Hildegarde of Flanders, Countess of Ghent

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Hildegarde van Vlaanderen, gravin van Gent

Nicknames: "Hildegarde of Flanders"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Gand, Flanders, Belgium, Gent, Vlaanderen, BEL
Death: Died in Boxmeer, North Brabant, The Netherlands
Place of Burial: Abdijkerk, Egmond Aan Den Hoef, Noord Holland, Netherlands
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Arnoul I the Great, count of Flanders and N.N. N.N.
Wife of dirk "count of ghent" van holland and Dirk II, count in Holland
Mother of Arnulf "Gandensis" van Holland; Erlindis, abdesse van Egmont en Bennebrock and Egbert, Archbishop of Trier
Half sister of Luitgard van Vlaanderen; Wickmann (Wieman) Ist Count De Gand (Gaunt); Boudewijn III, graaf van Vlaanderen; Egbert van Vlaanderen; Elstrude, countess of Flanders and 1 other

Occupation: Comtesse de Frise Occidentale et Gand, Countess
Managed by: George J. Homs
Last Updated:

About Hildegarde van Vlaanderen, gravin van Gent

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page for Flanders (covering her birth family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm

ARNOUL de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN II "le Chauve" Count of Flanders & his wife Ælfthryth of Wessex ([885/890]-murdered 27 Mar 964, bur Gent, St Pieter).

The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, fratrem eius Adelulfum" as the two sons of "Balduinus"[100]. "Arnulfus" is named as son of Count Baudouin II in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which specifies that he succeeded his father in 918 as ARNOUL I "le Grand" Count of Flanders[101].

"Elstrudis comitissa…cum filiis suis Arnulfo et Adelolfo" donated "hereditatem suam Liefsham…in terra Anglorum in Cantia" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Baldwini", by charter dated 11 Sep 918[102].

Count Arnoul I was responsible for a major expansion of Flemish territory to the south. He and his brother joined the expedition of Raoul King of the Franks against the Normans in 925 and captured Eu. Count Arnoul inflicted a heavy defeat on the Normans in 926.

In 932, he seized the abbey of St Vaast, as well as Douai in Ostrevant.

In 933, after his brother's death, he seized Boulonnais and Ternois and disinherited his nephews.

Count Arnoul made an alliance with Héribert II Comte de Vermandois in 934, which was sealed by his marriage to the latter's daughter[103].

Responding to raids by Guillaume Comte [de Normandie], Count Arnoul invaded Ponthieu and in 939 captured Montreuil from Herluin Comte de Ponthieu, although the county was later recaptured by Comte Guillaume's forces.

"Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 8 Jul 941, signed by "…Baldwini filii Arnulfi marchysi, Isaac comitis, Arnulfi filii eius, Theoderici comitis, Wenemari advocati…"[104].

After agreeing to meet Count Guillaume in 942 in order to settle the dispute over Montreuil, Guillaume was murdered, presumably at Count Arnoul's instigation[105]. Count Arnoul was secure in his possession of Montreuil by 949[106].

"Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", and returned "in pago Hainau super fluvio Savo villam…Dulciaca", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[107].

After the death of his son in 962, Count Arnoul was obliged to cede Artois, Ostrevant, Ponthieu and Amiens to Lothaire King of the West Franks in order to ensure the latter's support for the succession of Count Arnoul's infant grandson to the county of Flanders[108].

"Arnulfus marchysus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 5 May 962, signed by "…Baldwini advocati, Theoderici comitis…"[109]. "Arnulfus…comes" donated "villam Canlin" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 17 Jun 962, signed by "…Balduini advocati…"[110].

An undated charter, dated to [962], records the last wishes of "marchysi Arnulfi", noting that "pater meus et mater mea" were buried in the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand[111]. Comte Arnoul was allegedly murdered by Heluin in revenge for the murder of Guillaume I Comte [de Normandie]. The Annales Blandinienses record the death "VI Kal Apr 964" of "Magnus Arnulfus, restaurator huius Blandiniensis coenobii"[112]. A charter dated 2 Jul 964 records the donation by "bone memorie Arnulfus marchysus" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, signed by "Odgaudi qui susceptor traditionis fuit…Ingelberti advocati…"[113].

[m firstly ---.

Both Rösch[114] and Europäische Stammtafeln[115] state that Count Arnoul had another wife before marrying Adela de Vermandois. No evidence has been found concerning this supposed first marriage. However, as discussed below, the estimated birth date of Arnoul´s supposed daughter Hildegard, as well as his own advanced age when he married Adela de Vermandois, both suggest an earlier marriage.

Although logic points to such a first marriage, doubt remains. The genealogical traces of this family are well marked in numerous contemporary sources. It is difficult to imagine that all of such sources would have ignored an earlier marriage of Comte Arnoul, who was such a prominent figure in his day.]

m [secondly] (934) ADELA de Vermandois, daughter of HERIBERT [II] Comte de Vermandois [Carolingian] & his wife Adela [Capet] ([915]-[Bruges 10 Oct] 960, bur Gent, St Pieter).

The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Adelam, domni Heriberti comitis filiam" as wife of "comes Arnulfus", specifying that she was "duorum Francorum regum, Odonis atque Rotberti, neptem"[116]. "Adala coniunx Arnulfi" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[117]. The Annales Elnonenses Minores records the marriage [undated between 931 and 949] of "Arnulfus" and "Adelam, filiam Heriberti Vermandorum comitis"[118].

Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance made in 934 between her father and her future husband[119].

"Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[120]. "Adhela comitissa" freed two serfs and granted them to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "fidelis nostri Amalrici", by charter dated 8 Sep 954, signed by "Balduini comitis…Odacri advocati"[121].

The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 960 of "Adala comitissa"[122].

Count Arnoul I & his [first] wife had one child:

---

1. [HILDEGARD ([before 933]-10 Apr 990, bur Egmond).

The Annales Egmundani name "Hildegardis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes secundus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[123]. The wife of Count Dirk II was the daughter of Count Arnoul according to Rösch, but the author cites no primary source in support of this assertion[124]. Hildegard's naming her two sons Arnulf and Egbert suggests that the affiliation may be correct.

According to Europäische Stammtafeln[125], Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul by Adela de Vermandois and was born in [934]. This appears difficult to sustain chronologically if Hildegard's first son was born in [950], although it is not impossible. Assuming that her sister Liutgard was born in 935, there is little time for the birth of an earlier daughter after Count Arnoul's marriage in 934, assuming also that the latter date is correct. This suggests that, if Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul, she was born from an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage.

An alternative parentage is suggested by the Chronologia Johannes de Beke which records that Count Dirk II married "Hildegardim (ut creditor) filiam Ludovici regis Francie"[126]. This is chronologically impossible, assuming that the birth date of Arnoul Count of Holland is correctly estimated as shown in the document HOLLAND. Hildegard daughter of Louis III King of France would have been too old for the marriage and any daughter of Louis IV King of France would have been too young.

It is also unlikely that the wife of Count Dirk II was a daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of France, the birth dates of whose daughters are estimated to [908/16]. There therefore seems no possibility that the Chronologia could even be partially correct in assigning this possible Carolingian French origin to Dirk's wife, although it is curious how this origin came to be included in the source.

"Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][127]. "Theoderici et Hildegardis" subscribed a charter dated 30 Sep 975, before "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[128].

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[129]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[130]. Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV Id Apr" of "Hildegardis uxor [Theoderici 2 comitis] filia Ludovici regis Francie"[131]. Europäische Stammtafeln shows 990 as Hildegarde´s year of death[132], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.

m ([945/50]) DIRK II Count Holland, son of DIRK I Count of Holland & his wife Geva --- ([930]-Egmond 6 May 988, bur Egmond).]

---

Count Arnoul I & his [second] wife had four children:

2. LIUTGARD de Flandre ([935]-962, before 18 Oct).

m ([after 10 Jul 953]) WICHMANN [V] Graaf van Hamaland, son of --- [Billung] & his wife Gerberga --- ([930]-after 27 Sep 979).

3. BAUDOUIN de Flandres ([935/40]-Abbey of St Bertin 1 Jan 962). He ruled with his father from 958[142] as BAUDOUIN III Joint Count of Flanders and Artois, his father granting him the administration of the south of the county[143].

m ([951/59]) as her first husband, MECHTILD of Saxony, daughter of HERMANN Billung Duke in Saxony & his [first/second] wife [Oda ---/Hildesuit ---] ([942]-Gent 25 May 1008, bur Gent St Peter).

Baudouin III & his wife had one child: Armoul de Flandre (961/962 - 30 Mar 987)

Baudouin III had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: Alberic/Albert (960/962-1018) Bishop of Cambrai (fl 995) and Bishop of Paris (1016-1018)

4. EGBERT de Flandre (-before 10 Jul 953).

5. ELSTRUDE de Flandre (-966[159] or after).

m ([960/65]) SIEGFRIED Comte de Guines, son of --- (-[965]).

References:

[100] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.

[101] Saint-Bertin II.73, 918, p. 138.

[102] Gand Saint-Pierre 18, p. 24, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 60, p. 52.

[103] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 40.

[104] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 65, p. 68.

[105] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, Chapter 26, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003).

[106] Nicholas (1992), p. 40.

[107] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28.

[108] Nicholas (1992), p. 42.

[109] Gand Saint-Pierre 30, p. 34, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 69, p. 75.

[110] Gand Saint-Pierre 31, p. 34.

[111] Gand Saint-Pierre 29, p. 33.

[112] Annales Blandinienses 964, MGH SS V, p. 25.

[113] Gand Saint-Pierre 37, p. 40, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 72, p. 77.

[114] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 138.

[115] ES II 5.

[116] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.

[117] Saint-Bertin II.76, 938, p. 141.

[118] Annales Elnonenses Minores [931-949], MGH SS V, p. 19.

[119] Nicholas (1992), p. 40.

[120] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28.

[121] Gand Saint-Pierre 23, p. 29.

[122] Annales Blandinienses 960, MGH SS V, p. 25.

[123] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444.

[124] Rösch (1977), p. 138.

[125] ES II 5.

[126] Bruch, H. (ed.) (1973) Chronologia Johannis de Beke (The Hague), 33a, p. 61, available at < http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten /KroniekVanJohannesDeBekeTot1430/latijn> (31 Aug 2006).

[127] Koch, A. C. F. (ed.) (1970) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland tot 1299 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague) ("OHZ"), 45, p. 84.

[128] OHZ 43, p. 80.

[129] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69.

[130] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69.

[131] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106.

[132] ES II 5.

[142] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 61, footnote 35.

[143] Nicholas (1992), p. 42.

--------------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Holland (covering her married family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HOLLAND.htm#DirkIIdied988

Chapter 2. COUNTS OF HOLLAND [900]-1299

DIRK I [900]-[935], DIRK II [935]-988

DIRK ([920/30]-Egmond 6 May 988, bur Egmond).

The Annales Egmundani name "Theodericus secundus comes filius Theoderici primi"[209]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Theodricus…secundus Hollandie comes" was the only son of "Theodricus primus Hollandie comes" & his wife[210]. His birth date range is calculated from his own estimated marriage date and the estimated dates of birth of his descendants.

"Dominus Theodericus comes…cum…coniuge sua…Geva" donated property "in villa Franla…in villa Allecmere…in villa Callinge" to the church of Egmond, and "dominus Theodericus junior filius prefati Theoderici" exchanged property "in orientali parte fluminis…Fle" for property "in villa Nienthorp", by undated charter[211].

He succeeded his father as DIRK II Count of Holland, although the date is not known. "…Isaac comitis, Arnulfi filii eius, Theoderici comitis…" signed the charter dated 8 Jul 941 under which "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand[212], although it is not known whether this charter refers to Count Dirk I or Count Dirk II.

"Theoderici comitis" subscribed charters dated 5 May [951/963], 29 Jul [955/64], 18 Oct 962, 28 Mar 967, 13 Apr 969 and 31 Jan 972[213]. "…Baldwini advocati, Theoderici comitis…" signed the charter dated 5 May 962 under which "Arnulfus marchysus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand[214].

According to Nicholas, after the death of Arnoul I Count of Flanders in 964, Count Dirk occupied Gent and Waas, taking advantage of the weakness of the government of the county of Flanders during the minority of Count Arnoul II[215]. However, this may be speculation based on an interpretation of the charter dated "DCCC[C]LXVIII[I] Id Apr…regnante domno Loth[ario] anno XV", under which "Loth[arius]…rex" granted property "forestum Was[el]a" to "nostro fideli…Theoderico comiti" at the request of "coniunx nostra Hemma regina"[216]. As explained above, it is likely that this charter is spurious.

On the other hand, the charter dated 28 Mar 965 under which "Theodericus comes et Baldwinus cognomento Baldzo et Ericus et Everwinus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Arnulfi defuncti"[217], demonstrates that Count Dirk played an active role in Gand after the death of Count Arnoul I. The charters dated 11 Apr 969 under which "Theodericus comes" donated "sui iuris possessionem…Frilingim in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[218], and 30 Sep 972 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "sui iuris sitam in pago Flandrensi…Clehiham" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[219] show that other parts of Flanders were included in Count Dirk´s area of influence. "Thodericus…comes et Baduuinus et Ericus et Eueruuinus" donated property "sui iuris possessionem…Vualehem…in comitatum Custricense seu Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, in accordance with the wishes of "senioris mei Arnulfi defuncti", by charter dated 28 Mar 964[220]. "Theoderico comite et Arnulfo filio eius, Folberto advocato…Ingelberto advocato…" signed the charter dated 26 Oct 970 under which "Mathelgodus et uxor sua Ingelswindis" donated "hereditatem sue possessionis in loco…Wessingim…Siringim…in pago Bracbantensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[221]. "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 2 Oct 974, signed by "Arnulfo juniore marchyso, Ingelberto advocato, Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…"[222]. Egbert Archbishop of Trier donated property "de beneficio Luthardi comitis…mortuo sine herede" to St Paul at Trier by charter dated 981, subscribed by "Theoderici comitis…"[223].

"Otto…rex" recognised the rights in property "in comitatibus Masalant, Kinhem, Texla" of "fideli nostro Theoderico comiti" by charter dated 25 Aug 985[224]. This refers to the area now known as the Hook of Holland, where Rotterdam was later built, as far north as Gouda, Kennermerland near Haarlem, and the island of Texel in the north of Holland[225].

"…Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite, Artoldo comite, Baldwino comite, item Arnulfo comite…" signed the charter dated 1 Apr 988 under which "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi"[226].

The Annales Egmundani record the death in 988 of "Theodericus II comes"[227]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "988 II Non Mai" of "domino Theodricus secundus comes Hollandie" and his burial at Egmond monastery[228]. Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "988 pridie Non Mai" of "Theodericus 2 comes"[229].

m ([945/50]) HILDEGARD, daughter of --- (before 933-10 Apr 990, bur Egmond).

"Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][230]. "Theoderici et Hildegardis" subscribed a charter dated 30 Sep 975, before "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[231]. The Annales Egmundani name "Hildegardis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes secundus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[232]. "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the further construction of the church by "Theodericus secundus, predicti filius, cum Hildegarda coniuge sua", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][233]. According to Rösch[234], she was Hildegard de Flandre, daughter of Arnoul I Count of Flanders, but he cites no primary source on which this is based. Her naming her two sons Arnulf and Egbert suggests that the affiliation may be correct.

Boer & Cordfunke refer to a 938 meeting, between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders and his wife Adela, to arrange the betrothals of Hildegard of Flanders and Count Dirk II (son of Count Dirk I), and of her sister Liutgard and Wichmann of Hamaland (son of Count Meginhard)[235]. The meeting is alleged to be recorded in the Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau, but no trace of this has been found in the copy consulted[236].

According to Europäische Stammtafeln[237], Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul & his wife Adela de Vermandois and born in [934]. However, from a chronologically point of view it is more likely that Hildegard was born from an earlier unknown marriage of Count Arnoul, as explained in the document FLANDERS, assuming that she was Count Arnoul's daughter.

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Dirk II married "Hildegardim (ut creditor) filiam Ludovici regis Francie"[238]. This is chronologically impossible, assuming that the birth date of Arnoul Count of Holland is correctly estimated as shown below, as Hildegard daughter of Louis III King of France would have been too old for the marriage and any daughter of Louis IV King of France would have been too young. It is also unlikely that the wife of Count Dirk II was Hildegard, daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of France, whose birth date is estimated to [908/12]. There therefore seems no possibility that the Chronologia could even be partially correct in assigning this possible Carolingian French origin to Dirk's wife, although it is curious how this origin came to be included in the source.

"Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "sui iuris sitam in pago Flandrensi…Clehiham" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 30 Sep 972[239]. "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 2 Oct 974[240].

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[241]. Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV Id Apr" of "Hildegardis uxor [Theoderici 2 comitis] filia Ludovici regis Francie"[242]. Europäische Stammtafeln shows 990 as her year of death[243], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.

Count Dirk II & his wife had [four] children:

a) ARNULF ([Gent] [950/55]-killed in battle Winkel, West-Friesland 18 Sep 993, bur Egmond).

The Annales Egmundani name "Arnulfus filius eius [=Theoderici II comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[244]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[245].

"Arnulfi comitum" subscribed a charter dated 29 Jun [955/64], signing directly after "Theoderici comitis"[246]. "Theoderico comite et Arnulfo filio eius, Folberto advocato…Ingelberto advocato…" signed the charter dated 26 Oct 970 under which "Mathelgodus et uxor sua Ingelswindis" donated "hereditatem sue possessionis in loco…Wessingim…Siringim…in pago Bracbantensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[247]. "…Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…" signed the charter dated 2 Oct 974 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[248]. "Arnulpho filio Theoderici comitis" is named in a charter dated 30 Sep 975, subscribed by "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[249]. "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" and "Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][250]. "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis et Arnulfus filius Hildwini" donated "in pago Taruennensis…in Rumingehim et in Keremberg, in pago Flandrensi…in Uckesham et super Gersta" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, at the request of "Everardi et filii eius Baldwini nepotis sui", by charter dated 4 Mar 981, signed by "Arnulfi junioris…marchysi, Theoderici comitis…Ingelberti advocati…"[251]. "…Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite…" signed the charter dated 1 Apr 988 under which "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi"[252].

He succeeded his father in 988 as ARNULF Count of Holland. "Arnulfi comitum" subscribed a charter dated 20 May 988[253], the first charter included in the compilation which he signed without his father.

He was killed in battle against the Frisians[254], although this is doubted by de Boer & Cordfunke who suggest that he was killed at the mouth of the river Rhine as the quarrels with the West Frisians started much later[255]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death in battle "Winckel apud pagum Westfrisie…993 XIV Kal Oct" of "Arnulfus comes" and his burial at Egmond[256].

m (betrothed 980) LIUTGARD de Luxembourg, daughter of SIEGFRIED Count [of Luxembourg] & his wife Hedwig --- (-14 May, after 1005, bur Egmond).

The Annales Egmundani name "Lutgarda comitissa" as wife of "Arnulphus comes tertius [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin, specifying in a later passage that they were "legally" betrothed in 980 at "coram rege Ottone"[257]. Her origin is indicated by Thietmar who names "the queen's sister Liudgard", recording that "the king attacked the Frisians with a fleet…to placate [her] fury", dated to [May/Jun] 1005 from the context of the text[258].

Her origin is confirmed by the necrology of Ranshofen which records the death "III Id May" of "Liukart com soror Chunigundis imperatricis"[259].

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that the wife of "Arnulfus tercius comes Hollandie" was "Lutgardim, filiam Theophani…imperatoris Grecorum et sororum Theophane imperatoris"[260], but this is clearly inconsistent with all other primary sources consulted. "Theodericus comes cum matre sua Lietgarda" donated "alodum suum situm secus fluvium Scaldum in pago Gandensi seu Tornacensi in vulla Rucga" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "patris sui Arnulfi", by charter dated 20 Sep 995[261].

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "II Id Mai" of "Lutgardis…sua collateralis" and her burial at Egmond[262]. Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "pridie Id Mai" of "Lutgairdis uxor eius [Arnulfi comitis] filia regis Grecorum"[263]. According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Liukart comitissa, soror Chunigundis imperatricis, obiit II Non Iulii"[264], but this date is inconsistent with other primary sources.

Count Arnulf & his wife had [three] children.

b) EGBERT (-8/9 Dec 993).

"Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" and "Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][275]. The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[276]. "…Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…" signed the charter dated 2 Oct 974 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[277]. The Vita Sancti Adalberti Egmondani name "Theoderici iunioris filius Egbertus Trevirensis post archiepiscopus"[278].

Imperial Chancellor 976.

Archbishop of Trier 977.

"Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including donations by "Ekbertus, nominati comitis filius…Treuerice ecclesie archiepiscopus", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][279].

The Annales Egmundani record the death in 994 of "Ekbertus frater Arnulfi comitis Treveronum archiepiscopus"[280].

c) HERLINDE .

The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[281]. The Annales Egmundani name "Erlinda soror eius [=Ekbertus filius Theoderici II comitis] monocula"[282]. The Vita Sancti Adalberti Egmondani names "eidem comiti [=Theoderici iunioris] filia Erlinda"[283].

Abbess of Egmont, later of Bennsbrock. The reference in the Annales Egmundani to her being one-eyed provides an interesting corroboration for the theory that children with disabilities were assigned to careers in the church.

d) [daughter .

Her parentage and marriage are suggested by the charter dated 4 Mar 981 under which "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis et Arnulfus filius Hildwini" donated "in pago Taruennensis…in Rumingehim et in Keremberg, in pago Flandrensi…in Uckesham et super Gersta" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, at the request of "Everardi et filii eius Baldwini nepotis sui", by charter dated 4 Mar 981[284]. The document is unclear whether "nepotis sui" refers to "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis" or to "Arnulfus filius Hildwini" or to both.

The identity of "Arnulfus filius Hildwini" is not known, although the name "Hildwini" suggests a connection with the preceding family of Comtes [de Tournai] (see HAINAUT).

m EVERARD [de Tournai], son of --- (-after 4 Mar 981).]

References:

[209] Annales Egmundani 985, MGH SS XVI, p. 443.

[210] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 28a, p. 55.

[211] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 25, p. 19.

[212] Fayen, A. (1906) Cartulaire de la ville de Gand, Chartes et documents T. I, Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis (Gand) ("Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis"), 65, p. 68.

[213] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 36-41, pp. 63-77.

[214] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 69, p. 75.

[215] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 43.

[216] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 41, p. 73.

[217] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 74, p. 78.

[218] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 77, p. 80.

[219] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 83, p. 84.

[220] Lokeren, A. van (1868) Chartes et documents de l´abbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand (Gand) ("Gand Saint-Pierre") 36, p. 39.

[221] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 80, p. 81.

[222] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86.

[223] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 255, p. 311.

[224] D O III 19, p. 417.

[225] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006.

[226] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92.

[227] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444.

[228] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69.

[229] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106.

[230] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84.

[231] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 43, p. 80.

[232] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444.

[233] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006).

[234] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 138.

[235] Boer, D. E. H. de and Cordfunke, E. H. P. (1995) Graven van Holland (Walburg Pers, Zutphen), reference provided by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006.

[236] Autenrieth, J. (ed.) (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (MGH, Hannover), consulted at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (10 Oct 2006).

[237] ES II 5.

[238] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61.

[239] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 83, p. 84.

[240] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86.

[241] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69.

[242] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106.

[243] ES II 5.

[244] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444.

[245] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61.

[246] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 38, p. 65.

[247] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 80, p. 81.

[248] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86.

[249] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 43, p. 80.

[250] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84.

[251] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 90, p. 89.

[252] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92.

[253] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 60, p. 111.

[254] Melis Stoke Rijmkroniek.

[255] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006.

[256] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 38b, p. 71.

[257] Annales Egmundani 980, MGH SS XVI, p. 445.

[258] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 6.19, p. 250.

[259] Necrologium Genealogicum Ranshofense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 424.

[260] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 37, p. 71.

[261] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 97.

[262] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 38b, p. 73.

[263] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106.

[275] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84.

[276] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61.

[277] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86.

[278] Vita et miraculis Sancti Adalberti Egmondani 19, MHG SS XV.2, p. 703.

[279] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006).

[282] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444.

[283] Vita et miraculis Sancti Adalberti Egmondani 20, MHG SS XV.2, p. 703.

[284] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 90, p. 89.

--------------------------

French Wikipedia says on the page of Arnoul I de Flandre:

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnoul_Ier_de_Flandre

Hildegard (934-990) married around 943 to Theirry II, Comte de Frise Occidentale et Gand (Count of Western Friesland and Ghent, 930-988), which would have put the couple at ages 9 and 13 when they were wed.

From the Celtic Casimir online family tree:

http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/3/25705.htm

Family Links

Spouses/Children:

1. Raoul II DE CAMBRAI

1a. Cte Gautier I DE VEXIN Count of Valois & Amiens+

2. Dietrich (Dirk) II Thierry GERULFING Count of West Friesland (939-988)

2a. Count Arnulf GERULFING Count of West Friesland (988-993)+

Hildegard DE FLANDRES Countess of Flanders 566,2260

Born: Abt 934, Gand, Flandre Oriental, Belgium 566

Died: 10 Apr 990 566

Buried: Abdijkerk, Egmond Aan Den Hoef, Noord Holland, Netherlands 566

Ancestral File Number: 87NX-97.

Marriage Information:

Hildegard married Raoul II DE CAMBRAI, son of Raoul de Gouy DE VEXIN Count of Amiens, Valois & Vexin and Aleпdis DE CAMBRAI. (Raoul II DE CAMBRAI was born about 933 in Amiens, Somme, Picardy, France.)

Marriage Information:

Hildegard also married Dietrich (Dirk) II Thierry GERULFING Count of West Friesland (939-988), son of Dietrich (Dirk) I GERULFING Count in Friesland (916-939) and Gerberge (Geva) VAN MAYINHARD. (Dietrich (Dirk) II Thierry GERULFING Count of West Friesland (939-988) was born in 938 in Egmond-Binnen, Noord Holland, Netherlands 566, died on 6 May 988 in Abdijkerk, Egmond Aan Den Hoef, Noord Holland, Netherlands 566 and was buried in Abdijkerk, Egmond Aan Den Hoef, Noord Holland, Netherlands

--------------------

From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_036.htm

W.H.Turton Identifies her as Mildegarde de Gand, dau. of Wichmann, Count of Gand (d. ca. 949) - "The Plantagenet Ancestry" (Balt.:Gen.Pub.Co., 1968), p. 20.} -------------------- Arduin married a woman named Vmille in the Necrologio Sanctæ Andreæ Taurinensis, probably Emilia or Immula. They had two daughters: Alsinda, who married Giselbert II of Bergamo, and Richilda, who married Conrad of Ivrea. Arduin was succeeded by his eldest son Manfred. He had two younger sons named Arduin and Otto.

The Supponids were a Frankish noble family of prominence in the Carolingian regnum Italicum in the ninth century. They were descended from Suppo I, who appeared for the first time in 817 as a strong ally of the Emperor Louis the Pious. He and his descendents were on and off dukes of Spoleto, commonly in opposition to the Guideschi clan, another Frankish family powerful in central Italy.

Prominent members

   * Suppo I
   * Suppo II
   * Suppo III
   * Suppo IV
   * Mauring
   * Adelchis I
   * Engelberga
   * Boso
   * Wifred

Sources

   * Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000. MacMillan Press: 1981

-------------------- The Supponids were a Frankish noble family of prominence in the Carolingian regnum Italicum in the ninth century. They were descended from Suppo I, who appeared for the first time in 817 as a strong ally of the Emperor Louis the Pious. He and his descendents were on and off dukes of Spoleto, commonly in opposition to the Guideschi clan, another Frankish family powerful in central Italy.

The family consolidated its holdings in northern Italy through the 820s, 830s, and 840s, often controlling the counties of Brescia (hereditarily), Parma, Cremona, and Piacenza among others. Their power was extended and not highly centralised. They shared power with the bishops in the cities and were stoutly loyal to the emperors in order to ensure the peace and stability necessary to rule their vast and separated domains in the Po valley. This loyalty bought them great power, especially in their heartland of Emilia. A Supponid daughter, Engelberga, even married the Emperor Louis II. With her influence, the Supponids became the most powerful noble family in Italy during the two decades of Louis's reign and one of the only to hold high offices.

Following Louis's death, the Supponids supported their relatives, the dukes of Friuli, and the German claimants for the Italian crown against the Guideschi dukes of Spoleto and the West Franks. Their influence declined rapidly after they fell out with Berengar I in 913 and joined the faction of Rudolph II of Burgundy in 922. They are not heard of after the middle of the tenth century. -------------------- Thought to be the daughter of Arnulf of Flanders

view all 12

Hildegarde of Flanders, Countess of Ghent's Timeline

936
936
Gent, Vlaanderen, BEL
938
938
Age 2
Gand, East Vlaanderen, Belgium

They were engaged by their parents at very very young age.

945
945
- May 6, 988
Age 9
Holland, Netherlands
951
951
Age 15
Gent, East Flanders, Flanders, Belgium
953
953
Age 17
Egmond-Binnen, Noord-Holland, Netherlands
957
957
Age 21
Of, Egmond-Binnen, Noord Holland, Netherlands
975
975
Age 39
Egmond, The Netherlands

Count Dirk II and his wife Hildegard donate an evangeliarium to the abbey of Egmond. Miniature from this envangeliarium, ca. 975.
Graaf Dirk II en Hildegard schenken een evangeliarum aan de abdij van Egmond, miniatuur uit het Egmondse Evangeliarum, ca. 975.
Bron / Source: "Gravinnen van Holland", E.H.P. Cordfunke, De Walburg Pers, 1987.
Original now in KB Den Haag

990
April 10, 990
Age 54
Boxmeer, North Brabant, The Netherlands
1934
February 10, 1934
Age 54
February 14, 1934
Age 54