Hywel Dda ap Cadell, King of the Britons (c.880 - 950) MP

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Nicknames: "Head and Glory of all the Britons", "The Good", "King of all Wales"
Birthplace: Dynevor Castle,Llandyfeisant,Carmarthenshire,Wales
Death: Died in Dynevor Castle, Llandilo, Carmarthshire, Wales
Occupation: King of Deuheubarth, Lord of Whitland, King of Wales, King of South Wales
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Hywel Dda ap Cadell, King of the Britons

Hywell Dda(the Black) http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/13968

(-[948/50]) Son of Cadell & Unknown mother

Married ([904]) ELEN of Dyfed, daughter and heiress of LLYWARCH ap Hyfaidd King of Dyfed & his wife --- (-[943]). ===


The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son Hywel was made king of Ceredigion" in 900 after the death of "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great"[100]. He succeeded his father in 909 as King of Deheubarth. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd son of Rhodri the Great, king of the Britons" died in 913 and then "Hywel son of Cadell ruled over all Wales"[101]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "king Howel the Good, son of Cadell, went to Rome" in 926[102]. King of Gwynedd. Athelstan King of Wessex agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them. Hywel visited Athelstan King of Wessex many times between 931 and 937, and was influenced by English life and methods of government[103]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Eidwal the Bald, son of Anarawd being dead, Hywel took upon himself the government of all Wales" in 943[104]. The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 950 of "Higuel rex Brittonum"[105]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel the Good, son of king Cadell, chief and glory of all the Britons" died in 948[106]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel the Good, son of Cadell king of all Wales" died in 948[107]. m ([904]) ELEN of Dyfed, daughter and heiress of LLYWARCH ap Hyfaidd King of Dyfed & his wife --- (-[943]). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Elen wife of Hywel the Good" died in 943[108].

Hywel & his wife had four children:

i) DYVNWAL (-951). The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dyvenwal and Rhodri sons of Howel" died in 951[109].

ii) RHODRI (-[951/54]). King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers. The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 954 of "Rotri filius Higuel"[110]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dyvenwal and Rhodri sons of Howel" died in 951[111].

iii) EDWIN (-952). King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Edwin son of Howel the Good" died in 952[112].

iv) OWAIN ap Hywel (-[987/88]). The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son Owain took the rule of Ceredigion" after the death of "Hywel the Good, son of Cadell king of all Wales" in 948[113]. King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers.

Hywell ap Cadell(son of Cadell)


CADELL

(-[900/09]).  The Gwentian Chronicle records the division of territories effected by "Rhodri the Great" and that "Cadell his eldest son had Ceredigion and his palace at Dinevwr…[with] the supremacy to the oldest of the three diademed princes"[94].  King of Ceredigion.  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadell son of Rhodri subjugated his brother Mervyn and took Powys from him, and then ruled over all Wales" in 877[95].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd king of Gwynedd devastated Ceredigion, the territory of his brother Cadell" in 892[96].  King of Deheubarth.  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 909 of "Catell filius Rodri rex"[97].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 907 of "Cadell son of Rhodri"[98].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great" died in 900[99].  m ---.  The name of Cadell´s wife is not known.  Cadell & his wife had three children

-------------------- Hywel Dda is also notable as possibly the only early medieval Welsh ruler to have issued coinage. However, the single example, bearing the legend ‘Howæl Rex’, may have had more a ceremonial than a monetary function. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hywel_Dda Hywel Dda From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hywel Dda (c. 880?–950), (English Hywel the Good, sometimes anglicized to Howell the Good) was originally king of Deheubarth in south-west Wales but eventually came to rule most of Wales. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty.

He is remembered as one of the most successful native Welsh rulers prior to the Norman Conquest, and was known as King of the Britons. His name is particularly linked with the development of the Welsh laws, often called the Laws of Hywel.

Biography

Hywel was born in around 880, the younger son of Cadell ap Rhodri, himself the son of Rhodri the Great. In 905, Cadell, having conquered Dyfed, gave it to his son to rule on his behalf. Hywel was able to consolidate his position by marrying Elen, whose father Llywarch ap Hyfaidd had ruled Dyfed until his death. Following his father's death in 909, he acquired a share of Seisyllwg, and on his brother's death in 920, he merged Dyfed and Seisyllwg, creating for himself a new kingdom, which became known as Deheubarth. Following the death of his cousin Idwal Foel in 942, he also seized the principality of Gwynedd, becoming ruler of about three-quarters of present-day Wales.

Accomplishments

Peace with England

Hywel's reign, uncharacteristically for the time, was a peaceful one, and he achieved an understanding with Athelstan of England. Such was the relationship between the neighbouring countries that Hywel was able to mint his own coinage in the English city of Chester. He was the only Welsh ruler ever to produce coinage. His study of the English legal system and his visit to Rome in 928 (on a pilgrimage) combined to enable him to formulate advanced ideas about government. (He would possibly have a chance to meet either of the Popes John X, Leo VI and Stephen VII who were active during that year).

Opinions vary as to the motives for Hywel's close association with the court of Athelstan. J.E. Lloyd saw him as an enthusiastic anglophile and admirer of the kings of Wessex,[1] while D.P. Kirby suggests that it may rather be the action of a pragmatist who recognized the realities of power in mid-10th century Britain.[2] It is notable that he gave one of his sons an Anglo-Saxon name, Edwin. His policies with regard to England were evidently not to the taste of all his subjects. A Welsh language poem entitled Armes Prydein, considered by Sir Ifor Williams to have been written in Deheubarth during Hywel's reign, called for the Welsh to join a confederation of all the non-English peoples of Britain and Ireland to fight the Saxons. The poem may well be linked to the alliance of Norse and Celtic kingdoms which challenged Athelstan at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. No Welsh forces joined this alliance, and this may well have been because of the influence of Hywel; on the other hand neither did he send troops to support Athelstan.

The law

The conference held at Whitland in about 945, was a kind of parliament in which Welsh law was codified and set down in writing for posterity, much of the work being done by the celebrated clerk, Blegywryd. Following Hywel's death, his kingdom was soon split into three. Gwynedd was reclaimed by the sons of Idwal Foel, while Deheubarth was divided between Hywel's sons. However, his legacy endured in the form of his enlightened laws, which remained in active use throughout Wales until the conquest and were not abolished by the English Parliament until the 16th century. A surviving copy of the Law (mss Peniarth 28) is held at The National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth and can be seen online.[1]

References

  1. ^ John Edward Lloyd (1911). A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest. Longmans, Green & Co. 
  2. ^ D.P. Kirby, Hywel Dda: Anglophile?, Welsh Historical Review, 8 (1976-7)

--------------------

Hywel took over the southern kingdom of Dyfed upon the death of his father-in-law (which he may have arranged) in 904. He shared lands in Ceredigon and Ystrad Tywi with his brothers after the death of their father. He united their inheritance in 920, creating the kingdom of Deheubarth, and accuired Gwynedd after the death of Idwal Foel in 942.

Hywel's greatest achievement was to create the first uniform legal system in Wales. They were called cyfraith Hywel (Hywel's laws) and it was later claimed that he took these laws to Rome on his pilgrimage in 928 and had them blessed by the Pope.

Upon Hywel's death some of his kingdom was broken away. Gwynedd and Powys returned to the line of Idwal ap Anarawd. Glamorgan continued to be subjects of its own kings. Deheubarth passed to Hywel's son, Owain.

--------------------

Name: Hywel 'Dda' Ap Cadell 1

Sex: M

Birth: ABT 887 in Deheubarth, Wales 1

Death: ABT 950 1

Note:

Prince of Deheubarth[JohnFaye (8 Jun 05).FTW]

Prince of Deheubarth

Father: Cadell Ap Rhodri Mawr King Of South Wales b: ABT 861 in Deheubarth, Wales

Mother: Rheingar Of Dehelibarth b: ABT 865 in Carmarthenshire, Wales

Marriage 1 Elen Verch Llywarch Of Dyfed b: ABT 893 in Dyfed, Wales

Children

Owain Ap Hywel Dda King Of South Wales b: ABT 913 in Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jcrow&id=I18419

  • ***********************************************

Individual Record FamilySearch™ Pedigree Resource ile

 

Howell * ap Cadell Compact Disc #137 Pin #951706 Pedigree Sex: M

Event(s)

Birth:   abt 0885   Tegaingle,Flint,Wales  
Death:   0950     

Parents

Father:  Cadell ap Rhodri Prince     Disc #137     Pin #951703   
Mother:  Angharad * ap Meric     Disc #137     Pin #951702  

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Marriage(s)

Spouse:  Elena * verch Llewelyn     Disc #137     Pin #951705  
Marriage:        

Spouse:  Elena * verch Llewelyn     Disc #137     Pin #958186  
Marriage:        

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Howel Dda ap Cadell Pedigree

 Male   Family 
   

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Event(s):

Birth:  About 0876   Of Dehenbarth-King, , , Wales 

Christening:  
Death:  0950    

Burial:  
   

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Parents:

 Father:  Cadell ap Roderick The Great  Family 
   

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Marriages:

Spouse:  Unavailable  Family 
 

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Messages:

Record submitted by a member of the LDS Church 

-------------------- Hywel took over the southern kingdom of Dyfed upon the death of his father-in-law (which he may have arranged) in 904. He shared lands in Ceredigon and Ystrad Tywi with his brothers after the death of their father. He united their inheritance in 920, creating the kingdom of Deheubarth, and accuired Gwynedd after the death of Idwal Foel in 942.

Hywel's greatest achievement was to create the first uniform legal system in Wales. They were called cyfraith Hywel (Hywel's laws) and it was later claimed that he took these laws to Rome on his pilgrimage in 928 and had them blessed by the Pope.

Upon Hywel's death some of his kingdom was broken away. Gwynedd and Powys returned to the line of Idwal ap Anarawd. Glamorgan continued to be subjects of its own kings. Deheubarth passed to Hywel's son, Owain. -------------------- Hywel took over the southern kingdom of Dyfed upon the death of his father-in-law (which he may have arranged) in 904. He shared lands in Ceredigon and Ystrad Tywi with his brothers after the death of their father. He united their inheritance in 920, creating the kingdom of Deheubarth, and accuired Gwynedd after the death of Idwal Foel in 942.

Hywel's greatest achievement was to create the first uniform legal system in Wales. They were called cyfraith Hywel (Hywel's laws) and it was later claimed that he took these laws to Rome on his pilgrimage in 928 and had them blessed by the Pope.

Upon Hywel's death some of his kingdom was broken away. Gwynedd and Powys returned to the line of Idwal ap Anarawd. Glamorgan continued to be subjects of its own kings. Deheubarth passed to Hywel's son, Owain. -------------------- King of all Wales [except Gwent & Glamorgan]. Reign: 916-950

Codified the laws of Wales

916-950 	 Reign

BIOGRAPHY: (Welsh), English Hywel The Good (d. AD 950), chieftain called in the prologues to the Welsh lawbooks "king of all Wales." This epithet was indeed appropriate for Howel, particularly during the last years of his reign. He became ruler of Seisyllwg (roughly the area of Dyfed and the Towy Valley) jointly with his brother Clydog after the death of their father, Cadell (c. 910), but after Clydog's death in 920 he ruled alone. Sovereignty over Dyfed in southwest Wales came to him through his wife, Elen, daughter of Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (d. 904), the last king of its dynasty; he acquired Gwynedd, in northwest Wales, and probably Powis, in northeast Wales, on the death of his cousin Idwal Foel ap Anarawd, in 942. Howel's reign was remarkable for its peacefulness, the result of his consistent policy of subservience to England. Howel's first recorded act is his homage to Edward the Elder in 918. Thereafter, he often attended the English court, and his name is found as a witness to 12 charters of Athelstan and Edred between 928 and 949. Howel was the only Welsh ruler to issue his own coins. He is remembered chiefly for the codification of Welsh law attributed to him. Although there is no contemporary record of this work, Howel was certainly responsible for a coordination of preexisting law. There are biographies by J.E. Lloyd (1928) and J.G. Edwards (1929). Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~summer/Owen.htm

-------------------- Hywel Dda, (English: Hywel the Good;, sometimes anglicized to Howell the Good) was a well-thought-of king of Deheubarth in south-west Wales, who, using his cunning, eventually came to rule Wales from Prestatyn to Pembroke. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty and is also named Hywel ap Cadell. He was recorded as King of the Britons in the Annales Cambriae and the Annals of Ulster.

He is remembered as one of the most responsible native Welsh rulers of all time. His name is particularly linked with the development of the Welsh laws, generally known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name ('Dda' or 'Good') refers to the fact that his laws were just and good. The historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and a sense of respect towards women.

Hywel Dda was certainly a well-educated man, even by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Welsh, Latin, and English.

In April 2008 a merger of Pembrokeshire & Derwen, Ceredigion and Mid Wales, and Carmarthenshire NHS Trusts was named the Hywel Dda NHS Trust in his honour. -------------------- Went on a Pilgrimage to Rome in 928

See also Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hywel_Dda

-------------------- Hywel Dda, also known as Hywel the Good (sometimes anglicized to Howell the Good), was a well-thought-of king of Deheubarth in southwest Wales, who, using his cunning, eventually came to rule Wales from Prestatyn to Pembroke.

He was also called Hywel ap Cadell. It is now thought that his name was actually Hywel Ddu (Howel the Black).

He is remembered as one of the most responsible native Welsh rulers of all time and was known as King of the Britons. His name is particularly linked with the development of the Welsh laws, generally known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name ('Dda' or 'Good') refers to the fact that his laws were just and good. The historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and a sense of respect toward women (something unheard of in other laws throughout Europe until recently)

Hywel Dda was certainly a well-educated man, even by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Latin, English, and Welsh. Of the 42 copies of the laws written during his lifetime, 36 were written in Welsh and six in English.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hywel_Dda for more information. -------------------- Hywel Dda

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hywel Dda (c. 880?–950), (English Hywel the Good, sometimes anglicized to Howell the Good) was a well-thought-of king [1]of Deheubarth in south-west Wales, who, using his cunning, eventually came to rule Wales from Prestatyn to Pembroke[2]. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty and is also named Hywel ap Cadell.

He is remembered as one of the most responsible native Welsh rulers of all time. His name is particularly linked with the development of the Welsh laws, generally known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name ('Dda' or 'Good') refers to the fact that his laws were just and good. The historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and a sense of respect towards women (something unheard of in other laws throughout Europe until recently)[3]

Hywel Dda was certainly a well-educated man, even by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Welsh, Latin, and English.[4]

In April 2008 a merger of Pembrokeshire & Derwen, Ceredigion and Mid Wales, and Carmarthenshire NHS Trusts was named the Hywel Dda NHS Trust in his honour.

Biography

Hywel was born at around 880, the younger son of Cadell ap Rhodri, himself the son of Rhodri the Great. In 905, Cadell, having conquered Dyfed, gave it to his son to rule on his behalf. Hywel was able to consolidate his position by marrying Elen, whose father Llywarch ap Hyfaidd had ruled Dyfed until his death. Following his father's death in 909, he acquired a share of Seisyllwg, and on his brother's death in 920, he merged Dyfed and Seisyllwg, creating for himself a new kingdom, which became known as Deheubarth. Following the death of his cousin Idwal Foel in 942, he also seized the Kingdom of Gwynedd.

[edit]Accomplishments

[edit]Peace with Wessex

Hywel's reign was a violent one, and he achieved an understanding with Athelstan of England. Athelstan and Hywel ruled part of Wales jointly. Such was the relationship between the neighbouring countries that Hywel was able to mint his own coinage in the English city of Chester. He was the first Welsh ruler to produce coinage for at least a thousand years, since the coinage of his Celtic predecessors. His study of legal systems and his pilgrimage to Rome in 928 combined to enable him to formulate advanced ideas about law. A comparative study of law and lawmaking at the time reveals a deep concern for law and its documentation throughout Europe and also the Islamic world, the Cordoba Islamic Law translation schools being a fine example, from Greek to Arabic to Latin. The Hywel 'Law' book was written partly in Latin, about laws of court, law of country and the law of justices.

Opinions vary as to the motives for Hywel's close association with the court of Athelstan. J.E. Lloyd claimed Hywel was an admirer of Wessex[5], while D.P. Kirby suggests that it may have been the action of a pragmatist who recognized the realities of power in mid-10th century Britain.[6] It is notable that he gave one of his sons an Anglo-Saxon name, Edwin. His policies with regard to England were evidently not to the taste of all his subjects. Athelstan and Hywel had similar interests. They both developed a coinage; they both had a kingdom; both were attributed a Law book. Hywel was aware of the greater power and acceded to it.

A Welsh language poem entitled Armes Prydein, considered by Sir Ifor Williams to have been written in Deheubarth during Hywel's reign, called for the Welsh to join a confederation of all the non-English peoples of Britain and Ireland to fight the Saxons. The poem may be linked to the alliance of Norse and Celtic kingdoms which challenged Athelstan at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937.[citation needed] No Welsh forces joined this alliance, and this may well have been because of the influence of Hywel.[citation needed] On the other hand neither did he send troops to support Athelstan.

[edit]Welsh Law

The conference held at Whitland circa 945, was an assembly in which Welsh law was codified and set down in writing for posterity. According to tradition, much of the work was done by the celebrated clerk, Blegywryd. Following Hywel's death, his kingdom was soon split into three. Gwynedd was reclaimed by the sons of Idwal Foel, while Deheubarth was divided between Hywel's sons. However, his legacy endured in the form of his laws, which remained in active use throughout Wales until the conquest and were not abolished by the English Parliament until the 16th century. A surviving copy of a Latin text of the Law (ms Peniarth 28) is held at The National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth and can be seen online.[1] More than 30 manuscripts were recently selected for a discussion of the "Law" of Hywel, by a Welsh professor of Medieval studies, Hywel Emanuel. Only five of them were considered to be of sufficient antiquity, dating back to the 13thC or earlier, to merit serious attention. Three of them were in Latin and two in Welsh.

[edit]References

^ 'Hanes Cymru' by Prof. John Davies, Penguin Books; Page 86

^ 'Hanes Cymru' by Prof. John Davies, Penguin Books; Page 85

^ 'Hanes Cymru' by Prof. John Davies, Penguin Books; Page 86

^ 'Hanes Cymru' by Prof. John Davies, Penguin Books; Page 86

^ John Edward Lloyd (1911). A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest. Longmans, Green & Co.

^ D.P. Kirby, Hywel Dda: Anglophile?, Welsh Historical Review, 8 (1976-7)


Hywel (The Good) ap Cadell & Elen verch Llywarch 

They had eight sons and two daughters, named Owain, Maredydd, Rhodri, Rhain, Dyfnwal, Edwin, Cynan, Einion, Angharad and Gwenllian.

Personal Details

Hywel (The Good) ap Cadell

Hywel, known as The Good, was born about 0880.1 He died in 0950.1

Elen verch Llywarch

Elen was born about 0893 in Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales.1 She died in 0943.1

Children

 Angharad verch Hywel

Angharad was born about 0912 in Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales.2

 Owain ap Hywel

Owain was born about 0913 in Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales.3 3

 Maredydd ap Hywel

Maredydd was born about 0914.2

 Rhodri ap Hywel

Rhodri was born about 0916.2

 Gwenllian verch Hywel

Gwenllian was born about 0917.2

 Rhain ap Hywel

Rhain was born about 0919.2

 Dyfnwal ap Hywel

Dyfnwal was born about 0922.2

 Edwin ap Hywel

Edwin was born about 0923.2

 Cynan ap Hywel

Cynan was born about 0925.2

 Einion ap Hywel

Einion was born about 0926.2

-------------------- From Wikipedia -

Hywel Dda (c. 880 – 950), (English: Hywel the Good;, sometimes anglicized to Howell the Good) was a well-thought-of king of Deheubarth in south-west Wales, who, using his cunning, eventually came to rule Wales from Prestatyn to Pembroke. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty and is also named Hywel ap Cadell. He was recorded as King of the Britons in the Annales Cambriae and the Annals of Ulster.

He is remembered as one of the most responsible native Welsh rulers of all time. His name is particularly linked with the development of the Welsh laws, generally known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name ('Dda' or 'Good') refers to the fact that his laws were just and good. The historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and a sense of respect towards women.

Hywel Dda was certainly a well-educated man, even by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Welsh, Latin, and English.

Hywel was born at around 880, the younger son of Cadell, himself the son of Rhodri the Great. In 905, Cadell, having conquered Dyfed, gave it to his son to rule on his behalf. Hywel was able to consolidate his position by marrying Elen, whose father Llywarch ap Hyfaidd had ruled Dyfed until his death. Following his father's death in 909, he acquired a share of Seisyllwg, and on his brother's death in 920, he merged Dyfed and Seisyllwg, creating for himself a new kingdom, which became known as Deheubarth. Following the death of his cousin Idwal Foel in 942, he also seized the Kingdom of Gwynedd.

[edit] Accomplishments

[edit] Peace with Wessex

Hywel's reign was a violent one, and he achieved an understanding with Athelstan of England. Athelstan and Hywel ruled part of Wales jointly. Such was the relationship between the neighbouring countries that Hywel was able to mint his own coinage in the English city of Chester. He was the first Welsh ruler to produce coinage for at least a thousand years, since the coinage of his Celtic predecessors. His study of legal systems and his pilgrimage to Rome in 928 combined to enable him to formulate advanced ideas about law. A comparative study of law and lawmaking at the time reveals a deep concern for law and its documentation throughout Europe and also the Islamic world, the Cordoba Islamic Law translation schools being a fine example, from Greek to Arabic to Latin. The Hywel 'Law' book was written partly in Latin, about laws of court, law of country and the law of justices.

Opinions vary as to the motives for Hywel's close association with the court of Athelstan. J.E. Lloyd claimed Hywel was an admirer of Wessex[3], while D.P. Kirby suggests that it may have been the action of a pragmatist who recognized the realities of power in mid-10th century Britain.[4] It is notable that he gave one of his sons an Anglo-Saxon name, Edwin. His policies with regard to England were evidently not to the taste of all his subjects. Athelstan and Hywel had similar interests. They both developed a coinage; they both had a kingdom; both were attributed a Law book. Hywel was aware of the greater power and acceded to it.

A Welsh language poem entitled Armes Prydein, considered by Sir Ifor Williams to have been written in Deheubarth during Hywel's reign, called for the Welsh to join a confederation of all the non-English peoples of Britain and Ireland to fight the Saxons. The poem may be linked to the alliance of Norse and Celtic kingdoms which challenged Athelstan at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. No Welsh forces joined this alliance, and this may well have been because of the influence of Hywel. On the other hand neither did he send troops to support Athelstan.

[edit] Welsh Law

The conference held at Whitland circa 945, was an assembly in which Welsh law was codified and set down in writing for posterity. According to tradition, much of the work was done by the celebrated clerk, Blegywryd. Following Hywel's death, his kingdom was soon split into three. Gwynedd was reclaimed by the sons of Idwal Foel, while Deheubarth was divided between Hywel's sons. However, his legacy endured in the form of his laws, which remained in active use throughout Wales until the conquest and were not abolished by the English Parliament until the 16th century. A surviving copy of a Latin text of the Law (ms Peniarth 28) is held at The National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth and can be seen online.[1] More than 30 manuscripts were recently selected for a discussion of the "Law" of Hywel, by a Welsh professor of Medieval studies, Hywel Emanuel. Only five of them were considered to be of sufficient antiquity, dating back to the 13thC or earlier, to merit serious attention. Three of them were in Latin and two in Welsh.

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Also called Hywel ap Cadell.6 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru also went by the name of Howel "the Good". He was the successor of Brenin Seisyllwg Cadell ap Rhodri o Gwynedd; King of Seisyllwg.7 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru was the successor of Anarawd ap Rhodri, Brenin Gwynedd; King of Deheubarth.7 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru was born in 887 at Dynevor Castle, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales.5,1 He was the son of Brenin Seisyllwg Cadell ap Rhodri o Gwynedd and Rheingar (?).4,5 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru was took over Dyfed on the death of the brother (Rhodri) of his step-father, Llwyrch, in 904.8 He married Elen ferch Llywarch o Ddyfed, daughter of Brenin Ddyfed Llywarch ap Hyfaidd o Ddyfed, in 904.8,7 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru was the predecessor of Brenin Ddyfed Rhodri ap Hyfaidd o Ddyfed; King of Dyfed.7 King of Dyfed at Southwest Wales between 904 and 950.7 Hywel Dda ap Cadell, Brenin Cymru united the kingdoms of Seisyllwg and Dyfed to become the first King of South Wales (Deheubarth) in 909. King of Seisyllwg at Southwest Wales between 909 and 950.7 He shared with his brothers lands in Ceredigon and Ystrad Tywi after the death of their father, Cadell, in 910.8 King of Deheubarth at Wales between 916 and 950.7 He was united the inheritance of his brothers into his own lands in 920.8 Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur 927: "In this year Hywel ap Cadell submitted to Athelstan."9 Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur 929: "In this year Hywel ap Cadell made pilgrimage to Rome."10 He was acquired Gwynedd (North Wales) after the death of Idwal Foel in 942.8 King of Gwynedd at Northwest Wales between 942 and 950.7 Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur 945: "In this year Hywel ap Cadell ordered the laws to be codified."6 He was ruled from his principle court at Dinefwr at Wales. Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur 949: "In this year king Hywel Dda ap Cadell the head and glory of all the Britons died."11 He died in 950 at age 63 years.4,2,12,13 Annals of Ulster 950: "Hywel, king of Wales, dies. / Oel, ri Bretan, moritur."13 "In the perspective of the Dark Ages he was a powerful prince, and it may be that later generations borrowed his personal authority to buttress their own power."8 "Like his grandfather, Rhodri the Great, Hywel was given an epithet by a later generation. He became known as Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good), although it would be wrong to consider that goodness to be innocent and unblemished. In the age of Hywel, the essential attribute of a state builder was ruthlessness, an attribute which Hywel possessed, if it is true that it was he who ordered the killing of Llywarch of Dyfed, as some have claimed."8 He was the predecessor of Brenin Deheubarth Owain ap Hywel Dda; King of Deheubarth.14

Family

Elen ferch Llywarch o Ddyfed b. circa 893, d. 929

Children

   * Angharad verch Hywel+ b. c 9101
   * Brenin Deheubarth Owain ap Hywel Dda+ b. 913, d. 98815,4,2,16
   * Rhodri ap Hywel b. c 920, d. c 953
   * Edwin ap Hywel b. c 922, d. c 954

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p321.htm#i7963 -------------------- Became King of All Wales. HYWEL the Good’s two great accomplishments were to restore the unified kingdom of his grandfather RHODRI MAWR and to codify the body of Welsh law. He was also pragmatic and expedient with his powerful English neighbors and thus managed to live in peace with them.

Contemporary records show that he married ELEN, daughter of LLYWARCH ap HYFAIDD, the last of the royal line of Dyfed, who had died in 904. Her line is one of our earliest, being known back for five generations to II.398,589,988.MAREDUDD ap TEWDWS (d. 796), and this Dyfed line descended from members of an Irish tribe, the Déisi who migrated to Wales in the 4th century (Maund pp.23-24). HYWEL became the sole ruler of Deheubarth when his younger brother and coheir died in 920. With this brother and ANARAWD’s son IDWAL FOEL (the bald), he had earlier offered submission to Alfred’s son Edward the Elder in 918, and throughout his life he maintained peace with the English kings. His name is frequently mentioned in the English charters, and there is little doubt that he visited the Wessex court. In this respect he differed from his cousin IDWAL FOEL, who was uneasy in his alliance with the English. HYWEL remained sufficiently independent to mint his own silver pennies, and his pilgrimage to Rome in 928 was undertaken while in the prime of life, not as a “deathbed” repentant. When his cousin IDWAL FOEL finally revolted against the English and was defeated and killed in 942, HYWEL invaded Gwynedd and Powys, expelled his cousin’s sons, and took possession himself. By 944 he also conquered Breconshire, and thus became king of all Wales apart from Glamorgan and Monmouthshire.

This royal status prepared the way for the crowning achievement of HYWEL’s life, the codifying of Welsh law, i.e. collecting and reducing the varying royal and tribal usages that had accumulated over the centuries, into a uniform and consistent legal system. In his travels to England and abroad, HYWEL would have seen the need for such codification. He is said to have summoned six representatives from each commote to a great conference at Whitland in Carmarthenshire to undertake the task. Though no contemporary manuscripts resulting from this conference are still extant, later manuscripts are evidence of HYWEL’S work and its continuation by legal scholars.

John Davies expressed the significance of this Whitland conference: “The Law is among the most splendid creations of the culture of the Welsh. For centuries it was a powerful symbol of their unity and identity, as powerful indeed as their language, for – like the literary language – the Law was the same in its essence in all parts of Wales ..... The Law of Wales, therefore, was folk law rather than state law, and its emphasis was upon ensuring reconciliation between kinship groups rather than upon keeping order through punishment. It was not concerned with the enforcement of criminal law by the apparatus of the state.” As a result, it was humane and sensitive in unusual ways (p.88).

One of the laws held that a person’s rights and responsibilities depended on kinship, and it contained elements of mercy, common sense, and respect for women and children that would be lacking in English law until recent times. A pedigree giving the kinship group was a matter of economic and social necessity, and from the earliest times the bards were the keepers of the pedigrees. Marriage between cousins was allowed, and an illegitimate son could inherit if recognized by his father.

The type of inheritance specified in the law is called gavelkind, whereby all possessions were distributed equally among all the sons. The daughters would receive a dowry from the family when they married, so they did not inherit unless they had no brothers. The estate was divided into equal parts by the youngest son. The eldest son then had first choice, followed by the next eldest, and so on until the last part was left to the youngest. This system ensured that the subdivision was performed in a scrupulously fair manner by the latter, otherwise he would receive an inferior share. The obvious disadvantage of the gavelkind process is that over time the property became fractionated into uneconomic portions.

HYWEL’S reign had been peaceful, but after his death in 850 his sons OWAIN, Rhodri and Edwin were defeated in Gwynedd by the sons of his cousin IDWAL FOEL. Gwynedd and Deheubarth once more had different rulers. In the south, Rhodri died in 953 and Edwin in the following year, and OWAIN became the ruler of Deheubarth.

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Hywel Dda ap Cadell, King of the Britons's Timeline

880
880
Dynevor Castle,Llandyfeisant,Carmarthenshire,Wales
915
915
Age 35
Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales
920
920
Age 40
Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales
950
950
Age 70
Dynevor Castle, Llandilo, Carmarthshire, Wales
950
Age 70
Llantwit Major, Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, United Kingdom
1919
November 18, 1919
Age 70
1920
September 3, 1920
Age 70
1941
September 19, 1941
Age 70
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