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Birthplace: Hampi, Karnataka, India
Death: (Date and location unknown)
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Hanuman: An Epic Hero

Hanuman: The Devotee of Lord Rama IT is hard to find a mythical character who is at once so powerful, learned, philosophic, humble and amusing! Hanuman features prominently in the great epics of Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Hanuman Meets Rama Hanuman met Rama and his brother Lakshmana while Rama was in exile in the jungle, and searching for his wife Sita who was abducted by Ravana. Their quest brought them near Pampa Lake at the foot of Mount Risyamukha, where the monkey king Sugriva and his ministers were hiding. Sugriva, who was being persecuted by his brother Bali, suspected that Rama and Lakshmana might have been sent by Bali to slay him. To find out the facts, Hanuman approached them in the guise of a Brahmin. In Service of Rama Hanuman's initial words highly impressed Rama, and made him comment: "None can talk this way without mastering the Vedas. He has such a flawless countenance, a wonderful accent, and a captivating way of speaking. He has the ability to move even an enemy..." After he revealed his identity as the prince of Ayodhya, Hanuman fell prostrate before him in respect of the Lord. Rama picked him up and embraced him. There began the story of Hanuman, which is inextricably interwoven with Rama, and dealt with in detail in Valmiki'sRamayana and the Tulsidas' Ramacharitamanas. To cut the long story of Hanuman short, he then introduced Rama to Sugriva, and began his massive search for Sita. Finding out her whereabouts, he consoled Sita, and burnt down the city of Lanka. Hanuman then brought Rama to Lanka, fought the battle against Ravana with his simian army, and vanquished the demons. Hanuman's greatest feat was saving the life of Lakshmana by fetching the life-giving herb "Sanjivani" from the Himalayas. He flew fast towards the Himalayas, but unable to recognise the right herb, picked up the whole mountain on his hand and flew back to Lanka, just in time to save Lakshmana. Thereafter Hanuman served Rama forever. Hanuman and the Pandavas The venerable ape also features in the great epic Mahabharata. How Hanuman met the valiant Bhima, one of the Pandava brothers is itself a marvelous tale. He recognized Bhima as his spiritual brother, since both were born with the blessings of Pavana, the Wind God, and promised to aid the Pandavas in the big battle of Kurukshetra. Hanuman positioned himself in the flag of Arjuna's chariot to secure and stabilize the war-craft. The triangular saffron flag of Hanuman stands for stability and equilibrium, sense-control and mind-control, and a sure sign of victory over all that is base and evil.

. Hanuman (IPA: hʌnʊˈmɑn) is a Hindu deity, who was an ardent devotee of Rama according to the Hindu legends. He is a central character in the Indian epicRamayana, and also finds mentions in several other texts, including Mahabharata, the various Puranas and some Jain texts. A vanara (ape-like humanoid), Hanuman participated in Rama's war against the demon king Ravana. Several texts also present him as an incarnation of the Lord Shiva.

Etymology and other names Hanuman

Indonesian Balinese wooden statue of Hanuman The Sanskrit texts mention several legends about how Hanuman got his name. One legend is that Indra, the king of the deities, struck Hanuman's jaw during his childhood (see below). The child received his name from the Sanskrit words Hanu ("jaw") and -man (or -mant, "prominent" or "disfigured"). The name thus means "one with prominent or disfigured jaw".[1] Another theory says the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han ("killed" or "destroyed") andmaana (pride); the name implies "one whose pride was destroyed".[1] Some Jain texts mention that Hanuman spent his childhood on an island called Hanuruha, which is the origin of his name.[2] According to one theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the proto-Dravidian word for male monkey (ana-mandi), which was later Sanskritized to "Hanuman" (see historical development below). Linguistic variations of Hanuman

Raja Ravi Varma's lithograph of Hanuman fetching the mountain


Sanskrit Transliteration हनुमान् Affiliation Devotee of Rama

Abode Earth Mantra Rama's Name Weapon Gada (mace)

"Hanuman" include Hanumat, Anuman (Tamil), Anoman (Indonesian), Andoman (Malay) and Hunlaman (Lao). Other names of Hanuman include:  Anjaneya, Anjaniputra or Anjaneyudu (Telugu), all meaning "the son of Anjana".  Kesari Nandan ("son of Kesari")  Maruti ("son of Marut") or Pavanputra ("son of Pavan"); these names derive from the various names of Vayu, the deity who carried Hanuman to Anjana's womb  Maharudra ("the great Rudra"), from the theory that Hanuman was an incarnation of Shiva (also known as Rudra)  Bajrang Bali, "the strong one (bali), who has limbs (anga) as hard as a vajra (bajra)"; this name is widely used in rural North India[1]  Sang Kera Pemuja Dewa Rama, Hanuman, the Indonesian for "The mighty devotee ape of Ram, Hanuman" Epithets and attributes In addition, Hanuman has received several epithets, including:  Manojavam, the one who is swift as mind (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)  Maarutatulyavegam, the one who has a speed equal to the wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)  Jitendriyam, the one who has complete control on his senses (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)  Buddhimataamvarishtham, the one who is most senior among intellectuals (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)  Vaataatmajam, the one who is the son of wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)  Vaanarayoothamukhyam, the one who is the chief of vanara army (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra). Similar in meaning to - Vaanaraanamadheesham.  Shreeraamdootam, the one who is the messenger of Rama (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra).  Atulit Bal Dhaamam, the one who is the repository of incomparable strength.  Hemshailaabh Deham, the one whose body resembles a golden mountain.  Danujvan Krushanum, the one who is the destroyer of forces of demons.  Gyaaninaam Agraganyam, the one who is considered foremost among knowledgeable beings.  Sakal Gun Nidhaanam, the one who is the repository of all the virtues and good qualities.  Raghupati Priya Bhaktam, the one who is the dearest of all devotees to Lord Rama.  Sankat Mochan, the one who liberates (moc) from dangers (sankat)[1] In the 3rd chapter of Kishkindha Kaanda of Valmiki Ramayana[3], Rama describes many attributes of Hanuman's personality. Summarized as follows:  Ablest sentence maker.  Knower of all Vedas and Scriptures.  Scholar in nine schools of grammars.  Possessing faultless speech and facial features Historical development

Hanuman is characterized as a celibate in most Indian texts. However, in the ThaiRamakien, Hanuman falls in love with the pretty mermaid Suvannamaccha[4] The word "Vrsakapi" or "Vrishakapi", later used as an epithet for Hanuman, is mentioned in Rigveda (X:96). Some writers, such as Nilakantha (author of Mantra Ramayana) believe that the Vrishakapi of Rigveda alludes to Hanuman. However, other scholars believe that Hanuman is not mentioned in the Vedic mythology: the "Vrsakapi" of Rigveda refers to another deity[5] or is a common name for the monkeys.[6] F.E. Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman was aproto-Dravidian deity, and the name "Hanuman" was a Sanskritization of the Old Tamil word ana-mandi ("male monkey"). The Hindi writer Ray Govindchandra (1976) endorsed this view, and stated that the proto-Indo-Aryansmust have invented a Sanskrit etymology for the deity's name, after they accepted Hanuman in their pantheon.[7]Murray Emeneau disagrees with this theory, and states that the word mandi, as attested in Sangam literature, can refer only to a female monkey, and therefore, the word ana-mandi makes no semantic sense.[7] Camille Bulcke, in hisRamkatha: Utpatti Aur Vikas ("The tale of Rama: its origin and development"), traces the origins of Hanuman worship to the pre-Aryan, pre-Dravidian aboriginal tribes of Central India.[5] According to him, Valmiki's Ramayana was based on older tribal ballads. Hanuman came to be regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of Shiva by the 10th century CE (this development possibly started as early as in the 8th century CE).[5] Hanuman is mentioned as an avatar of Shiva or Rudra in the Sanskrit texts like Mahabhagvata Purana, Skanda Purana,Brhaddharma Purana and Mahanataka among others. This development might have been a result of the Shavite attempts to insert their ishta devata (cherished deity) in the Vaishnavite texts, which were gaining popularity.[5] The 17th century Oriya work Rasavinoda by Divakrsnadasa goes on to mention that the three gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – combined to the take the form of Hanuman.[8] Hanuman became more important in the medieval period, and came to be portrayed as the ideal devotee (bhakta) of Rama. His characterization as a lifelong brahmachari (celibate) was another important development during this period.[5] The myth that Hanuman's celibacy is the source of his strength became popular among the wrestlers in India.[9] The celibacy or brahmacharya aspect of Hanuman is not mentioned in the original Ramayana.[10] The original Valmiki Ramayana mentions thatBharata presented Hanuman with 16 maidens as a reward. The non-Indian versions of Ramayana, such as the Thai Ramakien, mention that Hanuman had relationships with multiple women, including Svayamprabha, Benjakaya (Vibhisana's daughter), Suvannamaccha and even Ravana's wifeMandodari.[5] According to these versions of the Ramayana, Macchanu is son of Hanuman borne by Suvannamaccha, daughter of Ravana.[11][12][13] The Jain text Paumacariya also mentions that Hanuman married Lankasundari, the daughter of Lanka's chief defender Bajramukha.[14] Another legend says that a demigod named Matsyaraja (also known as Makardhwaja or Matsyagarbha) claimed to be his son. Matsyaraja's birth is explained as follows: a fish (matsya) was impregnated by the drops of Hanuman's sweat, while he was bathing in the ocean.[5]

An idol of Hanuman and his mother Anjana, at the Anjani Mata temple,Chomu. Hanuman was born to the humanoid creatures called thevanaras. His mother Anjana was an apsara who was born onearth as a female vanara due to a curse. She would be redeemed from this curse on her giving birth to a son. TheValmiki Ramayana states that his father Kesari was the son ofBrihaspati and that Kesari also fought on Rama's side in the war against Ravana.[15] Anjana and Kesari performed intense prayers to Shiva to get a child. Pleased with their devotion, Shiva granted them the boon they sought.[16] Hanuman, in another interpretation, is the incarnation or reflection of Shiva himself.[17] Hanuman is often called the son of the deity Vayu; several different traditions account for the Vayu's role in Hanuman's birth. One story mentioned in Eknath's Bhavartha Ramayana(16th century CE) states that when Anjana was worshipping Shiva, the King Dasharatha of Ayodhya was also performing the ritual of Putrakama yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred pudding (payasam) to be shared by his three wives, leading to the births of Rama,Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. By divine ordinance, a kite snatched a fragment of that pudding and dropped it while flying over the forest where Anjana was engaged in worship. Vayu, the Hindu deity of the wind, delivered the falling pudding to the outstretched hands of Anjana, who consumed it. Hanuman was born to her as a result.[15][18] Another story of Hanuman's origins is derived from the Vishnu Purana and Naradeya Purana. Narada, infatuated with a princess, went to his lord Vishnu, to make him look like Vishnu, so that the princess would garland him at swayamvara (husband-chosing ceremony). He asked for hari mukh (Hari is another name of Vishnu, and mukh means face). Vishnu instead bestowed him with the face of a vanara. Unaware of this, Narada went to the princess, who burst into laughter at the sight of his ape-like face before all the king's court. Narada, unable to bear the humiliation, cursed Vishnu, that Vishnu would one day be dependent upon a vanara. Vishnu replied that what he had done was for Narada's own good, as he would have undermined his own powers if he were to enter matrimony. Vishnu also noted that Hari has the dual Sanskrit meaning of vanara. Upon hearing this, Narada repented for cursing his idol. But Vishnu told him not repent as the curse would act as a boon, for it would lead to the birth of Hanuman, an avatar of Shiva, without whose help Rama (Vishnu's avatar) could not kill Ravana. [edit]Birth place Multiple places in India are claimed as the birthplace of Hanuman.  According to one theory, Hanuman was born on 'Anjaneya Hill', in Hampi, Karnataka.[19] This is located near the Risyamukha mountain on the banks of the Pampa, where Sugreeva and Rama are said to have met in Valmiki Ramayana's Kishkinda Kanda. There is a temple that marks the spot.  Anjan, a small village about 18 km away from Gumla, houses "Anjan Dham", which is said to be the birthplace of Hanuman.[20] The name of the village is derived from the name of the goddess Anjani, the mother of Hanuman. Aanjani Guha (cave), 4 km from the village, is believed to be the place where Anjani once lived. Many objects of archaeological importance obtained from this site are now held at the Patna Museum.  The Anjaneri (or Anjneri) mountain, located 7 km from Trimbakeshwar in the Nasik district, is also claimed as the birthplace of Hanuman.[21]  A cave in a hill near Gokarna, one of the oldest temple towns of India, is also said to be the birthplace of Hanuman. This cave has had a Hanuman temple for a long time. Gokarna, situated in west coast of Karnataka, is known for Atma Linga of Shiva, installed by Ganapathi to save it from the hands of Ravana long before Ramayana days. [edit]Childhood

Hanuman Mistakes the Sun for a Fruit by BSP Pratinidhi As a child, believing the sun to be a ripe mango, Hanuman pursued it in order to eat it. Rahu, a Vedic planet corresponding to an eclipse, was at that time seeking out the sun as well, and he clashed with Hanuman. Hanuman thrashed Rahu and went to take sun in his abode.[22] Rahu approached Indra, king of devas, and complained that a monkey child stopped him from taking on Sun, preventing the scheduled eclipse. This enraged Indra, who responded by throwing the Vajra (thunderbolt) at Hanuman, which struck his jaw. He fell back down to the earth and became unconscious. A permanent mark was left on his chin (हनुः hanuḥ"jaw" in Sanskrit), due to impact of Vajra, explaining his name.[15][23] Upset over the attack, Hanuman's father figure Vayu deva (the deity of air) went into seclusion, withdrawing air along with. As living beings began to asphyxiate, Indra withdrew the effect of his thunderbolt. The devas then revived Hanuman and blessed him with multiple boons to appease Vayu.[15] Brahma gave Hanuman a boon that would protect him from the irrevocable Brahma's curse. Brahma also said: "Nobody will be able to kill you with any weapon in war." From Brahma he obtained the power of inducing fear in enemies, of destroying fear in friends, to be able to change his form at will and to be able to easily travel wherever he wished. From Shiva he obtained the boons of longevity, scriptural wisdom and ability to cross the ocean. Shiva assured safety of Hanuman with a band that would protect him for life. Indra blessed him that the Vajra weapon will no longer be effective on him and his body would become stronger than Vajra. Varuna blessed baby Hanuman with a boon that he would always be protected from water. Agni blessed him with immunity to burning by fire. Surya gave him two siddhis of yoga namely "laghima" and "garima", to be able to attain the smallest or to attain the biggest form . Yama, the God of Death blessed him healthy life and free from his weapon danda, thus death would not come to him. Kubera showered his blessings declaring that Hanuman would always remain happy and contented. Vishwakarma blessed him that Hanuman would be protected from all his creations in the form of objects or weapons. Vayu also blessed him with more speed than he himself had. On ascertaining Surya to be an all-knowing teacher, Hanuman raised his body into an orbit around the sun and requested to Surya to accept him as a student. Surya refused and explained claiming that he always had to be on the move in his chariot, it would be impossible for Hanuman to learn well. Undeterred, Hanuman enlarged his form, with one leg on the eastern ranges and the other on the western ranges, and facing Surya again pleaded. Pleased by his persistence, Surya agreed. Hanuman then learned all of the latter's knowledge. When Hanuman then requested Surya to quote his "guru-dakshina" (teacher's fee), the latter refused, saying that the pleasure of teaching one as dedicated as him was the fee in itself. Hanuman insisted, whereupon Surya asked him to help his (Surya's) spiritual son Sugriva. Hanuman's choice of Surya as his teacher is said to signify Surya as a Karma Saakshi, an eternal witness of all deeds. Hanuman later became Sugriva's minister.[15][24] Hanuman was mischievous in his childhood, and sometimes teased the meditating sages in the forests by snatching their personal belongings and by disturbing their well-arranged articles of worship. Finding his antics unbearable, but realizing that Hanuman was but a child, (albeit invincible), the sages placed a mild curse on him by which he became unable to remember his own ability unless reminded by another person. The curse is highlighted in Kishkindha Kanda and Sundara Kanda, whenJambavantha reminds Hanuman of his abilities and encourages him to go and find Sita.[15] [edit]Adventures in Ramayana The Sundara Kanda, the fifth book in the Ramayana, focuses on the adventures of Hanuman. Meeting with Rama

Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa meeting Hanumān at Rishyamukha Hanuman meets Rama during the Rama's 14-year exile.[25]With his brother Lakshmana, Rama is searching for his wifeSita who had been abducted by Ravana. Their search brings them to the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha, where Sugriva, along with his followers and friends, are in hiding from his older brother Vali. Having seen Rama and Lakshmana, Sugriva sends Hanuman to ascertain their identities. Hanuman approaches the two brothers in the guise of a brahmin. His first words to them are such that Rama says to Lakshmana that none could speak the way the brahmin did unless he or she had mastered the Vedas. He notes that there is no defect in the brahmin's countenance, eyes, forehead, brows, or any limb. He points out to Lakshmana that his accent is captivating, adding that even an enemy with sword drawn would be moved. He praises the disguised Hanuman further, saying that sure success awaited the king whose emissaries were as accomplished as he was.[25] When Rama introduces himself, the brahman identitifies himself as Hanuman and falls prostrate before Rama, who embraces him warmly. Thereafter, Hanuman's life becomes interwoven with that of Rama. Hanuman then brings about friendship and alliance between Rama and Sugriva; Rama helps Sugriva regain his honour and makes him king of Kishkindha. Sugriva and his vanaras, most notably Hanuman, help Rama defeat Raavana and reunite with Sita. In their search for Sita, a group of Vanaras reaches the southern seashore. Upon encountering the vast ocean, every vanara begins to lament his inability to jump across the water. Hanuman too is saddened at the possible failure of his mission, until the other vanaras and the wise bear Jambavanthabegin to extol his virtues. Hanuman then recollects his own powers, enlarges his body, and flies across the ocean. On his way, he encounters a mountain that rises from the sea, proclaims that it owed his father a debt, and asks him to rest a while before proceeding. Not wanting to waste any time, Hanuman thanks the mountain and carries on. He then encounters a sea-monster, Surasa, who challenges him to enter her mouth. When Hanuman outwits her, she admits that her challenge was merely a test of his courage. After killing Simhika, a rakshasa, he reaches Lanka.

Hanuman finds Sita in the ashoka grove, and shows her Rama's ring Hanuman reaches Lanka and marvels at its beauty. After he finds Sita in captivity in a garden, Hanuman reveals his identity to her, reassures her that Rama has been looking for her, and uplifts her spirits. He offers to carry her back to Rama, but she refuses his offer, saying it would be an insult to Rama as his honour is at stake. After meeting Sita, Hanuman begins to wreak havoc, gradually destroying the palaces and properties of Lanka. He kills many rakshasas, including Jambumali and Aksha Kumar. To subdue him, Ravana's son Indrajit uses theBrahmastra. Though immune to the effects of this weapon Hanuman, out of respect to Brahma, allows himself be bound. Deciding to use the opportunity to meet Ravana, and to assess the strength of Ravana's hordes, Hanuman allows the rakshasa warriors to parade him through the streets. He conveys Rama's message of warning and demands the safe return of Sita. He also informs Ravana that Rama would be willing to forgive him if he returns Sita honourably. Enraged, Ravana orders Hanuman's execution, whereupon Ravana's brother Vibhishana intervenes, pointing out that it is against the rules of engagement to kill a messenger. Ravana then orders Hanuman's tail be lit afire. As Ravana's forces attempted to wrap cloth around his tail, Hanuman begins to lengthen it. After frustrating them for a while, he allows it to burn, then escapes from his captors, and with his tail on fire he burns down large parts of Lanka. After extinguishing his flaming tail in the sea, he returns to Rama. Shapeshifting In the Ramayana Hanuman changes shape several times. For example, while he searches for the kidnapped Sita in Ravana's palaces on Lanka, he contracts himself to the size of a cat, so that he will not be detected by the enemy. Later on, he takes on the size of a mountain, blazing with radiance, to show his true power to Sita.[26] Also he enlarges & immediately afterwards contracts his body to out-wit Sirsa, the she-demon, who blocked his path while crossing the sea to reach Lanka. Again, he turns his body microscopically small to enter Lanka before killing Lankini, the she-demon guarding the gates of Lanka. He achieved this shape-shifting by the powers of two siddhis; Anima and Garima bestowed upon him in his childhood by Sun-God, Surya. Lifting a mountain

Hanuman fetches the herb-bearing mountain, in a print from the Ravi Varma Press, 1910's When Lakshmana is severely wounded during the battle against Ravana, Hanuman is sent to fetch the Sanjivani, a powerful life-restoring herb, from Dronagiri mountain in the Himalayas, to revive him. Ravana realises that if Lakshmana dies, a distraught Rama would probably give up, and so he dispatches the sorcerer Kalanemi to intercept Hanuman.[27] Kalanemi, in the guise of a sage, deceives Hanuman, but Hanuman uncovers his plot with the help of anapsara, whom he rescues from her accursed state as a crocodile.[27] Ravana, upon learning that Kalanemi has been slain by Hanuman, summons Surya to rise before its appointed time because thephysician Sushena had said that Lakshmana would perish if untreated by daybreak. Hanuman realizes the danger, however, and, becoming many times his normal size, detains the Sun God to prevent the break of day. He then resumes his search for the precious herb, but, when he finds himself unable to identify which herb it is, he lifts the entire mountain and delivers it to the battlefield in Lanka. Sushena then identifies and administers the herb, and Lakshmana is saved. Rama embraces Hanuman, declaring him as dear to him as his own brother. Hanuman releases Surya from his grip, and asks forgiveness, as the Sun was also his Guru. Hanuman was also called "langra veer"; langra in Hindi means limping and veer means "brave". The story behind Hanuman being called langra is as follows. He was injured when he was crossing the Ayodhya with the mountain in his hands. As he was crossing over Ayodhya, Bharat, Rama's young brother, saw him and assumed that some Rakshasa was taking this mountain to attack Ayodhya. Bharat then shot Hanuman with an arrow, which was engraved with Rama's name. Hanuman did not stop this arrow as it had Rama's name written on it, and it injured his leg. Hanuman landed and explained to Bharat that he was moving the mountain to save his own brother, Lakshmana. Bharat, very sorry, offered to fire an arrow to Lanka, which Hanuman could ride in order to reach his destination more easily. But Hanuman declined the offer, preferring to fly on his own, and he continued his journey with his injured leg. Patala incident In another incident during the war, Rama and Lakshmana are captured by the rakshasa Mahiravana (orAhiravan), brother of Ravana, who held them captive in their palace in Patala (or Patalpuri)--the netherworld. Mahiravana keeps them as offerings to his deity. Searching for them, Hanuman reaches Patala, the gates of which are guarded by a young creature called Makardhwaja (known also as Makar-Dhwaja or Magar Dhwaja), who is part reptile and part Vanara. The story of Makardhwaja's birth is said to be that when Hanuman extinguished his burning tail in the ocean, a drop of his sweat fell into the waters, eventually becoming Makardhwaja, who perceives Hanuman as his father. When Hanuman introduces himself to Makardhwaja, the latter asks his blessings, but fights him to fulfill the task of guarding the gate. Hanuman defeats and imprisons him to gain entry. Upon entering Patala, Hanuman discovers that to kill Mahiravana, he must simultaneously extinguish five lamps burning in different directions. Hanuman assumes the Panchamukha or five-faced form of SriVaraha facing north, Sri Narasimha facing south, Sri Garuda facing west, Sri Hayagriva facing the sky and his own facing the east, and blows out the lamps. Hanuman then rescues Rama and Lakshmana. Afterwards, Rama asks Hanuman to crown Makardhwaja king of Patala. Hanuman then instructs Makardhwaja to rule Patala with justice and wisdom. To date Panchamukha Anjaneya mandir is located at Panchmukhi a small village 20 km from Mantralayam, Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh. A divine place where Sri Guru Raghavendra Swamy rests.

Hanuman before Rama, Sita and Bharat When the war ends, Rama's 14-year exile has almost elapsed. Rama then remembers Bharata's vow to immolate himself if Rama does not return to rule Ayodhya immediately, on completion of the stipulated period. Realising that it would be a little later than the last day of the 14 years when he would reach Ayodhya, Rama is anxious to prevent Bharata from giving up his life. Hanuman therefore flies to Ayodhya to inform Bharata that Rama is on his way home. Honours

Hanuman showing Rama in His heart Shortly after he is crowned Emperor upon his return toAyodhya, Rama decides to ceremoniously reward all his well-wishers. At a grand ceremony in his court, all his friends and allies take turns being honoured at the throne. Hanuman approaches without desiring a reward. Seeing Hanuman come up to him, an emotionally overwhelmed Rama embraces him warmly, declaring that he could never adequately honour or repay Hanuman for the help and services he received from the noble Vanara. Sita, however, insists that Hanuman deserved honour more than anyone else, and Sita gives him a necklace of precious stones adorning her neck. When he receives it, Hanuman immediately takes it apart, and peers into each stone. Taken aback, many of those present demand to know why he is destroying the precious gift. Hanuman answers that he was looking into the stones to make sure that Rama and Sita are in them, because if they are not, the necklace is of no value to him. At this, a few mock Hanuman, saying his reverence and love for Rama and Sita could not possibly be as deep as he implies. In response, Hanuman tears his chest open, and everyone is stunned to see Rama and Sita literally in his heart. Hanuman Ramayana

Hanuman beheads Trisiras-from The Freer Ramayana After the victory of Rama over Ravana, Hanuman went to the Himalayas to continue his worship of the Lord. There he scripted a version of the Ramayana on the Himalayan mountains using his nails, recording every detail of Rama's deeds. When Maharishi Valmiki visited him to show him his own version of the Ramayana, he saw Hanuman's version and became very disappointed. When Hanuman asked Valmiki the cause of his sorrow, the sage said that his version, which he had created very laboriously, was no match for the splendour of Hanuman's, and would therefore go ignored. At this, Hanuman discarded his own version, which is called the Hanumad Ramayana. Maharishi Valmiki was so taken aback that he said he would take another birth to sing the glory of Hanuman which he had understated in his version. Later, one tablet is said to have floated ashore during the period of Mahakavi Kalidasa, and hung at a public place to be deciphered by scholars. Kalidasa is said to have deciphered it and recognised that it was from the Hanumad Ramayana recorded by Hanuman in an extinct script, and considered himself very fortunate to see at least one padaof the stanza. After the Ramayana war After the war, and after reigning for several years, the time arrived for Rama to depart to his heavenly abode. Many of Rama's entourage, including Sugriva, decided to depart with him. Hanuman, however, requested from Rama that he will remain on earth as long as Rama's name was venerated by people. Sita accorded Hanuman that desire, and granted that his image would be installed at various public places, so he could listen to people chanting Rama's name. He is one of the immortals (Chiranjivi) of Hinduism.[28] Mahabharata Hanuman is also considered to be the brother of Bhima, on the basis of their having the same father,Vayu. During the Pandavas' exile, he appears disguised as a weak and aged monkey to Bhima in order to subdue his arrogance. Bhima enters a field where Hanuman is lying with his tail blocking the way. Bhima, unaware of his identity, tells him to move it out of the way. Hanuman, incognito, refuses. Bhima then tries to move the tail himself but he is unable, despite his great strength. Realising he is no ordinary monkey, he inquires as to Hanuman's identity, which is then revealed. At Bhima's request, Hanuman is also said to have enlarged himself to demonstrate the proportions he had assumed in his crossing of the sea as he journeyed to Lanka and also said that when the war came, he would be there to protect the Pandavas. During the great battle of Kurukshetra, Arjuna entered the battlefield with a flag displaying Hanuman on his chariot.[28] The incident that led to this was an earlier encounter between Hanuman and Arjuna, wherein Hanuman appeared as a small talking monkey before Arjuna at Rameshwaram, where Rama had built the great bridge to cross over to Lanka to rescue Sita. Upon Arjuna's wondering aloud at Rama's taking the help of monkeys rather than building a bridge of arrows, Hanuman challenged him to build a bridge capable of bearing him alone; Arjuna, unaware of the vanara's true identity, accepted. Hanuman then proceeded to repeatedly destroy the bridges made by Arjuna, who decided to take his own life. Vishnu then appeared before them both after originally coming in the form of a tortoise, chiding Arjuna for his vanity and Hanuman for making Arjuna feel incompetent. As an act of penitence, Hanuman decided to help Arjuna by stabilizing and strengthening his chariot during the imminent great battle. After, the battle of Kurukshetra was over, Krishna asked Arjuna, that today you step down the chariot before me. After Arjuna got down, Krishna followed him and thanked Hanuman for staying with them during the whole fight in the form of a flag on the chariot. Hanuman came in his original form, bowed to Krishna and left the flag, flying away into the sky. As soon as he left the flag, the chariot began to burn and turned into ashes. Arjuna was shocked to see this, then Krishna told Arjuna, that the only reason his chariot was still standing was because of the presence of Himself and Hanuman, otherwise, it would have burnt many days ago due to effects of celestial weapons thrown at it in the war. According to legend, Hanuman is one of the four people to have heard the Bhagwad Gita from Krishna and seen his Vishvarupa (universal) form, the other three being Arjuna, Sanjaya and Barbarika, son ofGhatotkacha. SHRI HANUMAN CHALISA


Shri Guru Charan Saroj Raj After cleansing the mirror of my mind with the pollen Nij mane mukure sudhar dust of holy Guru's Lotus feet. I Profess the pure, Varnao Raghuvar Vimal Jasu untainted glory of Shri Raghuvar which bestows the four- Jo dayaku phal char fold fruits of life.(Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha).


Budhi Hin Tanu Janike Fully aware of the deficiency of my intelligence, I Sumirau Pavan Kumar concentrate my attention on Pavan Kumar and humbly Bal budhi Vidya dehu mohe ask for strength, intelligence and true knowledge to Harahu Kalesa Vikar relieve me of all blemishes, causing pain.


Jai Hanuman gyan gun sagar Victory to thee, O'Hanuman! Ocean of Wisdom-All Jai Kapis tihun lok ujagar hail to you O'Kapisa! (fountain-head of power,wisdom

	 	and Shiva-Shakti) You illuminate all the three worlds
	 	(Entire cosmos) with your glory.

Ram doot atulit bal dhama You are the divine messenger of Shri Ram. The Anjani-putra Pavan sut nama repository of immeasurable strength, though known

	 	only as Son of Pavan (Wind), born of Anjani.

Mahavir Vikram Bajrangi With Limbs as sturdy as Vajra (The mace of God Indra) Kumati nivar sumati Ke sangi you are valiant and brave. On you attends good Sense

	 	and Wisdom. You dispel the darkness of evil thoughts.

Kanchan varan viraj subesa Your physique is beautiful golden coloured and your dress Kanan Kundal Kunchit Kesa is pretty. You wear ear rings and have long curly hair.


Hath Vajra Aur Dhuvaje Viraje You carry in your hand a lightening bolt along with a victory Kandhe moonj janehu sajai (kesari) flag and wear the sacred thread on your shoulder.


Sankar suvan kesri Nandan As a descendant of Lord Sankar, you are a comfort and pride Tej pratap maha jag vandan of Shri Kesari. With the lustre of your Vast Sway, you are

	 	propitiated all over the universe.

Vidyavan guni ati chatur You are the repository of learning, virtuous and fully accom- Ram kaj karibe ko aatur plished, always keen to carry out the behest's of Shri Ram.


Prabu charitra sunibe ko rasiya You are an ardent listener, always so keen to listen to the Ram Lakhan Sita man Basiya narration of Shri Ram's Life Stories. Your heart is filled with

	 	what Shri Ram stood for. You therefore always dwell in the
	 	hearts of Shri Ram, Lakshman and Sita.

Sukshma roop dhari Siyahi dikhava You appeared before Sita in a Diminutive form and spoke to Vikat roop dhari lanka jarava her in humility. You assumed an awesome form and struck

	 	terror by setting Lanka on fire.

Bhima roop dhari asur sanghare With over-whelming might you destroyed the Asuras Ramachandra ke kaj sanvare (demons) and performed all tasks assigned to you by Shri Ram

	 	with great skill.

Laye Sanjivan Lakhan Jiyaye You brought Sanjivan (A herb that revives life) and restored Shri Raghuvir Harashi ur laye Lakshman back to life, Shri Raghuvir (Shri Ram) cheerfully

	 	embraced you with his heart full of joy.

Raghupati Kinhi bahut badai Shri Raghupati (Shri Ram) lustily extolled your excellence and Tum mam priye Bharat-hi sam bhai said: "You are as dear to me as my own brother Bharat."


Sahas badan tumharo yash gaave Thousands of living beings are chanting hymns of your glories; Us kahi Shripati kanth lagaave saying thus, Shri Ram warmly hugged him (Shri Hanuman).


Sankadik Brahmadi Muneesa When prophets like Sanka, even the Sage like Lord Brahma, Narad Sarad sahit Aheesa the great hermit Narad himself, Goddess Saraswati and Ahisha

	 	(one of immeasurable dimensions).

Yam Kuber Digpal Jahan te Even Yamraj (God of Death) Kuber (God of Wealth) and the Kavi kovid kahi sake kahan te Digpals (deputies guarding the four corners of the Universe)

	 	have been vying with one another in offering homage to your
	 	glories. How then, can a mere poet give adequate expression
	 	of your super excellence.

Tum upkar Sugreevahin keenha You rendered a great service to Sugriv. You united him with Ram milaye rajpad deenha Shri Ram and he installed him on the Royal Throne. By heeding Tumharo mantra Vibheeshan mana your advice, Vibhishan became Lord of Lanka. This is known Lankeshwar Bhaye Sub jag jana all over the Universe.


Yug sahastra jojan par Bhanu On your own you dashed upon the Sun, which is at a fabulous Leelyo tahi madhur phal janu distance of thousands of miles, thinking it to be a sweet

	 	luscious fruit.

Prabhu mudrika meli mukh mahee Carrying the Lord's Signet Ring in your mouth, there is Jaladhi langhi gaye achraj nahee hardly any wonder that you easily leapt across the ocean.


Durgaam kaj jagat ke jete The burden of all difficult tasks of the world become light Sugam anugraha tumhre tete with your kind grace.


Ram dware tum rakhvare, You are the sentry at the door of Shri Ram's Divine Abode. Hoat na agya binu paisare No one can enter it without your permission,


Sub sukh lahai tumhari sarna All comforts of the world lie at your feet. The devotees enjoy all Tum rakshak kahu ko dar na divine pleasures and feel fearless under your benign Protection.


Aapan tej samharo aapai You alone are befitted to carry your own splendid valour. All the Teenhon lok hank te kanpai three worlds (entire universe) tremor at your thunderous call.


Bhoot pisach Nikat nahin aavai All the ghosts, demons and evil forces keep away, with the Mahavir jab naam sunavai sheer mention of your great name, O'Mahaveer!!


Nase rog harai sab peera All diseases, pain and suffering disappear on reciting regularly Japat nirantar Hanumant beera Shri Hanuman's holy name.


Sankat se Hanuman chudavai Those who remember Shri Hanuman in thought, words and deeds Man Karam Vachan dyan jo lavai with Sincerity and Faith, are rescued from all crises in life.


Sub par Ram tapasvee raja All who hail, worship and have faith in Shri Ram as the Supreme Tin ke kaj sakal Tum saja Lord and the king of penance. You make all their difficult tasks

	 	very easy.

Aur manorath jo koi lavai Whosoever comes to you for fulfillment of any desire with faith Sohi amit jeevan phal pavai and sincerity, Will he alone secure the imperishable fruit of

	 	human life.

Charon Yug partap tumhara All through the four ages your magnificent glory is acclaimed far

view all 27


Hampi, Karnataka, India

The Kishkindha Kanda is set in the monkey citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the greatest of monkey heroes and an adherent of Sugriva, the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.[47] Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kiskindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita.[48] However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in debauchery. The clever monkey Queen Tara, second wife of Sugriva (initially wife of Vali), calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the monkey citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honor his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.[49] The southern search party under the leadership of Angad and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati that Sita was taken to Lanka.[49][50]

Hampi, Karnataka, India

Kishkindha (kannada: ಕಿಶ್ಕಿನ್ದಾ, IAST: Kiṣkindhā, Devanagari: किष्किन्धा) is the mythical monkey (Vanara) kingdom of the Vanara King Sugriva, the younger brother of Bali, in the Indian mythology of Ramayana times. This was the kingdom where he ruled with the assistance of his friend, Hanuman.

View of Kishkindha
This kingdom is identified to be the regions around the Tungabhadrariver (then known as Pampa Saras) near Hampi in Karnataka. The mountain near to the river with the name Rishimukha where Sugriva lived with Hanuman, during the period of his exile also is found with the same name.
During the time of Ramayana i.e., Treta Yuga, the whole region was within the dense forest called Dandaka Forest extending from Vindhyarange to the South Indian peninsula. Hence this kingdom was considered to be the kingdom of Vanaras which in Sanskrit means "apes", "monkeys" or "forest-animals". During Dwapara Yuga, thePandava Sahadeva was said to visit this kingdom, as per the epicMahabharata, during his southern military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

April 16, -5076
Hampi, Karnataka, India


A stone bas relief at Banteay Srei in Cambodia depicts the combat between Vali and Sugriva. In the middle, the two brothers are shown fighting. To the right, Rama fires his bow. To the left, Vali lies dying in the arms of another monkey.
Sugriva challenged Vali to a fight. When Vali sallied forth to meet the challenge, Rama emerged from the forest to shoot and kill him with an arrow, from the back of a tree.
Now Rama faces the injured Vali. A dying Vali told Rama if you are searching your wife you should have come to me for help and friendship. Whoever took Sita even if it is Ravana I have defeated them and would have taken them at your feet and at your mercy.
So Vali asked the following questions:
• What was my crime?
• Even if I committed a crime (with my brother), what is your right to kill me?
• The third statement shows Vali's disapproval of the way Rama killed him. He says, "I was fighting with some other person and was not careful enough when you shot me."
Rama makes the following replies to Vali:
• The younger brother should be treated like a son. Even if he made a mistake you should forgive him, specially when he promised to respect you for your whole life.
• About his authority he said he had permission from King Bharat to spread righteousness and punish evils.
• The third argument he quoted how great kings did hunting of deers in the past. In fact, Baali in principle could also be kept in the category of deers and a hunting king does not care whether the deer was careful or not.

September 12, -5076
Sri Lanka


4) Entering Lanka at night by placing His left foot desiring the destruction of enemies, Hanuma hears various musical instruments being played upon inside. He also observes enemies' forces and moves towards the royal gynaeceum.
5) Hanuma sees the denizens of city of Lanka rendered beautiful by the glorious moon, Hanuma also become anxious had not become to able to find Seetha.
6) Hanuma moves about the city of Lanka, going from one house to another in search of mother Seetha. He finds amazing wealth and riches abounding in that city of Ravana. He finally enters the huge house of Ravana.
7) Hanuma continues his search for mother Seetha in Ravana's inner city. He sees the aerial plane Pushpaka in Ravana's building.
9) This chapter further describes the inner buildings of Ravana's house., through a hall filled with Ravana's wives.

September 12, -5076
- September 14, -5076
Indian Ocean

THIS FIRST CHAPTER of Sundara Kanda describes Hanuma's preparations to cross the ocean in search of Seetha. Mighty Hanuma's flight over the ocean is described in a glorious detail. Hanuma's encountering of Mainaka (MOUNT IN HUMAN FORM), Surasa (DAKSHA'S DAUGHTER) and Simhika (STRANGE ANIMAL LIVING IN OCEAN), forms important phases of His flight.

September 13, -5076
Sri Lanka


That Hanuma with great resplendence thought for a moment, obtained that Ashoka garden by mind and jumped from the compound wall of that house.
Hanuma continues his search in the Ashoka garden for Seetha. He sees an emaciated woman surrounded by demonesses. From Her radiance and manner of clothing etc, Hanuma recognizes Her to be Seetha.

Sarga 16
Hanuma is grief stricken seeing the plight of Seetha, in that garden being surrounded by ogresses. He becomes firm in mind that She is indeed Seetha, based on Her auspicious bodily marks.

In this chapter Hanuma sees Seetha surrounded by ogresses.

When Ravana woke up he remembered Seetha, and entered Ashoka garden with his best wives.

In this chapter 19TH, Valmiki describes the plight of Seetha in Ashoka garden in detail.

In this chapter 20TH, Ravana entices Seetha with wealth, gems, sovereignty over all wives of Ravana.
In this chapter, 21ST Seetha replies to Ravana saying that He should seek friendship with Rama and return Her back to Rama.

Ravana gives Seetha two months to marry him. He orders ogres to frighten Seetha and bring Her to his control. Ravana then goes back to his own house with his consorts.

This chapter describes the ogre women speaking to Seetha about her marrying Ravana.

24) Seetha cites the examples of Sachi, Arundhati, Rohini et.al., on their devotion towards their husbands. Ogre women threaten to kill Seetha and eat her.

25) Seetha calls out Rama and others and bursts into a wail not being able to endure the threats of ogre women.

26) In this chapter Seetha ponders a lot and decides to give up life without Rama.

27) In this chapter an ogress named Trijata describes her dream. She dreams of Sri Rama triumphs and the ogre Ravana is conquered.

28) Seetha recollects the time limit of two months given by Ravana and her vulnerability of being killed by him. After lamenting for a while, she tries to strangle herself to death with the braid of her hair. At that moment, a propitious omen never seen before appears on her person.

29) Seetha experiences some good omens as follows; Her left eye, left shoulder and left thigh quivered, as also her clothing slipped a bit. Feeling these omens, her consciousness was awakened with exaltation.

30) Hanuma falls in a dilemma whether to console Seetha or to remain silent. Finally Hanuma decides to console Seetha, by eulogising Rama's attributes in a sweet voice, so that Seetha can give credence to his words.

September 13, -5076
Sri Lanka


Hanuma, with his blazing tail comes out and flits over the horses in Lanka, making up his mind to set fire to the host of living beings. Surprised to see the city burning, the celestials and musicians (Gandharvas) gain a great delight.city of Lanka which is the only work let for him to do. Hanuma burns the entire city, barring the abode of Vibhishana. All the demons were frightened o seeing the blazing fire, consuming their city with its trees, houses and a
55) Making out that the whole of Lanka is reduced to ashes and conjecturing that Seetha too thus might have lost her life, Hanuma begins to reproach himself for his unrestrained exhibition of anger. Hanuma regrets that if Seetha dies now in this fire of Lanka, Rama and his brothers on hearing that report will not survive. While reflecting thus, Hanuma sees some good omens and asserts himself that Seetha can survive from the harsh forces of fire by her virtues of penance and devotion to Rama. In the meantime, he hears of her safety from the lips of Charanas (celestial bards) and feels consoled. Hanuma makes up his mind to return only after seeing her again.

56)Hanuma again visits Ashoka garden and sees Seetha once more. He consoles Seetha that Rama along with his forces of monkeys and bears will come soon and after conquering the enemies in battle, will take her back. After bidding adieu to Seetha, he ascends Mount Arishta and enlarges his body making himself ready to leap across the ocean.

September 13, -5076
Sri Lanka

Sundara Kanda
Main article: Sundara Kanda
The Sundara Kanda forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramayana[51] and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman's adventures.[47] After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the ocean to Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demon's city and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, who is wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. He reassures her, giving Rama's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Rama, however she refuses, reluctant to allow herself to be touched by a male other than her husband. She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction.[47]
Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings, and killing Ravana's warriors. He allows himself to be captured and produced before Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and, leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island. The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news.[47][52]

Sundara kanda in prose from sarga 41 to 53

41) Hanuma thinks within himself that he should implement the fourth strategy for success, viz. open assault with the demons, so as to meet Ravana and his ministers for knowing their designs and strengths. Accordingly, he makes up his mind to damage the royal pleasure-garden attached to the gynaecium at Lanka and then proceeds to do that task.
42) Seeing the devastation caused to the pleasant grove by Hanuma the female-demons ask Seetha who that great monkey was and wherefore he has come and talked to her. Seetha replies that she knows nothing of him. Some of the female-demons go to Ravana and report to him that the pleasant grove attached to the gynaecuium has been destroyed by a mighty monkey and that the monkey went to Seetha and talked to her also earlier to the devastation. They also report that Seetha expressed her ignorance about him. Then, Ravana gets angry and sends some demons called Kinkaras to catch hold of Hanuma. Eighty thousand Kinkaras rush towards Hanuma to catch him. But Hanuma, with his might, kills all Kinkaras with an iron rod. Getting to know of the killings, Ravana again sends Jambumali, the son of Prahasta to catch hold of Hanuma.

43) After damaging the pleasure-grove and after killing the Kinkaras dispatched by Ravana, Hanuma thinks of destroying a sanctuary which is sacred to the guardian-deity of the demons. Hanuma ascends to the top of the sanctuary and after killing the guards posted there, shows his strength by clapping on his arms and by uttering the names of Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva in a roaring voice. Hanuma assumes a gigantic form and uplifting a pillar in that sanctuary, he speedily whirls it around and burns the sanctuary by producing a fire, created out of its friction with the other pillars.

44) Ravana sends Jambumali, son of Prahasta, to capture Hanuma. Jambumali attacks Hanuma with his numerous arrows. Hanuma hurls a big rock towards Jambumali, but it fails to kill him. Then, Hanuma throws a big sal tree towards Jambumali and the latter succumbs to it.
45) The seven sons of Prahasta surrounded by a great army rush in speedy chariots upon Hanuma, who is standing on the archy gate way. They discharge a shower of arrows on Hanuma. Then, Hanuma crushes all the enemies, using his palms, feet, fists, nails, chest and thighs only as his weapons. After killing those demons, Hanuma climbs up the archy door-way and takes up his position there again.
46) Ravana sends Virupaksha, Yupaksha, Durdhara, Praghasa and Bhasakarna the five foremost army-generals so as to capture Hanuma. Ravana explains his guess, saying to those five generals that Hanuma may not be an ordinary monkey, but an evil spirit created by Indra the Lord of celestials and asks them to exert a great effort to capture him. Hanuma first kills Durdhara who initially attacks him. He then kills Virupaksha and Yupaksha, by attacking them with a sala tree. Hanuma later kills Praghasa and Bhasakarna, by hurling the top of a mountain on them. After destroying the remaining army together with horses elephants and chariots, he again in returns to the archy door way of the Ashoka groove.
47) Ravana sends Aksha, his own son, to fight against Hanuma. Aksha, along with his army elephants and horses, approach Hanuma and incites him to battle by discharging three sharp arrows. As Aksha discharges his arrows, Hanuma bounces quickly to the sky and smashes Aksha, his chariot and the horses with blows. After killing Aksha, Hanuma returns again to the same archy door-way.
48) Ravana calls Indrajit and asks him to go for a battle against Hanuma. Indrajit wielding a colourful bow quickly in a chariot to face Hanuma in combat. The arrows discharged by Indrajit are made ineffective by Hanuma, through his peculiar skill of maneuvering them like a wind-god. Realizing that Hanuma cannot be slain, Indrajit merely takes him captive by discharging the unfailing missile presided over by Brahma, the creator. Hanuma falls on the ground motionless. The demons tie him with ropes and drag him to the presence of Ravana. Hanuma yields to their operation of capture, even though capable of aborting it, eager as he was to meet Ravana.
49) Hanuma sees well-adorned Ravana, who is seated on a well-decorated throne of crystal. He is surrounded by four ministers viz., Durdhara, Prahasta, Mahaparshva and Nikumbha. Surprised to behold the splendor and glory of Ravana, Hanuma believes that he could even rule heaven along with Indra, but for his gross unrighteousness, which pulled him down.
50) As instructed by Ravana, Prahasta his chief minister inquires of Hanuma as to who he was and also his motive in destroying the pleasure-garden as also killing the demons. In reply, Hanuma says that he destroyed the pleasure-garden in order that he might be taken captive and dragged to the presence of Ravana, whom he was eager to see and was forced in self-defense to kill those who stood in his way. Finally, he declares himself to be a messenger of Rama and adds that, though he was incapable of being bound by a missile presided over by Brahma, he surrendered to it only in order to see Ravana in person.

Hanuma narrates the story of Rama, who on command from his father, went on exile to Dandaka forest along with Seetha, who was later borne away by Ravana through the sky over Rishyamuka mountain. Hanuma adds that Rama, while searching for Seetha at Mount Rishyamuka, happened to meet Sugreeva and made friendship with him. Hanuma also tells the story about Rama installing Sugreeva in the throne, after killing Vali and about Sugreeva promising Rama to get Seetha searched. Celebrating the glory of Rama, Hanuma points out to Ravana that if he wished to survive he should give back Seetha to Rama and that he should be prepared for the worst if on the other hand he refuses to do so.
52) Hearing the harsh words of Hanuma, Ravana orders him to be killed. Vibhishana, however, advises Ravana to desist from the dastardly act, pointing out that the killing of an envoy is forbiddenaccording to religious scriptures.
53) As ordered by Ravana, the demons wrap up old rags around Hanuma's tail, pour oil to it and burn it with fire. The demons tie Hanuma with ropes and conduct ihm to walk down the entire city, proclaining to the citizens of Lanka saying that Hanuma is a spy. The female-demons inform Seetha about the burning of Hanuma's tail and making him move around the city by demons. Then, Seetha starts praying the fire-god to do good to Hanuma. In response to her prayers, fire-god makes Hanuma feel cool with his burnign tail. Then, Hanuma approaches the city-gate of Lanka, takes an iron-rod from the arched door of the gate and kills all the security-guards there.

September 14, -5076
Rameshwaram, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India



Hanuma leaps from the coast of Lanka and touches Mount Mainaka, which he came across in the way. He advances further and roars at the top of his voice at the Mount Mahendra, so as to bring jubilation to the monkeys awaiting his return there. Jambavan tells the monkeys, who moved by jumps with joy on hearing Jambavan, that Hanuma has returned successfully, from his expedition as way evident from his jubilant roar. Having greeted Jambavan, Angada and others on alighting on the summit of Mount Mahendra, Hanuma narrates to them briefly the story of his discovery of Seetha. Applauding Hanuma, prince Angada, who was eager to hear the story, sits down on a rock along with all others.

58) Sampaati informs Angada about Seetha, Ravana, and Lanka after narrating his and his brother Jataayu's flights and plights. Sampaati narrates what he has seen when Seetha was abducted by Ravana and concludes her to be Seetha for she was incessantly calling for Rama's help. He gives an account of the lavish city Lanka as an eagle which has seen that city from this shore of ocean, though he cannot fly as the scorching sun previously burnt both of his wings. Then the returnless monkeys on getting a bare beacon of indication from the lighthouse called Sampaati, they feel highly rejoiced on the seashore.

59) Describing the plight of Seetha to his fellow monkeys, Hanuma expresses his feeling that it behooved them all to see Rama only after restoring Seetha from Lanka. Hanuma says that even single-handed, he is capable of destroying that City of Lanka with its troops of demons, and killing Ravana, much more so when accompanied by heroic, mighty and powerful monkeys. Then, he recounts the past heroic exploits of Jambavan, Angada, Neela, Panasa, Mainda and Dvivida. Hanuma thus incites them all to decided consciously of a war against Lanka.

Angada suggest with enthusiasm that Seetha must be restored by them only, after conquering Lanka. But Jambavan replies that it is not proper for them to do like that; without enquiring about Rama's intention.


Leaving Mount Mahendra and leaping ahead towards Kishkindha, the monkeys on their way halt at Madhuvana, a protected grove abounded in honey which was dear to Sugreeva and guarded by the monkey, Dadhimukha. When the monkeys started to enjoy drinking of honey in the grove with the permission of Prince Angada, Dadhimukha hinders in their way. The monkeys bruise Dadhimukha with their nails and teeth.

The monkeys enter Madhuvana and partake the honey in plenty, as permitted by Hanuma and Angada. Singing and dancing as if in a drunken state, the monkeys were obstructed by those guarding the grove. The terrific monkeys warded off the guards, nay, they even dragged them by their knees and tossed them up in the air. The guards then went to Dadhimukha, the chief of the garden-guards and complained him of the matter. Dadhimukha along with his followers appears on the scene and invade the monkeys with trees and rocks. Angada thrashed Dadhimukha with his arms and made him fall on the ground. Dadhimukha along with his followers then proceed to Kishkindha to report the matter to him. Dadhimukha bows down and touches Sugreeva's feet as a mark of salutation.
Dadhimukha comes to Sugreeva and reports that Madhuvana, the grove abounding in honey, has been damaged by monkeys headed by Angada and Hanuma. When Lakshmana in the vicinity enquires Sugreeva about the matter, Sugreeva says that by hearing about the jubilation of the monkeys, it can be concluded that Seetha has been traced out. Assuaging Dadhimukha, Sugreeva asks him to send without delay, Hanuma, Angada and others to him, so as to hear about their efforts in tracing out Seetha.

Coming back to Madhuvana as instructed by Sugreeva, and craving forgiveness of Angada, Dadhimukha submits to him that he along with the other monkeys are urgently required by Sugreeva. Angada and other monkeys including Hanuma spring forward into the air towards Kishkindha. Even before the arrival of those monkeys, Sugreeva explains to Rama the valid reasons for concluding that Seetha has since been found. Angada, Hanuma and other, monkeys approach Sugreeva. Then, Hanuma apprises Rama of the discovery of Seetha. Hearing the news, Rama and Lakshmana were thrilled with joy and looked on Hanuma with a high esteem.
65) )
Angada, Hanuma and other monkeys approach Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva at Mount Prasravana. When monkeys start narrating the news of Seetha, Rama asks further details of Seetha. Then, the monkeys request Hanuma to explain the occurrences to Rama in detail. Then, Hanuma appraises Rama of Seetha's presence at the foot of a Simsupa tree in the midst of female-demons. After narrating the incidents related by her and delivering to Rama the jewel for the head, earlier handed-over by Seetha as a token, Hanuma conveys her message to Rama.
Rama, presses the jewel for the head, dispatched by Seetha on his bosom and speaks to Sugreeva, telling him that by seeing that excellent jewel he obtains the sight of Seetha, her father and father-in-law. Rama urges Hanuma, to repeat the words spoken by Seetha.
Hanuma narrates at length an incident connected with a crow that occurred during the sojourn of Seetha with Rama at Chitrakuta, which was related by Seetha by way of a token of remembrance. Seetha then describes her miserable state to Hanuma and requests him to ask Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva to come to Lanka to destroy Ravana together with his army. Hanuma consoles Seetha, saying that Rama and Lakshmana would reduce Lanka to ashes and take her back to Ayodhya. When Hanuma further requests Seetha to give a token of remembrance to be handed over to Rama, she gives him a jewel for the head as a token.
Hanuma informs Rama how Seetha expressed her grave doubt as to how monkeys and bears can leap across a vast sea, as well as her appeal to Rama to destroy Ravana along with his entire army in Lanka and take her back to Ayodhya. Hanuma further informs Rama, how he resolved her doubt by explaining the prowess of the troops of monkeys and bears, commanded by Sugreeva as also how he brought solace and peace to her from her worries.