Heinrich III "der Schwarze" von Bayern (Salier), Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (1017 - 1056) MP

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Nicknames: "Henri III of the Germanic Empire", "Henry III Holy Roman Emperor", "Henry the Black", "Enrique III El Negro de Alemania", ""the Black"", "The Pious", "The Black", "(Le Noir) (Emperor of Germany)", "called the Black or the Pious", "Den Svarte"
Birthplace: Swaben, Bayern, Deutschland(HRR)
Death: Died in Bodenfelde, Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Deutschland
Occupation: Kung i Tyskland från 1039, tysk-romersk kejsare 1046-1056, Emperador del Sacro Imperio Germánico, Empereur, Roi, de Germanie, d'Italie, de Bourgogne transjurane, Duc, de Souabe, Tysk-romersk kejsare, Holy Roman Emperor, Tysk keiser, Kaiser
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Heinrich III "der Schwarze" von Bayern (Salier), Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches

Heinrich III. (* 28. Oktober 1017; † 5. Oktober 1056 in Bodfeld, Harz) aus der Familie der Salier war von 1039 bis zu seinem Tod 1056 römisch-deutscher König und seit 1046 Kaiser.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_III._%28HRR%29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor (English)

Leben

Heinrich wurde 1017 als Sohn Konrads II. und Giselas von Schwaben geboren, also noch bevor dieser 1024 zum König erwählt worden war. Er erhielt eine umfassende Ausbildung und wurde systematisch auf die Thronfolge vorbereitet, indem er frühzeitig an Regierungshandlungen seines Vaters beteiligt worden war. Heinrich wird als groß gewachsen und schwarzhaarig (daher wohl auch sein gelegentlicher Beiname "der Schwarze") beschrieben, den Bart trug er der Mode gemäß geschoren.

Von 1027 bis 1042 war er Herzog von Bayern, von 1038 bis 1045 Herzog von Schwaben. Am 14. April 1028 ließ ihn sein Vater durch Erzbischof Pilgrim von Köln in Aachen zum deutschen König krönen. Im Herbst 1038 wurde er König von Burgund. 1039 trat er dann mit einer Thronsetzung die Nachfolge seines Vaters an. Nirgends erhoben sich Unruhen nach seines Vaters Tode. Er wurde in Deutschland, Burgund und Italien anerkannt. Nach dem feierlichen Geleit der Leiche seines Vaters nach Speyer begann er seinen Königsumritt in Aachen, der ihn danach über Maastricht, Goslar, Regensburg, Augsburg, Reichenau zu Ostern 1040 nach Ingelheim führte.

In Polen war es nach dem Krieg gegen Konrad II. und dem Tod von Herzog Mieszko II. Lambert zu großen Unruhen gekommen. Herzog Břetislav (Bretislaw) I. von Böhmen versuchte dies auszunutzen und ein Großslawisches Reich unter der Führung Böhmens aufzubauen. Er nutzte die Gunst der Stunde und unterwarf schnell ganz Polen, plünderte Krakau, ließ die in Gnesen ruhenden Gebeine des heiliggesprochenen Adalbert von Prag nach Prag bringen und versuchte hier eine vom Reich und vom Metropoliten in Mainz unabhängige slawische Kirche aufzubauen. Im ersten Feldzug 1040 wurde Heinrich am Neumarker Pass noch geschlagen, doch ein Jahr später trat Heinrich dem ebenso tatkräftig entgegen, wie einst sein Vater Konrad II. den Polen. Von drei Seiten, aus Meißen, Bayern und Österreich, rückten deutsche Heere in Böhmen ein. Als die Heere vor Prag standen, unterwarf sich Bretislaw, zahlte 4000 Goldmark Buße, zog aus Polen ab, wurde mit Böhmen und zwei polnischen Landschaften belehnt, erkannte die deutsche Oberhoheit an und war danach ein treuer Gefolgsmann Heinrichs, der oft am Hofe war und Heeresfolge leistete.

Auch im Süd-Osten errang Heinrich große Erfolge. In Ungarn war König Stephan I. 1038 gestorben und Peter Orseolo, der Sohn des Dogen Otto Orseolo und Stephans Schwester Gisela, hatte den Thron bestiegen. Doch für die ungarische Nationalpartei wirkte er wie ein Eindringling, wurde vertrieben und der heidnische Sámuel Aba zum König gekrönt. Anfang 1042 griff dieser die Awarenmark und Kärnten an, um seine Macht durch Kriegsruhm zu festigen, wurde aber vom Markgrafen Adalbert dem Siegreichen vernichtend geschlagen. Der erste Gegenschlag Heinrichs 1042 in Ungarn führte trotz der Eroberung Pressburgs (Bratislava) zu keinem bleibenden Erfolg, weswegen er 1043 einen erneuten Heereszug durchführte. Dieser brachte die Rückgabe des 1031 abgetretenen Landes zwischen Fischa und Leitha gegen Anerkennung Abas als König. Dessen weitere Unbotmäßigkeit und die Unzufriedenheit der ungarischen Fürsten führten 1044 zu einem letzten Feldzug, der in der Schlacht bei Menfő endete, bei der er ein zahlenmäßig weit überlegenes ungarisches Heer vernichtend schlug, und nach der es Heinrich gelang, den vertriebenen Peter wieder auf den Thron zu setzen. Zu Pfingsten 1045 kam Heinrich ein letztes Mal nach Stuhlweissenburg (Székesfehérvár), wo er von Peter als dessen Lehnsherr durch eine vergoldete Lanze die Lehenshuldigung empfing. Schon der Aufmarsch von Heinrichs Ritterheer nötigte 1045 die Liutizen, die die sächsische Grenze beunruhigten, wieder zur Tributzahlung. Der 1034 aus Polen vertriebene Herzog Kasimir konnte seine Herrschaft wohl mit deutscher Hilfe zurückgewinnen. Als er 1046 zusammen mit den Herzögen aus Pommern und Böhmen dem deutschen König huldigte, war dessen Hoheit über alle östlichen Nachbarländer wiederhergestellt.

Nach dem Tod seines Vetters, Herzog Konrad II. von Kärnten, im gleichen Jahr verwaltete er auch dieses Herzogtum mitsamt der Markgrafschaft Verona bis zum Jahr 1047 selbst. Innenpolitische Auseinandersetzungen hatte Heinrich immer wieder mit dem Herzog von Lothringen, Gottfried dem Bärtigen, zu bestehen.

Auf den von Heinrich einberufenen Synoden von Sutri (ab 20. Dezember 1046) und Rom (ab 23. Dezember 1046) wurden in Übereinstimmung mit der kirchlichen Reformbewegung die drei Päpste Gregor VI., Benedikt IX. und Silvester III. abgesetzt. Der Einfluss Heinrichs, der von der älteren Forschung noch als alleiniger Drahtzieher der Papstabsetzungen angesehen wurde, wird von der neueren Forschung kontrovers diskutiert, da es mehrere sich teilweise widersprechende und unklare Quellen zu dem Vorgang gibt. Franz-Josef Schmale[1] hat unter Bezug auf Desiderius von Montecassino und Bonizo von Sutri die These aufgestellt, dass sich Gregor VI. unter der drückenden Beweislast selbst der Simonie beschuldigt hat und vom Amt zurückgetreten ist, Silvester III. dagegen von der Synode als unrechtmäßiger Invasor verurteilt wurde, da das der üblichen synodalen Verfahrensweise entsprochen habe. Andere Forscher[2] betonen, dass Heinrich mit Sicherheit seinen Einfluss auf die synodale Entscheidung geltend gemacht habe. In Rom wurde Benedikt IX., der zu dieser Zeit sein Amt allerdings schon an Gregor abgegeben hatte, quasi nachträglich vom Amt ausgeschlossen und Heinrichs Kandidat, Suitger von Bamberg, ein Cluniazenser, als Papst eingesetzt. Dieser wurde am 25. Dezember 1046 als Clemens II. in Rom inthronisiert und krönte in seiner ersten Amtshandlung Heinrich III. und seine zweite Ehefrau Agnes von Poitou zu Kaiser und Kaiserin. Im Anschluss wurde Heinrich von den Römern die Patriziuswürde verliehen. Clemens II. folgen später mit Damasus II., Leo IX. und Viktor II. drei weitere von Heinrich eingesetzte "deutsche" Päpste.

Heinrich war zweimal verheiratet. Seine erste Frau Gunhild von Dänemark, Tochter Knuts des Großen, die er im Juni 1036, wohl am 29., geheiratet hatte, starb am 18. Juli 1038 an Malaria. Sie wurde im Kloster Limburg beerdigt. Seine zweite Ehe, am 20. November 1043 in Ingelheim mit Agnes von Poitou geschlossen, mit der er sechs Kinder hatte, sollte der Erhaltung des Friedens im Westen und der Sicherung seiner Herrschaft über Italien und Burgund dienen. Sie war die Tochter Herzog Wilhelms V. v. Aquitanien. Ihre Mutter war die Tochter Graf Otto-Wilhelms v. Burgund, die in zweiter Ehe mit Gottfried Martell v. Anjou vermählt war. Durch Agnes konnte er Kontakte zur Kirchenreformbewegung in Cluny knüpfen. König Heinrich I. von Frankreich gab bei einer Zusammenkunft bei Ivois an der Chiers wohl nur ungern seine Zustimmung. Die Verbindung der mächtigsten Familie Südfrankreichs mit dem deutschen König entsprach nicht seinen Interessen.

Heinrichs Sohn Heinrich IV. folgte ihm im Alter von sechs Jahren als König nach. Seine Tochter Judith (Judith von Ungarn) heiratete König Salomon von Ungarn und nach dessen Tode Herzog Władysław I. Herman von Polen.

Heinrich liegt begraben im Kaiserdom in Speyer, seine Inteste (Herz und Eingeweide) werden in der Ulrichskapelle der Kaiserpfalz Goslar aufbewahrt. Eine Gedenktafel für ihn fand Aufnahme in die Walhalla bei Regensburg. Wirkung [Bearbeiten] Die Grabkrone Heinrichs III. Aus der Domschatzkammer des Doms zu Speyer

In der Person Heinrichs III. fand die Verschmelzung von weltlicher (regnum) und geistlicher (sacerdotium) Herrschaft ihren Höhepunkt und erfuhr zugleich einen entscheidenden Wendepunkt. Zahlreiche Historiker sahen in ihm den Höhepunkt mittelalterlicher Königsherrschaft in Europa; gleichwohl aber hinterließ er seinem Sohn das Reich als labile Konstruktion, die sehr empfindlich war und jeden Moment einstürzen konnte. [3]

Heinrich band einerseits die Reichskirche ganz eng an sich und nutzte sie als Machtfaktor. Dies wird deutlich in zahlreichen Bischofsinvestituren, bei denen Heinrich auf seine Hofkapellane, zum Beispiel des Stiftes „St. Simon und Judas“ in Goslar, zurückgriff (u.a. Anno von Köln), und durch die oben erwähnte Ab- und Einsetzung der Päpste.

Andererseits machte sich der tiefreligiöse Heinrich das Gedankengut der Cluniazensischen Reformbewegung absolut zu eigen und wendete sich gegen Simonie (er setzte sich damit auch deutlich von seinem Vater ab) und machte sich für den Zölibat und die Friedensbewegung stark. Auch löste er das Papsttum aus der Abhängigkeit vom römischen Adel und verschaffte ihm universelle Geltung. Das wurde von manchen Vertretern der Reformbewegung allerdings als unerlaubte Einmischung des Kaisers in innerkirchliche Angelegenheiten verstanden und abgelehnt. Die Folgen der Stärkung der Reformbewegung und der Stellung des Papsttums waren allerdings, dass sich das Reformpapsttum eine Generation später gegen seinen Sohn, Heinrich IV., wandte, was im Investiturstreit gipfelte und ein erneutes Auseinanderdriften von weltlicher und geistlicher Macht zur Folge hatte. Zudem führte die Stärkung der Reichskirche zu einer innerkirchlichen Opposition zur kaiserlich- theokratischen Machtposition. Zu seiner Zeit jedoch und nach seinem Machtverständnis waren diese heranziehenden Probleme nicht relevant und nicht absehbar. Die primären Gründe der Probleme der Folgezeit scheinen vielfache Ursachen zu haben. Schon das als autoritär empfundene Verhalten Heinrich III., das seiner tief empfundenen Religiosität entsprang, und seine unglückliche Personalpolitik [4] erzeugte in seinen letzten Regierungsjahren sowohl in Kreisen der Reichsfürsten als auch in Kirchenkreisen zunehmend Widerstand, der durch sein frühes Ableben und das kindliche Alter des Thronfolgers, der in den Jahren seiner Vormundschaft natürlich nur geringe Autorität ausüben konnte, zu einem Abbröckeln der Autorität des Kaisertums führte. Außerdem führte das Verhalten seines Sohnes Heinrich IV. in den ersten Jahren seiner Volljährigkeit aufgrund seiner Unerfahrenheit zu einem weiteren Verfall der königlichen Autorität und einem weiteren Wachstum der fürstlichen Oppositionskräfte im Reich, so dass die langsam herangewachsenen Probleme zum Investiturstreit kumulierten. Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Über die Geburtstage und -orte, selbst über die Reihenfolge der Nachkommen Heinrichs III., ist wenig bekannt. Aus umfangreichem Quellenstudium hat Mechthild Black-Veltrup die folgende Reihenfolge erschlossen, die sie in ihren in den Literaturangaben genannten Publikationen einleuchtend begründet:

Aus erster Ehe mit Gunhild von Dänemark, Tochter von Knut dem Großen und Emma von der Normandie:

   * Beatrix (* 1037, † 13. Juli 1061), 1043/44-1061 Äbtissin von Quedlinburg und Gandersheim, begraben in der Stiftskirche in Quedlinburg, 1161 im Kloster Michaelstein.

Aus zweiter Ehe mit Agnes von Poitou:

   * Adelheid (* Herbst 1045 wohl in Goslar, † 11. Januar 1096), 1061-1096 Äbtissin von Gandersheim, um 1063 auch Äbtissin von Quedlinburg, begraben in der Stiftskirche in Quedlinburg
   * Gisela (* Frühjahr 1047 in Ravenna, † 6. Mai 1053)
   * Mathilde (* Oktober 1048 wohl in Pöhlde, † 12. Mai 1060), ∞ 1059 Rudolf von Rheinfelden, Herzog von Schwaben, 1077 deutscher Gegenkönig
   * Heinrich IV. (* 11. November 1050 in Goslar, † 7. August 1106 in Lüttich), Herzog von Bayern, König des HRR ab 1056, Kaiser 1084-1106
  1. ∞ 1066 Bertha von Turin († 1087), Tochter des Grafen Otto von Savoyen
  2. ∞ 1089 Adelheid (Jewspraksija, Eupraxia, Praxedis) von Kiew, Tochter des Großfürsten Wsewolod Jaroslawitsch
   * Konrad von Bayern (* September/Oktober 1052 wohl in Regensburg, † 10. April 1055) Herzog von Bayern 1054-1055)
   * Judith (* Sommer 1054 wohl in Goslar, † 14. März wohl 1092/1096)
  1. ∞ 1063 Salomon (X 1087) König von Ungarn (Arpaden)
  2. ∞ um 1089 Władysław I. Herman († 1102) Herzog von Polen

-------------------- Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor (1) M, #102571, b. 28 October 1017, d. 5 October 1056 Last Edited=8 Mar 2007

    Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor was born on 28 October 1017. He was the son of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor. (2) He married, firstly, Cunigunde (?), daughter of Canute II Sveynsson, King of England and Denmark and Emma de Normandie, on 10 June 1036 at Nimeguen, Germany. (1) 

He married, secondly, Agnes de Poitou in March 1043. (3(

He died on 5 October 1056 at age 38.

    Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor was a member of the House of Salian. (2) He gained the title of Henrich III Deutscher Kaiser. (4) He succeeded to the title of Herzog von Bayern in 1027. (5) He gained the title of King Heinrich III of the Romans in 1039. (6) He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1046. (2) He succeeded to the title of Emperor Heinrich III of the Holy Roman Empire in 1046. (6)

Child of Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor and Cunigunde (?) -1. Beatrice Salian1 b. 1037

Children of Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes de Poitou -1. Conrad II Herzog von Bayern (5) d. 1055 -2. Judith Salian (7) b. 1047, d. c 1100

Children of Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor Matilda Salian (8) -1. Heinrich IV, Holy Roman Emperor+ (2) b. 11 Nov 1050, d. 7 Aug 1106

Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10258.htm#i102571

-------------------- Emperor Heinrich III "the black" of Roman Empire - was born on 28 Oct 1017, lived in Schwaben, Bavaria and died on 5 Oct 1056 . He was the son of Emperor Konrad II of Roman Empire and Duchess Gisele of Swabia. Emperor Heinrich married Princess Agnaes of Aquitaine on 21 Nov 1043. Princess Agnaes was born about 1020 in Aquitaine. She was the daughter of Duke Guillaume V (III) "The Grand" of Aquitaine and Countess Agnaes de Bourgogne. She died on 14 Dec 1077 .

Emperor Heinrich - was crowned joint king with his father in 1028, and acceded on Conradâ??s death in 1039. Under Henry III the medieval Holy Roman Empire probably attained its greatest power and solidity. In 1041, Henry defeated th e Bohemians, who had been overrunning the lands of his vassals, the Poles, and compelled Duke Bratislaus I of Bohemia to renew his vassalage. Although several expeditions to Hungary against the raiding Magyars failed to establish his authority in that country, Henry was able in 1043 to fix the frontier of Austria and Hungary at the Leitha and Morava rivers, where it remained until the end of World War I. In the West, Henry attempted with some initial succe ss to control particularist tendencies among the duchies. Children: (Quick Family Chart) i. Henry IV of Bavaria was born on 11 Nov 1050 in Saxony and died on 7 Aug 1106 in Liege, Lorraine, France . See #3. below. -------------------- Henry III (29 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia and his father made him duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. Then, on Easter Day 1028, his father having been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy (as Henry I) as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on June 4, 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

By his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark, he had:

Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim

By his second wife, Agnes, he had:

Adelaide (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063 Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053) Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and antiking (1077) Henry, his successor Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054) Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland -------------------- Called Henry the Black, or the Pious

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor

--------------------

Hendrik III van Duitsland, geb. 28-10-1017; gedesigneerd tot Duits koning Augsburg febr. 1026; hertog van Beieren juli 1027 (tot 1042); gekozen, gezalfd en gekroond als mederegent tot Duits koning (door de aartsbisschop van Keulen) Aken Pasen (14-4) 1028; hertog van Zwaben 18-7-1038 (tot 1045); door zijn vader aangesteld tot koning van Bourgondië Solothurn sept. 1038; volgt op als Duits koning 1039; vervult ook zelf de functie van hertog van Karinthië vanaf 20-7-1039 tot 1047; noemt zich reeds in 1040 rex Romanorum; zet de in Rome elkaar bestrijdende pausen af, benoemt bisschop Suidger van Bamberg tot paus (Clemens 11) en wordt door deze gekroond tot keizer en geproclameerd tot patricius Romanorum 25-12-1046; overl. kasteel Bodfeld (Harz) 5-10-1056, begr. in de domkerk van Spiers 28-10-1056 (het hart in de Ulrichskapelle van de palts te Goslar), tr. (2) Ingelheim eind nov. 1043 Agnes van Poitou, geb. ca. 1025; gekroond tot Duits koningin Mainz okt. 1043, tot keizerin Rome 25-12-1046; regentes van het Duitse rijk 1056-1062; begeeft zich naar Rome 1063; overl. ald. 14-12-1077, begr. Rome (St.-Pieter, kapel van de H. Petronella); dr. van Guillaume V/III van Poitou, hertog van Aquitanië, en Agnes gravin van Bourgondië-Ivrea’. 

-------------------- Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry III (29 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia and his father made him duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. Then, on Easter Day 1028, his father having been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy (as Henry I) as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on June 4, 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

Early life and reign

Henry's first tutor was Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg. On Bruno's death in 1029, Egilbert, Bishop of Freising, was appointed to take his place. In 1033, at the age of sixteen, Henry came of age and Egilbert was compensated for his services. In 1035, Adalbero, Duke of Carinthia, was deposed by Conrad, but Egilbert convinced Henry to refuse this injustice and the princes of Germany, having legally elected Henry, would not recognise the deposition unless their king did also. Henry, in accordance with his promise to Egilbert, did not consent to his father's act and Conrad, stupefied, fell unconscious after many attempts to turn Henry. Upon recovering, Conrad knelt before his son and exacted the desired consent. Egilbert was penalised dearly by the emperor. In 1036, Henry was married to Gunhilda of Denmark. She was a daughter of Canute the Great, King of Denmark, England, and Norway, by his wife Emma of Normandy. Early on, Henry's father had arranged with Canute to have him rule over some parts of northern Germany (the Kiel) and in turn to have their children married. The marriage took place in Nijmegen at the earliest legal age. In 1038, Henry was called to aid his father in Italy (1038) and Gunhilda died on the Adriatic Coast, during the return trip (during the same epidemic in which Herman IV of Swabia died). In 1039, his father, too, died and Henry became sole ruler and imperator in spe. pcnr [edit]After Conrad's death

[edit]First tour Henry spent his first year on a tour of his domains. He visited the Low Countries to receive the homage of Gothelo I, Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine. In Cologne, he was joined by Herman II, Archbishop of Cologne, who accompanied him and his mother to Saxony, where he was to build the town of Goslar up from obscurity to stately, imperial grandeur. He had an armed force when he entered Thuringia to meet with Eckard II, Margrave of Meissen, whose advice and counsel he desired on the recent successes of Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia in Poland. Only a Bohemian embassy bearing hostages appeased Henry and he disbanded his army and continued his tour. He passed through Bavaria where, upon his departure, King Peter Urseolo of Hungary sent raiding parties and into Swabia. There, at Ulm, he convened a Fürstentag at which he received his first recognition from Italy. He returned to Ingelheim after that and there was recognised by a Burgundian embassy and Aribert, Archbishop of Milan, whom he had supported against his father. This peace with Aribert healed the only open wound in the Empire. Meanwhile, in 1039, while he was touring his dominions, Conrad, Adalbero's successor in Carinthia and Henry's cousin, died childless. Henry being his nearest kin automatically inherited that duchy as well. He was now a triple-duke (Bavaria, Swabia, Carinthia) and triple-king (Germany, Burgundy, Italy).

Subjecting Bohemia

Henry's first military campaign as sole ruler took place then (1040). He turned to Bohemia, where Bretislaus was still a threat, especially through his Hungarian ally's raiding. At Stablo, after attending to the reform of some monasteries, Henry summoned his army. In July, he met with Eckhard at Goslar and joined together his whole force at Regensburg. On 13 August, he set out. He was ambushed and the expedition ended in disaster. Only by releasing many Bohemian hostages, including Bretislaus's son, did the Germans procure the release of many of their comrades and the establishment of a peace. Henry retreated hastily and with little fanfare, preferring to ignore his first great defeat. On his return to Germany, Henry appointed Suidger bishop of Bamberg. He would later be Pope Clement II. [edit]First Hungarian campaign In 1040, Peter of Hungary was overthrown by Samuel Aba and fled to Germany, where Henry received him well despite the enmity formerly between them. Bretislaus was thus deprived of an ally and Henry renewed preparations for a campaign in Bohemia. On 15 August, he and Eckard set out once more, almost exactly a year after his last expedition. This time he was victorious and Bretislaus signed a peace treaty at Regensburg. He spent Christmas 1041 at Strasbourg, where he received emissaries from Burgundy. He travelled to that kingdom in the new year and dispensed justice as needed. On his return, he heard, at Basel, of the raids into Bavaria being made by the king of Hungary. He thus granted his own duchy of Bavaria to one Henry, a relative of the last independent duke. At Cologne, he called together all his great princes, including Eckard, and they unanimously declared war on Hungary. It wasn't until September 1042 that he set out, after having dispatched men to seek out Agnes de Poitou to be his new bride. The expedition into Hungary successfully subdued the west of that nation, but Aba fled to eastern fortresses and Henry's installed candidate, an unknown cousin of his, was quickly removed when the emperor turned his back. After Christmas at Goslar, his intended capital, he entertained several embassies: Bretislaus came in person, a Kievan embassy was rejected because Henry was not seeking a Russian bride, and the ambassadors of Casimir I of Poland were likewise rejected because the duke came not in person. Gisela, Henry's mother, died at this juncture and Henry went to the French borders, probably near Ivois to meet King Henry I of France, probably over the impending marriage to the princess of Aquitaine. Henry next turned to Hungary again, where he forced Aba to recognise the Danubian territory donated to Germany by Stephen I of Hungary pro causa amiticiae (for friendship's sake). These territories were ceded to Hungary after the defeat of Conrad II in 1030. This border remained the border between Hungary and Austria until 1920. After this victory, Henry, a pious man, who dreamed of a Peace and Truce of God being respected over all his realms, declared from the pulpit in Konstanz in October 1043 a general indulgence or pardon whereby he promised to forgive all injuries to himself and to forgo vengeance. He encouraged all his vassals to do likewise. This is known as the "Day of Indulgence" or "Day of Pardon". [edit]After marriage

Henry was finally remarried at Ingelheim in 1043 to Agnes, daughter of duke William V of Aquitaine and Agnes of Burgundy. Agnes was then living at the court of her stepfather, Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. This connection to the obstreperous vassal of the French king as well as her consanguinity—she and Henry being both descended from Henry the Fowler—caused some churchmen to oppose their union, but the marriage went as planned. Agnes was crowned at Mainz. [edit]Division of Lorraine After the coronation and the wedding, Henry wintered at Utrecht, where he proclaimed the same indulgence he had proclaimed the year prior in Burgundy. Then, in April 1044, Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine, that is of both Lower and Upper Lorraine, died. Henry did not wish to solidify the ducal power in any duchy and so, instead of appointing Godfrey, Gothelo's eldest son and already acting duke in Upper Lorraine, duke in the Lower duchy, he appointed Gothelo II, Godfrey's younger brother, duke there, thus raising the eldest son's ire. Henry claimed that Gothelo's dying wish was to see the duchy split between the brothers, but Godfrey, having faithfully served Henry thus far, rebelled. Henry called the two brothers together at Nijmegen, but failed to reconcile them. Nevertheless, he set out on the warpath against Hungary, then experiencing internal duress. [edit]Second Hungarian campaign Henry entered Hungary on July 6 and met a large army with his small host. Disaffection rent the Magyar forces, however, and they crumbled at the German onslaught in the Battle of Ménfő. Peter was reinstalled as king at Székesfehérvár, a vassal of the Empire, and Henry could return home triumphant, the Hungarian people having readily submitted to his rule.[1] Tribute was to be paid and Aba, while fleeing, was captured by Peter and beheaded. Hungary appeared to have entered the German fold fully and with ease. [edit]Unrest in Lorraine Upon his return from the Hungarian expedition, Godfrey of Lorraine began seeking out allies, among them Henry of France, to support him in any possible act of overt insurrection. Seeing this, the emperor summoned Henry to a trial by his peers of Lower Lorraine at Aachen where he was condemned and his duchy and county of Verdun (a royal fief) seized. He immediately fled the scene and began arming for revolt. Henry wintered at Speyer, with the civil war clearly in view on the horizon.

In early 1045, Henry entered Lorraine with a local army and besieged Godfrey's castle of Bockelheim (near Kreuznach) and took it. He took a few other castles, but famine drove him out. Leaving behind enough men to guard the countryside against Godfrey's raids, he turned to Burgundy. Godfrey had done his best to foment rebellion in that kingdom by playing of the imperialist, which supported union with the empire, and nationalist, which supported an independent Burgundy, factions against each other. However, Louis, Count of Montbéliard, defeated Reginald I, Count of Burgundy (what was to become the Free County), and when Henry arrived, the latter was ready with Gerald, Count of Geneva, to do homage. Burgundy was thereafter happily united to Henry's crown. [edit]Height of his power

Then, Henry discussed the Italian political scene with some Lombard magnates at Augsburg and then went on to Goslar, where he gave the duchy of Swabia to Otto, Count Palatine of Lorraine. Henry also gave the march of Antwerp to Baldwin, the son of Baldwin V of Flanders. On his way to Hungary, to spend Pentecost with King Peter, a floor collapsed in one of his halls and Bruno, Bishop of Würzburg, was killed. In Hungary, Peter gave over the golden lance, symbol of sovereignty in Hungary, to Henry and pledged an oath of fealty along with his nobles. Hungary was now pledged to Peter for life and peace was fully restored between the two kingdoms of Germany and Hungary. In July, even Godfrey submitted and was imprisoned in Gibichenstein, the German Tower. [edit]War in Lorraine Henry fell ill at Tribur in October and Henry of Bavaria and Otto of Swabia chose as his successor Otto's nephew and successor in the palatinate, Henry I. Henry III, however, recovered, still heirless. At the beginning of the next year, now at the height of his power, but having divested himself of two of the great stem duchies, Henry's old advisor, Eckard of Meissen, died, leaving Meissen to Henry. Henry bestowed it on William, count of Orlamünde. He then moved to Lower Lorraine, where Gothelo II had just died and Dirk IV of Holland had seized Flushing. Henry personally led a river campaign against Count Dirk. Both count and Flushing fell to him. He gave the latter to Bernold, Bishop of Utrecht, and returned to Aachen to celebrate Pentecost and decide on the fate of Lorraine. Henry pitied and restored Godfrey, but gave the county of Verdun to the bishop of the city. This did not conciliate the duke. Henry gave the lower duchy to Frederick. He then appointed Adalbert archbishop of Bremen and summoned Widger, Archbishop of Ravenna, to a trial. The right of a German court to try an Italian bishop was very controversial and presaged the Investiture Controversy that characterised the reigns of Henry's son and grandson. Henry continued from there on to Saxony and held imperial courts at Quedlinburg, Merseburg (June), and Meissen. At the first, he made his daughter Beatrice from his first marriage abbess and at the second, he ended the strife between the dux Bomeraniorum and Casimir of Poland. This is one of the earliest, or perhaps the earliest, recording of the name of Pomerania, whose duke, Zemuzil, brought gifts. [edit]Second trip to Italy It was after the these events in northern Germany and a brief visit to Augsburg, where he summoned the greatest magnates, clerical and lay, of the realm to meet him and accompany him, that he crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, one of the most important of his many travels. His old ally, Aribert of Milan, had recently died and the Milanese had chosen as candidate for his successor one Guido, in opposition to the nobles' candidate. Meanwhile, in Rome, three popes—Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI—contested the pontifical honours. Benedict was a Tusculan who had previously renounced the throne, Sylvester was a Crescentian, and Gregory was a reformer, but a simoniac. Henry marched first to Verona, thence to Pavia in October. He held a court and dispensed justice as he had in Burgundy years earlier. He moved on to Sutri and held the a second court on 20 December whereat he deposed all the candidates for the Saint Peter's throne and left it temporarily vacant. He headed towards Rome and held a synod wherein he declared no Roman priest fit. Adalbert of Bremen refused the honour and Henry appointed Suidger of Bamberg, who was acclaimed duly by the people and clergy, we are told. He took the name Clement II.

Imperial coronation On 25 December, Christmas Day, Clement was consecrated and Henry and Agnes were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress. The populace gave him the golden chain of the patriciate and made him patricius, giving the powers, seemingly, of the Crescentii family during the tenth century: the power to nominate popes. Henry's first acts were to visit Frascati, capital of the counts of Tusculum, and seize all the castles of the Crescentii. He and the pope then moved south, where his father had created the situation as it was then in his visit of 1038. Henry reversed many of Conrad's acts. At Capua, he was received by Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno, also Prince of Capua since 1038. However, Henry gave Capua back to the twice-deprived Prince Pandulf IV, a highly unpopular choice. Guaimar had been acclaimed as Duke of Apulia and Calabria by the Norman mercenaries under William Iron Arm and his brother Drogo of Hauteville. In return, Guaimar had recognised the conquests of the Normans and invested William as his vassal with the comital title. Henry made Drogo, William's successor in Apulia, a direct vassal of the imperial crown. He did likewise to Ranulf Drengot, the count of Aversa, who had been a vassal of Guaimar as Prince of Capua. Thus, Guaimar was deprived of his greatest vassals, his principality split in two, and his greatest enemy reinstated. Henry lost popularity amongst the Lombards with these decisions and Benevento, though a papal vassal, would not admit him. He authorised Drogo to conquer it and headed north to reunion with Agnes at Ravenna. He arrived at Verona in May and the Italian circuit was completed. [edit]Henry's appointments On Henry's return to Germany, many offices which had fallen vacant were filled. First, Henry gave away his last personal duchy: he made Welf duke of Carinthia. He made his Italian chancellor, Humphrey, archbishop of Ravenna. He filled several other sees: he installed Guido in Piacenza, his chaplain Theodoric in Verdun, the provost Herman of Speyer in Strasbourg, and his German chancellor Theodoric in Constance. The important Lorrainer bishoprics of Metz and Trier received respecively Adalberon and Eberhard, a chaplain. The many vacancies of the Imperial episcopate now filled, Henry was at Metz (July 1047) when the rebellion then stewing broke out seriously. Godfrey was now allied with Baldwin of Flanders, his son (the margrave of Antwerp), Dirk of Holland, and Herman, Count of Mons. Henry gathered an army and went north, where he gave Adalbert of Bremen lands once Godfrey's and oversaw the trial by combat of Thietmar, the brother of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony, accused of plotting to kill the king. Bernard, an enemy of Adalbert's, was now clearly on Henry's bad side. Henry made peace with the new king of Hungary, Andrew I and moved his campaign into the Netherlands. At Flushing, he was defeated by Dirk. The Hollanders sacked Charlemagne's palace at Nijmegen and burnt Verdun. Godfrey then made public penance and assisted in rebuilding Verdun. The rebels besieged Liège, defended stoutly by Bishop Wazo. Henry slowed his campaigning after the death of Henry of Bavaria and gave Upper Lorraine to one Adalbert and left. The pope had died in the meantime and Henry chose Poppo of Brixen, who took the name Damasus II. Henry gave Bavaria to one Cuno and, at Ulm in January 1048, Swabia to Otto of Schweinfurt, called the White. Henry met Henry of France, probably at Ivois again, in October and at Christmas, envoys from Rome came to seek a new pope, Damasus having died. Henry's most enduring papal selection was Bruno of Toul, who took office as Leo IX, and under whom the Church would be divided between East and West. Henry's final appointment of this long spate was a successor to Adalber in Lorraine. For this, he appointed Gerard of Chatenoy, a relative of Adalbert and Henry himself. [edit]Peace in Lorraine The year of 1049 was a series of successes. Dirk of Holland was defeated and killed. Adalbert of Bremen managed a peace with Bernard of Saxony and negotiated a treaty with the missionary monarch Sweyn II of Denmark. With the assistance of Sweyn and Edward the Confessor of England, whose enemies Baldwin had harboured, Baldwin of Flanders was unable to harassed by sea and unable to escape the onslaught of the imperial army. At Cologne, the pope excommunicated Godfrey, in revolt again, and Baldwin. The former abandoned his allies and was imprisoned by the emperor yet again. Baldwin too gave in under the pressure of Henry's ravages. Finally, war had ceased in the Low Countries and the Lorraines and peace seemed to have taken hold. [edit]Dénouement

[edit]Final Hungarian campaigns In 1051, Henry undertook a third Hungarian campaign, but failed to achieve anything lasting. Lower Lorraine gave trouble again, Lambert, Count of Louvain, and Richildis, widow Herman of Mons, and new bride of Baldwin of Antwerp, were causing strife. Godfrey was released and to him was it given to safeguard the unstable peace attained two years before. In 1052, a fourth campaign was undertaken against Hungary and Pressburg (modern Bratislava) was besieged. Andrew of Hungary called in the pope's mediation, but upon Henry's lifting of the siege, Andrew withdrew all offers of tribute and Leo IX excommunicated him at Regensburg. Henry was unable immediately to continue his campaign, however. In fact, he never renewed it in all his life. Henry did send a Swabian army to assist Leo in Italy, but he recalled it quickly. In Christmas of that year, Cuno of Bavaria was summoned to Merseburg and deposed by a small council of princes for his conflicting with Gebhard III, Bishop of Regensburg. Cuno revolted. [edit]Final wars in Germany In 1053, at Tribur, the young Henry, born 11 November 1050, was elected king of Germany. Andrew of Hungary almost made peace, but Cuno convinced him otherwise. Henry appointed his young son duke of Bavaria and went thence to deal with the ongoing insurrection. Henry sent another army to assist Leo in the Mezzogiorno against the Normans he himself had confirmed in their conquests as his vassal. Leo, sans assistance from Guaimar (distanced from Henry since 1047), was defeated at the Battle of Civitate on 18 June 1053 by Humphrey, Count of Apulia; Robert Guiscard, his younger brother; and Prince Richard I of Capua. The Swabians were cut to pieces. In 1054, Henry went north to deal with Casimir of Poland, now on the warpath. He transferred Silesia from Bretislaus to Casimir. Bretislaus nevertheless remained loyal to the end. Henry turned westwards and crowned his young son at Aachen on July 17 and then marched into Flanders, for the two Baldwins were in arms again. John of Arras, who had seized Cambrai before, had been forced out by Baldwin of Flanders and so turned to the Emperor. In return for inducing Liutpert, Bishop of Cambrai, to give John the castle, John would lead Henry through Flanders. The Flemish campaign was a success, but Liutpert could not be convinced. Bretislaus, who had regained Silesia in a short war, died that year. The margrave Adalbert of Austria, however, successfully resisted the depredations of Cuno and the raids of the king of Hungary. Henry could thus direct his attention elsewhere than rebellions for once. He returned to Goslar, the city where his son had been born and which he had raised to imperial and ecclesiastic grandeur with his palace and church reforms. He passed Christmas there and appointed Gebhard of Eichstedt as the next holder of the Petrine see, with the name Victor II. He was the last of Henry's four German popes. [edit]Preparing Italy and Germany for his death In 1055, Henry soon turned south, to Italy again, for Boniface III of Tuscany, ever an imperial ally, had died and his widow, Beatrice of Bar had married Godfrey of Lorraine (1054). Firstly, however, he gave his old hostage, Spitignev, the son of Bretislaus to the Bohemians as duke. Spitignev did homage and Bohemia remained securely, loyally, and happily within the Imperial fold. By Easter, Henry had arrived in Mantua. He held several courts, one at Roncaglia, where, a century later (1158), Frederick Barbarossa held a far more important diet, sent out his missi dominici to establish order. Godfrey, ostensibly the reason for the visit, was not well received by the people and returned to Flanders. Henry met the pope at Florence and arrested Beatrice, for marrying a traitor, and her daughter Matilda, later to be such an enemy of Henry's son. The young Frederick of Tuscany, Beatrice' son, refused to come to Florence and died within days. Henry returned via Zürich and there betrothed his young son to Bertha, daughter of Count Otto of Savoy.

Henry entered a Germany in turmoil. A staunch ally against Cuno in Bavaria, Gebhard of Regensburg, was implicated in a plot against the king along with Cuno and Welf of Carinthia. Sources diverge here: some claim only that these princes' retainers plotted the king's undoing. Whatever the case, it all came to naught and Cuno died of plague, Welf soon following him to the grave. Baldwin of Flanders and Godfrey were at it again, besieging Antwerp. They were defeated, again. Henry's reign was clearly changing in character: old foes were dead or dying and old friends as well. Herman of Cologne died. Henry appointed his confessor, Anno, as Herman's successor. Henry of France, so long eyeing Lorraine greedily, met for a third time with the emperor at Ivois in May 1056. The French king, not renowned for his tactical or strategic prowess, but admirable for his personal valour on the field, had a heated debate with the German king and challenged him to single combat. Henry fled at night from this meeting. Once in Germany again, Godfrey made his final peace and Henry went to the northeast to deal with a Slav uprising after the death of William of Meissen. He fell ill on the way and took to bed. He freed Beatrice and Matilda and had those with him swear allegiance to the young Henry, whom he commended the pope, present. On 5 October, not yet forty, Henry died. His heart went to Goslar, his body to Speyer, to lie next to his father's in the family vault in the cathedral of Speyer. He had been one of the most powerful of the Holy Roman Emperors: his authority as king in Burgundy, Germany, and Italy only rarely questioned, his power over the church was at the root of what the reformers he sponsored later fought against in his son, and his achievement in binding to the empire her tributaries was clear. Nevertheless, his reign is often pronounced a failure in that he apparently left problems far beyond the capacities of his successors to handle. The Investiture Controversy was largely the result of his church politics, though his popemaking gave the Roman diocese to the reform party. He united all the great duchies save Saxonoy to himself at one point or another, but gave them all away. His most enduring and concrete monument may be the impressive palace (kaiserpfalz) at Goslar. [edit]Children

By his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark, he had: Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim By his second wife, Agnes, he had: Adelaide (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063 Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053) Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and antiking (1077) Henry, his successor Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054) Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland [edit]Notes

^ Cambridge, III, p 285. [edit]Sources

Gwatkin, H. M., Whitney, J. P. (ed) et al. The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926. Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. , Oct. 28, 1017 d. Oct. 5, 1056, Pfalz Bodfeld, near Goslar, Saxony duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027-41), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038-45), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (1046-56), member of the Salian dynasty. He was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to purify the Western Church in the 11th century, the last emperor able to dominate the papacy. Youth and marriage. Henry was the son of the emperor Conrad II and Gisela of Swabia. He was more thoroughly trained for his office than almost any other crown prince before or after. With the Emperor's approval, Gisela had taken charge of his upbringing, and she saw to it that he was educated by a number of tutors and acquired an interest in literature. In 1036 Henry married Gunhilda (Kunigunde), the young daughter of King Canute of England, Denmark, and Sweden. Because her father had died shortly before, the union with this frail and ailing girl brought with it no political advantages. She died in 1038, and the emperor Conrad died the following year. His 22-year-old successor as German king resembled him in appearance. From his mother Henry inherited much, especially her strong inclination to piety and church services. His accession to the throne, unlike that of his two predecessors, did not lead to civic unrest, but his reign was burdensome from the beginning. Probably over questions of principle, the self-willed emperor quarrelled with the aging Gisela during her last years. He devoted his energies above all to the contemporary movement to bring an end to war among Christian princes, although his own policies were not always pacific. In possession of the duchies of Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia, and Carinthia, he had attempted to carry on his father's policy of supremacy in the east and, in fact, attained sovereignty over Bohemia and Moravia. It may have been at this time that Henry, prematurely believing he had reached the zenith of his power, displayed openly, as if it were a matter of governmental policy, his leanings toward the clerical-reform party. Intending to re-create a theocratic age like that of Charlemagne, he failed to realize that this could be done only as long as the papacy was powerless. Still a childless widower, he married Agnes, the daughter of William V of Aquitaine and Poitou, in 1043. The match must have been intended primarily to cement peace in the west and to assure imperial sovereignty over Burgundy and Italy, and Agnes' total devotion to the church reform advocated by the Cluniac monasteries probably confirmed Henry in his decision to take her for his wife. In November 1050 she bore him a son, who later became the emperor Henry IV. There followed another boy, Conrad, and three daughters. What Henry still lacked was the highest honour--his coronation as emperor at the hands of the pope. Control of the papacy. When Henry reached Rome in 1046, three rivals were claiming the papacy. Henry wanted a pacified Italy, in which German supremacy was uncontested, and he wanted to receive the imperial crown from unsullied hands. He convoked a synod at Sutri, which, at his bidding, elected as the new pope a German, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who was inaugurated as Clement II. On the same day the new pope crowned the imperial couple. Rome became an imperial city, and the control over the church--i.e., the decisive vote in future conclaves--passed into the hands of the German king. In succeeding years Henry made use of this right to appoint a pope three more times. When the Normans were beginning their conquest of Calabria, Henry did not intervene to any extent in southern Italy; instead he left this problem to Pope Leo IX, who was defeated by the Normans. Believing that the basis of his power was secure, the Emperor expected to be as successful with his internal projects as he had been in foreign affairs; but this was not to be the case. He could not carry out his ecclesiastical reforms in Germany or its neighbouring territories because he was virtually without friends among the clergy. He was increasingly opposed by the Scandinavian Church and by that of the Saxons. Also, he had to contend during most of his reign with Godfrey II, duke of Upper Lorraine, whom he repeatedly pardoned instead of disciplining. There was unrest everywhere. In 1054-55, dukes Conrad of Bavaria and Welf III of Carinthia attempted to overthrow Henry's rule through a widely spread conspiracy, and only their demise saved him from great trouble. Conrad, who had fled to Hungary, managed to subvert that country to such an extent that German influence remained permanently weakened. Although resistance against him stiffened with time, Henry continued to rule with moderation. Perhaps because he was aware of a lessening of his powers, his actions became haphazard. Instead of holding on to duchies that he had inherited, he entrusted them to others; but he chose badly and seldom acted decisively against his disloyal feudatories. He no longer inspired fear in his opponents--the Saxon and south German lay nobility, the alliance between Lorraine and Tuscany, the increasingly independent papacy, and the adventure-seeking Normans. Opponents of the Emperor's policy thought it was excessively indulgent toward the church and hostile toward the lay princes. Some of this criticism was voiced among the ranks of the ecclesiastical reformers. Matters had come to such an impasse that Henry no longer pleased anyone. His demands on the people to support his military strength were heavy from the beginning, and his revenues from inheritances and confiscations were also considerable. If the empire's basic wealth did not increase in his reign, it was because he used it to fulfill the demands of his clerical friends, even as he bestowed duchies on lay nobles in order to appease them. It is not surprising that, under these circumstances, he was compelled to find other sources of revenue by seeking credits, foreclosing mortgages, and looking after the interests of his treasury when conferring high imperial offices or church benefices. The abolition of simony (the sale of church offices) was difficult even for as high-principled a ruler as Henry, and, as a result, his enemies accused him of greed. According to some sources, in his old age Henry was rumoured to have become "untrue to himself " and inaccessible to the common people; he was reported to have refused to grant a judicial hearing to "the poor." In contrast, in the early years of his reign, he could not be praised enough for his zeal in the administration of justice. Disintegration of the empire. His change of personality may have resulted from the blunders and failures of his rule. After 1046 this man, shaped partly by religious ideals and partly by the harsh realities of political life, saw all his gains being swept away: northeastern Germany, Hungary, southern Italy, and Lorraine. Even the part of his work that he considered his very own, church reform, began to turn against him. A high priest among men, who did penance even while ruthlessly persecuting and even hanging heretics, Henry learned at the end of his days that clemency, goodness, and earthly justice do not necessarily benefit a prince. On the other hand, it may have been a physical disease that changed Henry. In 1045 he was so tortured with illness that negotiations concerning the succession were begun. The bad tidings from all corners of the empire must have complicated his condition. In September 1056 he fell sick in his favourite residence, the imperial palace at Bodfeld near Goslar, and, having assured the succession of his son Henry, he died in October.

BIOGRAPHY: (H.L.M.) Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

-------------------- http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_III_del_Sacro_Romano_Impero

Henrik III av Tyskland, född 1017, död 1056. tysk-romersk kejsare.

blev vol uppfostrad med andlig inriktning, kung i Burgund 1038, i

Tyskland 1039, hovdade kyrkans beroende av pavestolen,men behöll sjolv retten att tillsetta pavar. Vid kröningen till kejsare 1046 avsatte han tre rivaliserande pavar. Pavarna gjorde sig dock fria och blev en större maktfaktor i politiken. Utrikespolitiskt blev han erkond som överherre av Polen, Böhmen och Ungern, sistnemnda land gjorde sig dock fri och för att tukta upproriska vasaller, fromst i Lothringen organiserade han ettkrigståg strax före sin plötsliga död,

Gift med Agnes av Poitou.

-------------------- Emperor Heinrich III "the black" of Roman Empire - was born on 28 Oct 1017, lived in Schwaben, Bavaria and died on 5 Oct 1056 . He was the son of Emperor Konrad II of Roman Empire and Duchess Gisele of Swabia. Emperor Heinrich married Princess Agnaes of Aquitaine on 21 Nov 1043. Princess Agnaes was born about 1020 in Aquitaine. She was the daughter of Duke Guillaume V (III) "The Grand" of Aquitaine and Countess Agnaes de Bourgogne. She died on 14 Dec 1077 .

Emperor Heinrich - was crowned joint king with his father in 1028, and acceded on Conrad’s death in 1039. Under Henry III the medieval Holy Roman Empire probably attained its greatest power and solidity. In 1041, Henry defeated the Bohemians, who had been overrunning the lands of his vassals, the Poles, and compelled Duke Bratislaus I of Bohemia to renew his vassalage. Although several expeditions to Hungary against the raiding Magyars failed to establish his authority in that country, Henry was able in 1043 to fix the frontier of Austria and Hungary at the Leitha and Morava rivers, where it remained until the end of World War I. In the West, Henry attempted with some initial success to control particularist tendencies among the duchies. Children: (Quick Family Chart) i. Henry IV of Bavaria was born on 11 Nov 1050 in Saxony and died on 7 Aug 1106 in Liege, Lorraine, France . See #3. below.

-------------------- Konge av Tyskland 1039 - 1046. Tysk-romersk keiser 1046 - 1056. Heinrich var hertug av Bayern i 1027, hertug av Schwaben og konge av Burgund i 1038. Han ble tysk konge 04.06.1039 og tvang Böhmen til lensplikt.

I 1046 gjorde Heinrich slutt på skismaet ved å avsette tre paver. Han ble keiser 25.12.1046 med tilnavnet «den Svarte».

Han ble første gang gift i 1036 med Gunhild av Danmark som døde 18.07.1038.

Heinrich døde i Bodfeld i Harz, og ble bisatt i Speier.

Tekst: Tore Nygaard

Kilder: Erich Brandenburg: Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen, Leipzig 1935. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 198. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 91. -------------------- Henry III (29 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia and his father made him duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. Then, on Easter Day 1028, his father having been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy (as Henry I) as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on June 4, 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

By his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark, he had:

Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim

By his second wife, Agnes, he had:

Adelaide (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063 Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053) Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and antiking (1077) Henry, his successor Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054) Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland -------------------- Tysk kung från 1039 (vald 1026, krönt 1028), tysk–romersk kejsare från 1046, av det saliska huset, son till kejsar Konrad II (d. 1039). Henrik, som från 1038 var kung av Arelat (Burgund), var starkt påverkad av de kyrkliga reformidéer som utgick från Cluny. Genom s.k. gudsfreder sökte han stävja det utbredda fejdväsendet och bekämpade simonin (handeln med kyrkliga ämbeten). Henrik sökte också reformera påvedömet och ingrep aktivt vid flera påvetillsättningar. Hans kyrkopolitik gav honom inrikespolitiskt stöd, men på längre sikt försvagade den kungamakten och utmynnade i investiturstriden under hans son Henrik IV.

Källa: Nationalencyklopedin. -------------------- Henry III (29 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia and his father made him duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. On Easter Day 1028, his father having been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy (as Henry I) as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on June 4, 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

Contents [hide]

1 Early life and reign

2 After Conrad's death

2.1 First tour

2.2 Subjecting Bohemia

2.3 First Hungarian campaign

3 After marriage

3.1 Division of Lorraine

3.2 Second Hungarian campaign

3.3 Unrest in Lorraine

4 Height of his power

4.1 War in Lorraine

4.2 Second trip to Italy

4.3 Imperial coronation

4.4 Henry's appointments

4.5 Peace in Lorraine

5 Final Outcome

5.1 Final Hungarian campaigns

5.2 Final wars in Germany

5.3 Preparing Italy and Germany for his death

6 Children

7 See also

8 Notes

9 Sources

[edit]Early life and reign

Henry's first tutor was Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg. On Bruno's death in 1029, Egilbert, Bishop of Freising, was appointed to take his place. In 1033, at the age of sixteen, Henry came of age and Egilbert was compensated for his services. In 1035, Adalbero, Duke of Carinthia, was deposed by Conrad, but Egilbert convinced Henry to refuse this injustice and the princes of Germany, having legally elected Henry, would not recognise the deposition unless their king did also. Henry, in accordance with his promise to Egilbert, did not consent to his father's act and Conrad, stupefied, fell unconscious after many attempts to turn Henry. Upon recovering, Conrad knelt before his son and exacted the desired consent. Egilbert was penalised dearly by the emperor.

In 1036, Henry was married to Gunhilda of Denmark. She was a daughter of Canute the Great, King of Denmark, England, and Norway, by his wife Emma of Normandy. Early on, Henry's father had arranged with Canute to have him rule over some parts of northern Germany (Kiel) and in turn to have their children married. The marriage took place in Nijmegen at the earliest legal age.

In 1038, Henry was called to aid his father in Italy (1038) and Gunhilda died on the Adriatic Coast, during the return trip (during the same epidemic in which Herman IV of Swabia died). In 1039, his father, too, died and Henry became sole ruler and imperator in spe.

[edit]After Conrad's death

[edit]First tour

Henry spent his first year on a tour of his domains. He visited the Low Countries to receive the homage of Gothelo I, Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine. In Cologne, he was joined by Herman II, Archbishop of Cologne, who accompanied him and his mother to Saxony, where he was to build the town of Goslar up from obscurity to stately imperial grandeur. He had an armed force when he entered Thuringia to meet with Eckard II, Margrave of Meissen, whose advice and counsel he desired on the recent successes of Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia in Poland. Only a Bohemian embassy bearing hostages appeased Henry and he disbanded his army and continued his tour. He passed through Bavaria where, upon his departure, King Peter Urseolo of Hungary sent raiding parties into Swabia. There, at Ulm, he convened a Fürstentag at which he received his first recognition from Italy. He returned to Ingelheim after that and there was recognised by a Burgundian embassy and Aribert, Archbishop of Milan, whom he had supported against his father. This peace with Aribert healed the only open wound in the Empire. Meanwhile, in 1039, while he was touring his dominions, Conrad, Adalbero's successor in Carinthia and Henry's cousin, died childless. Henry being his nearest kin automatically inherited that duchy as well. He was now a triple-duke (Bavaria, Swabia, Carinthia) and triple-king (Germany, Burgundy, Italy).

[edit]Subjecting Bohemia

Monogram of Henry III.

Henry's first military campaign as sole ruler took place then (1040). He turned to Bohemia, where Bretislaus was still a threat, especially through his Hungarian ally's raiding. At Stablo, after attending to the reform of some monasteries, Henry summoned his army. In July, he met with Eckhard at Goslar and joined together his whole force at Regensburg. On 13 August, he set out. He was ambushed and the expedition ended in disaster. Only by releasing many Bohemian hostages, including Bretislaus's son, did the Germans procure the release of many of their comrades and the establishment of a peace. Henry retreated hastily and with little fanfare, preferring to ignore his first great defeat. On his return to Germany, Henry appointed Suidger bishop of Bamberg. He would later be Pope Clement II.

[edit]First Hungarian campaign

In 1040, Peter of Hungary was overthrown by Samuel Aba and fled to Germany, where Henry received him well despite the enmity formerly between them. Bretislaus was thus deprived of an ally and Henry renewed preparations for a campaign in Bohemia. On 15 August, he and Eckard set out once more, almost exactly a year after his last expedition. This time he was victorious and Bretislaus signed a peace treaty at Regensburg.

He spent Christmas 1041 at Strasbourg, where he received emissaries from Burgundy. He travelled to that kingdom in the new year and dispensed justice as needed. On his return, he heard, at Basel, of the raids into Bavaria being made by the king of Hungary. He thus granted his own duchy of Bavaria to one Henry, a relative of the last independent duke. At Cologne, he called together all his great princes, including Eckard, and they unanimously declared war on Hungary. It wasn't until September 1042 that he set out, after having dispatched men to seek out Agnes de Poitou to be his new bride. The expedition into Hungary successfully subdued the west of that nation, but Aba fled to eastern fortresses and Henry's installed candidate, an unknown cousin of his, was quickly removed when the emperor turned his back.

After Christmas at Goslar, his intended capital, he entertained several embassies: Bretislaus came in person, a Kievan embassy was rejected because Henry was not seeking a Rus bride, and the ambassadors of Casimir I of Poland were likewise rejected because the duke came not in person. Gisela, Henry's mother, died at this juncture and Henry went to the French borders, probably near Ivois to meet King Henry I of France, probably over the impending marriage to the princess of Aquitaine. Henry next turned to Hungary again, where he forced Aba to recognise the Danubian territory donated to Germany by Stephen I of Hungary pro causa amicitiae (for friendship's sake). These territories were ceded to Hungary after the defeat of Conrad II in 1030. This border remained the border between Hungary and Austria until 1920.

After this victory, Henry, a pious man, who dreamed of a Peace and Truce of God being respected over all his realms, declared from the pulpit in Konstanz in October 1043 a general indulgence or pardon whereby he promised to forgive all injuries to himself and to forgo vengeance. He encouraged all his vassals to do likewise. This is known as the "Day of Indulgence" or "Day of Pardon".

[edit]After marriage

Henry was finally remarried at Ingelheim in 1043 to Agnes, daughter of duke William V of Aquitaine and Agnes of Burgundy. Agnes was then living at the court of her stepfather, Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. This connection to the obstreperous vassal of the French king as well as her consanguinity—she and Henry being both descended from Henry the Fowler—caused some churchmen to oppose their union, but the marriage went as planned. Agnes was crowned at Mainz.

[edit]Division of Lorraine

After the coronation and the wedding, Henry wintered at Utrecht, where he proclaimed the same indulgence he had proclaimed the year prior in Burgundy. Then, in April 1044, Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine, that is of both Lower and Upper Lorraine, died. Henry did not wish to solidify the ducal power in any duchy and so, instead of appointing Godfrey, Gothelo's eldest son and already acting duke in Upper Lorraine, duke in the Lower duchy, he appointed Gothelo II, Godfrey's younger brother, duke there, thus raising the eldest son's ire. Henry claimed that Gothelo's dying wish was to see the duchy split between the brothers, but Godfrey, having faithfully served Henry thus far, rebelled. Henry called the two brothers together at Nijmegen, but failed to reconcile them. Nevertheless, he set out on the warpath against Hungary, then experiencing internal duress.

[edit]Second Hungarian campaign

Henry entered Hungary on July 6 and met a large army with his small host. Disaffection rent the Magyar forces, however, and they crumbled at the German onslaught in the Battle of Ménfő. Peter was reinstalled as king at Székesfehérvár, a vassal of the Empire, and Henry could return home triumphant, the Hungarian people having readily submitted to his rule.[1] Tribute was to be paid and Aba, while fleeing, was captured by Peter and beheaded. Hungary appeared to have entered the German fold fully and with ease.

[edit]Unrest in Lorraine

Upon his return from the Hungarian expedition, Godfrey of Lorraine began seeking out allies, among them Henry of France, to support him in any possible act of overt insurrection. Seeing this, the emperor summoned Henry to a trial by his peers of Lower Lorraine at Aachen where he was condemned and his duchy and county of Verdun (a royal fief) seized. He immediately fled the scene and began arming for revolt. Henry wintered at Speyer, with the civil war clearly in view on the horizon.

Coin of Henry's.

In early 1045, Henry entered Lorraine with a local army and besieged Godfrey's castle of Bockelheim (near Kreuznach) and took it. He took a few other castles, but famine drove him out. Leaving behind enough men to guard the countryside against Godfrey's raids, he turned to Burgundy. Godfrey had done his best to foment rebellion in that kingdom by playing of the imperialist, which supported union with the empire, and nationalist, which supported an independent Burgundy, factions against each other. However, Louis, Count of Montbéliard, defeated Reginald I, Count of Burgundy (what was to become the Free County), and when Henry arrived, the latter was ready with Gerald, Count of Geneva, to do homage. Burgundy was thereafter happily united to Henry's crown.

[edit]Height of his power

Then, Henry discussed the Italian political scene with some Lombard magnates at Augsburg and then went on to Goslar, where he gave the duchy of Swabia to Otto, Count Palatine of Lorraine. Henry also gave the march of Antwerp to Baldwin, the son of Baldwin V of Flanders. On his way to Hungary, to spend Pentecost with King Peter, a floor collapsed in one of his halls and Bruno, Bishop of Würzburg, was killed. In Hungary, Peter gave over the golden lance, symbol of sovereignty in Hungary, to Henry and pledged an oath of fealty along with his nobles. Hungary was now pledged to Peter for life and peace was fully restored between the two kingdoms of Germany and Hungary. In July, even Godfrey submitted and was imprisoned in Gibichenstein, the German Tower.

[edit]War in Lorraine

Henry fell ill at Tribur in October and Henry of Bavaria and Otto of Swabia chose as his successor Otto's nephew and successor in the palatinate, Henry I. Henry III, however, recovered, still heirless. At the beginning of the next year, now at the height of his power, but having divested himself of two of the great stem duchies, Henry's old advisor, Eckard of Meissen, died, leaving Meissen to Henry. Henry bestowed it on William, count of Orlamünde. He then moved to Lower Lorraine, where Gothelo II had just died and Dirk IV of Holland had seized Flushing. Henry personally led a river campaign against Count Dirk. Both count and Flushing fell to him. He gave the latter to Bernold, Bishop of Utrecht, and returned to Aachen to celebrate Pentecost and decide on the fate of Lorraine. Henry pitied and restored Godfrey, but gave the county of Verdun to the bishop of the city. This did not conciliate the duke. Henry gave the lower duchy to Frederick. He then appointed Adalbert archbishop of Bremen and summoned Widger, Archbishop of Ravenna, to a trial. The right of a German court to try an Italian bishop was very controversial and presaged the Investiture Controversy that characterised the reigns of Henry's son and grandson. Henry continued from there on to Saxony and held imperial courts at Quedlinburg, Merseburg (June), and Meissen. At the first, he made his daughter Beatrice from his first marriage abbess and at the second, he ended the strife between the dux Bomeraniorum and Casimir of Poland. This is one of the earliest, or perhaps the earliest, recording of the name of Pomerania, whose duke, Zemuzil, brought gifts.

[edit]Second trip to Italy

It was after the these events in northern Germany and a brief visit to Augsburg, where he summoned the greatest magnates, clerical and lay, of the realm to meet him and accompany him, that he crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, one of the most important of his many travels. His old ally, Aribert of Milan, had recently died and the Milanese had chosen as candidate for his successor one Guido, in opposition to the nobles' candidate. Meanwhile, in Rome, three popes—Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI—contested the pontifical honours. Benedict was a Tusculan who had previously renounced the throne, Sylvester was a Crescentian, and Gregory was a reformer, but a simoniac. Henry marched first to Verona, thence to Pavia in October. He held a court and dispensed justice as he had in Burgundy years earlier. He moved on to Sutri and held a second court on 20 December whereat he deposed all the candidates for the Saint Peter's throne and left it temporarily vacant. He headed towards Rome and held a synod wherein he declared no Roman priest fit. Adalbert of Bremen refused the honour and Henry appointed Suidger of Bamberg, who was acclaimed duly by the people and clergy, we are told. He took the name Clement II.

Henry before Tivoli in a fifteenth-century manuscript.

[edit]Imperial coronation

On 25 December, Christmas Day, Clement was consecrated and Henry and Agnes were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress. The populace gave him the golden chain of the patriciate and made him patricius, giving the powers, seemingly, of the Crescentii family during the tenth century: the power to nominate popes. Henry's first acts were to visit Frascati, capital of the counts of Tusculum, and seize all the castles of the Crescentii. He and the pope then moved south, where his father had created the situation as it was then in his visit of 1038. Henry reversed many of Conrad's acts. At Capua, he was received by Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno, also Prince of Capua since 1038. However, Henry gave Capua back to the twice-deprived Prince Pandulf IV, a highly unpopular choice. Guaimar had been acclaimed as Duke of Apulia and Calabria by the Norman mercenaries under William Iron Arm and his brother Drogo of Hauteville. In return, Guaimar had recognised the conquests of the Normans and invested William as his vassal with the comital title. Henry made Drogo, William's successor in Apulia, a direct vassal of the imperial crown. He did likewise to Ranulf Drengot, the count of Aversa, who had been a vassal of Guaimar as Prince of Capua. Thus, Guaimar was deprived of his greatest vassals, his principality split in two, and his greatest enemy reinstated. Henry lost popularity amongst the Lombards with these decisions and Benevento, though a papal vassal, would not admit him. He authorised Drogo to conquer it and headed north to reunion with Agnes at Ravenna. He arrived at Verona in May and the Italian circuit was completed.

[edit]Henry's appointments

On Henry's return to Germany, many offices which had fallen vacant were filled. First, Henry gave away his last personal duchy: he made Welf duke of Carinthia. He made his Italian chancellor, Humphrey, archbishop of Ravenna. He filled several other sees: he installed Guido in Piacenza, his chaplain Theodoric in Verdun, the provost Herman of Speyer in Strasbourg, and his German chancellor Theodoric in Constance. The important Lorrainer bishoprics of Metz and Trier received respectively Adalberon and Eberhard, a chaplain.

The many vacancies of the Imperial episcopate now filled, Henry was at Metz (July 1047) when the rebellion then stewing broke out seriously. Godfrey was now allied with Baldwin of Flanders, his son (the margrave of Antwerp), Dirk of Holland, and Herman, Count of Mons. Henry gathered an army and went north, where he gave Adalbert of Bremen lands once Godfrey's and oversaw the trial by combat of Thietmar, the brother of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony, accused of plotting to kill the king. Bernard, an enemy of Adalbert's, was now clearly on Henry's bad side. Henry made peace with the new king of Hungary, Andrew I and moved his campaign into the Netherlands. At Flushing, he was defeated by Dirk. The Hollanders sacked Charlemagne's palace at Nijmegen and burnt Verdun. Godfrey then made public penance and assisted in rebuilding Verdun. The rebels besieged Liège, defended stoutly by Bishop Wazo. Henry slowed his campaigning after the death of Henry of Bavaria and gave Upper Lorraine to one Adalbert and left. The pope had died in the meantime and Henry chose Poppo of Brixen, who took the name Damasus II. Henry gave Bavaria to one Cuno and, at Ulm in January 1048, Swabia to Otto of Schweinfurt, called the White. Henry met Henry of France, probably at Ivois again, in October and at Christmas, envoys from Rome came to seek a new pope, Damasus having died. Henry's most enduring papal selection was Bruno of Toul, who took office as Leo IX, and under whom the Church would be divided between East and West. Henry's final appointment of this long spate was a successor to Adalber in Lorraine. For this, he appointed Gerard of Chatenoy, a relative of Adalbert and Henry himself.

[edit]Peace in Lorraine

The year of 1049 was a series of successes. Dirk of Holland was defeated and killed. Adalbert of Bremen managed a peace with Bernard of Saxony and negotiated a treaty with the missionary monarch Sweyn II of Denmark. With the assistance of Sweyn and Edward the Confessor of England, whose enemies Baldwin had harboured, Baldwin of Flanders was harassed by sea and unable to escape the onslaught of the imperial army. At Cologne, the pope excommunicated Godfrey, in revolt again, and Baldwin. The former abandoned his allies and was imprisoned by the emperor yet again. Baldwin too gave in under the pressure of Henry's ravages. Finally, war had ceased in the Low Countries and the Lorraines and peace seemed to have taken hold.

[edit]Final Outcome

[edit]Final Hungarian campaigns

In 1051, Henry undertook a third Hungarian campaign, but failed to achieve anything lasting. Lower Lorraine gave trouble again, Lambert, Count of Louvain, and Richildis, widow Herman of Mons, and new bride of Baldwin of Antwerp, were causing strife. Godfrey was released and to him was it given to safeguard the unstable peace attained two years before.

In 1052, a fourth campaign was undertaken against Hungary and Pressburg (modern Bratislava) was besieged. Andrew of Hungary called in the pope's mediation, but upon Henry's lifting of the siege, Andrew withdrew all offers of tribute and Leo IX excommunicated him at Regensburg. Henry was unable immediately to continue his campaign, however. In fact, he never renewed it in all his life. Henry did send a Swabian army to assist Leo in Italy, but he recalled it quickly. In Christmas of that year, Cuno of Bavaria was summoned to Merseburg and deposed by a small council of princes for his conflicting with Gebhard III, Bishop of Regensburg. Cuno revolted.

[edit]Final wars in Germany

In 1053, at Tribur, the young Henry, born 11 November 1050, was elected king of Germany. Andrew of Hungary almost made peace, but Cuno convinced him otherwise. Henry appointed his young son duke of Bavaria and went thence to deal with the ongoing insurrection. Henry sent another army to assist Leo in the Mezzogiorno against the Normans he himself had confirmed in their conquests as his vassal. Leo, sans assistance from Guaimar (distanced from Henry since 1047), was defeated at the Battle of Civitate on 18 June 1053 by Humphrey, Count of Apulia; Robert Guiscard, his younger brother; and Prince Richard I of Capua. The Swabians were cut to pieces.

In 1054, Henry went north to deal with Casimir of Poland, now on the warpath. He transferred Silesia from Bretislaus to Casimir. Bretislaus nevertheless remained loyal to the end. Henry turned westwards and crowned his young son at Aachen on July 17 and then marched into Flanders, for the two Baldwins were in arms again. John of Arras, who had seized Cambrai before, had been forced out by Baldwin of Flanders and so turned to the Emperor. In return for inducing Liutpert, Bishop of Cambrai, to give John the castle, John would lead Henry through Flanders. The Flemish campaign was a success, but Liutpert could not be convinced.

Bretislaus, who had regained Silesia in a short war, died that year. The margrave Adalbert of Austria, however, successfully resisted the depredations of Cuno and the raids of the king of Hungary. Henry could thus direct his attention elsewhere than rebellions for once. He returned to Goslar, the city where his son had been born and which he had raised to imperial and ecclesiastic grandeur with his palace and church reforms. He passed Christmas there and appointed Gebhard of Eichstedt as the next holder of the Petrine see, with the name Victor II. He was the last of Henry's four German popes.

[edit]Preparing Italy and Germany for his death

In 1055, Henry soon turned south, to Italy again, for Boniface III of Tuscany, ever an imperial ally, had died and his widow, Beatrice of Bar had married Godfrey of Lorraine (1054). Firstly, however, he gave his old hostage, Spitignev, the son of Bretislaus to the Bohemians as duke. Spitignev did homage and Bohemia remained securely, loyally, and happily within the Imperial fold. By Easter, Henry had arrived in Mantua. He held several courts, one at Roncaglia, where, a century later (1158), Frederick Barbarossa held a far more important diet, sent out his missi dominici to establish order. Godfrey, ostensibly the reason for the visit, was not well received by the people and returned to Flanders. Henry met the pope at Florence and arrested Beatrice, for marrying a traitor, and her daughter Matilda, later to be such an enemy of Henry's son. The young Frederick of Tuscany, Beatrice' son, refused to come to Florence and died within days. Henry returned via Zürich and there betrothed his young son to Bertha, daughter of Count Otto of Savoy.

Imperial palace at Goslar, largely the work of Henry.

Henry entered a Germany in turmoil. A staunch ally against Cuno in Bavaria, Gebhard of Regensburg, was implicated in a plot against the king along with Cuno and Welf of Carinthia. Sources diverge here: some claim only that these princes' retainers plotted the king's undoing. Whatever the case, it all came to naught and Cuno died of plague, Welf soon following him to the grave. Baldwin of Flanders and Godfrey were at it again, besieging Antwerp. They were defeated, again. Henry's reign was clearly changing in character: old foes were dead or dying and old friends as well. Herman of Cologne died. Henry appointed his confessor, Anno, as Herman's successor. Henry of France, so long eyeing Lorraine greedily, met for a third time with the emperor at Ivois in May 1056. The French king, not renowned for his tactical or strategic prowess, but admirable for his personal valour on the field, had a heated debate with the German king and challenged him to single combat. Henry fled at night from this meeting. Once in Germany again, Godfrey made his final peace and Henry went to the northeast to deal with a Slav uprising after the death of William of Meissen. He fell ill on the way and took to bed. He freed Beatrice and Matilda and had those with him swear allegiance to the young Henry, whom he commended the pope, present. On 5 October, not yet forty, Henry died. His heart went to Goslar, his body to Speyer, to lie next to his father's in the family vault in the cathedral of Speyer. He had been one of the most powerful of the Holy Roman Emperors: his authority as king in Burgundy, Germany, and Italy only rarely questioned, his power over the church was at the root of what the reformers he sponsored later fought against in his son, and his achievement in binding to the empire her tributaries was clear. Nevertheless, his reign is often pronounced a failure in that he apparently left problems far beyond the capacities of his successors to handle. The Investiture Controversy was largely the result of his church politics, though his popemaking gave the Roman diocese to the reform party. He united all the great duchies save Saxony to himself at one point or another, but gave them all away. His most enduring and concrete monument may be the impressive palace (kaiserpfalz) at Goslar.

[edit]Children

By his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark, he had:

Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim

By his second wife, Agnes, he had:

Adelaide II (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063

Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053)

Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and antiking (1077)

Henry, his successor

Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054)

Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland

[edit]See also

Kings of Germany family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.

[edit]Notes

^ Cambridge, III, p 285.

[edit]Sources

Gwatkin, H. M., Whitney, J. P. (ed) et al. The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926.

Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor -------------------- http://ru.rodovid.org/wk/Запись:137783

одители ♂ # Koenraad II van Duitsland [van Duitsland] р. оц. 990 ум. 4 июнь 1039 ♀ # Гизела Швабская [Конрадины] ум. 14 февраль 1042 Вики-страница wikipedia:ru:Генрих III (император Священной Римской империи) События

28 октябрь 1017 рождение: с 1027 по 1042 титул: герцог Баварии 1036 брак: ♀ Гунхильда [Кнютлинги] р. ок. 1019? ум. 18 июль 1038 1037 рождение ребёнка: ♂ Беатрис [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. 1037 ум. 13 июль 1061 с 1039 по 1046 титул: roi des Romains с 1039 по 1045 титул: герцог Швабии с 1039 по 5 октябрь 1056 титул: король Бургундии с 1039 по 1047 титул: герцог Каринтии 20 ноябрь 1043 брак: Ingelheim am Rhein, ♀ # Агнеса де Пуатье [Рамнульфиды] р. ок. 1024? ум. 14 декабрь 1077 1045 рождение ребёнка: ♀ Адельгейда [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. 1045 ум. 11 январь 1096 с 25 декабрь 1046 по 5 октябрь 1056 титул: император Священной Римской империи 1047 рождение ребёнка: ♀ Гизела [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. 1047 ум. 6 май 1053 с 1047 по 1049 титул: герцог Баварии октябрь 1048 рождение ребёнка: ♀ Матильда [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. октябрь 1048 ум. 12 май 1060 11 ноябрь 1050 рождение ребёнка: Гослар, Германия, ♂ # Генрих IV [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. 11 ноябрь 1050 ум. 7 август 1106 ок. сентябрь 1052? рождение ребёнка: ♂ Конрад II [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. ок. сентябрь 1052? ум. 10 апрель 1055 с 21 июнь 1054 по 23 сентябрь 1054 рождение ребёнка: Goslar, ♀ Юдит [Салическая (Франконская) Династия] р. с 21 июнь 1054 по 23 сентябрь 1054 ум. между 14 март 1092 - 1096 5 октябрь 1056 смерть: Бодфельд, Саксония, Германия [править]

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Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor's Timeline

1017
October 28, 1017
Swaben, Bayern, Deutschland(HRR)
1036
June 10, 1036
Age 18
Germany
1038
January 1038
Age 20
Germany
1043
November 21, 1043
Age 26
Ingelheim, Rheinhessen, Hesse-Darmstadt
1043
Age 25
1046
1046
Age 28
Germany?
1047
April 9, 1047
Age 29
Goslar, Niedersachsen, Germany
1048
October 1048
Age 30
Saxony, Germany
1048
Age 30
Saxony
1050
November 11, 1050
Age 33
Brunswick, Deutschland