About Harriet Rebecca Johnston (Lane)
Harriet Rebecca Lane Johnston (May 9, 1830 – July 3, 1903), niece of lifelong bachelor United States President James Buchanan, acted as First Lady of the United States from 1857 to 1861. She was one of the few women to hold the position of First Lady while not being married to the President.
Harriet Lane's family was from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. She was the youngest child of Elliott Tole Lane, a merchant, and Jane Buchanan Lane. An orphan after the death of her father when she was 11 years old (her mother had died two years earlier), she requested that her favourite uncle, James Buchanan, be appointed her legal guardian. Buchanan, an unmarried Democratic senator from Pennsylvania, indulged his niece and her sister, enrolling them in boarding schools in Charleston, Virginia (later West Virginia), and then for two years at the Academy of the Visitation Convent in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C. By this time, Buchanan was Secretary of State, and he introduced her to fashionable circles as he had promised.
In 1854 she joined him in London, where he was minister to the Court of St. James's. Queen Victoria gave "dear Miss Lane" the rank of ambassador's wife; admiring suitors gave her the fame of a beauty. In appearance "Hal" Lane was of medium height, with masses of light hair almost golden.
First Lady of the United States:
After the sadness of the Pierce administration, the capital eagerly welcomed its new "Democratic Queen" to the White House in 1857. Harriet was a popular hostess during the four years of the Buchanan presidency. Women copied her hair and clothing styles (especially when she lowered the neckline on her inaugural gown by 2.5 inches), parents named their daughters for her, and a popular song ("Listen to the Mockingbird") was dedicated to her. While in the White House, she used her position to promote social causes, such as improving the living conditions of Native Americans in reservations. She also made a point of inviting artists and musicians to White House functions. For both her popularity and her advocacy work, she has been described as the first of the modern first ladies, and her popularity at the time is compared to that of Jacqueline Kennedy in the 1960s. The Presidential Yacht was named for her and pressed into service during the Civil War—the first of three ships to be named for her, one of which is still in service today.
As sectional tensions increased, she worked out seating arrangements for her weekly formal dinner parties with special care, to give dignitaries their proper precedence and still keep political foes apart. Her tact did not falter, but her task became impossible—as did her uncle's. Seven states had seceded by the time Buchanan retired from office and returned with his niece to his spacious country home, Wheatland, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Romance and Marriage:
From her teenage years, the popular Miss Lane flirted happily with numerous beaux, calling them "pleasant but dreadfully troublesome." Buchanan often warned her against "rushing precipitately into matrimonial connexions," and she waited until she was almost 36 to marry. She chose, with her uncle's approval, Henry Elliott Johnston, a Baltimore banker. Within the next 18 years she lost her uncle, both her two young sons, and her husband.
Later Life and Death:
Thereafter she decided to live in Washington. She had acquired a sizable art collection, largely of European works, which she bequeathed to the government. Accepted after her death in 1903, it inspired an official of the Smithsonian Institution to call her "First Lady of the National Collection of Fine Arts".
In addition, she had dedicated a generous sum to endow a home for invalid children at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. It became a renowned pediatric facility; the Harriet Lane Outpatient Clinics serve thousands of children today, and the widely-used manual for pediatric house officers, The Harriet Lane Handbook, bears her name.
Also, Harriet wrote her will in 1895 and lived another eight years, during which the country’s general prosperity greatly increased the value of her estate. Several Episcopal clergymen were friends. On that account, perhaps, she added a codicil in 1899 directing that a school building be constructed on the grounds of the Washington National Cathedral property and asked that it be called the Lane-Johnston Building “to the end that the family names of my husband and myself may be associated with the bequest made in loving memory of our sons.” A codicil of 1903 increased her gift by one third but said that only half the total was to be spent on the building. The remainder was “specially to provide for the free maintenance, education and training of choirboys, primarily those in service of the Cathedral.” This bequest founded the prestigious boys’ school that today is called St. Albans School, which opened in October 1909.
Why choirboys? Perhaps just an association with her angelic-looking sons. Perhaps a love of the Anglican style, engendered by those high-stepping days of the 1850s. Perhaps because her church in Baltimore, St. Paul’s, had a famous vested choir of men and boys, in the English fashion, instituted at Easter services in 1873, by the Rector, J.S.B. (for John Sebastian Bach) Hodges, son of the organist at Bristol Cathedral, a doctor of music from Cambridge. At first, the Johnstons were displeased by the shift from a choir of men and women in street clothes and left St. Paul’s. But they returned and became such enthusiasts of the vested choir that, according to a St. Paul’s parish history, they expressed regret that their sons had not lived to sing in it. (Mr. Hurlbut’s 1934 School history says the Johnston boys were choirboys at St. Paul’s. [Mr. Stephen Hurlbut was a master of classics at St. Albans School from 1921 until 1947.])
At Harriet Lane Johnston’s funeral, services were conducted by Bishop Satterlee and Canon DeVries of the Washington National Cathedral. She was buried in Baltimore at Green Mount Cemetery, her grave marked with a Celtic Cross like the Peace Cross on the Close. In 1905, guests were summoned to see the cornerstone of the first St. Albans School building, laid for what the invitation referred to as “The Lane Johnston Choir School for Boys of the Washington Cathedral.”
Harriet Lane Johnston was mentioned on the society pages of the Washington Star (now defunct) almost weekly from 1884-1902.
She is buried at Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland.
The United States Coast Guard has had three Cutters named in her honor. The first was the USS Harriet Lane, commissioned into the United States Revenue Cutter Service (predecessor of the USCG) in 1857. This cutter was transferred to the United States Navy in 1861 because of the American Civil War and was captured by the Confederate Navy in 1863.
The second cutter named for Harriet Lane was the 125 foot USCGC Harriet Lane (WSC-141). The Cutter was commissioned in 1926, and decommissioned in 1946
The third cutter named for Harriet Lane is the USCGC Harriet Lane (WMEC-903). The Cutter was commissioned in May 1984, and as of 2010, is still in active service.
The Harriet Lane Outpatient Clinics continue to operate in countries throughout the world.
Founder: St. Albans School, Washington, DC
Miss Lane is the subject of the book, Harriet Lane, America's First Lady by Milton Stern (ISBN 1411626087; ISBN 978-1411626089), the only extensive biography of Miss Lane, which features the only picture of her in her inaugural gown known to exist on the cover.