Henry "The Young King", King of England

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Henry "The Young King" Plantagenet, King of England

Nicknames: "Henry The Young King", "Prince of England", "The Young King"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Bermandsey Palace, London, Middlesex, England
Death: Died in Chateau de Mortel, Turenne, Aquitaine, France
Place of Burial: Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and England
Husband of Marguerite de France, reine consort de Hongrie
Father of William Plantagenet, of England
Brother of William IX, Count of Poitiers; Matilda Plantagenet, Abbess of Barking; Richard the Lionheart, King of England; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Philip, Prince of England and 3 others
Half brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Matilda Plantagenet, Abbess of Barking; Hugh Plantagenet, Bishop of Wells; Geoffrey of Plantagenet, Archbishop of York; William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury and 5 others

Occupation: Duque de Normandia, Crusader, King of England, Young King of the English, King of England (Co-Regent), Junior King of England, King Henry "The Young", King of England 1170–1183
Managed by: Jennie Jacobson
Last Updated:

About Henry "The Young King" Plantagenet, King of England

Henry, known as the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was junior King of England; Duke of Normandy[1], Count of Anjou and Maine.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Tournament hero and celebrity
   * 3 Political career
   * 4 Death and burial
   * 5 Fictional portrayals
   * 6 Ancestry
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 References

[edit] Early life

Little is known of the young prince Henry before the events associated with his marriage and coronation. His mother's children by her first marriage to the king of France were Marie de Champagne and Alix de Blois. He was a younger brother of William IX, Count of Poitiers (d. 1156), and his younger siblings included Matilda, Duchess of Saxony; Richard I of England; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Eleanor, Queen of Castile; Joan, Queen of Sicily; and John I of England.

In June 1170, the fifteen-year-old Henry was crowned king during his father's lifetime, an adoption into England of the practice of French Capetian dynasty. A Latin poem by a court official written to commemorate the coronation hints at the charisma of this young prince. There he is described as a charming youth of striking beauty, tall but well proportioned, broad-shouldered with a long and elegant neck, pale and freckled skin, bright and wide blue eyes, with a thick mop of the reddish-gold hair characteristic of his dynasty.[citation needed]

He was known in his own lifetime as "Henry the Young King" to distinguish him from the elder King Henry his father. Because he predeceased his father, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. Nonetheless, he was an anointed king and his royal status was not disputed.[citation needed] There is a question about his knighting. According to one of Becket's correspondents, Henry was knighted by his father before the coronation, but the biographer of William Marshal asserts that the king was knighted by William in the course of the rebellion of 1173.[citation needed]

[edit] Tournament hero and celebrity

Henry did not seem much interested in the day-to-day business of government, which distinguished him from his father and younger brothers. His father, however, is reputed to have failed to delegate authority to his son, retaining the reins of power in England in his own hands. The majority opinion amongst historians is that of W. L. Warren (1973), "The Young Henry was the only one of his family who was popular in his own day. It was true that he was also the only one who gave no evidence of political sagacity, military skill, or even ordinary intelligence…", and elaborated in a later book, "He was gracious, benign, affable, courteous, the soul of liberality and generosity. Unfortunately he was also shallow, vain, careless, high-hoped, incompetent, improvident, and irresponsible."

The Young King's contemporary reputation, however, was by no means so negative. This had much to do with his place in the enthusiastic tournament culture of his own day. We can see this from his appearances in the History of William Marshal, the biography of the knight who was assigned to him as a tutor in 1170, and who became his tournament team leader until 1182. The History depicts him as constantly moving from tournament to tournament across northern and central France between 1175 and 1182. With his first cousin Count Philip of Flanders and Count Baldwin V of Hainault and Namur, he was one of the key patrons of the sport. He is said to have spent over £200 a day on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179.

If he lacked political weight, the Young King's patronage gave him celebrity status throughout western Europe. The baron and troubador, Bertran de Born, who knew him, said that he was '…the best king who ever took up a shield, the most daring and best of all tourneyers. From the time when Roland was alive, and even before, never was seen a knight so skilled, so warlike, whose fame resounded so around the world — even if Roland did come back, or if the world were searched as far as the River Nile and the setting sun.' There was a perception amongst his contemporaries and the next generation that his death in 1183 marked a decline both in the tournament and knightly endeavor. His former chaplain, Gervase of Tilbury, said that 'his death was the end of everything knightly'. However, de Born was later highly critical of the Young King, and satirized him in several of his works.

[edit] Political career

The Young Henry played an important part in the politics of his father's reign. On 2 November 1160, he was betrothed to Marguerite of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile, when he was 5 years of age and she was 2. The marriage was an attempt to settle the long struggle between the Plantagenets and Capetians over the possession of the frontier district of the Norman Vexin, which Louis VII had acquired from Henry II's father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, around 1144. By the terms of the settlement, Marguerite would bring the castles of the Norman Vexin to her new husband. However, the marriage was pushed through by Henry II when Young Henry and Marguerite were small children, so that he could seize the castles. A bitter border war followed between the kings.

They were formally married on 27 August 1172 in cathedral at Winchester, when Henry was crowned king of England a second time, by Rotrou, the archbishop of Rouen.[2][3]

Young Henry fell out with his father in 1173. Contemporary chroniclers allege that it was due to the young man's frustration that his father had given him no realm to rule, and that he felt starved of funds. The rebellion seems however to have drawn strength from much deeper discontent with his father's rule, and a formidable party of Anglo- Norman, Norman, Angevin, Poitevian and Breton magnates joined him. The civil war (1173–74) came close to toppling the king, and he was narrowly saved by the loyalty of a party of nobles with holdings on the English side of the Channel, and the defeat and capture of the king of Scotland. Young Henry sought a reconciliation after the capture of his mother and the failure of the revolt. By the terms of the settlement his funds were much increased and he apparently devoted most of the next seven years to the amusement of the tournament.

In November 1179 he represented his father at the coronation of Philip Augustus as associate king of France at Reims. He acted as Steward of France and carried the crown in the coronation procession. Later he played a leading role in the celebratory tournament held at Lagny-sur-Marne, to which he brought a retinue of over 500 knights at huge expense.

The Young Henry's affairs took a turn for the worse in 1182. He fell out with William Marshal, the leader of his tournament mesnée.[clarification needed] The unknown author of L'Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal suggests that Marshal's disgrace was because he had indulged in a clandestine affair with Queen Marguerite. David Crouch, one of the Marshal's principal modern biographers, argues that the charge against William was actually one of lèse majesté, brought on by Marshal's own arrogance and greed. The charge of adultery was only introduced in the Life of William Marshal as a distraction from the real charges, of which he was most probably guilty. Though the Young King sent his wife early in 1183 to the French court, it was done most likely to keep her safe in the impending war with his brother Richard rather than because she was in disgrace.

The only child of Henry and Marguerite was William, born prematurely on 19 June 1177, and dying on 22 June of the same year. This difficult delivery may have rendered her sterile, as she had no further children by Henry or her second husband.

[edit] Death and burial

Henry the Young King died in the summer of 1183, during the course of a campaign in the Limousin against his father and his brother Richard. He had just completed a pillage of local monasteries to raise money to pay his mercenaries. He contracted dysentery at the beginning of June. Weakening fast, he was taken to Martel, near Limoges. It was clear to his household that he was dying on 7 June when he was confessed and received the last rites. As a token of his penitence for his war against his father he prostrated himself naked on the floor before a crucifix. He made a testament and since he had taken a crusader's vow, he gave his cloak to his friend William Marshal with the plea that he should take the cloak (presumably with the crusader's cross stitched to it) to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. On his deathbed, he reportedly asked to be reconciled to his father, but King Henry, fearing a trick, refused to see him. He died on 11 June, clasping a ring his father had sent instead as a sign of his forgiveness. After his death, his father is said to have exclaimed: "He cost me much, but I wish he had lived to cost me more."

After his death there was an attempt by his mother and a faction of his friends to promote his sainthood. Thomas of Earley, archdeacon of Wells, published a sermon not long afterwards which detailed miraculous events attending the cortège which took his body north to Normandy. Henry had left orders that his entrails and other body parts should be buried at the abbey of Charroux, but the rest of his body should rest in Rouen Cathedral.[4] However, during the funeral procession, a member of Henry's household was seized by his mercenary captains for debts the late king had owed them. The knights accompanying his corpse were so penniless they had to be fed by charity at the monastery of Vigeois. There were large and emotional gatherings wherever his body rested. At Le Mans, the local bishop halted the procession and ordered the body buried in his cathedral, perhaps to help defuse the civil unrest Henry's death had caused. The dean of Rouen recovered the body from the chapter of Le Mans a month later by law suit so the Young Henry could be buried in Normandy as he had desired in his testament. His remains are in Rouen Cathedral, where his tomb is on the opposite side of the altar from the tomb[5] of his younger brother Richard, with whom he was perpetually quarrelling. The tomb of the archbishop of Rouen, who had married him and Margaret, lies nearby in the ambulatory. His brothers Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland both later became king.

--------------------

Henry, known as the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was junior King of England; Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Young_King

--------------------

Henry, known as the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Tournament hero and celebrity

3 Political career

4 Death and burial

5 Ancestry

6 Notes

7 References


[edit] Early life

Little is known of the Young Henry before the events associated with his marriage and coronation. His mother's children by her first marriage to the king of France were Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He was a younger brother of William IX, Count of Poitiers (d. 1156), and his younger siblings included Matilda, Duchess of Saxony; Richard I of England; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Leonora of Aquitaine; Joan of England; and John Lackland.

In June 1170 the fifteen-year-old Henry was crowned king during his father's lifetime, an adoption into England of the practice of French Capetian dynasty. A Latin poem by a court official written to commemorate the coronation hints at the charisma of this young prince. There he is described as a charming youth of striking beauty, tall but well proportioned, broad-shouldered with a long and elegant neck, pale and freckled skin, bright and wide blue eyes, with a thick mop of the reddish-gold hair characteristic of his dynasty.[citation needed]

He was known in his own lifetime as "Henry the Young King" to distinguish him from the elder King Henry his father. Because he predeceased his father, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. Nonetheless, he was an anointed king and his royal status was not disputed.[citation needed] There is a question about his knighting. According to one of Becket's correspondents Henry was knighted by his father before the coronation. But the biographer of William Marshal asserts that the king was knighted by William in the course of the rebellion of 1173.[citation needed]

[edit] Tournament hero and celebrity

Henry did not seem much interested in the day-to-day business of government, which distinguished him from his father and younger brothers. The majority opinion amongst historians is that of W. L. Warren (1973), "The Young Henry was the only one of his family who was popular in his own day. It was true that he was also the only one who gave no evidence of political sagacity, military skill, or even ordinary intelligence…", and elaborated in a later book, "He was gracious, benign, affable, courteous, the soul of liberality and generosity. Unfortunately he was also shallow, vain, careless, high-hoped, incompetent, improvident, and irresponsible."

However, the Young King's contemporary reputation was by no means so negative. This had much to do with his place in the enthusiastic tournament culture of his own day. We can see this from his appearances in the History of William Marshal, the biography of the knight who was assigned to him as a tutor in 1170, and who became his tournament team leader until 1182. The History depicts him as constantly moving from tournament to tournament across northern and central France between 1175 and 1182. With his first cousin Count Philip of Flanders and Count Baldwin V of Hainault and Namur, he was one of the key patrons of the sport. He is said to have spent over £200 a day on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179.

If he lacked political weight, the Young King's patronage gave him celebrity status throughout western Europe. The baron and troubador, Bertran de Born, who knew him, said that he was '…the best king who ever took up a shield, the most daring and best of all tourneyers. From the time when Roland was alive, and even before, never was seen a knight so skilled, so warlike, whose fame resounded so around the world — even if Roland did come back, or if the world were searched as far as the River Nile and the setting sun.' There was a perception amongst his contemporaries and the next generation that his death in 1183 marked a decline both in the tournament and knightly endeavour. His former chaplain, Gervase of Tilbury, said that 'his death was the end of everything knightly'.

[edit] Political career

The Young Henry played an important part in the politics of his father's reign. On 2 November 1160 he was betrothed to Marguerite of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile, when he was 5 years of age and she was 2. The marriage was an attempt to settle the long struggle between the Plantagenets and Capetians over the possession of the frontier district of the Norman Vexin, which Louis VII had acquired from Henry II's father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, around 1144. By the terms of the settlement, Marguerite would bring the castles of the Norman Vexin to her new husband. However, the marriage was pushed through by Henry II when Young Henry and Marguerite were small children, so that he could seize the castles. A bitter border war followed between the kings.

They were formally married on 27 August 1172 in cathedral at Winchester, when Henry was crowned king of England a second time, by the bishop of Evreux or the archbishop of Rouen, in the .[1][2]

Young Henry fell out with his father in 1173. Contemporary chroniclers allege that it was due to the young man's frustration that his father had given him no realm to rule, and that he felt starved of funds. The rebellion seems however to have drawn strength from much deeper discontent with his father's rule, and a formidable party of English and Norman magnates joined him. The civil war (1173–74) came close to toppling the king, and he was narrowly saved by the loyalty of a party of English court aristocracy and the defeat and capture of the king of Scotland. Young Henry sought a reconciliation after the capture of his mother and the failure of the revolt. By the terms of the settlement his funds were much increased and he apparently devoted most of the next seven years to the amusement of the tournament.

In November 1179 he represented his father at the coronation of Philip Augustus as associate king of France at Reims. He acted as Steward of France and carried the crown in the coronation procession. Later he played a leading role in the celebratory tournament held at Lagny-sur-Marne, to which he brought a retinue of over 500 knights at huge expense.

The Young Henry's affairs took a turn for the worse in 1182. He fell out with William Marshal, his tournament team manager. The Marshal biographer suggests that Marshal's disgrace was because he had indulged in a clandestine affair with Queen Marguerite. David Crouch, the Marshal's principal modern biographer, proves that the charge against William was actually one of lèse majesté, brought on by Marshal's own arrogance and greed. The charge of adultery was only introduced in the Life of William Marshal as a distraction from the real charges, of which he was most probably guilty. Though the Young King sent his wife early in 1183 to the French court, it was done most likely to keep her safe in the impending war with his brother Richard rather than because she was in disgrace.

The only child of Henry and Marguerite was William, born prematurely on 19 June 1177, and dying on 22 June of the same year. This difficult delivery may have rendered her sterile, as she had no further children by Henry or her second husband.

[edit] Death and burial

Henry the Young King died in the summer of 1183, during the course of a campaign in the Limousin against his father and his brother, Richard. He had just completed a pillage of local monasteries to raise money to pay his mercenaries. He contracted dysentery at the beginning of June. Weakening fast, he was taken to Martel, near Limoges. It was clear to his household that he was dying on 7 June when he was confessed and received the last rites. As a token of his penitence for his war against his father he prostrated himself naked on the floor before a crucifix. He made a testament and since he had taken a crusader's vow, he gave his cloak to his friend William Marshal with the plea that he should take the cloak (presumably with the crusader's cross stitched to it) to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. On his deathbed he reportedly asked to be reconciled to his father, but King Henry, fearing a trick, refused to see him. He died on 11 June clasping a ring his father had sent instead as a sign of his forgiveness. After his death, his father is said to have exclaimed: "He cost me much, but I wish he had lived to cost me more."

The events that followed his death are worthy of comment. There was an attempt by his mother and a faction of his friends to promote his sainthood. Thomas of Earley, archdeacon of Wells, published a sermon not long afterwards which detailed miraculous events attending the cortège which took his body north to Normandy. The cortège was something of a shambles. A member of his household was seized by his mercenary captains for debts the late king had owed them. The knights accompanying his corpse were so penniless they had to be fed by charity at the monastery of Vigeois. There were large and emotional gatherings wherever his body rested. At Le Mans, the local bishop halted the procession and ordered the body buried in his cathedral, perhaps to help defuse the civil unrest Henry's death had caused. The dean of Rouen recovered the body from the chapter of Le Mans a month later by law suit so the Young Henry could be buried in Normandy as he had desired in his testament. His remains rest in Rouen Cathedral, where his tomb can be seen, appropriately, on the opposite side of the altar from the tomb[3]of his younger brother Richard, with whom he was perpetually quarrelling. The tomb of the archbishop of Rouen, who had married him and Margaret, lies nearby in the ambulatory. His brothers Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland both later became king.

[edit] Ancestry

[show]v • d • eAncestors of Henry the Young King

                                 

 16. Fulk IV of Anjou 
 
         

 8. Fulk of Jerusalem   
 
               

 17. Bertrade de Montfort 
 
         

 4. Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou   
 
                     

 18. Elias I of Maine 
 
         

 9. Aremburga de la Fleche of Maine   
 
               

 19. Matilda of Chateau-du-Loire 
 
         

 2. Henry II of England   
 
                           

 20. William I of England 
 
         

 10. Henry I of England   
 
               

 21. Matilda of Flanders 
 
         

 5. Empress Matilda   
 
                     

 22. Malcolm III of Scotland 
 
         

 11. Matilda of Scotland   
 
               

 23. Margaret of England 
 
         

 1. Henry the Young King   
 
                                 

 24. William VIII of Aquitaine 
 
         

 12. William IX of Aquitaine   
 
               

 25. Hildegarde of Burgundy 
 
         

 6. William X of Aquitaine   
 
                     

 26. William IV of Toulouse 
 
         

 13. Philippa of Toulouse   
 
               

 27. Emma of Mortain 
 
         

 3. Eleanor of Aquitaine   
 
                           

 28. Boson II de Châtellérault, Viscount of Châtellérault 
 
         

 14. Aimery I de Rochefoucauld, Viscount of Châtellérault   
 
               

 29. Aenora of Thouars 
 
         

 7. Aenor de Châtellerault   
 
                     

 30. Bartelmy de l'Isle-Bouchaard 
 
         

 15. Dangereuse de l'Isle-Bouchaard   
 
               

 31. Gerberg 
 
         


[edit] Notes

^ Alison Weir, Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life (Ballantine Books, 1999) p. 195

^ W L Warren, Henry II (Univ. of California Press, 1973) p. 111, note 3

^ This tomb contained a lead reliquary, with Richard's heart, that is stored with the treasure of the Cathedral. His body is in the Fontevraud Abbey.

[edit] References

W.L. Warren, Henry II (London, 1973) ISBN 0-520-03494-5

O.H. Moore, The Young King Henry Plantagenet, 1155–83, in History, Literature, and Tradition (Columbus OH, 1925)

G. Duby, William Marshal: the Flower of Chivalry trans. R. Howard (London, 1986)

D. Crouch, William Marshal: Knighthood, War and Chivalry, 1147–1219 (2nd edn, London, 2002)

D. Crouch, Tournament (London, 2005)

L. Diggelmann, 'Marriage as Tactical Response: Henry II and the Royal Wedding of 1160', English Historical Review, CXIX, (2004), pp. 954–64

R.J. Smith, 'Henry II's Heir: the Acta and Seal of Henry the Young King, 1170-83', English Historical Review, CXVI, (2001), pp. 297–326

Henry the Young King

House of Plantagenet

Born: 28 February 1155 Died: 11 June 1183

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Henry II (Junior) King of England

1170 – 1183

with Henry II Succeeded by

Henry II

English royalty

Preceded by

William IX, Count of Poitiers Heir to the English Throne

as heir apparent

and crowned co-King

April 1156 – 11 June 1183 Succeeded by

Richard, Duke of Aquitaine

French nobility

Preceded by

Henry II Count of Anjou

with Henry II

1170 – 1183 Succeeded by

Henry II

[show]v • d • eEnglish Monarchs (871-1707)


Anglo-Saxon/

Anglo-Norse Alfred the Great · Edward the Elder · Ælfweard · Athelstan the Glorious · Edmund the Magnificent · Eadred · Eadwig the Fair · Edgar the Peaceable · Edward the Martyr · Ethelred the Unready · Sweyn Forkbeard · Edmund Ironside · Cnut the Great · Harold Harefoot · Harthacnut · Edward the Confessor · Harold Godwinson · Edgar the Ætheling


Normans William I · William II · Henry I · Stephen · Matilda


House of Plantagenet Henry II · Richard I · John · Henry III · Edward I · Edward II · Edward III · Richard II


Lancaster and York Henry IV · Henry V · Henry VI · Edward IV · Edward V · Richard III


House of Tudor Henry VII · Henry VIII · Edward VI · Jane Grey · Mary I · Elizabeth I


House of Stuart James I · Charles I · Charles II · James II · William III of Orange · Mary II · Anne


Disputed rulers are in italics.


[show]v • d • eHouse of Plantagenet



      
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Henry "The Young King", King of England's Timeline

1155
February 28, 1155
England
March 28, 1155
Bermandsey Palace, London, Middlesex, England
1160
November 2, 1160
Age 5
Neubourg
November 2, 1160
Age 5

Young Henry was betrothed to Marguerite of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile, when he was 5 years of age and she was 2. The marriage was an attempt to settle the long struggle between the Plantagenets and Capetians over the possession of the frontier district of the Norman Vexin, which Louis VII had acquired from Henry II's father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, around 1144. By the terms of the settlement, Marguerite would bring the castles of the Norman Vexin to her new husband. However, the marriage was pushed through by Henry II when Young Henry and Marguerite were small children, so that he could seize the castles. A bitter border war followed between the kings.

1170
June 1170
- June 11, 1183
Age 15
1170
Age 14
London, Greater London, United Kingdom

Henry was crowned king during his father's lifetime, an adoption into England of the practice of French Capetian dynasty.

Because he predeceased his father, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. Nonetheless, he was an anointed king and his royal status was not disputed. This is also why he is not known as Henry III.

1170
Age 14

A knight named William Marshal was assigned to tutor Young Henry and later he became his tournament team leader until 1182.

William Marshal wrote a biography, "History of William Marshal" which includes much information regarding Henry.

1173
1173
Age 17

In March 1173, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father's enemies, the younger Henry launched the Revolt of 1173–1174. He fled to Paris. From there 'the younger Henry, devising evil against his father from every side by the advice of the French King, went secretly into Aquitaine where his two youthful brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, were living with their mother, and with her connivance, so it is said, he incited them to join him'. The Queen sent her younger sons to France 'to join with him against their father the King'. Once her sons had left for Paris, Eleanor encouraged the lords of the south to rise up and support them. Sometime between the end of March and the beginning of May, Eleanor left Poitiers to follow her sons to Paris but was arrested on the way and sent to the King in Rouen. The King did not announce the arrest publicly. For the next year, her whereabouts were unknown. On 8 July 1174, Henry took ship for England from Barfleur. He brought Eleanor on the ship. As soon as they disembarked at Southampton, Eleanor was taken away either to Winchester Castle or Sarum Castle and held there.

1174
July 26, 1174
Age 19
Rouen, Normandie
September 8, 1174
Age 19

When Henry II and Louis VII made a truce on 8 September 1174, Richard was specifically excluded. Abandoned by Louis and wary of facing his father's army in battle, Richard went to Henry II's court at Poitiers on 23 September and begged for forgiveness, weeping and falling at Henry's feet, who gave Richard the kiss of peace. Several days later, Richard's brothers joined him in seeking reconciliation with their father. The terms the three brothers accepted were less generous than those they had been offered earlier in the conflict (when Richard was offered four castles in Aquitaine and half of the income from the duchy) and Richard was given control of two castles in Pitou and half the income of Aquitaine; Henry the Young King was given two castles in Normandy; and Geoffrey was permitted half of Brittany. Eleanor would remain Henry II's prisoner until his death, partly as insurance for Richard's good behaviour.