About Hugh Stewart
Hugh Stewart was a member of the City Guard of Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary War. Hugh was only 19 years old when the American Revolution began in 1776. http://memory.loc.gov/master/gdc/scdser01/200401/backups1109/Telework%20Files/american%20rev%20sold%20frankl%20co.pdf
An attached article states that the family were Protestant Scottish Covenanters who took up the cause of colonizing Northern Ireland with Protestant Presbyterianism and moved to Ulster at the behest of the English King Charles II. The Irish Catholic vehemently resisted the Protestant settlements from Scotland. After a few generations, this Stewart family line moved to America.
The main family ancestry book says that Hugh was the son of Robert, grandson of John, and nephew of Samuel and Hugh. His mother's name is not mentioned, with no dates given. However, other records did provide dates for the men.
Robert Stewart is the father of this Hugh. It is stated in one source that Robert (the brother of Samuel and Hugh) "made many voyages across the sea". When Hugh was still a lad, during and after the long years of American Revolution, most travel and trade with England ceased for many years. Some descendants speculate Robert might not have been able to return to America or was lost at sea. One source reports a Robert Stewart was buried in Baltimore, but we are not sure if the grave is of this line.
Family letters said that Hugh received a letter from an older brother in England, who was in the service to the Crown as Purser in the English Royal Navy; and that this brother had four sons who also had excellent position under the crown. The brother invited Hugh to return to England to receive an appointment of some sort too, but Hugh chose to remain in America.
Hugh's mother's name is not known. A "second wife" of his father was mentioned in family letters.
Family letters say Hugh was so estranged from his father, that he would not speak about it. The estrangement may have been the serious conflict of ideologies of the father being a Catholic Stewart in support of the Stewart dynasty, and the son choosing Presbyterianism in support of the Protestant crown. (Or vice versa) Another historical possibility is that the son Hugh had also become a man of the current Age of Enlightenment that was sweeping both the Scottish and English in the American Colonies at that time, which provided the Enlightenment ideals that shaped the US Constitution and 18th century science.
I see that someone indicates that this Hugh was Catholic, but I am not sure that is true, given his grandfather's known Presbyterianism and his brother's position in the English Navy at a time when Catholicism was illegal in England. However, maybe the Catholic-Protestant incompatibility was why he was estranged from his father. His children married known Protestants however. There should be documentation such as evidence of church membership to verify his religion. If the father had abandoned Protestantism in favor of supporting the return of the Catholic Stewarts to the throne in the person of Bonnie Prince Charles, it would have been grounds for exile.
Some said that the estrangement was due being abandoned by his father during the American Revolution or because of Hugh's marriage to Margaret Roxburgh. It could have been some other issue. However, family papers indicate that Hugh was not so estranged that he was not entitled to his father's property in America. Papers say Hugh's father had invested in a fine and very prosperous stone quarry on the Schuylkill River, which Hugh profited from. Hugh's will shows that he died a man of considerable acreage of land with comfortable wealth, in part from the inheritance from his father Robert, Hugh's own enterprises, and due to the dowry of his wife, Margaret Roxburgh-Smith.
The oldest quarried-stone buildings of Philadelphia were among those built of stone ,hewn from the Stewart quarry at the mouth of the Schuylkill River, which flowed south into Philadelphia where it entered the Delaware River south of the city, forming the Delaware Bay, thence into the Atlantic Ocean.
Massacres: In August 1780, the neighboring Neiman family along the Schuylkill was massacred by Indians. It was such a scene of horror that the massacre frightened the other white settlers to leave the area. It became so difficult to find any settlers to work in the Schuylkill River quarries, that only soldiers could be induced to work there to cut lumber or stone. The Stewart family tried to adjust to the area being depleted of settlers, and after a few years they too left the Schuylkill River quarry industry, and in 1786 or 1790 moved south of Pennsylvania to Maryland to live in Ringggold Manor surrounded by its 13,000 acres, which they owned by default after British General Ringgold was ousted at the end of the Revolutionary War.
The Stewarts took up plantation life in Maryland, where they chose to employ free negro workers. However, it was a slave holding region, which aroused fear and concern to their slave-holding neighbors. The Stewart family was asked to either keep slaves, employ indentured white workers, or leave. It was deemed by the more experienced slave holders as too dangerous to mix free and slave negroes in the same region. The Stewarts initially ignored the increasingly desperate prodding by their slave-owning neighbors. However, after the uprising of slaves in Haiti in 1791 where 100,000 white Frenchmen were massacred, the Stewart family decided to not have negro workers at all, or even live in a slave state, and gave up Ringgold Manor.
The Stewart family moved back north into non-slave Pennsylvania at Greencastle and then to Ohio when the frontier opened. In 1801, after his inauguration President Thomas Jefferson championed opening the Ohio frontier by building a "national road" into the west to facilitate American expansion. In 1804 Hugh Stewart bought several thousand acres on the "Lucas Survey" in Ross County in Ohio. In 1807 Hugh sent two sons to Ohio to build preliminary buildings, prepare the land and grow a first crop of corn. In 1809, Hugh and the rest of the family made the journey to Ohio where a new home was waiting. The price for corn was low but the price for whiskey was high, so they bought two large copper stills and endeavored to grow corn and produce Scotch Whiskey. Hugh was also awarded 1100 acres of his Revolutionary Service.
The family hired a young couple, the woman to keep the house and the man to run the farm and whiskey production; and together, they took the Braddock military road, which was a rough rut of a path that would later become paved with stones into the National Road, from Hagerstown Maryland to Wheeling West Virginia, where they met the Ohio River valley hemmed by forests full of game and the river alive with fat fish. The land along the eastern shore of the river was hunting territory of the Delaware Indian tribe with their chief Hahinguypooshies, or Big Cat. In an effort to intimidate their rival tribe the Mingo, the Delaware indians placed a decapitated head on a pole near tributary creeks entering the Ohio where men might pass. The Delaware word Wih-ling, means Head-place: Wih for head and -ling for place, which evolved to become Wheeling. They proceeded southwest almost to the end of the Northwestern Turnpike trail over the next weeks to arrive at their Ohio property in Ross County well east of Cincinnati. Hugh's sons were waiting for Hugh and the rest of the family. They'd arrived earlier and had developed the land for two years. Upon the safe arrival of the travel party they prepared hot ashcakes for everyone.
The Stewart family was transported in a caravan of wagons, with their accumulated worldly goods: tools, clothing, furniture, library, and animals, over the trail to Ohio territory.
Once in Ohio, Hugh Stewart built the Castle on Mount Pleasant, which is where he later died in 1824.
This Hugh was said to be named after his uncle called Hugh. He also had a son named Hugh.
Hugh said he descended from Stuart kings, but harbored great resentment toward the Crown, whom he thought were "cruel and idiotic." This may be a reference to the loss of the campaign of Bonnie Prince Charles Stewart to regain the throne of England. The Prince called the Catholic men of Scotland to support his valid claim to the throne of England against the Protestants usurpers. After a brief success, they were brutally defeated at the Battle of Culloden and thousands of men and dozens of clans including men of the Stewart (Stuart) lineage were rounded up in every corner of the Scottish Highlands and killed, executed or exiled for their failed support of Bonnie Prince Charles to restore the Stuart dynasty. it is to be noted that Hugh was born in Philadelphia just after the Battle of Culloden.
Hugh's grand-daughter wrote that this Hugh commented that when she "knew history" she would understand why the family was in America. Well, we know history but cannot yet verify Hugh's story at this critical time in history.
Some descendants write that they believe the Stewart family was Presbyterian Protestant Scotch Covenanters who were settled en masse in Northern ireland by Protestant Queen Elizabeth I and later King Charles II in order to make Ireland Protestant.
Realistically, their religion at this time in history would have to be one or the other. They could not be both Scottish Covenanters and Catholic. The two religions were grievous mortal enemies at this time.
Perhaps the discord between Hugh and his father was that maybe that the son betrayed his father by returning to Catholicism when the father had been exiled as a Catholic (or vice versa). In this case, such deviance by the son from the father in this way, (or vice versa) would have been a very great betrayal in that era. The suffering caused by the strife between the factions was real and horrific. Religion was not just one of conscience or rituals at that time, it had sweeping legal and social consequences across society that were incompatible.
The Tale of Two Hugh Stewarts of Revolutionary Philadelphia:
Two Hugh Stewart (cousins) about the same age in Philadelphia at the same time.
1. This Hugh moved to Ohio.
2. The other Hugh moved to Kentucky.
It appears the Hugh (who moved from PA to Kentucky) is the Hugh who is the son of Samuel Stewart and Mary McClay.
Whereas this Hugh Stewart, who moved from PA to Ohio is the son of Robert who was grandson of John and the brother of Samuel Stewart.
The definitive book (published in 1892) on the Ohio Hugh Stewart is: The Descendants of Hugh Stewart:
There are records that show there were two Hugh Stewarts in the Philadelphia area during the Revolutionary War. It seems one later moved to Kentucky and this one to Ohio.
Here is a record for the Hugh Stewart who moved to Kentucky:
Hugh Stewart born in 1757, served in the Revolutionary War as a private in Captain Richard Burrtt's company in the City Guards of Philadelphia. Descendants can become members of the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution through his service.
In 1793, Hugh Stewart lived at Ringgold Manor in Hagerstown Maryland. General Ringgold, a Tory and Royalist, lived there until the end of the Revolutionary War, who then was obliged to retreat, leaving the house vacant with a deep debt to Hugh Stewart who had sold him the Pennsylvania stone used to build Ringgold Manor. As General Ringgold's most prominent creditor, Hugh Stewart took possession of the property of the house and a lesser portion than the whole of the 13,000 original acres.
A century later, by 1893, Ringgold was a fine old place yet, still known for its fine fruit, with a nice old family living there. It was a solid stone building made from stone quarried from the Stewart Schyulkill River quarry, and kept in good repair. The wide baronial hall running through the house was used as the hall for ballroom dancing. In those days, similar families would come visit from great distances and stay awhile, where they would celebrate with a grand ball with musicians and was the event when they wore their best finery and gowns. Ringgold has since been destroyed.
Hugh Stewarts' employment of free negroes (not slaves) caused unrest and was considered dangerous to the neighbors, as they thought that free slaves might instigate discontent amongst those who were held as slaves. It was considered too risky to everyone to mix slaves and non-slave owners in the same area. The neighbors were correct about the risk of murder or an an uprising. An uprising in Haiti had just occurred and 100,000 white people and 30,000 negros in Haiti were killed. Murder of white men by escaped slaves occurred when escaped slave feared it could be discovered that he was not legally free. How could Hugh know for sure a slave was not yet free? Men would come round looking amongst his workers to find an escaped slave, and if an escaped slave feared he might be reported, there could be a mortal event. At first the neighbors tried to r explain to Hugh the great danger of free slaves in a slave region, and how slaves lived better than many free negroes because the free slaves had not plantation system to support them, whereas because slaves were paid for, they were more likely to be taken care of by owners. Slaves were extremely valuable and thus were taken care of, fed and sheltered. Whereas a free worker imposed no obligation on the employer except the pay with no security. many free men died in the early American period when they had one bad crop, a bad winter, or an Indian raid. If you were free and alone you were less likely to survive absent a larger support system. However Hugh argued that he preferred free workers, not slaves, and did not even want indentured servants. Amongst Hugh's paper were letters from neighbors who wrote begging that Hugh either keep slaves, indentured whites, or employ free white employees. Thinking to frighten Hugh into abandoning employing free negroes, a group of slave traders, sailor clad, came across the country and laid siege to Ringgold Manor, where they were valiantly repulsed. Sometime after, word came that they were coming again, and unless the family yielded and became slave owners, they would not be welcome. Fearing for their overall safety from slaves and even the slave owners, and not willing to be slave owners themselves, the Stewart family arranged their affairs to sell their interest in Ringgold and moved the family to slave-free territory, north to Gettysburg; until they Ohio frontier opened. For Hugh's service in the Revolutionary War as a City Guard of Philadelphia, Hugh was given 1100 acres in Ohio. And then in 1807, he sent his two sons to scout and purchase land and set up the property, before the rest of the family followed west, traveling along what later became the National Road, on to Ohio, where Hugh Stewart built a grand home called, "The Stewart Castle." Hugh was buried on the hill of his land in Ohio. Frankfort, where Hugh died, is now called Fort Ashby.
Hugh Stewart participated in the "Ohio Fever" migration after the U.S. government was able to open Ohio for settlement by securing a peace treaty with the Indians. Revolutionary War veterans were given the right to 1100 acres of land in Ohio while regular soldiers received 100 acres. Those veterans who did not choose to use the grant and move to Ohio could sell their land to others.
Extract from letter 1893 by Elizabeth Stewart Hunt
"The Stewarts were landed people always, and their first act, wherever they located, was to invest in large tracts of land. Hugh's father is said by Thomas Fullerton, to have invested in land at the mouth of the Schuykill River, which included stone quarries, and Hugh himself became possessed of land at Ringgold Manor, Hagerstown, MD, with the stone quarries there, from which were built many of the old stone buildings: and when driven from there by political strife, his sons, James and Robert, were sent ahead in 1807 to Ohio, and purchased several thousand acres of land in Fayette and Ross counties, which he bequeathed in his will to his children."
"Hugh Stewart, our ancestor, parted in such a quarrel from his father, that he was never known to speak his father's name, nor mention his brother or sister. Even that of his brother writing from England, being kept a secret. Two possible reason have been assigned for this: one, the second marriage of his father; but, as this need not have torn assunder from brothers and sisters, the more probable one was his own marriage into the Roxburgh family, and the deadly hatred of the Stuart and Roxburgh clans in feudal warfare, on Scotland's border, as a result of religious differences, mortal border wars, lifting each other's cattle in ancient times and other ongoing grievances: including opposing border claims resulting in mortal disputes, opposing religious interests, and opposing claims and interests depending on the ascent of different royal lineages for generations. In 1339 the Earl of Dunbar assisted Lord Robert Stewart, Guardian of the Kingdom, in the reduction of Perth, where he led the second division of the army. In 1340 he and the Earl of Sutherland were defeated by Lord Grey and Sir Robert Manners, assisted by John Copeland and the English garrison of Roxburgh Castle, in a border territorial conflict that resulted in great loss for the Stewarts in which the Roxburghs participated against the Stewarts. Each family had conflicting claims to property.
That his marriage to Margaret, whose mother was Elizabeth Roxburgh, Sept. 16, 1780, was of serious moment enough to secure a discharge from General George Washington at this dark and discouraging year of the warm and the instant leaving of the city, is an unexplained circumstance, save as "a malignant and dangerous to the crown," and to avoid family disruption. However, the marriage resulted in permanent family division and probable loss of inheritance, and economic opportunity.
"While a mere boy he had espoused the cause of Liberty, joining as a private, Capt. Richard Barrett's Company, of Major Nichol's City Guards. What a wedding journey that must have been! when, as the custon was, in those days, he placed his young wife, Margaret, on a horse with their possesions, and walked by her side to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where they began life in a small house, because, when they wanted to make secure the eight hundred pounds of their wealth, she lifted the puncheon floor and put the money under. Here it was, too, that she ripped gt. grandfather's Sunday trousers, cut out a new pair with sheep shears, and made them both. Every young wife in those wore a cap, sowith the same shears, (the war had made scissors unattainable,) she cut out her cap, made it, and ironed it with a trowel.
"As young newlyweds, they stayed at Carlisle, for about a year, and hearing that Hagerstown was a thriving place, the puncheon floor came up. and taking their belongings, they moved there. I have heard this told many times by the aunts when visiting at the old home on the hill, with many other stories which I wish I had written down.
Norman Origins of the Stewart Family:
The Stewart family records its traditional descent from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, who is written as a key character into William Shakespeare's Macbeth. The witches tell Banquo that he is "lesser than Macbeth, but also greater," The witches prophecy is that Macbeth will be king, and Banquo will not be king; but Banquo's descendants will become a line of kings. "Thou shalt beget kings, though thou be none." Macbeth murders King Duncan and Banquo killed by Macbeth's men. Macbeth is then haunted by the ghost of his former friend Banquo. Lady Macbeth commits suicide out of guilt.
Historically, the family appears to be descended from a medieval Norman family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany, the earliest recorded being Flaald.
They acquired lands in England after the Norman conquest, and moved to Scotland with many other Anglo-Norman families when David I ascended to the throne of Scotland. The family was granted extensive estates in Renfrewshire and in East Lothian and the office of High Steward of Scotland was made hereditary in the family.
Walter, the son of Alan or Fitz-alan was the founder of the royal family of Stewarts. He was the first of the family to establish himself in Scotland.
Extract from letter by Esther Stewart Hunt 1894
Note: --From the dates of births Hugh Stewart left Hagerston between 1798 and 1802 and went to Greencastle, Pa., where the two younger children, Mary and Hugh, Jr., were born. (Some members of the family say Chambersburg, Pa., but that must have been an earlier date.)
"He must have gone to Ohio about 1809 as he sent his sons James and Robert to but land there in 1807. On "Mt. Pleasant", called also "Prairie View", great grandfather built the mansion mentioned in the will which he oftenspoke of, as "Castle", saying it was modeled after the Castle of Bonkyel, in Scotland, a Stewart possession. This was built entirely of hewn timbers, squared, and used as panels, mortised in, and hand rubbed. The hall which was finished in walnut and ran to the attic floor without a break, with a broad stairway and balustrades of the same material, down which the children used to romp.
While always of a dominant disposition, here it seemed, he became a "peace-parted" soul.
What a picture it was of baby Hugh, only six, leaving his mother, to ride with his brother Robert, six hundred miles on horseback. (In 1812)
"Note:--Undoubtedly an education, for as he, Hugh, Jr., rode away his father said, "I will make a gentleman of Hugh".
This is explained by those sections of the will, made when Hugh,Jr., was but seventeen, when his father evidently desired, by an estate, to make him a "gentleman". The old world passion for this possession of land for himself and descandents, to create a name and family, no doubt, was in his thought and plan. At this date we have no way of knowing why the plan miscarried, by Hugh, Jr., choosing his own career, or the the passing by sale of the old home estate to another son, ere Hugh, Sr., died.
"I do not think Hugh,Jr., came back until he was grown, and then to Bloomingburgh, and not the old home. And yet, his father, we have evidence, was a king to his children; but gt. aunt Mary Ustick must have had very good reason for taking gt. grandmother home with her. There must have been a terrible trouble behind, more than the " sideboard", so he must have guessed of some other ill fate.
His will, made two years before his death, is so fair, so just, we know there must have been a large manhood within him, though incapable of repose, a breeder of storms, taciturn of results, intolerant of opposition to those who crossed him, he lived until his life until his death unshaken in purpose to bear this torment in silence to the end.
"Grandfather Robert always hushed in thought as well as in words, when he would speak of him, and that epitaph of an unfinished finality, that was carved upon his tombstone, expressed some condition of life unanswered.
"God is his own interpreter,
And he will make it plain."
Note:--If gt. grandmother knew, she was just as reticent, and seemed equally separated from the Roxburgh line.
HUGH STEWART'S WILL.
"In the name of God, Amen.
"I, Hugh Stewart, of the State of Ohio, now being in perfect health of body and soundness of mind, but considering the uncertainty of life and the certainty of death, and desiring to arrange my worldly affairs in a proper manner, before it may please God to call me hence by death, do make and acclaim this to be my last will and testament, viz. :
Item 1 : I desire that after my decease my body shall be decently buried on the hill above my mansion house, a high place which I desire and appoint as a family burying ground.
Item 2 : I desire that immediately after my decease or so soon as convenient thereafter, my executors herein after named, shall pay my debts, (if any there should be at my death,) and the balance of my property I will to dispose of as follows:
Item 3: I will and bequeathe to my wife, Margaret Stewart, the one-third of the yearly income of all my property.
Item 4 : I will and bequeathe to my son Hugh, two hundred and fifty acres of the farm on which I live, on the North side of said farm, so as to enclose my barn, mansion house, and peach and apple orchards adjoining the house, and so as to enclose a portion of the timberland on the ridge, towards the Little Creek.
Item 5: I will and bequeathe to my son Robert, all the land be- longing to me on the South side of the Little North Fork of Paint, it being a part of a tract on which I live, and adjoining Elijah Johnson's, Edward Tiffin's, and William Snyder's, land.
Item 6 : I will and bequeathe to my son James, all the balance of said tract of land on which I now live, on condition that he shall pay $3,000.00 in manner as hereinafter directed.
10 Hugh and Margaret (Stewart.)
Item 7 : I will and bequeathe to my son Archibald, all my demands on the property known as John Latta*s Mills, as also all my demands against said Latta of whatever description, he paying all costs which ma)' have accrued on said concern.
Item 8 : I will and bequeathe to my daughter Elizabeth Fullerton, the farm on which she lives, situate in Fayette Co., for her support during her natural life, or so long as she may continue to occupy it; and at her death, (or when she ceases to occupy it),
I will and bequeathe said farm to her children hereinafter named, to be equally divided among them, viz. : Margaretta, Humphrey M., Hugh Stewart, Thomas, David, Caroline, George, Martha Jane, James, and Robert, and should any more hereafter be born, I will that they shall share equally with the rest.
Item 9 : I will and bequeathe to my daughter Margaret Gillespie, $800.00, to be paid by my executors, one-half in one year, and the other half in two years after my death.
Item 10 : I will and bequeathe to my daughter Sarah Bogle, $900.00, to be paid one-half in one year, and the other half in two years after my death.
Item 11 : I will and bequeathe to my daughter Mary Ustick, $1,000.00, in four annual installments, after my decease, the three last mentioned items to be paid by my son James, out of the $3,000.00 I have obligated him to pay.
Item 12 : I will and bequeathe to the children of my daughter Martha Gillespie, deceased, namely : George Stewart, Joseph Mcjimpsey. Margaret Mary, each 100 acres of land in Fayette Co., adjoining the land of the heirs of William Stitt, and others, to be taken out of my tract of 500 acres of land, at the discretion of my executors, and also to each of them :
I bequeathe $100.00 in cash to be paid when they respectively come of age, deducting from each the amount of tax which may be paid on said land, until they come of age, from the time of my decease.
Item 13 : I give and bequeathe to my grand-daughter Eliza (only child of my son George,) $100.00 to be paid to her by my executors when she arrives at the age of eighteen.
Item 14 : I give and bequeathe to my grand-daughter Margaretta McClean, and to my grand-sons Humphrey M.. and Hugh S. Fullerton, 250 acres of land lying in Madison Co.. on the border of Deer Creek, (which land I have paid John A. Fulton for entering, and obtaining a patent,) and when Hugh S. comes of age, the land to be appraised, and Humphrey and Hugh, shall pay Margaretta one-third of the value of said land, which bequest I declare to be in full of their part of their Mother's estate, and in lieu of the bequest mentioned in the 8th item of this will. and Humphrey and Hugh, shall divide the land equally between them.
Item 15: I also bequeathe to my son Hugh, all my household ef- fects, my cattle, horses and any other stock of which I may die pos- sessed.
Item 16: The balance of my property, if any there should be, either real or personal, which I have not disposed of, I leave at the discretion of my executors, to be by them distributed in any manner they may think best.
And lastly, 1 constitute and appoint ray suns, James and Robert, Executors of this my last will and testament, and enjoin on them the due observance of all provisions herein contained.
In testimony whereof, I have set ray hand and seal this 2nd day of Dec. 1822. ,, c
I hi, 1 1 Stewart.
Signed, published 'and dictated, by the testator in presence of us, to be his last will and testament, to which we have annexed our names as witnesses. T c
Lucy ( X ) Fitzhugh.
"The Stewarts were landed people, always; and their first act, wherever they located, was to invest in large tracts of land." (As described by Hugh Stewart, relayed by his granddaughter.)
Story relayed by Mary Williamson and N.Orr:
Yet to be verified by documentation.
As blood and supporter of the claims of the throne by the Royal Stuart clan, Hugh Stewart's father Robert was said to have returned to Scotland to support the return of the stewart kings, and has been banished from Britain following the Stewart defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, when the Royal Stuart forces of Bonnie Prince Charles Stuart were defeated by the Royal Tudor forces of King Charles II.
The Stuart supporters who rightly claimed the crown of England by law of inheritance successfully took Edinburgh, received joyfully by the native Scotsman of Edinburgh. The clansmen then marched into England close to London, but decided to return to Scotland absent the support of Englishmen. However, they were pursued by the armies of Charles II. The Stuart forces had no supplies on the march home, while the opposing forces of the Duke of Cumberland was continually supplied by English supply ships following the armies progress back to Scotland.
CLANS WITH BONNIE PRINCE CHARLIE (Catholic government) Boyd, Cameron, Chilsom, Davidson, Drummond, Farquharson, Fraser, Hay, Livingstone, MacBean, MacColl, MacDonald of Glencoe, MacDonald of GlenGarry, MacDonald of Keppoch, MacDonald Clan Ranald, MacDuff, MacFie, MacGillibray, MacGregor, MacInnes, MacKinnon, MacKintosh, MacIntyre, Maclver, MacLachlan, MacLaren, MacLean, MacLea, MacNeil of Barra, MacNaughten, MacPherson, Menzie, Morrison, Oglivy, Oliphant, Robertson, 'Stewart of Appin
Along with the clans listed on the side of Bonnie Prince Charlie was the regiment of Atholl Highlanders made up of Clan Murray and the following clansmen of Clan Ferguson, Stewart of Atholl, men from Clan Elphinstone, Forbes, Keith, Mac Kenzie, MacLeod of MacLeod, Macleodof Lewis, MacTavish, MacMillan, Maxwell, Ramsey and Clan Wemyss. Along with these menwas a regiment of men from Edinburgh and a regiment of Irish Piquets.
CLANS ON THE ENGLISH (Protestant government) side supporting the Duke of Cumberland were: Campbell, Cathcart, Colville, Cunningham, Grant of Freuchie, Gunn, Kerr, MacKay, Munro, Ross, Semphill, Sinclair, Sutherland. It is said Clan Campbell of Auchnabreck along with Clan Mac Dougall would have come out on the side of Bonnie Prince Charlie but were stopped by Campbell of Argyll. The chief of Clan MacTavishhad been put in prison by the government or he too would have raised men for Prince Charlie.
Stuart Claim: The men fought not just for the lawful hereditary right of the Stuart Kings, but for freedom and independence from England. They sought a return to the Scottish, not English, way of life. Many Scotsmen had deep Catholic sympathies, both Presbyterian and Catholic alike. Their beloved Mary (Stuart) Queen of Scots was the rightful heir descended firstborn from Henry VIII, while Protestant Queen Elizabeth I (Tudor) was considered illegal to the throne by most Scotsmen. Mary Stuart had been sentenced to death by Queen Elizabeth I, her half-sister.
The Battle of Culloden was the last battle fought on British soil. The Stuart armies were over-confident, their numbers still greater than the Duke of Cumberland, but they were tired from the long march home; and thus ill-prepared for a second fight on their own land. The Battle of Culloden was expected on April 15th, but Cumberland did not fight until April 16. The battle had about 9,000 men, with the men in support of Bonnie Prince Charles Stuart in greater numbers. The HIghlanders excelled at hand to hand combat and charged the men of the Duke of Cumberland who relied on his superior artillery. The men of Bonnie Prince Charles were not able to show their hand-to-hand skills as a great many were killed in the charge by opposing artillery. The battle was over in about an hour and the surviving Stuart men were chased down and killed, captured and imprisoned to be executed, sentenced to exile, or they escaped.
The properties of the dissenting Royal Stuarts and their supporting clans were confiscated and the wearing of clan kilt and tartans was forbidden for 35 years. The Stuarts were Catholic, After the Battle of Culloden Catholics were barred from many rights. Any surviving Stuarts were required to disavow allegiance to their ancestral Scottish kings by taking a vow, which was renewed on demand.
In the days following the battle, Bonnie Prince Charles fled to Ireland. The prince escaped from Ireland to Italy by dressing as a woman. However, Hugh Stewart's father was captured by the British. A lot was drawn to execute 1 out of each 20 supporters of Bonnie Prince Charles. Hugh's father was exiled to Barbados in exchange for disclaiming his property. Once in the Caribbean, Hugh's father petitioned the Crown for permission to enter the 13 colonies. Permission was granted on the basis that he hold a dagger over his wrist and recite a vow disclaiming "any blood of the Stuart kings that might run in his veins." he was forbidden to speak of the Stuart ancestral rights to the throne of England. His name was changed form the Stuart to the Stewart spelling indicating a renouncement of the Royal Stuart claims. While in Barbados, he asked for land in Virginia in exchange for his properties in Scotland. It was agreed, but not in Virginia. He was given permission to buy property in the opening territories of Pennsylvania.
His son, Hugh Stewart, was said to have respected the Stuart renouncement oath out of concerns for safety. Hugh refused to speak of the Stuart past, as required by the Crown, which had granted them a new life in the New World, still owned by the King of England. To appear to break the vow was grounds for death or expulsion from the Crown colonies. The Stuart family had no choice but to disavow any loyalty to Stuart ancestral claims.
When Hugh Stewart's father came to America he purchased large tracts of land with his Royal grant at the mouth of the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania, which included stone quarries of the best calibre. At that time the Schuylkill river was the frontier of civilization; with forest and savages to the west, while to the east the town of Philadelphia was growing. Many magnificent stone buildings of Philadelphia were built of stone from the Stewart quarries.
Young Hugh was in Philadelphia when American Independence was declared and when Philadelphia became the first capital of the new United States. The Revolutionary War lasted all of his teen years, and Hugh served in the "City Guards." To give historical timeline perspective, Hugh was a contemporary of Philadelphia residents such as Benjamin Franklin.
Large landowners must make use of their land as a business enterprise. The key economic value of the Stewart property in America was its quarries. Stones cut from the Stewart quarries were floated down the river to locations where many country houses were built. In one case, Hugh became involuntarily possessed of Ringgold Manor at Hagerstown Maryland, when manor owner General Ringgold (a Royalist Tory) lost his fortune during the Revolutionary War and could no longer pay for his estate. As General Ringgold's largest creditor, Hugh was given the greater value of the estate and the family moved to Maryland for several years to be midway between the building of the new capital of Washington DC and Philadelphia. As a city of stone, the building of Washington DC took much of the stone in the Stewart quarries.
Hugh Stewart found satisfaction making plans with the new citizenry of each new town and implementing the building of the town. The next frontier would be found where natural resources and the need for new towns could be brought together. When Ohio became the new frontier, The grant of Ringgold Manor and its 13,000 acres of land was acquired by the family of Van Swearingen.
Hugh moved his family further west following the frontier into Ohio where he built a great house of his own design called "Stewart Castle" and it was there that Hugh Stewart died.
Hugh was distanced from his father early in life, perhaps, it was speculated because of the condition of the Stewart fortunes on account of his father's support of Bonnie Prince Charles; and perhaps, it was said, because his father disapproved of his marriage to a Roxburgh, a clan with whom the Stewarts had longstanding differences due to ancient border clashes, and possibly a change in Catholic versus Protestant loyalties..
It was reported by his children that Hugh held "great bitterness" toward the Stuart kings.
It was also reported that "Hugh had an older brother, still in England, who had four sons all of whom held positions under the crown." Apparently, there were letters from England whereby Hugh's older brother invited Hugh repeatedly back to England, with offers to secure the sons of Hugh a place and favor with the English crown, but Hugh refused; being married and settled in America with a well-established life.
Hugh Stewart was remembered as being hot-tempered by his children. "It was Hugh Stewart's high temper that made his wife, Margaret Roxburgh-Smith Stewart, spend so much time with her children and with the enterprises of the family."
The Stewarts are one of the most famous families in Scotland, existing, at one time, as a dynasty of kings of Scotland. The clan is said to have descended from the seneschals of Dol, Brittany; who settled in England around the time of the Norman Conquest. During this time David I, King of Scotland, was trying to unify his fragmented kingdom and usurp the powerful Somerled, Lord of the Isles. To establish his control David recruited new, loyal subjects to his country by rewarding them with lands. Walter Fladd was created as the 1st High Stewart of Scotland, holding lands in Refrewshire and Lothian, hence the Stewarts became established in Scotland.
The Appin Stewarts descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, son of Alexander the fourth High Steward.
The rightful heir to the throne of England were the descendants of King James Stewart. However, after the Protestant Reformation, there was a ling period of Civil War between the Catholics and the new Protestants. The Protestants won in England under Cromwell and England came under the rule of Parliament after King Charles I was beheaded. (King James united the crowns of Scotland and England, when he became at the same time James VI of Scotland and James I of England.) There was objection to any child of Catholic King James as ruler. Parliament scoured the royal family tree to find a Protestant. Mary, a daughter of King James, had married William of Orange who was a Protestant, and she had converted to Protestantism. Parliament invited Dutch Protestant William and Mary of Orange to jointly take the throne of the new United Kingdom. In 1701 it was decreed that Scotland would become one nation with England. No one wished more Civil War, however the having a Catholic king and a Scottish king in one person, were both issues to which the English dominated Parliament objected.
The Stewarts of Appin came out in 1715 in support of the the son of James I, James II was called the Old Pretender by his detractors and king by his supporters, who sought to regain his legal first right to the throne, but would not give up Catholicism. He had support from what were called the Jacobites (which was a word that came simply to mean the supporters of the Stewart claim tot eh throne), France, the Vatican and Catholics across Europe in his support. They met the forces of Parliament and fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.
The Stewart clan supported their Stewart king. However, they lost the battle. The Stewart clan chief was attainted for treason and he and many other prominent Stewarts fled into exile. Many had to hastily escape after the war to Ulster northern Ireland as a common first stop, and then many went on to the Americas and some to Continental Europe, especially France, their traditional ally.
Charles Stewart of Ardsheal led the men of Appin during the rising of 1745 in support of the grandson of James I, called the Young Pretender, and many Stewart clansmen fell at the grim field of Culloden, having first gained glory by breaking the Redcoat ranks.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCOTLAND THE BRAVE MUSIC: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PSH0eRKq1lE&feature=related
VIDEO about Culloden: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lThr5qRmwGI&feature=related
Hugh Stewart,1757 (Revolutionary War "City Guard" of Philadelphia)'s Timeline
December 19, 1757
Philadelphia, PA, USA
September 16, 1780
Philadelphia, PA, USA
July 18, 1788
July 13, 1789
October 23, 1793
August 22, 1795
Hagerstown, Maryland, United States
December 1, 1798