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Hussayn / Hussain / Hussein علي ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (r.a.), حسين بن علي

Nicknames: "Imam Husayn", "Abu Abdullah", "Martyr of Martyrs", "Hussein ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib", "حسين"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Medina, Arabia
Death: Died in Karbala, Iraq
Cause of death: Battle of Karbala
Place of Burial: Imam Husayn Shrine, Karbala, Iraq
Immediate Family:

Son of Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fatimah-tuz-Zahra (R.A)
Husband of Umm Ishaq binte Talha at-Taymi; Hind Bint Suhayl Bin Amru; Hafsah binte 'Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr; Shahrbānū (Shehar bano); Rubab bint Imra al-Qais and 1 other
Father of "The Sayyids" (Lords) The Fatimid Caliphs of Cairo; Ja'afar bin Imaam Husain; Fatimah bint Husayn; Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-'Abidin; Abu Bakr bin Imaam Husain and 10 others
Brother of Hasan ibn Ali; Zaynab binte Maulana Ali; Umm-e-Kulthoom binte Maulana Ali; Sayyidi Muhsin bin Maulana Ali and ...
Half brother of "Yudit" Fatimah; Umm al-Hasan binte Maulana Ali; Ramlah al-Kubra binte Maulana Ali; Maulana Abbas "Saqqa-e-Karbala" bin Maulana Ali; 'Abdullah bin Maulana Ali and 11 others

Occupation: Grandson of the Prophet, Imam, IAMAM
Managed by: Rehan Allahwala
Last Updated:

About Hussayn / Hussain / Hussein علي ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (r.a.), حسين بن علي

Husayn was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Son of Ali (the fourth Islamic caliph) and Fatimah (daughter of Muhammad), he is especially revered by Shiʿa Muslims as the third imam (after Ali and Husayn’s older brother, Hasan).

--------------------

Terlahir dengan nama Al-Hussein, putra kedua dari perkawinan Ali bin Abu Thalib dengan Fatimah. Dia tidak mau membaiat Yazid, sehingga dia terbunuh dalam perang Karbala tanggal 10 Muharam 61 H/680 M. Beliau dilahirkan pada bulan Sya’ban tahun ke-empat Hijriyah. Al-Hussein.

Ketika Al-Hussein ditahan oleh tentara Yazid, Samardi Al-Jausyan mendorong Abdullah bin Ziyad untuk membunuhnya. Sedangkan Al-Hussein meminta untuk dihadapkan kepada Yazid atau dibawa ke front untuk berjihad melawan orang-orang kafir atau kembali ke Mekkah. Namun mereka tetap membunuh Al-Hussein dengan dhalim sehingga beliau meninggal dengan syahid radhiyallahu ‘anhu. Inna Lillahi wa Inna Ilaihi Raji’un.

Syaikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah berkata: “Al-Hussein terbunuh di Karbala di dekat Eufrat dan jasadnya dikubur di tempat terbunuhnya, sedangkan kepalanya dikirim ke hadapan Ubaidillah bin Ziyad di Kufah. Demikianlah yang diriwayatkan oleh Bukhari dalam Shahihnya dan dari para imam yang lain.

Al-Hussein bin Ali radhiyallahu ‘anhuma terbunuh pada hari Jum’at, pada hari ‘Asyura, yaitu pada bulan Muharram tahun 61 H dalam usia 54 tahun 6 bulan. -------------------- Husayn ibn Ali From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about Husayn ibn Ali (626 – 680). For the modern political figure (1852 – 1931), see Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim Husayn al-Shahīd Imams of Shi'a Islam Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg The Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq Rank 3rd Twelver/Zaidiyyah/Mustaali Imamah 2nd Nizari Imamah Name Husayn ibn ‘Alī Kunya

   Abu ‘Abdillāh[1][2]
   Posthumous:
   *Abu al-Ahrār[3]
   (Arabic for Father of Freedom)

Birth 3rd[1] or 5th[4] Sha'aban 4 AH[1][4] ≈ Jan. 8, 626 C.E. Death 10th Muharram 61 AH[1] ≈ Oct. 10, 680 C.E. Birthplace Medina[1] Buried Imam Husayn Shrine, Karbala Life Duration

Before Imamate: 46 years (4 - 50 AH) - 7 years with his grandfather Muhammad - 7 years with his mother Fatimah - 36 years with his father Ali - 46 years with his brother Hasan ibn Ali Imāmate: 11 years (50 - 61 AH) Titles

   ash-Shahīd[3]
   (Arabic for The Martyr)
   *as-Sibt[3]
   (Arabic for The Grandson)
   *Sayyidush Shabābi Ahlil Jannah[3][5]
   (Arabic for Leader of the Youth of Paradise)
   *ar-Rashīd[3]
   (Arabic for The Rightly Guided)
   *at-Tābi li Mardhātillāh[3]
   (Arabic for The Follower of Gods Will)
   *al-Mubārak[3]
   (Arabic for The Blessed)
   *at-Tayyib[3]
   (Arabic for The Pure)
   *Sayyidush Shuhadā[1]
   (Arabic for Master of the Martyrs)
   *al-Wafī[3]
   (Arabic for The Loyal)

Spouse(s) Shahrbanu bint Yazdegerd Umm Rubāb Umm Laylā Father Ali Mother Fatimah Children Ali ibn Husayn, Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn, Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, Fatimah Kubra bint Hussain, Fatimah Sughra bint Hussain, Sukayna bint Husayn.

Panjetan.jpg Ali · Hasan · Husayn al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq Musa (Twelver) · Ismail (Ismaili)

Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب‎)‎ (3rd Sha'aban 4 AH - 10th Muharram 61 AH; 8 January 626 CE - 10 October 680 CE) was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (final Rashidun Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fātimah Zahrā (daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad). Husayn is an important figure in Islam as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being a Shia Imam, and one of The Fourteen Infallibles of Shia Twelvers. He is recognized as the 'Martyr Of Martyrs' by both Sunni and Shia[citation needed].

Husayn ibn ‘Alī is exalted by all the Shia as a martyr who fought tyranny as he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I,[6] the Umayyad caliph. He rose up to create a regime that would reinstate a "true" Islamic polity as opposed to what he considered the unjust rule of the Umayyads.[6] As a consequence, Husayn was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala in 680 (61AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan.[7] The anniversary of his Shahid (martyrdom) is called Ashura (tenth day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shia Muslims.

Revenge for Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad Caliphate and gave impetus to the rise of a powerful Shia movement.[6] Contents [hide]

   1 Early life
       1.1 The Incident of Mubahala
   2 Husayn and caliphate
       2.1 Husayn and Rashidun
   3 Muawiyah's era
   4 Yazid's rule
       4.1 Uprising
   5 Battle of Karbala
   6 Burial
       6.1 Transfer of the head of Husayn
   7 Family
   8 Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
       8.1 Shia
   9 The Shia view of Husayn
       9.1 Sayings of Muhammad about Husayn ibn Ali
   10 Time line
   11 See also
   12 Notes
   13 References
   14 External links

[edit] Early life See also: Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa

According to most of the reports, Husayn ibn Ali was born on 3 Sha'aban 4 AH/10 January 626 CE.[8]

Husayn and his brother Hasan ibn Ali, were the last descendants of Muhammad living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them which refer to them together but at times confuse them with each other.[8]

Muhammad is reported to have said that whoever loves them has loved him and whoever hates them has hated him. A famous narration declares them the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise"; this has been particularly important for the Shia who have used it in support of the right of Muhammad's descendants to be the righteous ones to succeed him. Other traditions record Muhammad with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders and even on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself during their young age.[9]

According to Wilferd Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt very frequently. The Qur'an has also accorded the Ahl al-Bayt an elevated position above the rest of the believers.[10] In addition to these traditions, a number of other traditions also involved the presence of angels and jinn.[9] [edit] The Incident of Mubahala Main articles: Mubahala and Hadith of Mubahala

A collection of Hadith tells that during the 9th - 10th year after Hijra an Arab Christian envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus (Isa).[11]

After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's (Adem) creation,[12] Muhammad called them to Mubahala (the cursing of the lower party) where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families. Muhammad, to prove himself to them as a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah, son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib and both of his grandsons, Hasan and Husayn and came back to the Christians and said to them "This is my family, the (Ahl al-Bayt)" and covered himself and his family with a cloak.

According to this story, the Christians then agreed to a peace treaty and told Muhammad that they would not return.[13] [edit] Husayn and caliphate

According to the Shia, Hasan was supposed to be the successor to Ali after Muhammad. Muawiyah had fought with Ali during his time and after his death, as Hasan was supposed to take Ali's place in successorship, he was another threat to Muawiyah in which he prepared to fight with him again.

Muawiyah began fighting Hasan and after a few inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hasan and Muawiyah. Thus, to avoid the agonies of another civil war, he signed a treaty with Muawiyah and relinquished the control of what had turned into an Arabian kingdom. [edit] Husayn and Rashidun

At the time of the siege of the caliph Uthman's residence in Medina, by rebels from Basra and Egypt (led by Abdullah Ibn Saba), when Uthman asked Ali to join the defender of his house, Ali sent Hasan and Husayn. While Hasan and Husayn guarded the gates of the Caliph's residence, the rebels entered from the back door and killed Uthman.

During Ali's caliphate Hasan, Husayn, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and Abdullah ibn Ja'far appear as his closest assistants within his household.[8] [edit] Muawiyah's era See also: Muawiyah I and Umayyad

When Hasan ibn Ali agreed to make a peace treaty with Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad caliph, he left Kufa and went to Medina with his brother Husayn.[14]

According to the Shia belief, he lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Muawiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside past disputes and remove the Household of Muhammad and the lovers of Ali and his sons, and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family.[15]

Muawiyah I ordered for public curses of Ali and his major supporters including Hasan and Husayn.[8]

According to the Shia, Husayn had gained the third Imam for a period of ten years after the death of his brother Hassan in 669. All of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Muawiyah.[15] [edit] Yazid's rule

One of the important points of the treaty made between Hasan and Muawiyah was that Muawiyah will not designate anyone as his successor after his death and the decision will be left to the Ummah (the Nation). But after the death of Hasan, he, thinking that no one will be courageous enough to object his decision as the Caliph, designated his son, Yazid I, as his successor in 680 CE, literally breaking the treaty.[16] [edit] Uprising

Husayn left Medina with his sisters, daughters, sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan. He took a side road to Mecca to avoid being pursued, and once in Mecca Husayn stayed in the house of ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and remained there for four months.[8]

Husayn opposed Yazid I and declared that Umayyad rule was not only oppressive, but also religiously misguided. In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the re-establishment of the correct guidance.[17] Husayn also believed that the succession of Yazid I was an attempt to establish an illegitimate hereditary dynasty.

The religious attitudes of the Umayyad also inspired people who believed that leadership of the Muslim community rightly belonged to the descendants of Muhammed, so they urged Husayn to join them and come to Kufa to establish his caliphate[16] since they had no imam. They told him that they did not attend the Friday prayer with the governor of Kufa, No'man ibn Bashir, and would drive him out of the town as soon as Husayn agreed to come to them.

To convince Husayn to come they sent him seven messengers with bags of letters of support by Kufan warriors and tribal leaders. Husayn wrote the Kufans and told them that he understood from their letters that they had no imam and they wished him to come to unite them by the correct guidance. He informed them that he was sending his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation. If he found them united as their letters indicated he would quickly join them, for it was the duty of the imam to act in accordance with the Qur'an and to uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and to dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of ibn Aqeel was initially successful. The Kufan Shias visited him freely, and 18,000 men are said to have enlisted with him in support of Husayn. He wrote to Husayn, encouraging him to come quickly to Kufa.[8]

Husayn was also visited by a Shia supporter with two of his sons from Basra, where Shia sentiment was limited. He then sent identical letters to the chiefs of the five divisions into which the Basran tribes were divided. He wrote them that Muhammad's family were his family and were the rightful heirs of his position, and that others had illegitimately claimed the right which belonged exclusively to Muhammad's family. The family had initially consented to the actions of the first caliphs for the sake of the unity of the Ummah. He said that the caliphs who had seized the right of Muhammad's family had done many good things, and had sought the truth. The letter closely reflected the guidelines set by Ali, who had strongly upheld the sole right of the family of Muhammad, who were the descendants of Fatima (Prophet Muhammed's daughter), to leadership of the Muslim community. While most of the recipients of the letter kept it secret, one of them suspected that it was a ploy of the governor Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad to test their loyalty and turned it over to him. Ubayd-Allah seized and beheaded Husayn's messenger and addressed a stern warning to the people of Basra.[8]

In Kufa the situation changed radically when Yazid replaced Noman ibn Bashir with Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, ordering the latter to deal severely with Huseyn's cousin, Muslim ibn Aqeel. Ubayd-Allah succeeded in intimidating the tribal chiefs, and a revolt collapsed when the rebels failed to capture the governor's palace. ibn Aqeel was found and delivered to Ubayd-Allah, who had him beheaded on the top of the palace and his body thrown down to the crowd. Yazid wrote to Ubayd-Allah, commending him highly for his decisive action and ordering him to set up watches for Husayn and his supporters and to arrest them but to kill only those who would fight him.[8]

Yazid perceived Husayn's refusal to pledge allegiance as a danger to his throne because he was Muhammad's family, so he plotted to kill the grandson of Muhammad during the Hajj, in the precincts of the Kaaba, thus defiling and desecrating it (killing a person in Mecca is prohibited in Islam). In order to avoid this sacrilege, Husayn took along his sisters, wife, children, the children of Hasan ibn Ali, a few friends and relatives and headed towards Kufa to fulfill the responsibility of the bearer of Imamate and to fulfill his destiny as was prophesied by his grandfather, Muhammad.

On his way, he was offered military support by the tribe of Banu Tayy as well as sanctuary in their hills from where he could (if he wanted to) safely lead a revolt and overthrow Yazid. But Husayn refused the offer and continued his journey with his few companions.[citation needed] [edit] Battle of Karbala

A series of articles on

Husayn callig.gif Imam of Islam Husayn

Life Family tree · Battle of Karbala

Remembrance Maqtal Al-Husayn · Mourning of Muharram · Day of Ashura · Arba'een · Imam Husayn Shrine · Hussainia · Majlis-e-Aza · Marsia · Noha · Soaz · Ta'zieh · Tabuik · Hosay · Chehel Minbari · Chup Tazia · Tatbeer

Perspectives The Twelve Imams · The Fourteen Infallibles v · d · e Main article: Battle of Karbala See also: Maqtal al-Husayn

Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, led by Hurr ibn Yazid Riyahi, A top commander in the Umayyad army who later changed sides. It is said that when Hurr and his one thousand men army initially encountered Husayn on the day of 4th Muharram, Hurr and his army were thirsty as they had been on rounds to capture Husayn for many days. Husayn offered his storage of water to Hurr, his army, and the horses of his army. It is said that if Husayn had not offered the water to Hurr and his army, the water in Husayn's camp would have lasted until 19th day of Muharram. Hurr did not arrest Husayn, but told him to set a camp in Karbala and stop his journey to Kufa. Husayn and his family were also not allowed to set up tents close to the bank of the Euphrates. On the 7th day of Muharram, the water storage in Husayn's camp was finished. Husayn requested ibn Ziyad's army to allow him and his family members access to water, but his request was denied. Husayn sent his brother Al-Abbas ibn Ali to the river bank to bring water, but Yazid's army fought with Abbas, cut off both his arms, and killed him. Husayn also went to ibn Ziyad's army and asked them to allow water for his six month old son, Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, but the army launched arrows toward Husayn, one of which killed Ali al-Asghar

At the Battle of Karbala it is recorded that seventy two people were killed.[18]

When Husayn clashed with Yazid's army, he said[19]:

   ... Don't you see that the truth is not put into action and the false is not prohibited? The believer should desire to meet his Lord while he is right. Thus I do not see death but as happiness, and living with tyrants but as sorrow.
   —Husayn ibn Ali

On 10 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of his followers and family members, who were between 72 or more,[20][21] fought with a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, son of Sad ibn Abi Waqqas. Husayn and all of his men were killed and beheaded. The bodies were left for forty days without burial and survivors from Husain's family were taken as prisoners to al-Sham (Syria and Lebanon today) to Yazid.[22]

Part of his speech on Ashura[citation needed]:

   Behold; the illegitimate, son of the illegitimate [by birth], has settled between two, between unsheathing [the sword] and humiliation, and how impossible is humiliation from us! Allah refuses that for us, and his messenger, and the believers, and laps chastified and purified, and zealous noses [expression: heads that do not bow in humility], and repudiating souls [who repudiate/refuse oppression], that we desire obedience to the mean ones, than the killings of the honourable [martyrdom]. Behold that I move slowly with this family, despite the little number and deserting of helpers.

Today, the death of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated during every Muharram by Shia Muslims, with the most important of these days being its tenth day, Ashura. Ashura is also commemorated by Sunni Muslims. [edit] Burial This article's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (January 2011)

Husayn's body is buried in Karbala, near the site of his death. His head is said to have been returned from Damascus and interred with his body.[23] Shia/Fatimid believe that Husain's head was first buried in the courtyard of yezid mahal (Umayyad Mosque) than transferred from Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera.

Husayn's grave became the most visited place of Ziyarat for Shias. The Imam Husayn Shrine was later built over his grave. In 850 Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil, destroyed his shrine in order to stop Shia pilgrimages. However, pilgrimages continued.[24] It is now a holy site of pilgrimage for Shia Muslims. [edit] Transfer of the head of Husayn The Zarih of Husayn in Karbala

On the second day after the battle of Karbala, the forces of Yazid I raised the head of Husayn on a lance. They took it to Kufa to present it to Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, leaving behind the mutilated body of Husayn. The headless body was thus buried there by the tribe of Bani Assad, who were living in the vicinity of Karbala. After the exhibition and display of the head of Husayn, ibn Ziyad dispatched it to Damascus to be presented to Yazid as a trophy.[25] The Shrine of Husayn's head in Damascus

Yazid celebrated the occasion with great pomp and show by displaying the head of Husayn in his crowded and decorated court. The head was then buried in a niche of one of the internal walls of Jame-Masjid, Damascus, Syria. Afterwards, the head of Husayn remained confiscated and confined in Damascus by the order of the Umayyad monarch, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik (d.86/705), in this condition for about two hundred twenty years. The place where head Imam Husayn kept, Umayyad mosque, Damascus

When the Abbasids took power from the Umayyads, in the garb of taking revenge of Ahl al-Bayt, they also confiscated the head Husayn and proved to be worse enemies than the Umayyads. It was the Abbasid emperor Al-Muqtadir (d. 295/908), an enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt He attempted many times to stop the pilgrimage to the head, but in vain. He thus tried to completely eliminate the sign of the sacred place of Ziyarat; he transferred the head of Husayn to Ashkelon (located 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gaza Strip and 58 km (36 mi) south of Tel Aviv, Israel) in secrecy, so that the pilgrims could not find the place.

It was the 15th Fatimid/Ismaili/Dawoodi Bohra Imam Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah (d.386 AH/996) who traced the site of the head of his great-grandfather through the office of his contemporary in Baghdad, in 985. In the city of Ashkelon, Israel, it remained buried at "Baab al Faradis", for a long time (about 250 years up to 1153).

Commander of the Fatimid forces Dai Badrul’jamali (d. 487/1095) conquered Palestine, during the period of 18th Fatimid Imam Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah (d. 487/1094). The Fatimid Imam assigned him to discover the head of Husayn ibn Ali. The Dai, in 448 (A.H) discovered the place of Raas al Imam al Husayn. The Mimbar at the Ibrahimi Mosque An Inscription on the Mimbar placed at the Ibrahimi Mosque

Under the instructions of the Fatimid Imam Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah, Badrul’jamali constructed a mosque and donated several huge properties to meet the expenditure of the 'Trust', so as to maintain the affairs of the Mashhad the place of burial. He also prepared a wooden minbar (pulpit) and placed it in the mosque, where Raas al Imam al Husayn was buried. This minbar bears the historical account which is engraved in Arabi Fatemi Kufic script about the Raas al Imam al Husayn.

The following part of text is a translation of the Arabic inscriptions, which is still preserved on the Fatimid minbar:

".. among the miracles, a major glory with the wishes of Allah, is the recovery of the Head .. Imam.. Husain .. which was at the place of Ashkelon, .. hidden by the tyrants... .. Allah has promised to reveal.. wishes to hide it from the enemies..to show it to Awliya ... to relieve the heart of ‘Devotees’ of Imam Husain, as Allah knew their pure heartedness in Walayat and Deen.

... May Allah keep for long our Moula .. Al Mustansir’billah.. .The .. Commander of the forces.. the Helper of Imam.. the leader of Do’at .. Badr al Mustansari has discovered Raas al Imam al Husain in Imam Mustansir’s period, and has taken it out from it’s hidden place. He specially built a Minbar for the Mashhad, at the place where this sacred Head lay buried. ..

He (..Badrul’jamali) constructed this building ..the revenue from which is to be spent only on this Mashhad ... ."

After the 21st Fatimid Imam At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim went in to seclusion, his uncle, Abd al Majid occupied the throne of the Fatimid Empire. Fearing disrespect and the atrocities of the traitors and enemies, the Majidi-monarch, Al-Zafir, ordered the transfer of the head to Qahera. The W’ali of the city of Ashkelon, Al Amir Sayf al Mamlaka Tamim along with the custodian of the Mashhad, Qazi Mohammad bin Miskin, took out the buried casket of Raas al Imam al Husayn from the Mashhad, and with due respect and great reverence, on Sunday 8 Jumada al-Thani, 548 (31 August 1153) carried the head from the city of Ashkelon to Qahera, Egypt. Syedi Hasan bin Asad (Hir’az, Yemen) discussed this event in his Risalah manuscript as follows: "When the Raas (head) al Imam al Husain was taken out of the casket, in Ashkelon, drops of the fresh blood were visible on the Raas al Imam al Husain and the fragrance of Musk spread all over." The Zarih of Husayn's head in Cairo

Historians, Al-Maqrizi, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, and Ibn Muyassar (d.1278) have mentioned that the casket reached Qahera on Tuesday 10 Jumada al-Thani (2 September 1153). Ust’ad Maknun accompanied it in one of the service boats which landed at the Kafuri (Garden). Buried there in the place known "Qubbat al Daylam" or "Turbat al Zafr’an" (currently known as "Al Mashhad al Husain", wherein lie buried underground thirteen Fatimid Imams from 9th Muhammad at-Taqi to 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah). This place is also known as "B’ab Makhallif’at al Rasul".

During the golden era of the Fatimid Caliphate, on the day of Ashurah, every year the people of Egypt from far and near used to gather and offer sacrifices of camels, cows, goats in the name of Allah, recite Marsiyah-elegies and pronounced L’anat (curse) loudly on Yazid, Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, ibn Ziyad and other murderers of Husayn, the Ahl al Bait and the Ans’ar of Husayn. During the tenure of Saladin, all Marasim al Az’a or mourning commemorations for Husayn were declared officially banned as they were considered Bid‘ah.

The famous Mamluk historian of Egypt, Mohiyuddin Abd al Zahir (d. 1292) wrote: "When Salahuddin came to power he seized all the Palaces of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen and looted their properties and treasures. He destroyed the valuable and rare collection of the hundred thousands books, available in libraries, in the river Nile. When he learnt through his intelligence.. that one of the.. custodians of Raas al Imam al Husain.. was highly respected by the people of ..Qahera, he surmised that perhaps he .. be aware of ..treasures of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen. Salahuddin issued orders to present him in his court. He inquired of him ..of the Fatemi..treasures. The nobleman flatly denied ..about the treasures. Salahuddin was angered, and ordered his intelligence .. to ask him through ‘third-degree-torture’, but the nobleman bore ..torture and repeated ..statement. .. Salahuddin ordered his soldiers to put a cap containing Centipedes on the head of the nobleman. ..such type of punishment was so severe and unbearable..none could survive even for a few minutes.

Prior to putting the Cap of Centipedes on the head, his hair was shaved, to make it easy for the Centipedes to suck blood, which in turn made holes in skull. But! In spite of that punishment the noble custodian of Husain’s Head..felt no pain at all. Salahuddin ordered for more Centipedes to be put on .. but it could not kill or pain him. Finally Salahuddin Ayyubi ordered for a tight cap full of Centipedes .. to accomplish the result. Even this method could not torture or kill him. The Ayyubid brutes were greatly astounded further when they saw, on removing the cap, the Centipedes were dead. Salahuddin asked the nobleman to reveal the secret of this miracle. The nobleman revealed as follow: “When Raas al Imam al Husain was brought to Qasar, Al Moizziyat al Qahera, he had carried the casket on his head. ‘O Salahuddin! This is the secret of my safety."

The burial place is now also known as Raous (head)-us-Husain, A silver Zarih (Maqsurah) is made on the place by Dawoodi Bohra Dai, and the place is visited regularly by all Shia. The presentation of the Maqsurah is also unique in the history of loyalty and faithfulness. The Maqsurah of Raas al Imam al Husain was originally constructed for the Al Abbas Mosque at Karbala, Iraq. When this Maqsurah reached the mosque of Al-Abbas ibn Ali it would not fit on the place. The size of the Maqsurah and the site of the fitting place differed at the time of fitting, although every technical aspects and measurements of the site were taken into account very precisely. The engineers were astonished, as what had happened, although every minute detail was handled very professionally. The loyalty of Al-Abbas ibn Ali was also witnessed on that day too, as it had been witnessed on the day of Aashurah. There a divine guidance came to the effect by way of intuition that a sincere, faithful, loyal and devoted brother could not tolerate, that the head of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn, buried in Al Qahera, Egypt, should be without a Maqsurah, thus how could he accept this gift for himself. Hence even after Shahadat, Al-Abbas ibn Ali paid his tribute to Husayn and presented his own Maqsurah for Raas (head) al Imam al Husain. When this above-mentioned Maqsurah was brought from Karbala, Iraq to Al Moizziyat al Qahera, Egypt, it fitted upon the original position of the grave known as Mashhad of Raas al Imam al Husain in such a manner, as if it had been fabricated for Raas al Imam al Husain itself.

During the period of Saladin, and by his order, the minbar made by Dai Badr-ul Jamali was transferred from Ashkelon to the Masjid Khalil al Rahman (Ibrahimi Mosque) (Al Khalil, Palestine) (Hebron, Israel). Saladin did not know that this minbar contained an inscription showing the history of Husayn. The 51st al Dai al Fatemi/Dawoodi Bohra, Taher Saifuddin (d.1385/1965) got the honour to visit Masjid Khalil al Rahman, and he discovered the Fatamid minbar, one thousand years after the seclusion of the Fatamid Imams.

The Masjid of the Askelan known as "Masjid Al Mashhad al Husain" was blown up deliberately as part of a broader operation of defence force in 1950. The site in Ashkelon was leveled in 1950, but the devotees of Ahl al Bait did not forgo it. The burial place of Husayn's head in Askelan, Israel

A few years ago, the 52nd Fatamid/Ismaili/Mustali/Dawoodi Bohra Dai Mohammed Burhanuddin, built a marble platform, as per traditional Fatamid architectural design, at the site, on the ground behind the Barzilai Hospital, Ashkelon and since then thousands of devotees have come from across the world, year round to pay tribute to Husayn.[26] [edit] Family Main article: Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali

Husayn ibn Ali was the son of Ali, Muhammad's cousin, and his wife Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad and his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. Husayn ibn Ali and his brother Hasan ibn Ali were regarded by Prophet Muhammed as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children and descendants as his own children and descendants, and he said "Every mothers children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatima for I am their father and lineage" Thus only the descendants of Fatima are the descendants and progeny of the Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt. Husayn ibn Ali was married to four women, Rubab bint Imra al-Qais with whom he fathered Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn and Sukayna bint Husayn, Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi mother of Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn, Umm Ishaq bint Talhah, the widow of Hasan ibn Ali, mother of Fatimah bint Husayn. From his wife Shahrbanu he fathered Ali ibn Husayn who's descendants were the Shia Imamah. Other children include Sakinah bint Husayn and Fatema Sugra bint Husayn. [edit] Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali Main articles: Mourning of Muharram and day of Ashura See also: Arba'een and Hussainia [edit] Shia

The Day of Ashura is commemorated by the Shia as a day of mourning for the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala.the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and all ethnic and religious communities participate in it.

Husayn is especially mourned during the first ten days of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, and ends by the 10th day. Although, the mourning continues through the whole month and well into Safar until 8th Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar. [edit] The Shia view of Husayn

The Shia regard Husayn as an Imam (which is considered as a divine spiritual leader appointed by God) and a martyr. He is believed to be the third of the Imams from the Ahl al-Bayt which are supposed to succeed Muhammad and that he set out on his path in order to save the religion of Islam and the Islamic nation from annihilation at the hands of Yazid.

The traditional narration "Every day is Ashura and every land is Karbala!" is used by the Shia to live their lives as Husayn did on Ashura with complete sacrifice for God and others. The saying also signifies what happened in Ashura on Karbala must always be remembered for there is suffering everywhere. [edit] Sayings of Muhammad about Husayn ibn Ali

   Hasan and Husayn are the masters of the youth of Paradise and Fatimah is the master of their women.[27]
   Husayn is from me and I am from him.[28]
   Muhammad looked towards Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and said, "I am at war with those who fight you and in peace with those who please you."[29]

[edit] Time line Husayn ibn Ali of the Ahl al-Bayt Panjetan.jpg Banu Hashim Clan of the Banu Quraish Born: 3rd Sha‘bān 4 AH ≈ 8th January 626 CE Died: 10th Muharram 61 AH ≈ 10th October 680 CE Shī‘a Islam titles Preceded by Hasan ibn Ali Disputed by Nizari 3rd Imam of Shia Islam 669 – 680 Succeeded by ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn [edit] See also

   Wikiquote logo Quotations related to Imam Husayn at Wikiquote
   Sayyid
   Arba'een
   Zulfiqar
   Zuljanah
   Holiest sites in Islam (Shia)
   Shi'a view of the Sahaba
   Sunni view of the Sahaba

[edit] Notes

   ^ a b c d e f A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 95.
   ^ Kitab al-Irshad. p. 198.
   ^ a b c d e f g h i al-Qarashi, Baqir Shareef (2007). The life of Imam Husain. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 58.
   ^ a b al-Qarashi, Baqir Shareef (2007). The life of Imam Husain. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 51.
   ^ Tirmidhi, Vol. II, p. 221 ; تاريخ الخلفاء، ص189
   ^ a b c "al-Hussein ibn 'Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
   ^ Gordon, 2005, pp. 144-146
   ^ a b c d e f g h Madelung, Wilferd. "HOSAYN B. ALI". Iranica. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
   ^ a b L. Veccia Vaglieri, (al-) Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Encyclopedia of Islam
   ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 14-16
   ^ Qur'an 3:61
   ^ Qur'an 3:59
   ^ See:* Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition #32
       Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
       Madelung, 1997, pp. 15 and 16
   ^ Madelung (1997), p0. 324 and 325
   ^ a b Tabatabaei, (1979), p.196
   ^ a b Halm (2004), p.13
   ^ Dakake (2007), pp.81 and 82
   ^ Names of Martyrs at Karbala
   ^ الا ترون الی الحق لا یعمل به و الی الباطل لا یتناهی عنه؟ لیرغب المومن فی لقاء ربه محقا. فانی لا اری الموت الا سعادة و الحیوة مع الظالمین الا برما Lohouf, Sayyid ibn Tawoos, Tradition No.99
   ^ [1]
   ^ فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا
   ^ Battle of Karbala
   ^ Halm (2004), pp. 15 and 16
   ^ Halm (2004), p. 15
   ^ Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera By: Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD (USA), NDI, Shahadat al A’alamiyyah (Najaf, Iraq), M.A., LLM (Shariah) Member, Ulama Council of Pakistan , Published in Daily News, Karachi, Pakistan on 03-1-2009, wikepedia encyclopedia, Islam Wiki
   ^ Sacred Surprise behind Israel Hospital, by; Batsheva Sobelmn, special Los Angeles Times
   ^
       Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p660, on the authority of Abu Sa'id and Hudhayfa
       Sunan Ibn Majah, Introduction 8
       al-Tabarani, on the authorities of: Umar, Ali, Jabir, Abu Hurayrah, Usamah Ibn Zaid, al-Baraa, Ibn 'Adi, and Ibn Masud.
       al-Kubra, by al-Nasa'i
       Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 62,82, v3, pp 3,64, v5, p391
       Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p771, Tradition #1360
       al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 166,167
       Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v5, p71
       Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p187
       Tuhfatul Ashraf, by Lumzi, v3, p31
       Ibn Habban, as mentioned in al-Mawarid, pp 551,553
       al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p290
       Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tradition #6154
   ^
       Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p172
       Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p772, Tradition #1361
       al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p 177
       Amali, by Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani, p 64
       al-Kuna wal Asmaa, by al-Dulabi, v1, p88
       al-Tabarani, v3, p21
       Adab by al-Bukhari, also al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, as quoted in:
       al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p291
       Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English ,Version, Tradition #6160
   ^
       Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699
       Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52
       Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p767, Tradition #1350
       al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p149
       Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p169
       al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, p30, also in al-Awsat
       Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Ibani, v2, p17
       Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v7, p137
       Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p144
       Talkhis, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p149
       Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p25
       Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tradition #6145

[edit] References

Books

   Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail (1996). The English Translation of Sahih Al Bukhari With the Arabic Text, translated by Muhammad Muhsin Khan. Al-Saadawi Publications. ISBN 1881963594.
   Dakake, Maria Massi (2007). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791470334.
   Gordon, Matthew (2005). The Rise Of Islam. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313325227.
   Halm, Heinz; Janet Watson and Marian Hill (2004). Shi'Ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748618880.
   Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960.
   Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.

Encyclopedia

   Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc..
   Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4.
   Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Brill Publishers, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-14743-8.
   Encyclopaedia of Islam. ISBN.

Blog

   Sacred Surprise behind Israel Hospital

by; Batsheva Sobelmn, special Los Angeles Times. [edit] External links

   Hussein ibn 'Ali an article of Encyclopædia Britannica.
   Hussein ibn 'Ali by Wilferd Madelung, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
   Hussein ibn 'Ali in popular Shiism by Jean Calmard, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
   Imam Hussein in the eyes of non-Muslims
   The Third Imam
   Martyr Of Karbala
   An account of the martyrdom of the third Imam

[show]v · d · eList of Sahaba [show]v · d · eList of casualties at the Battle of Karbala Categories: Arab people | Islamic history | Shi'a imams | 626 births | 680 deaths | Assassinated Shi'a imams | Ismailism | People killed at the Battle of Karbala | Muslim martyrs | Family of Muhammad | 7th-century caliphs | Twelver imams | Zaidi imams

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-------------------- Husayn ibn Ali

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Husain ibn Ali)

Imam Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). For the modern political figure (1852 – 1931), see Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

  • Abu al-Ahrār[3]

(Arabic for Father of Freedom)

Birth 3rd[1] or 5th[4] Sha‘bān 4 AH[1][4]

≈ Jan. 8, 626 C.E.

Death 10th Muharram 61 AH[1]

≈ Oct. 10, 680 C.E.

Birthplace Madīnah[1]

Buried Imām Husayn Mosque, Karbalā

Life Duration Before Imāmate: 46 years

(4 - 50 AH)

- 7 years with his grandfather [Muhammad]

- 7 years with his mother Fātimah

- 36 years with his father ‘Alī

- 46 years with his brother Hasan

Imāmate: 11 years

(50 - 61 AH)

Titles *ash-Shahīd[3]

(Arabic for The Martyr)

  • as-Sibt[3]

(Arabic for The Grandson)

  • Sayyidush Shabābi Ahlil Jannah[3][5]

(Arabic for Leader of the Youth of Paradise)

  • ar-Rashīd[3]

(Arabic for The Rightly Guided)

  • at-Tābi li Mardhātillāh[3]

(Arabic for The Follower of Gods Will)

  • al-Mubārak[3]

(Arabic for The Blessed)

  • at-Tayyib[3]

(Arabic for The Pure)

  • Sayyidush Shuhadā[1]

(Arabic for Master of the Martyrs)

  • al-Wafī[3]

(Arabic for The Loyal)

Spouse(s) Shahrbānū bint Yazdgerd III

Umm Rubāb

Umm Laylā

Umm Is'hāq bint Talha

Father ‘Alī

Mother Fāṭimah

Children ‘Alī ibn Husayn, ‘Alī al-Akbar, ‘Alī al-Aṣghar, Fāṭimah Kubra, Fāṭimah Sughrá, Sakinah bint Husayn.


Ali · Hasan · Husayn

al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq

Musa (Twelver) · Ismail (Ismaili)


Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب‎)‎ (3rd Sha‘bān 4 AH - 10th Muharram 61 AH; 8 January 626 AD - 10 October 680 AD) was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (final Rashidun Caliph[6] and first Shī‘a Imām) and Fātimah Zahrā (daughter of Muhammad). Husayn is an important figure in Islām as he is a member of the Ahlul Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahlul Kisā, as well as being a Shī‘a Imām, and one of The Fourteen Infallibles of Shī'a Twelvers.

Husayn ibn ‘Alī is revered by all Shi'a as a martyr who fought tyranny, as he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazīd I,[7] the Umayyad caliph. He rose up to create a regime that would reinstate a “true” Islāmic polity as opposed to what he considered the unjust rule of the Umayyads.[7] As a consequence, Husayn was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbalā in 680 (61AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan.[8] The anniversary of his Shahid ("martydom") is called ‘Āshūrā ("tenth" day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shia Muslims. Revenge for Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate, and gave impetus to the rise of a powerful Shī‘ah movement.[7]

[edit] Early life

See also: Ahl al-Bayt and Hadith of the Cloak

According to the most reports, Imam Husayn ibn Ali was born on 3 Sha'aban 4 AH/10 January 626 CE.[9]

He and his brother Imam Hassan were the only descendants of Muhammad who remained alive. Many of the accounts about Muhammad's treatment of his grandsons and his great love for them deal with them together and at times confuse them.[9] Muhammad is reported to have said that "whoever loves them [his grandsons] loves me and whoever hates them hates me" and "al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the sayyids of the youth of Paradise". The latter saying has been particularly important for Shias who used it in support of the right of Muhammad's descendants to the imamate. Muhammad, according to other traditions, is pictured with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, or even on his back during the prayer at the moment of prostrating himself.[10] According to Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt frequently. The Quran has accorded the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet an elevated position above the rest of the faithful.[11]

In addition to these traditions, a number of traditions also involve presence of angels. From a Muslim point of view, these traditions do not create any problem but to non-Muslims they appear as legends created under the Shi'i influence.[10]

[edit] The Incident of Mubahala

Main articles: Mubahala and Hadith of Mubahela

According to hadith collections, it is narrated that during the 9th - 10th year after hijra an Arab Christian envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus.[12] After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,[13] Muhammad called them to Mubahala (Cursing), where each party should ask God to destroy the lying party and their families. Muhammad, to prove to them that he is a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah (Taiba,Tahira) and his surviving grandchildren, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain ibn Ali, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and came back to the Christians and said this is my family (Ahl al-Bayt) and covered himself and his family with a cloak.

Christians felt afraid as Muhammad was so confident about his teachings that the Christians felt that if they come on face to face with him, they would be proved wrong and Christianity might end. So they formed a peace treaty and told Muhammad that they would not come. It is written and confirmed by hadiths.[14]

[edit] Husayn and Caliphate

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Shias proclaimed that his eldest son Hassan, who was the successor to Ali's Imamate, should be the caliph and the Islamic tradition should not be discarded again. Muawiyah had fought Ali for the leadership of the empire and now prepared to fight Hassan. After a few inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hassan and Muawiyah, Hassan reminded his followers of Ali's position that Imamate is sufficient for successorship of Muhammad and that leading the Muslim state was not a criterion. Thus, to avoid agonies of another civil war, he signed a treaty with Muawiyah and relinquished the control of what had turned into an Arabian kingdom; while not having pledged his allegiance to Muawiyah. Even after taking such a stance, Hassan was poisoned and killed in 669 by Muawiyah. This left Husayn as the head of the Alids, the successor to Hassan's Imamate.

[edit] Husayn and Rashidun

At the time of the siege of the caliph Uthman's residence in Medina, by rebels from Basrah and Egypt (led by Ibn Saba), when Uthman asked Ali to join the defender of his house, Ali sent Hassan and Husayn. When Uthman asked Husayn if he thought he would be able to defend himself against the rebels, he demurred, and Uthman sent him away.[9]

During Ali's caliphate, the brothers Hassan, Husayn, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, and their cousin 'Abd Allah ibn J'afar appear as his closest assistants within his household.[9]

[edit] Muawiyah era

See also: Muawiyah I and Umayyad

When Imam Hassan ibn Ali agreed to a peace treaty with Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad caliph, he left Kufa and went to Medina with his brother Imam Hussein.[15]

According to Shia belief, he lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside past disputes and move out of the way the Household of Muhammad and the lovers of Imam Ali and his sons and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family.[16]

Muawiyah I ordered for public curses of 'Ali and his major supporters including Imam Husayn and his brother.[9]

According to Shia belief Imam Husayn became the third Imam for a period of ten years after death of his brother Imam Hassan in 669. All of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah.[16]

[edit] Yazid caliphate

Muawiyah designated his son, Yazid I, as his successor before his death in 680CE.[17]

[edit] The significance of Husayn's allegiance

When Yazid I became caliph he forced Husayn ibn Ali and Abd Allah ibn Zubayr to pledge alliance with him, but they refused and migrated from Madina to Mecca in that year.[18][19]

[edit] Uprising

Husayn left Medina with his sisters, daughters, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan. He traveled the main road to Mecca, refusing to avoid being pursued by taking a side road. In Mecca Husayn stayed in the house of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and remained there for four months.[9]

Husayn rose against Yazid I and declared Umayyad rule was not only oppressive but also religiously misguided. In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the reestablishment of right guidance.[18]

When Husayn was in Mecca open revolt began in Kufa, due to the fact that succession of Yazid I was the first attempt to establish a hereditary dynasty. Religious attitude against Umayyad and Iraqi tendencies to recapture power inspired people alongside with those who believe that leadership of the Muslim community rightly belonged to the descendants of Ali to rose and invite Husayn to Kufa to establish his caliphate.[17] They urged Husayn to join them, since they had no imam. They informed him that they did not attend the Friday prayer with governor of Kufa, No'man ibn Bashir and would drive him out of the town as soon as Husayn agreed to come to them. They sent him in short order seven messages with bags of letters of support by Kufan warriors and tribal leaders. Husayn wrote the Kufans that he understood from their letters that they had no imam and they wished him to come to unite them by right guidance. He informed them that he was sending his cousin Moslem ibn Aqil to report to him on the situation. If he found them united as their letters indicated he would speedily join them, for it was the duty of the imam to act in accordance with the Quran, to uphold justice, to proclaim the truth, and to dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of Moslem was initially successful. The Kufan Shias visited him freely, and 18,000 men are said to have enlisted with him in support of Husayn. He wrote to Husayn, encouraging him to come swiftly to Kufa.[9]

Husayn was also visited by a Shia supporter with two of his sons from Basra, where Shia sentiment was otherwise limited. He then sent identical letters to the chiefs of the five divisions into which the Basran tribes were divided for administrative purposes. He wrote them that Muhammad's family were his legatees and heirs of his position. People had illegitimately claimed the right which belonged exclusively to Muhammad's family. The family had consented to their action for the sake of the unity of the Ummah. Those who had seized the right of Muhammad's family had set many things straight and had sought the truth. The contents of the letter closely reflected the guideline set by Ali, who had strongly upheld the sole right of the family of Muhammad to leadership of the Muslim community but had also praised the conduct of the first caliphs Abu Bakr and Omar. While most of the recipients of the letter kept it secret, one of them suspected that it was a ploy of the governor Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziad to test their loyalty and turned it over to him. Ubayd-Allah seized and beheaded Husayn’s messenger and addressed a stern warning to the people of Basra.[9]

In Kufa the situation changed radically when Yazid replaced Noman ibn Bashir by Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziad, ordering the latter to deal severely with Moslem ibn Aqil. Ubayd-Allah succeeded in intimidating the tribal chiefs. A revolt collapsed when the rebels failed to capture the governor’s palace. Moslem was found and delivered to Ubayd-Allah, who had him beheaded on the top of the palace and his body thrown down to the crowd. Yazid wrote to Ubayd-Allah, commending him highly for his decisive action and ordering him to set up watches for Husayn and his supporters and to arrest them but to kill only those who would fight him.[9]

On the other hand Yazid perceived Husayn's refusal to pledge allegiance as a danger to his throne. He plotted to kill the grandson of Muhammad during the Hajj, in the precincts of the Holy Kaaba, thus defiling and desecrating it (killing a person in Mecca is prohibited in Islam). In order to avoid this sacrilege, Husayn took along his wives, children, a few friends and relatives and headed towards Kufa to fulfill the responsibility of the bearer of Imamate and to fulfill his destiny as was prophesied by his grandfather, Muhammad.

On his way, he was offered military support by the tribe of Banu Tayy as well as sanctuary in their hills from where he could (if he wanted to) safely lead a revolt and overthrow Yazid. But Husayn refused the offer and continued his journey with his few companions.[citation needed]

The Imām Husayn Mosque in Karbala, IraqMain article: Battle of Karbala

See also: Maqtal Al-Husayn.

Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, led by al-Hurr al-Riyahi (a top commander in the Umayyad army who later changed sides).

At the Battle of Karbala it is recorded that seventy two people were killed.[20] On his way toward Kufa, Husayn encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, which was led by Hurr. When he clashed with them he said[21]:

"... Don't you see that the truth is not put into action and the false is not prohibited? The believer should desire to meet his Lord while he is right. Thus I do not see death but as happiness, and living with tyrants but as sorrow."

On 10 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of his followers and family members, who were between 72 or more, people of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of Muhammad).[22][23], fought with a large army of perhaps 30,000 men under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, son of the founder of Kufah. Husayn and all of his men were killed and beheaded. The bodies were left for three days without burial and survivors from Husain's family were taken as prisoners to al-Sham (Syria and Lebanon today) to Yazid.[19]

Part of his speech on Ashura[citation needed]:

"Behold; the illegitimate, son of the illegitimate [by birth], has settled between two, between unsheathing [the sword] and humiliation, and how impossible is humiliation from us! Allah refuses that for us, and his messenger, and the believers, and laps chastified and purified, and zealous noses [expression: heads that do not bow in humility], and repudiating souls [who repudiate/refuse oppression], that we desire obedience to the mean ones, than the killings of the honourable [martyrdom]. Behold that I move slowly with this family, despite the little number and deserting of helpers."

Today, the death of Hussein ibn Ali is commemorated during every Muharram by Shiite Muslims, with the most important of these days being its tenth day, Ashura. Ashura is also commemorated by Sunni Muslims, but not like Shia.

[edit] Burial

Husayn's body is buried in Karbala, near the site of his death. His head is said to have been returned from Damascus and interred with his body.[24]

Husayn's grave became the most visited place of Ziarat for Shias. The Imam Husayn Shrine was later built over his grave. In 850 Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakil, destroyed his shrine in order to stop Shia pilgrimages. However, pilgrimages continued.[25] It is now a holy site of pilgrimage for Shia Muslims.

[edit] Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali

Main articles: Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali and day of Ashura

See also: Mourning of Muharram, Arba'een, and Husaynia

[edit] Shī‘ah

Day of Ashura is commemorated by the Shi‘a as a day of mourning for the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala. In some countries and regions such as Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Bahrain, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and all ethnic and religious communities participate in it.

It is especially mourn on the first ten days of Muharram, first month of the Islamic calendar, and ends by the 10th day. Although, the mourning continues through the whole month and well into Safar till eighth rabi-ul-awal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.

[edit] Sunnī

Sunni Muslims fast on this day of Ashura based on narrations attributed to Muhammad. The fasting is to commemorate the day when Moses and his followers were saved from Pharaoh by Allah by creating a path in the Red Sea. The Jews used to fast on the 10th day. So Muhammad recommended to be different from the Jews and recommended fasting two days instead of one. 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th day of Muharram.

[edit] Hindu

In India, Mohyal Brahmins also called Hussaini Brahmins (Brahmins are the highest caste in Hindu society) proudly claim that though being non-Muslim, a small number of them fought in the Battle of Karbala on the side of Husayn.[26] Some Mohyal Brahmins migrated eastward and became as some sub-divisions of Bhumihar Brahmins, some of whom are also descendants of Hussaini Brahmins and mourn the death of Husayn.[27] The Bhumihar Brahmins, of whom many, though not all, belong to the Saryupareen Brahmin division of Kanyakubja Brahmins.[28]

[edit] Shia views of Husayn

Shias regard Hussein as an Imam (Spiritual leader) and a martyr. He is believed to be the third imam. He set out on his path in order to save Islam and the Ummah from annihilation at the hands of Yazid. According to Sunni belief he was a willing sacrifice to religious necessity, and Sunni view Hussein as an exemplar of courage and resistance against tyranny. Ashura, a day of mourning and self-reflection, is held in honor of his suffering.

The saying, "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala," is a reminder to live one's life as Husayn did on Ashura, with total sacrifice to Allah and for others. This saying also signifies "We must always remember, because there is suffering everywhere".

[edit] Sayings of Muhammad about Hussein ibn Ali in Sunni books

"Al-Hasan and al-Hussein are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise and Fatimah is the chief of their women."[29]

Muhammad said, " Hussein is from me and I am from him."[30]

Muhammad looked toward Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Hussein, and then said, "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you."

--------------------

Hasan Bin Ali Bin Abi Thalib

Sayyidina Hasan lahir di Madinah sembilas belas hari sebelum peristiwa perang Badar. Beliau adalah cucu dan buah hati Rasulullah. Rasulullah mengakikahkan Hasan pada hari ketujuh dari kelahirannya. Sayyidina Hasan , sangat mirip sekali dengan Rasulullah, yaitu dari mulai pusarnya sampai kepalanya. Sedangkan Sayyidina Husien mirip beliau mulai dari pusar ke bawah. Beliau hidup pada masa Rasulullah selama 8 tahun dan bersama ayahnya selama 29 tahun dan dibaiat menjadi khalifah pada tahun 41 Hijriyah ketika umur beliau 37 tahun. Beliau wafat pada tahun 49 Hijriyah dan dimakamkan di Baqi. Menurut al-Amiri, beliau dikaruniai sebelas anak laki-laki: Abdullah, Qasim, Hasan Mutsanna, Zaid, Umar, Abdullah, Abdurahman, Ahmad, Ismail, Husin dan Aqil, dan seorang anak perempuan bernama Ummu Hasan. Sedangkan yang meneruskan keturunan Imam Hasan adalah: Zaid dan Hasan Mutsanna.

-------------------- 2nd Imaam

  • Date of Ascension:
  • Period of Imamate:
  • Wilaadat: 5th Shaabaan 4 AH (12th January 626 AD)
  • Wafaat: 10th Muharram 60 AH "Yaum-ul-Juma'a" (12th October 680 AD)

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_ibn_Ali

-------------------- Azadari for Imam Hussain as is not a shia thing , his sacrifce and martyrdom was for everyone all humans !

 

May the rotten apples in our society be guided so we can strive for unity and pave our path and clear all differences and ignorance (ameen)

Allahumma Salle 'ala Syedina Muhammadin wa 'ala Aalihi Syedina Muhammadin Wa Barik Wa Sallim

The Messenger of Allah said: "Al-Hasan and al-Husain are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise and Fatimah is the chief of their women."

Sunni references: (1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p660, on the authority of Abu Sa'id and Hudhayfa (2) Sunan Ibn Majah, Introduction 8 (3) al-Tabarani, on the authorities of: Umar, Ali, Jabir, Abu Hurayrah, Usamah Ibn Zaid, al-Baraa, Ibn 'Adi, and Ibn Masud. (4) al-Kubra, by al-Nisa'i (5) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 62,82, v3, pp 3,64, v5, p391 (6) Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p771, Tradition #1360 (7) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 166,167 (8) Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v5, p71 (9) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p187 (10) Tuhfatul Ashraf, by Lumzi, v3, p31 (11) Ibn Habban, as mentioned in al-Mawarid, pp 551,553 (12) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p290 (13) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6154

Also it is narrated that:

The Messenger of Allah said: "Husain is from me and I am from Husain."

Sunni references: (1) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p172 (2) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p772, Tradition #1361 (3) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p 177 (4) Amali, by Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani, p 64 (5) al-Kuna wal Asmaa, by al-Dulabi, v1, p88 (6) al-Tabarani, v3, p21 (7) Adab by al-Bukhari, also al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, as quoted in: (8) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p291 (9) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6160

The last part of the above tradition probably means that Imam Husain (AS), by sacrificing himself and his family, preserved the religion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) from full annihilation.

Abu Huraira narrated:

The Prophet (PBUH) looked toward Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Fatimah (AS), and then said: "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you."

Sunni references: (1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699 (2) Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52 (3) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p767, Tradition #1350 (4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p149 (5) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p169 (6) al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, p30, also in al-Awsat (7) Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Ibani, v2, p17 (8) Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v7, p137 (9) Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p144 (10) Talkhis, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p149 (11) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p25 (12) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6145

Also: The Messenger of Allah said: "He who loves al-Hasan and al-Husain, has loved me, and he who makes them angry has made me angry."

Sunni reference: - Sunan Ibn Majah, - al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, from Abu Hurairah - Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, as quited in: - al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p292

It is narrated in two wordings that:

The Messenger of Allah said: "I named Hasan and Husain and Muhsin the names of the sons of Aaron (Haroon) who were: Shubbar, Shubair, and Mushbir."

Sunni references: (1) Sunan Abu Dawud al-Tilyasi, v1, p232 (without mentioning Muhsin) (2) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p774, Tradition #1365 (3) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 165,168 (4) Kashf al-Astar, by al-Bazzar, v2, p416 (5) Ibn Habban, as quoted in al-Mawarid, p551 (6) al-Tabarani, v3, p100 (7) Idhaah, Abdul Ghani, from Salman al-Farsi (8) al-Mu'jam, by al-Baghawi, as quoted in: (9) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p292

Usamah ibn Zayd narrated:

I went to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) one night about something I required and he came out with something (I did not know what) under his cloak. When I had finished telling him my business I asked him what he had under his cloak, and when he opened it I saw al-Hasan and al-Husain on his hips. He then said, "These are my sons and my daughter's sons. O Allah, I love them, so I beseech Thee to love them and those who love them.

Sunni References: - Sahih Tirmidhi, per: - Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6156

Anas ibn Malik Narrated: When Allah's Messenger (PBUH&HF) was asked which member of his family was the dearest to him, he replied, "Al-Hasan and al-Husain." He used to say to Fatimah, "Call my two sons to me," and then would sniff and cuddle them.

Sunni References: - Sahih Tirmidhi, per: - Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6158

Imam Husain (AS) said: "Don't you see that the truth is not followed and the falsehood is not discouraged? (The situation is so severe) so that a Believer wishes to meet Allah (i.e., to die). And today I don't see death but prosperity, and living with tyrants is nothing but disgust and disgrace."

Sunni Reference: Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v2, p39

Imam Husain (AS) said in the day of Ashura: "If you do not have any religion, then at least be noble and broad-minded in your present life."

Source: http://www.shiarightpath.com

In the month of Muharram 61 AH (approx. 20 October 680 AD), an event took place in Iraq at a place known as Kerbala on the bank of the river Euphrates. It seemed in those days insignificant from the historical point of view. A large army which had been mobilised by the Umayyad regime besieged a group of persons numbering less than a hundred and put them under pressure to pay allegiance to the Caliph of the time and submit to his authority. The small group resisted and a severe battle took place in which they were all killed.


It appeared at that time that like hundreds of similar events, this battle would be recorded in history and forgotten in time. However, the events that occurred on the 10th day of Muharram in Kerbala were to become a beacon and an inspiration for future generations. In this article, we shall examine briefly the principal adversaries.

Who is Hussain?

The leader of the small band of men who were martyred in Kerbala was none other than Husain (A), son of Ali bin Abi Talib (A) and grandson of the Holy Prophet (S). Who was Husain? He was the son of Fatima (A) for whom the Holy Prophet (S) said, "Husain is from me and I am from Husain. May God love whoever loves Husain." [1]

With the passing away of his brother Hasan(A) in 50 AH, Husain (A) became the leader of the household of the Holy Prophet (S). He respected the agreement of peace signed by Hasan (A) and Muawiya, and, despite the urging of his followers, he did not undertake any activity that threatened the political status quo. Rather he continued with the responsibility of looking after the religious needs of the people and was recognised for his knowledge, piety and generosity. An example of the depth of his perception can be seen in his beautiful du'a on the day of Arafat, wherein he begins by explaining the qualities of Allah, saying:

" (Oh Allah) How could an argument be given about Your Existence by a being whose total and complete existence is in need of you? When did you ever disappear so that you might need an evidence and logic to lead (the people) towards You? And when did You ever become away and distant so that your signs and effects made the people get in touch with you? Blind be the eye which does not see You (whereas) You are observing him. What did the one who missed You find? And what does the one who finds You lack? Certainly, the one who got pleased and inclined toward other than You, came to nothingness (failed)."

On the other hand, we have Yazid, whose father (Muawiya) and grandfather (Abu Sufyan - the arch-enemy of the Prophet) had always tried to sabotage the mission of the Holy Prophet, and who showed his true colour by stating in a poem, "Bani Hashim had staged a play to obtain kingdom, there was neither any news from God nor any revelation." [2]

Mas'udi writes that Yazid was a pleasure-seeking person, given to wine drinking and playing with pets. It is no wonder that Husain's response to Yazid's governor, when asked to pay allegiance to Yazid was, "We are the household of the prophethood, the source of messengership, the descending-place of the angels, through us Allah had began (showering His favours) and with us He has perfected (His favours), whereas Yazid is a sinful person, a drunkard, the killer of innocent people and one who openly indulges in sinful acts. A person like me can never pledge allegiance to a person like him ..." [3]

The revolution of Husain (A) was an Islamic movement spearheaded by one of the great leaders of Islam. The principles and laws of Islam demanded that Husain (A) act to warn the Ummah of the evil situation which it was in, and to stand in the way of the deviating ruler. As Husain (A) himself remarked when he left Madina for the last time, "I am not rising (against Yazid) as an insolent or an arrogant person, or a mischief-monger or tyrant. I have risen (against Yazid) as I seek to reform the Ummah of my grandfather. I wish to bid the good and forbid the evil." [4]

Hussain (A) was killed on the battlefield as he did Sajdah. His head was removed from his body on the plains of Kerbala, mounted on a spear, and paraded through villages and towns as it was taken to Damascus and presented at the feet of Yazid.

Why remember Ashura?

Why is Husain (A) regarded as the "leader of the martyrs" ? It is because he was not just the victim of an ambitious ruler. There is no doubt that the tragedy of Kerbala, when ascribed to the killers, is a criminal and terrible act. However when ascribed to Husain (A) himself, it represents a conscious confrontation and a courageous resistance for a sacred cause. The whole nation had failed to stand up to Yazid. They had succumbed to his will, and deviation and regression towards the pre-Islamic ways were increasing.

Passiveness by Husain (A) in this situation would have meant the end of Islam as we know it. Thus Husain (A) took upon himself the responsibility of the whole nation. The greatest tragedy was that one who stood up for the noblest of causes, the defence of Islam, was cut down in so cruel a manner.

It is for this reason that the sacrifice of Husain (A) is commemorated annually throughout the Muslim world. Our sorrow never abates as we relive the tragedy. As Allama Iqbal says in his Baqiyat (in Urdu):

Ronay wala hoon Shaheed-e-Kerbala key gham men main, Kya durey maqsad na dengey Saqiye Kausar mujhey

I am one who weeps at the plight of the Martyr of Kerbala Won't the reward be given to me by the Keeper of Kauser (Imam Ali (A))

The commemoration of Ashura on the 10th of Muharram every year serves to remind us of the sacrifices of the family of the Prophet (S). It also makes us aware of the people, then and now, who tried to destroy Islam and the family of the Prophet (S) and all that they stood for - as well as those who watched, listened and did nothing.

References:


[1] Ibn Majah: Sunan, Hadith 144. [2] Ibn Jarir: Tarikhu'l Umam wa'l Muluk, vol.13, p.2174. [3] Sayyid ibn Ta'us: Maqtalu'l Husain, pp.10-11 [4] Al-Khatid al-Khuwarazmi: Maqtalu'l Husain ,vol.1, p.88.

Source: http://www.ansarkarbala.com

Taken from Kitab-al Irshad by Shaykh Al-Mufid Imam Hussain (as) sets out on his Journey

Al Husyan, the blessings of God be on him, set out from Mecca to Iraq on the day of Muslim's (attempted) rising in Kufa, that is the day of Tarwiya, after staying in Mecca for the rest of Shaban, the month of Rmadhan, Shawwal and Dhu al Qada and eight days of Dhu- al-Hijja in the year 60 A.H. (680). During his stay in Mecca, peace be on him, a number of Hijazis and Basrans had gathered around him, joining themselves to his household and his retainers (mawali).


When he determined on journeying to Iraq, he made the circumbulation of the (sacred) House and the ritual running between al-Safa and al-Marwa. Then he left the state of consecration (for the pilgrimage) (after) he had performed the lesser pilgrimage (umra) because he was not able to perform the greater pilgrimage (hajj). Through fear of being apprehended in Mecca, and being taken to Yazid b. Muiawiya, he, peace be on him, had set out early with his House, his sons and those of his Shia who had joined him.

[As it has been reported to us:]

News of Muslim's (capture and death) had not yet reached him because (it had only happened) on the day he set out.

[It is reported that al-Farazdaq, the poet, said:]

I made the pilgrimage with my mother in the year 60 A.H. (680). I was driving her camel when I entered the sanctuary. (There) I met al- Husayn b. Ali, peace be on them, leaving Mecca accompanied by (some men carrying) swords and shields.

"Whose caravan is this?" I asked.

"Al-Husayn b. Ali's, peace be on them," was the reply. So I went up and greeted him.

"May God grant you your request and (fulfil) your hope in what you want, by my father and mother, son of the Apostle of God," I said to him. "But what is making you hurry away from the pilgrimage?"

"If I did not hurry away, I would be apprehended," he replied. Then he asked me: "Who are you?"

"An Arab," I answered and he did not question me (about myself) any further.

"Tell me about the people you have left behind you," he asked.

"You have asked a good (question)," I answered. "The hearts of the people are with you but their swords are against you. The decision comes from Heaven and God does what he wishes."

"You have spoken truly of the affair belonging to God," he replied.

"Every day He (is involved) in (every) matter" (LV, 29) If fate sends down what we like and are pleased with, we praise God for His blessings. He is the One from Whom help should be sought in order to give thanks to Him. However, although fate may frustrate (our) hopes, yet He does not destroy (the souls of) those whose intention is the truth and whose hearts are pious."

"True, God brings you what you wish for (ultimately) and guards you against what you are threatened by," I said. Then I asked him about matters concerning vows and pilgrimage rites. He told me about them and then moved his mount off, saying farewell, and so we parted.

When al-Husayn b. Ali, peace be on them, left Mecca, Yahya b. Said b. al-'As met him with a group (of men). They had been sent to him by 'Amr b. Said.

"Come back from where you are going," they ordered. But he refused (to obey) them and continued. The two groups came to blows and hit at each other with whips. However al-Husayn and his followers resisted fiercely. Al-Husayn continued until he got to al- Tanim. There he met a camel-train which had come from Yemen. He hired from its people (additional) camels for himself and his followers to ride.

Then he said to the owners (of the camels): "Whoever (of you) wants to come with us to Iraq, we will pay his hire and enjoy his company and whoever wants to leave some way along the road we will pay his hire for the distance he has travelled."

Some of the people went with him but others refused. Abd Allah b. Jafar sent his sons, Awn and Muhammad, after him, and he wrote a letter to him which he gave to them. In it, he said:

I ask you before God (to return) if you have set out when you
see my letter. For I am very concerned because the direction in
which you are heading will have within it your destruction, and
the extirpation of your House. If you are destroyed today, the
light of the land will be extinguished; for you are the (standard)
of those who are rightly-guided and the hope of the believers.
Do not hurry on your journey as I am following this letter.

Greetings.

Abd Allah, then went to 'Amr b. Sad and asked him to write to al-Husayn (offering him) a guarantee of security, and (promising) to favour him, so that he would return from where he was going. Amr b. Said wrote a letter in which he offered him favour and a guarantee of security for himself. He dispatched it with his brother Yahya b. Said. Yahya b. Said went after him (as did) Abd Allah after dispatching his sons. The two handed ('Amr's) letter to him and strove (to persuade) him to return.

"I have seen the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in my sleep," answered (al-Husayn), "and he ordered me (to do) what I am carrying out."

"What was that vision?" they both asked.

"I have not told anyone of it," he answered, "and I am not going to tell anyone until I meet my Lord, the Mighty and Exalted."

When 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far despaired of (persuading) him, he told his sons, Awn and Muhammad, to stay with him, to go with him and to struggle on behalf of him. He returned with Yahya b. Sa'id to Mecca.

Al Husayn, peace be on him, pressed on swiftly and directly towards Iraq until he reached Dhat' Irq.

When Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad had learnt of the journey of al- Husayn, peace be on him, from Mecca to Kufa, he had sent al- Husayn b. Numayr, the commander of the bodyguard (shurta), to station himself at al-Qadisiyya and to set up a (protective) link of cavalry between the area of al-Qadisiyya to Khaffan and the area of al-Qadisiyya to al-Qutqutaniyya. He informed the men that al- Husayn was heading for Iraq.

When al-Husayn, peace be on him, reached al-Hajiz (a hill above) Batn al-Rumma, he sent Qays b. Mushir al Saydawi - some say it was his brother-in-nurture, Abd Allah b. Yuqtur to Kufa. For he, peace be upon him, had not yet learnt the news of (the fate of) Ibn 'Aqil. He sent a letter with him:

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate
From al-Husayn b. Ali
To his brother believers and Muslims,

Greetings to you, I praise God before you, other than Whom

there is no deity. Muslim b. Aqil's letter came to me, informing
me of your sound judgement and the agreement of your leaders
to support us, and to seek our rights. I have asked God to make
your actions good and reward you with the greatest reward. I
set out to you from Mecca on 8th of Dhu al-Hijja, the Day of
Tarwiya. When my messenger reaches you, be urgent and
purposeful in your affiars, for I am coming to you within the
(next few) days.

Greeting and the mercy and blessings of God.

Muslim had written to al-Husayn seventeen days before he was killed and the Kufans had written to him: "Here you have a hundred thousand swords. Do not delay."

Qays b. Mushir went towards Kufa with the letter. However, when he reached al-Qadisiyya, al-Husayn b. Numayr apprehended him and sent him to Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.

"Go up on the pulpit," Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered him, "and curse the liar, al-Husayn b. Ali, peace be on him"

Qays went up on the pulpit and praised and glorified God. Then he said:


People, this man, al-Husayn b. 'Ali the best of God's

creatures, the son of Fatima, the daughter of the Apostle, 

may God bless him and his family and grant them peace, (is nearby). I am his messenger to you. Answer him.

Then he cursed Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad and his father and prayed for forgiveness for Ali b. Abi Talib and blessed him. 'Ubayd Allah ordered him to be thrown from the top of the palace. They threw him and he was smashed to pieces.

Taken from Kitab-al Irshad by Shaykh Al-Mufid The Continuation of the Journey

(While this had been going on) al-Husayn, peace be on him, had left Hajiz in the direction of Kufa until he came to one of the watering (places) of the Arabs. There there was 'Abd Allah b. Muti al-'Adawli, who was staying there. When he saw al-Husayn, peace be on him, he got up and said to him: "(May I ransom) my father and mother for you, son of the Apostle of God, what has brought you (here)?" He brought him (forward) and helped him to dismount.


"It is a result of the death of Muawiya as you would know," replied al Husayn, peace be on him. "The Iraqis have written to me urging me to (come to) them"

"I remind you, son of the Apostle of God, (of God) and the sacredness of Islam, lest it be violated. I adjure you before God (to think) about the sacredness of Quraysh. I adjure you before God (to think) about the sacredness of the Arabs. By God, if you seek that which is in the hands of Banu Umayya, they will kill you. If they kill you, they will never fear anyone after you. Then it will be the sacredness of Islam which is violated, and the sacredness of Quraysh and the sacredness of the Arabs. Don't do it! Don't go to Kufa! Don't expose yourself to Banu Umayya!"

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, insisted on continuing his journey. (In the meantime) 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad had ordered (the area) which was between Waqisa and the roads to Syria and Basra to be occupied (so that) they should not let anyone enter, nor anyone leave (Kufa).

However, al-Husayn, peace be on him, went on without knowing anything (of that) until he met some Arabs. He asked them (about the situation) and they told him: "No, by God, we don't know (anything about it) except that we cannot get into or out of (Kufa)."

He continued on his journey.

[A group of Fazara and Bajila reported (the following account). They said:]

We were with Zuhayr b. al-Qayn al-Bajah when we came from Mecca. (Although) we were travelling alongside al Husayn, peace be on him, there was nothing more hateful to us than that we should stop with him at a halting place. (Yet) when al-Husayn, peace be on him, travelled and halted, we could not avoid halting with him. Al-Husayn halted at the side (of the road) and we halted at the (other) side (of the road). While we were sitting, eating our food, a messenger of al- Husayn, peace be on him, approached, greeted us and entered (our camp).

"Zuhayr b. al-Qayn," he said, "Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn, peace be on him, has sent me to you (to ask) you to come to him."

Each man of us threw away what was in his hands (i.e. threw up his hands in horror); it was (as surprising) as if birds had alighted on our heads.

"Glory be to God," (Zuhayr's) wife said to him, "did the son of the Messenger of God send for you? Then aren't you going to him? If you went to him, you would hear what he had to say. Then you could leave him (if you wanted to)."

Zuhayr b. al-Qayn went (across) to him. It was not long before he returned to announce that he was heading east. He ordered his tent (to be struck) and (called for) his luggage, mounts and equipment. His tent was pulled down and taken to al-Husayn, peace be on him, then he said to his wife: "You are divorced, go back to your family, for I do not want anything to befall you except good."

Then he said to his companions:

Whoever wants to follow me (may do so), otherwise he is 

at the end of his covenant with me (i.e. released from obedience to follow Zuhayr as the leader of his tribal group). I will tell you a story (of something which happened to me once): we were raiding a rich land. God granted us victory and we won (a lot of) booty. Salman al-Farsl, the mercy of God be on him, said to us: 'Are you happy with the victory which God has granted you and the booty you have won?' We said: 'Yes.' Then he said: 'Therefore when you meet the lord of the young men of the family of Muhammad be happier to fight with them than you are with the booty which you have obtained today.' As for me. I pray that God may be with you."

He remained among the people with al-Husayn until he was killed.

[Abd Allah b. Sulayman and al-Mundhir b. Mushamill both from Asad, reported:]

When we had finished the pilgrimage, there was no concern more important to us than to join al-Husayn, peace be on him, on the road, so that we might see what happened in his affair. We went along trotting our two camels speedily until we joined him at Zarud. As we approached, there we (saw) a man from Kufa who had changed his route when he had seen al-Husayn, peace be on him. Al-Husayn, peace be on him, had stopped as if he wanted (to speak to) him, but (the man) ignored him and went on. We went on towards the man. One of us said to the other: "Come with us to ask this man if he has news of Kufa."

We came up to him and greeted him. He returned out greeting.

"From which (tribe) do you come, fellow?" we asked.

"(I am) an Asadi," he answered.

"We also are Asadis," we said. "Who are you?"

"I am Bakr b. so and so," he answered and we told him our lineage.

"Tell us of the people (you have left) behind you?" we asked.

"Yes," he replied, "I only left Kufa after Muslim b. 'Aqil and Hani' b. 'Urwa had been killed. I saw them being dragged by their legs into the market-place."

We went on to join al-Husayn, peace be on him, and we were travelling close to him until he stopped at al-Thalabiyya in the evening. We caught up with him when he stopped and we greeted him. He returned our greeting.

"May God have mercy on you," we said, "we have news. If you wish, we will tell it to you publicly or if you wish, secretly."

He looked at us and at his followers.

"There is no veil for these men," he answered.

"Did you see the rider whom you were near, yesterday evening?"

"Yes," he answered, "I had wanted to question him."

"We have got the news from him and spared you (the trouble of) questioning him," we said. "He was a man from our (tribe), of sound judgment, honesty and intelligence. He told us that he had only left Kufa after Muslim and Hani' had been killed, and he had seen them being dragged by their legs into the market-place."

"We belong to God and to Him we shall return; may God have mercy on them both," said al-Husayn, and he repeated that several times.

"We adjure you before God," we exhorted him, "for your own life and for your House that you do not go from this place, for you have no one to support you in Kufa and no Shia. Indeed we fear that such men (will be the very ones who) will be against you."

"What is your opinion," he asked, looking towards the sons of 'Aqil, "now that Muslim has been killed?"

"By God," they declared, "we will not go back until we have taken our vengeance or have tasted (the death) which he tasted."

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, came near us and said: "There is nothing good (left) in life for these men."

Then we knew that his decision had been taken to continue the journey.

"May God be good to you," we said.

"May God have mercy on you both," he answered.

Then his followers said to him: "By God, you are not the same as Muslim b. Aqil. If you go to Kufa, the people will rush to (support) you."

He was silent and waited until daybreak. Then he ordered his boys and servants to get a lot of water, to give (the people) to drink and more for the journey. They set out (once more) and went on to Zubala. News of eAbd Allah b. Yuqtur reached him. He took out a written statement to the people and read it to them:

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate,
News of the dreadful murder of Muslim b. Aqil Hani' b.
Urwa, and Abd Allah b. Yuqtur has reached us. Our Shia
have deserted us . Those of you who would prefer to leave 

us, may leave freely without guilt.

The people began to disperse from him to right and left until there were only left with him those followers who had come with him from Medina, and a small group of those who had joined him. Al-Husayn had done that because he realised that the Arabs who had followed him had only followed him because they thought that he was going to a land where the inhabitants' obedience to him had already been established. And he did not want them to accompany him without being (fully) aware of what they were going to.

At dawn, he ordered his followers to provide themselves with water and with extra (supplies of it). Then they set out until they passed Batn al Aqaba. He stopped there and was met by a shaykh of the Banu Ikrima called Amr b. Lawdhan.

"Where are you headings." he asked.

"Kufa," replied al-Husayn, peace be on him.

"I implore you before God," exhorted the shaykh, "why are you going there? You won't come to anything there except the points of spears and the edges of swords. If those who sent for you were enough to support you in battle and had prepared the ground for you, and you came to them, that would be a wise decision. However, in the light of the situation as it has been described I don't think that you ought to do it."====

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Hussein ibn Ali's Timeline

626
January 8, 626
Medina, Arabia
656
November 11, 656
Age 30
Medina, Saudi Arabia
662
December 1, 662
Age 36
Medina, Saudi Arabia
669
669
Age 42
Medina, Saudi Arabia
672
672
Age 45
Medina, Saudi Arabia
676
June 10, 676
Age 50
Medina, Saudi Arabia
676
Age 49
680
April 680
Age 54
Medina, Saudi Arabia
October 10, 680
Age 54
Karbala, Iraq
October 12, 680
Age 54
Karbala, Iraq