039, was now outlawed, and having collected eighteen ships of northmen from Ireland, requested Gruffydd's co-operation in his war against King Edward and Harold. Gruffydd raised a great army from every part of Cymru, and in combination with Aelfgar ravaged Archenfield, a district of Herefordshire, with a severity that was remembered so long afterwards as the time of the Domesday inquest. On 24 Oct, two miles from Hereford, the timid Frech Earl Ralph, King Edward's nephew, was driven into a disgraceful retreat before the motley army of the allies. The town was burnt, the minster plundered, and the castle razed. Gruffydd returned with a great booty. Harold, son of Godwine, was now sent out to revenge the capture of Hereford, and Grufydd did not venture on a pitched battle. He retreated into South Cymru, and Harold did not venture beyond the district of Straddele in Herefordshire. Negotiations were now begun, and Gruffydd and Aelfgar met Harold at Billingsley in Shropshire, where peace was made and Aelfgar restored. As the result of Gruffydd's rebellion he lost the lands beyond the Dee, which Edward had previously given him.

Gruffydd had no intention of keeping peace, and now allied himself with a northman strangely described as 'Magnus, son of Harold king of Germany,' possibly a son of Harold Hardrada. IN the spring of 1056 the borders were again ravaged. Again the storm burst round Hereford, which Harold had restored, and where his chaplain, Leofgar, its newly made bishop, headed the resistance. But on 17 June Gruffydd won another great vicory, and slew the warlike bishop, and Aelfnorth the sheriff besides. The English army was reduced ot terrible straits, when Bishop Ealdred united with Leofric, Aelfgar's father and Harold himself to pacify the victorious Welshman. Gruffydd swore oaths that he would be to King Edward a faithfull and unbetraying underking. An important result of Gruffydd's Mercian alliance was his marriage with Ealdgyth, the beautiful daughter of Aelfgar, who, if a later French writer can be trusted, was devotely attached to him. In 1058, when Aelfgar, now earl of the Mercians, was a second time outlawed, Gruffydd and a Norse fleet again succeeded in effecting his restoration by violence. Gruffydd now remained quiet until his father-in-law's death broke his last tie to England.

In 1062 Gruffydd again invaded the borders, and pushed his forces even beyond the Severn. At Christmas Harold was sent with a small force of Norsemen to repel him. Again Gruffydd shirked an encounter, and Harold penetrated to his castle of Rhuddlan in the vale of Clwyd. Gruffydd escaped with difficulty by sea, and Harold burnt his palace, ships, and stores. On 26 May 1063 Harold again invaded Cymru, sailing with a fleet from Bristol, and circumnavigating a large part of the Welsh coast. Tostig joined his brother with a land force, which completed the subjection of the Welsh. Gruffydd's old tactics were no longer of avail against Harold's superior forces and strategy. For the whole summer Cymru was harried and plundered, until the Welsh grew tired of Gruffydd, and denounced him as the author of their misfortunes. They drove him from his throne and declared him an exile. On 5 Aug Gruffydd was slain by the treachery of his own men, 'by reason of the war which he waed with Harold the Earl.' ' His head was brought to Harold, and Harold brought it to the king, and his ship's head and the ornaments therewith.' HIs widow soon became the wife of Harold. His lands, shorn of considerable portions now incorporated with England, were given to his half-brothers, Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, his mother's secon husband, who became vassals both of Edward and Harold.

The memory of Gruffydd lived long in the songs and affections of his people. His defeat made possible the Norman conquest of South Cymru. He is described as 'king of the Britons' by the native writers, and the English chronicler recoginses that 'he was king over all the Welsh race.' 'He was,' says the 'Brut y Tywysogion,' 'the head and shield and defender of the Britons.' 'He and his father,' says the Gwentian chronicler, 'were the noblest princes that had been, until their time in Cymru; and the best for bravery and war, and for peace and for government, and for generosity and justice.'

Ordericus Vitalis says that Gruffydd left two children by Ealdgyth, Bleddyn, his successor, and a daughter named Nest. But Bleddyn was in all probability the son of Cynvyn, and Gruffydd's uterine brother, and was certainly not his son. Giraldus, however, agrees that he had a daughter Nest, who was the mother of Nest, the wife of Bernard of Neufmarche the conqueror of Brecheiniog. Gruffydd also left two other sons, Maredud and Ithel, who perished in 1070 after an unsuccessful attempt to dethrone Bleddyn. [Dictionary of National Biography; VIII:748-750] .......................................

GRUFFYDD (AB LLYWELYN AB SEISYLLT,) a celebrated prince of Wales, who succeeded to the principality of North Wales, on the death of his father in 1021. He several times defeated the English and Danes, and he obtained the sovereignty of all Wales in 1032, by defeating Hywel ab Edwyn, prince of South Wales. In 1038, Hywel, having succeeded in raising a large force of his own countrymen, and of Englishmen, endeavoured to recover his principality, hut was totally defeated by Gruffydd at Pencadair. In 1042, Gruffydd was by stratagem taken prisoner by Cynan ab lago, who had crossed over from Ireland at the head of a considerable force, but the Irish were expelled by the Welsh, who recovered their prince. Among the many stirring incidents of his reign, may be noticed the escape of Fleance the son of Bancho, from Scotland, who found a most hospitable asylum at the court of Gruffydd, which was requited by the most disgraceful conduct on the part of Fleance, for which he was deservedly put to death. After many battles, in which he defeated the English and their allies, he was treacherously slain by his own subjects in 1064, at the instigagation of Harold, and Caradawg ab Rhydderch ab lestyn. (Chronicles of Wales. Myv. Arch.) -------------------- Gruffydd ap Llywelyn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the 11th-century king in Wales from the line of Seisyll. For the 13th-century Welsh prince from the line of Anarawd, see Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr.

Map of the extent of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's Conquest

 Gwynedd, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's kingdom

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1007–1063 or 1064) was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death. He was the usurped son of King Llywelyn ap Seisyll and should not be confused with the dispossessed son of the later Prince Llywelyn the Great. Although the true lineage of his grandfather Seisyll is obscure, he claimed to be a the great-great-grandson of Hywel Dda.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Genealogy and early life 2 King of Gwynedd and Powys (1039–1055) 3 King of Wales 1055–1063 4 Death and aftermath 5 Marriage and issue 6 Notes 7 References Genealogy and early life[edit]

Gruffydd was the elder of two sons of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, who had been able to rule both Gwynedd and Powys. On Llywelyn's death in 1023, a member of the Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd. According to an early story Gruffydd had been a lazy youth, but one New Year's Eve, he was driven out of the house by his exasperated sister. Leaning against the wall of another house, he heard a cook who was boiling pieces of beef in a cauldron complain that there was one piece of meat which kept coming to the top of the cauldron, however often it was thrust down. Gruffydd took the comment to apply to himself, and began his rise to power in Powys. King of Gwynedd and Powys (1039–1055)[edit]

In 1039, King Iago of Gwynedd was killed (supposedly by his own men) and his son Cynan, who may have been as young as four, was forced into exile in Dublin. Gruffydd, who had already recovered Powys, expanded into the vacuum. Soon after gaining power, he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing Edwin, brother of the Mercian earl. He then attacked Dyfed, which his father had ruled but was now under Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in the Battle of Pencader (1041) and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of the south, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded returning to the mouth of the River Tywi with a Danish fleet to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd, however, defeated and killed him in a closely fought engagement.[dubious – discuss] Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster. King of Wales 1055–1063[edit]

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgār, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter-attacking, and seems to have built a fortification at Longtown in Herefordshire before refortifying Hereford. Shortly afterwards Ælfgār was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded. Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056, he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. Now a true King of Wales, he claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English.[citation needed] Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor."[2] Death and aftermath[edit]

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgār in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led the fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to Brut y Tywysogion. The Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan ap Iago in 1064, whose father Iago ab Idwal had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039.[3] Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. According to Walter Map, Gruffydd said of this: Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam. Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold. Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1069 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle. Marriage and issue[edit]

Gruffydd married Ealdgyth of Mercia, daughter of Ælfgār, they had the following children: Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1069) Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1069) Nesta ferch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichard of Richard's Castle. Their daughter Agnes (or Nest) married Bernard de Neufmarche Regnal titles Preceded by Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig King of Gwynedd 1039–1063 Succeeded by Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King of Powys 1039–1063 Preceded by New Claimant Pretender King of Deheubarth 1043–1047 Succeeded by Title given up in favour of Gruffydd ap Rhydderch Preceded by Meurig ap Hywel King of Gwent 1055–1063 Succeeded by Cadwgan ap Meurig Preceded by Gruffydd ap Rhydderch King of Morgannwg 1055–1063 King of Deheubarth 1055–1063 Succeeded by Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin Notes[edit]

Jump up ^ John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.) Jump up ^ Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 100. ISBN 0-14-014581-8. Jump up ^ Davies, J A history of Wales p. 101; Compare Remfry, P.M., Annales Cambriae..., 68 and notes Nesta Verch Gruffydd also was married to Trahearn Ap Caradog before Osborn. They had 7 children. References[edit]

John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.) Remfry, P.M., Annales Cambriae. A Translation of Harleian 3859; PRO E.164/1; Cottonian Domitian, A 1; Exeter Cathedral Library MS. 3514 and MS Exchequer DB Neath, PRO E (ISBN 1-899376-81-X) John Davies A history of Wales (Penguin Books) ISBN 0-14-014581-8 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 176-2, 176A-4, 177-1 Categories: 1007 births1060s deathsHouse of AberffrawMonarchs of GwyneddMonarchs of Gwent11th-century Welsh monarchs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruffydd_ap_Llywelyn

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Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, King of the Britons's Timeline

1020
1020
Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales
1050
1050
Age 30
Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales
1055
April 7, 1055
Age 35
Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales
1057
1057
Age 37
Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales
1063
1063
Age 43
1063
Age 43
1064
August 5, 1064
Age 44
Gwynedd, Britain
1064
Age 44
????
????
Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales