Hasan ibn Ali

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Hasan ibn Ali

Arabic: الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب
Nicknames: "حسن"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Medina, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia
Death: Died in Medina, Saudi Arabia
Place of Burial: Jannat-ul-Baqi, Medina, Saudi Arabia
Immediate Family:

Son of Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fatimah-tuz-Zahra (R.A)
Husband of Hind Zauja-e-Imaam Hasan; Zhadah al-Kandariya; Ju'da binte al-Ash'ath bin Qays; Khawla al-Fazariya binte Manzoor bin Zaban bin Syar bin Amro; Hafsah binte 'Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr and 2 others
Father of Sayyidna al-Hasan al-Muthanna bin Imaam Hasan as-Sibti (3); Sayyidi No Name (1) bin Imaam Hasan as-Sibti; Sayyidati Saleha binte Imaam Hasan as-Sibti; Sayyidi Aqeel bin Imaam Hasan as-Sibti; Sayyidi Abdur Rahmaan bin Imaam Hasan as-Sibti and 21 others
Brother of Hussein ibn Ali; Zaynab binte Maulana Ali; Umm-e-Kulthoom binte Maulana Ali; Sayyidi Muhsin bin Maulana Ali and ...
Half brother of "Yudit" Fatimah; Umm al-Hasan binte Maulana Ali; Ramlah al-Kubra binte Maulana Ali; Maulana Abbas "Saqqa-e-Karbala" bin Maulana Ali; 'Abdullah bin Maulana Ali and 11 others

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About Hasan ibn Ali

Hasan ibn Ali


Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim Hasan al-Mujtabā


Rank Second Twelver/Mustaali/Zaydi Imām Name Hasan ibn ‘Alī Kunya Abu Muhammad[1] Birth 15th Ramadhān 3 AH[2] ≈ March 1, 625 C.E. Death 7th[3] or 28th[4] Safar 50 AH ≈ March 6, 670 C.E. Birthplace Madīnah[2] Buried Jannatul Baqī‘, Madīnah Life Duration

Before Imāmate: 37 years (3 - 40 AH) - 8 years with his grandfather Muhammad - 8 years with his mother Fātimah - 37 years with his father ‘Alī Imāmate: 10 years (40 - 50 AH) Titles

   al-Mujtabā[5]
   (Arabic for The Chosen)
   *as-Sibt[5]
   (Arabic for The Grandson)
   *Sayyidush Shabābi Ahlil Jannah[6]
   (Arabic for Leader of the Youth of Paradise)
   *az-Zakī[5]
   (Arabic for The Pure)
   *at-Taqī[5]
   (Arabic for The Pious)
   *as-Sayyid[5]
   (Arabic for The Master)

Spouse(s) Umm Is'hāq bint Talha ibn ‘Ubaydallāh, Hafsa bint ‘Abd al-Rahmān ibn Abi Bakr, Hind bint Suhayl ibn ‘Amru, Ju'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays Father ‘Alī Mother Fātimah Children Qāsim, Fātimah, Abu Bakr, Zayd, Abdullah, Talha, Umm al-Hasan (Maymūnah), Umm al-Husayn.[3]

Panjetan.jpg Ali · Hasan · Husayn al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq Musa (Twelver) · Ismail (Ismaili)


Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب)‎ ( born March 1, 625 CE (Ramadhān 15th, 3 AH) – died 669CE (Safar 7th[7] or 28th, 50 AH) aged 47)[8] is an important figure in Islām, the son of Fatimah, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib.[9] Hasan is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa. He briefly succeeded his father Ali ibn Abi Talib as the righteous Caliph following the latter's death, before retiring to Madinah and entering into an agreement with the first Umayyad ruler, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, who assumed the Caliphate. Both Sunni and Shia Muslims regard Hasan as a martyr.


   1 Birth and family life
   2 Early life
   3 Caliphate
   4 Retirement to Medina
   5 Death
   6 Timeline
   7 See also
   8 Notes
   9 References
   10 External links

[edit] Birth and family life

According to Shia[10] and Sunni[11] sources, Muhammad, upon the birth of his grandson in 3 AH, was ordered by the archangel Gabriel to name him Hasan - a name not used in the pre-Islāmic period.[12] Muhammad also honoured his grandson by reciting the Adhān in his right ear,[13] the Iqāmah in his left ear,[13] shaved the head of his grandson,[14] and sacrificed a ram for the sake of his birth.[15]

He married four women:

   Umm Ishaq bint Talha ibn `Ubayd Allah.
   Hafsa bint 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr.
   Hind bint Suhayl bin `Amru.
   Ju'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays

[edit] Early life

As a growing youth Hasan saw his father on the battlefield defending Islam as well as preaching to a vast congregation of believers on the occasion of hajj and as a missionary of Islam to Yemen before retreating to a passive role in the matters of the state during the period of the first three caliphs after the death of his grandfather, Muhammad. Hasan and his younger brother, Husayn ibn Ali, are believed to have been greatly beloved by their grandfather Muhammad as numerous hadiths affirm. There are also hadiths that state that Hasan and Husayn are the Masters of the youth in paradise and that Hasan and his brother Hussein are imams "whether they sit or stand". Hasan is one of five persons included in the Hadith of the Cloak. He is said to have been the first of the Prophet's family to enter Yemeni Kisa after Muhammad and to have walked hand in hand with Muhammad as a child to testify to the truth of Islam at Mubahila. He had seen that the caliphs respected Ali for his manners and knowledge and consulted him on many occasions: whenever he saw it necessary, Ali never refrained from giving his opinion to the caliph of the time on matters of the practice of faith.

In Medina when Muhammad was sitting with his companions and Hasan, who was still a child, was playing between his hands, Muhammad is said to have gazed at Hasan and said to his companions "This (grand)son of mine is a lord, and may God place in his hands the reconciliation of two great groups of believers (mu'minun)."

When the third caliph was murdered by demonstrators in his palace in Mad'mah Ali was elected to lead the Muslims. Hasan assisted his father: he went to Kufa and raised an army against the dissenting Muslims, then participated actively in the battles of Basra, Siffin and Nahrawan alongside his father, demonstrating skill both as a soldier and a leader. He travelled to Mecca with Ammar ibn Yasir to summon armies to fight against army accompanying Aisha.[6] [edit] Caliphate

The Shia view is that Ali’s right to the caliphate was usurped and his family abused by Abu Bakr but Ali, Hasan and his younger brother Husayn ibn Ali valued the Muslim community's stability above their own rights, even going to defend the third caliph Uthman before Ali himself received the caliphate.

Upon the death of Ali in Kufa a new caliph had to be elected. According to Ali's appointment before his death the choice was restricted to Hasan and his younger brother Husayn. The latter did not claim the caliphate so Kufi Muslims gave their allegiance (bay'ah) to Hasan without dispute.[16] Most caliph chronologies do not include Hasan ibn Ali among the Rashidun Caliphs. However, many Sunni Muslim historians, such as Suyuti, Ibn al-Arabi, and Ibn Kathir accept Hasan ibn Ali as the last such caliph.^

   Suyuti in The Khalifas who took the right way page 9 and History of the Caliphs Vol 12
   Ibn al-Arabi in his Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi 9:68-69 ref
   Ibn Kathir in The Beginning and the End Vol 6 page 249-250

Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, who had a long-running dispute with Ali, summoned the commanders of his forces in Syria, Palestine, and Transjordan to join him in preparation for battle. He first attempted to negotiate with Hasan, sending him letters asking him to give up his caliphate, believing he could thus avoid killing fellow Muslims and avoid lingering questions regarding his legitimacy should he kill Hasan outright. Shia historians say that large sums of money and promises of vast properties and governorships of provinces were offered to commanders of Hassan's army who left him, and that Muawiyah was not interested in the functions of preaching piety or theology but in expanding his sphere of influence in the territories already conquered by the Muslims and in further conquests to the north and north west of Syria.

Negotiations failed and Muawiyah decided to march against Hasan's army of forty thousand[17] with his own army, claimed to have numbered sixty thousand fighters.[18] The two armies faced each other near Sabat. Hasan is said to have given a sermon in which he proclaimed his hatred of schism and appealed to his men to follow his orders even if they did not agree with them. Some of the troops, taking this as a sign that Hasan was preparing to give up battle, rebelled and attacked him. Hasan was wounded but loyal soldiers surrounded him and managed to kill the mutineers. One commander, Ubayd-Allah ibn Abbas, deserted him and joined Muawiyah’s forces.

The two armies fought a few inconclusive skirmishes. Hasan was distressed, understanding that the engagement of Muslims in a battle against each other would mean a loss of many: Muawiyah also had his concerns about being forced into a battle and sent two men from the Banu Quraish to negotiate a settlement.[19] Shia scholars[who?] quote hadith from later Shia Imams to the effect that Hassan lacked the support to fight and win and so ceded power to Muawiya, signing an agreement that he would return the caliphate at his death. According to Shia scholars Hasan stipulated that the caliphate should be returned to him if he was still alive after Muawiyah's death, otherwise it should be given to his younger brother.[20] According to Sunni scholars[who?] Hasan stipulated that Muawiyah should follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah, allow a parliament (shura) as regards the caliphate after his death and refrain from any acts of revenge. Muawiyah accepted the conditions attached to the peace treaty;

   the enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned
   Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs
   there should be peace: followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights[21]

Muawiyah proceeded to Kufa and demanded that the Muslims there pledge allegiance to him as caliph. He also asked Hasan to join him and support him in the fight against the rebellious Kharijites. Hasan is claimed to have written to him in response: "I have abandoned the fight against you, even though it was my legal right, for the sake of peace and reconciliation of the Muslim congregation (ummah). Do you think that I shall then fight together with you?"[22]

Muawiyah did not comply with the terms of the treaty, saying to the people of Kufa, “do you think I have taken power to teach you? No, I have taken power and if any one of you tries to disagree with me he shall pay the costly price of the loss of his head.” He carried out his ambition of keeping the power in his family by nominating his son Yazid as caliph after him. But the decision stirred widespread agitation, particularly amidst prominent personalities such as Hussain, Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr and others. [edit] Retirement to Medina

Hasan returned to Medina. According to Persian Shia historians[who?], Marwan ibn al-Hakam, the personal secretary to the third caliph Uthman ibn Affan who had fought against Ali during the Battle of Bassorah, was now the governor of Medina. Hasan lacked his moral support and had a hard time during his stay there after the peace treaty, with taunts and abuse from some of Muawiyah's followers and the anger of his supporters for having relinquished the caliphate.

On the other hand, Sunni historians[23] see the treaty as conferring great benefits on the Muslim Empire in years to come. Hasan has been quoted as commenting:

   "If Muawiyah was the rightful successor to the caliphate, he has received it. And if I had that right, I, too, have passed it on to him; so the matter ends there."[24]

[edit] Death

Hasan ibn Ali died in Medina either on Safar 7th or 28th, 50 AH. He is buried at the famous Jannatul Baqee‘ cemetery across from the Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet). According to historians, Muawiyah wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid, and saw Hasan as an obstacle. He secretly contacted one of Hasan's wives, Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, and incited her to poison her husband. Ja'da did as Muawiyah suggested, giving her husband poison mixed with honey.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Madelung[33] notes other traditions suggesting that Hasan may have been poisoned by another wife, the daughter of Suhayl ibn Amr, or perhaps by one his servants and also cites the early historians (Baladhuri, Waqidi, etc.). Madelung believed that Hasan was poisoned and that the famous early Islamic historian al-Tabari suppressed the tale out of concern for the faith of the common people.[34]

Shia Muslims believe that Ja'da was promised gold and marriage to Yazid. Seduced by the promise of wealth and power, she poisoned her husband, and then hastened to the court of Muawiyah in Damascus to receive her reward. Muawiyah reneged on his promises and married her to another man.[35]

Hasan had asked for his body to be taken to the prophet's grave, so that he could pay his last respect, and then to be buried near his grandmother Fatima bin Asad. This caused armed opposition. As the funeral proceeded towards the grave of Muhammad some Umayyads mounted on horses obstructed it. Aisha bint Abu Bakr appeared, riding a mule and shouting that the grave of Muhammad was in her house and she would not allow the grandson of Khadijah binte Khuwaylid to be buried beside Muhammad. A shower of arrows fell on the coffin. Husayn, fulfilling the last wish of his brother, turned the procession of the funeral towards Jannat al-Baqi, the general graveyard of Medina, where he was buried. According to one version Marwan asked Muhammad's wife Aisha also to allow his relative Uthman ibn Affan to be buried beside the Prophet if Hasan were to be buried there, but Aisha refused Marwan's request and did not allow anyone else to be buried beside Muhammad.

After Hasan's death his Iraqi followers wrote to Husayn pledging allegiance and proposing to remove Muawiya. However, Husayn refused, choosing to abide by the treaty between Hassan ibn Ali and Muawiyah, which could not be broken at that time.

The shrine of Hasan's tomb was destroyed by 20th century Salafi Saudis.[7] He donated all his belongings completely twice in his lifetime. Also, he divided his property between himself and the poor people equally three times .[36]



-------------------- 1st Imaam

  • Date of Ascension:
  • Period of Imamate:
  • Wilaadat: 15th Ramzaan-ul-Kareem 3 AH (3rd March 625 AD)
  • Wafaat: 5th Rabi ul Awwal 49 AH (14th April 669 AD)

Source 1: Sahifa

Source 2: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hasan -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasan_bin_Ali

Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب)‎ ( born March 1, 625 CE (Ramadhān 15th, 3 AH) – died 669CE (Safar 7th[7] or 28th, 50 AH) aged 47)[8] is an important figure in Islām, the son of Fatimah (daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) and of Ali.[9] A member of Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa. Hasan is also known as Mujtaba and Sibtil Akbar (the elder and the first grandson of Muhammad). -------------------- In both Sunni and Shī‘ah sources, it has been narrated that upon the birth of his grandson in 3 AH, Muhammad was ordered by the Archangel Gabriel to name him Hasan - a name that had not yet been used in the pre-Islāmic period. Muhammad also honoured his grandson by reciting the Adhān in his right ear, the Iqāmah in his left ear, and sacrificed a ram in his name. Hasan ibn Ali and his younger brother, Husayn ibn Ali, are said to have been greatly beloved by their grandfather. There are numerous Hadiths (oral traditions) that affirm this claim. There are also Hadiths which states that Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali are the leaders of the youth in paradise. Muhammad also said that Hasan and Hussain are Imams, whether they sit (agree to a peace treaty) or stand (go to war). Shi'ahs and Sunnis believe that Hasan ibn Ali is one of the five persons included in the Hadith of The Cloak

Life of Hasan ibn Ali during the times of his father


As a growing youth, Hasan saw the active role of his father, ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib, in the battlefield defending Islām, as a preacher to a vast congregation of believers on the occasion of Hajj, and as a missionary of Islam to Yemen. After the death of his grandfather, Muhammad, he saw his father having retreated to a passive role in the matters of the state during the period of the first three caliphs. However, whenever he saw it necessary, Ali ibn Abi Talib never refrained from giving his opinion to the caliph of the time on matters of the practice of faith. He had also seen that the caliphs, in turn, respected Ali ibn Abi Talib for his overall knowledge, and consulted him on many occasions as the need arose.


When the third caliph was murdered by a mob of agitated demonstrators in his palace in Mad'mah, and Ali ibn Abi Talib was elected to lead the Muslim nation, Hasan ibn Ali took active part in assisting his father in many ways. He went to Kufa and successfully raised the first army of believers against the dissenting Muslims. He participated actively in the battlefields of Basra, Siffin, and Nahrawan alongside his father, and demonstrated his skills as a soldier and as a leader.


Before he died, Ali ibn Abi Talib appointed Hasan to lead the nation of believers and to be their Imam after him. The people also chose him to be their Caliph. Hasan played positive role in Khilafa

The Caliphate


Upon the death of Ali ibn Abi Talib in Kufa a new caliph was chosen. As Ali declared in many occasions that just Ahlul Bayt of Muhammad were entitled to rule the Muslim community the choice was restricted to Hasan and his brother Husayn ibn Ali. Thus Kufi Muslims pledge allegiance(Bay'ah) to his eldest son Hasan without dispute.


This threatened Muawiya, who had been fighting Ali for the caliphate. Muawiyah summoned all the commanders of his forces in Syria, Palestine, and Transjordan to join him in preparation for war. He also attempted to negotiate with Hasan, sending the young heir letters asking him to give up his claim. If he could persuade Hasan to renounce his claim to the caliphate, then Muawiyah would certainly avoid the undesirable consequence of killing fellow Muslims, and would further support his claim to the caliphate. If Muawiyah was forced to defeat Hasan in battle, Muawiyah would gain absolute power, but questions regarding his legitimacy would linger.


Negotiations stalled, and Muawiyah marched against Hasan ibn Ali with an army claimed to number sixty thousand fighters. Hasan ibn Ali also marched his army of forty thousand towards Muawiyah. The two armies faced opposed near Sabat.


During this period of suspense, Hasan is reported to have given a sermon in which he proclaimed his hatred of schism and appealed to his men to follow his orders even if they did not agree to them. Some of the troops took this as a sign that Hasan was preparing to surrender; they rebelled on him and attacked him. Hasan was wounded, but his loyal soldiers surrounded him in protection and managed to kill the mutineers. Another one of Hasan’s commanders, Ubayd Allah Ibn Abbas, deserted him and joined Muawiyah’s forces.


According to other sources, a group of unidentified men spread rumor of a clash between small squad of Muawiyah and Hassan ibn Ali's forces and that squad of Hassan ibn Ali's army has been defeated. This rumor caused anger in some supporters of Hassan ibn Ali and upon Hassan ibn Ali's will to avoid further bloodshed, they revolted against him, looted his camp and also manhandled him causing Hassan ibn Ali to take refuge in Chosroes' Palace. Shaken by the incidence, Hassan ibn Ali sent word to Emir Muawiyah for peace talks.


The two armies fought a few inconclusive skirmishes. Hasan, distressed that the result of a battle would mean a loss of many men and a lack of people to go back and partake in caring for the people. Muawiyah also had his concerns with forcing a battle and because of that he sent two men from Banu Quraish to Hasan ibn Ali in order to negotiate a settlement with Hasan ibn Ali and his followers. Hasan ibn Ali, foreseeing the events that were to transpire, and to avoid unnecessary bloodshed, finally negotiated a settlement with Muawiyah. With regards to the negotiation, the Prophet had prophesied earlier, saying, "It is this grandson of mine, on whose hands the two great armies from amongst the Muslims will stop fighting."

■ According to Sunni scholars, Hasan ibn Ali stipulated that Muawiyah should follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah, allowing a shura for the caliphate to be held after his death, and refrain from any acts of revenge against Hasan ibn Ali’s followers. Many authors have also mentioned that Emir Muawiyah accepted all the conditions attached to the peace treaty which were:
1. all tax collection from the province of Ahwaz shall be paid to Hassan ibn Ali,
2. an annual grant of two million dirhams shall be paid to Hassan ibn Ali, and 

3. a general amnesty shall be declared for all of those who took part in the battle.

■ According to Shi’ah scholars, Hasan ibn Ali further stipulated that the caliphate should be returned to him after Muawiyah's death, if Hasan ibn Ali was still alive, and in case if he dies before that then the caliphate should be given to his younger brother, Hussain ibn Ali.

Muawiyah proceeded to Kufa and demanded that the Muslims there swear allegiance. He also asked Hasan ibn Ali to join him and support him in the fight against the rebellious Kharijites. Hasan ibn Ali is claimed to have written him in response: "I have abandoned the fight against you, even though it was my legal right, for the sake of peace and reconciliation of the nation. Do you think that I shall then fight together with you?"

Retirement to MedinaEdit


Marwan I, who was the personal secretary to the third caliph, and had fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib during the Basra, was now the governor of Medina. He took personal pleasure in discharging Muawiyah's wishes to slur the reputation of Hasan ibn Ali and his father. Needless to say that the life of Hasan ibn Ali in Medina after the peace treaty was not peaceful at all. In addition to the relentless taunts and abuse slung at him by Muawiyah, Hasan ibn Ali had to endure the anger of his supporters for having relinquished the Caliphate to the lifelong enemy of himself and that of his father before him. They had failed to appreciate that Hasan ibn Ali had given up his right in the larger interests of Islam, and to avoid further bloodshed of the Muslims.


On the hand, Sunni Historians, hold a view that this treaty had great benefits that were reaped by Muslim Empire for twenty years because of unity, tranquility and avoidance of bloodshed through another civil war by the one wise act of Hassan ibn Ali.


Hassan ibn Ali has been quoted on commenting on the matter transfer of authority:


"If Muawiya was the rightful successor to the Caliphate, he has received it and if I had that right, I, too, have passed it on to him; so the matter ends there." This was in accordance with the prophecy of the Prophet Mohammad about Hassan when he had said, "Through my son Hassan, Allah will bring about peace between two warring factions of Muslims."


DeathEdit


Muawiyah wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid ibn Muawiyah, and saw Hasan ibn Ali as an obstacle to his plans. And thus Muawiyah plotted to kill Hasan ibn Ali. He secretly contacted Hasan ibn Ali's wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, and instigated her to poison her husband. Ja'da did as Muawiyah suggested, giving her husband poison mixed with honey. Madelung (pp. 331-333) notes other traditions suggesting that Hasan ibn Ali had been poisoned by another wife, the daughter of Suhayl ibn Amr, or perhaps by a servant. Madelung also cites the early historians (Baladhuri, Waqidi, etc.) who recounted these traditions. Madelung, who is more accepting of Shi'a traditions than most Western academic historians, believes that Hasan ibn Ali was poisoned and that the famous early Islamic historian Muhammad suppressed the tale out of concern for the faith of the common people. (Madelung pp. 331-332)


Shi'ahs believe that Ja'da was promised gold and marriage to Yazid. Seduced by the promise of money and power, she poisoned her husband, and then hastened to the court of Muawiyah in Damascus to receive her reward. Muawiyah reneged on his promises and married her to another man.


Hasan ibn Ali died in Medina on Safar 28, 50 AH. He is buried at the famous Jannatul Baqee‘ cemetery across from the Masjid al-Nabawi, the Mosque of the Prophet.


Burial of Hasan


Hasan ibn Ali, before his death, asked to be buried next to his grandfather, Muhammad. However, Marwan prevented Hasan ibn Ali's his right. Marwan requested Aisha to allow his relative Uthman ibn Affan to be buried beside the Prophet if she allows Hasan ibn Ali to be buried there. On the contrary, Aisha was aware of Marwan's treachery from the past so she refused to accept his plan, and further did not allow anyone else to be buried beside the Prophet. Hasan ibn Ali's family was thus forced to bury him elsewhere, and so they buried him in Jannatul Baqee‘.


Sunni view


Sunni Muslims honor Hassan ibn Ali as righteous and pious because he is from the Ahlul Bayt. Certain early Sunni scholars are of the opinion that Hassan was the Fifth Rightly Guided Caliph because of his appointment by Ali ibn Abi Talib However, the Kharjites or Sabayees (referring to a group founded by Abdullah Ibn Saba) who have been described as engaged in conspiring against Muslims since Prophet Mohammad's death were indignant of the peace agreement, started to taunt Hassan ibn Ali and called him names with words "Yo Aar Al-Momineen" (0,Shame for the believers!) and "Ya Mozill Al-Momineen " (You, the debaser of the Believers!).

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/256452/Hasan

Ḥasan, in full Hasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (born 624, Arabia—died 680, Medina), a grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), the elder son of Muhammad’s daughter Fāṭimah. He belongs to the group of the five most holy persons of Shīʿah, those over whom Muhammad spread his cloak while calling them “The People of the House.” After his father, ʿAlī, he was considered by many of his contemporaries to be the rightful heir to Muhammad’s position of leadership.

As a child, Ḥasan lived with Muhammad for seven years, and after the latter’s death in 632 he was politically inactive until the end of the reign of the caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān (the caliph was the titular leader of the Islamic community). ʿUthmān was murdered in 656, an action in which Ḥasan took no part. ʿAlī, Ḥasan’s father, became the next caliph, and in the civil wars that soon broke out Ḥasan was sent to the important Iraqi city of Kūfah to secure acceptance of ʿAlī’s rule and, if possible, obtain military reinforcements. Later he fought in the Battle of Ṣiffīn, which, although not a defeat, did mark the beginning of a steady deterioration in ʿAlī’s position. After ʿAlī was murdered in 661, never having chosen a successor, a large number of his followers pledged their loyalty to Ḥasan, and Ḥasan himself stressed his own close connections with the Prophet Muhammad.

When Muʿāwiyah I, the governor of Syria and the man who had led the rebellion against ʿAlī, refused to acknowledge Ḥasan as caliph and began to prepare for war, Ḥasan was able to offer considerable resistance: he dispatched a force to meet Muʿāwiyah and then himself headed a larger force. With little money left, Ḥasan, not a warlike person, was plagued by defections from his army. Although some of his followers resented it fiercely, he opened peace negotiations and later in 661 abdicated the caliphate to Muʿāwiyah. Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī obtained a generous pension and was allowed to live quietly the rest of his life in Medina.



            
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Hasan ibn Ali's Timeline

625
March 3, 625
Medina, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia
650
650
Age 24
Medina, Saudi Arabia
660
660
Age 34
Medina, Saudi Arabia
666
666
Age 40
Medina, Saudi Arabia
669
April 14, 669
Age 44
Medina, Saudi Arabia
April 14, 669
Age 44
Medina, Saudi Arabia
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