Igor I of Kiev

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Igor grootvorst van Kiew, Varangian Ruler of Kievan Rus' (Russia)

Russian: Игорь Рюрикович Рюрикович (великий князь Киевский), Varangian Ruler of Kievan Rus' (Russia)
Also Known As: "Угор / Игор / Ингвар / Igor I / Ingvar"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Novgorod, Russia
Death: Died in Iskorosten (Korosten), Chernihivs'ka oblast, Ukraine
Cause of death: Executed by Drevlian rebels - legs tied to two bent birch trees, which are then cut loose of their bindings and allowed to pull the prince apart
Place of Burial: Dereva, Korosten, Chernihivs'ka oblast, Ukraine
Immediate Family:

Son of Rurik av Svealand, Prins av Novgorod and Efanda - Sfandra - Ingrid of Norway
Husband of Olga Helena of Kiev
Father of Улеб кн. Ладожский and Sviatoslav I Great Prince of Kiev
Brother of NN Rurikid

Occupation: Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev (912-945), новгородски болярин, Furste av Kiev 912-945, (Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945., Furste av Kiev Rus, Kung i Novgorod och Kiev 912-945, Prince
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Igor I of Kiev

Igor / Игорь / old Norse: Ingvar

Born: 877-920 Died: 944-946

Father: Rurik Mother: Unknown Spouse: Olga aka Saint Helena Issue: Sviatoslav

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/RUSSIA,%20Rurik.htm

[IGOR [Ingvar] ([877/79] or [910/20]-killed Iskorosten [=Korosten] [944/46], bur Dereva near Iskorosten). The Primary Chronicle names Igor as son of Rurik, adding that he was "very young" at his father´s death. This suggests a birth date in [877/79] for consistency with the report about his supposed father´s death in the same source. However, the chronology of Igor´s son Sviatoslav, which is more robust as shown below, suggests that it is more likely that Igor was born in [910/20].

The Primary Chronicle records that Igor succeeded (his relative) Oleg in 912, but this chronology is also difficult to sustain. It is probably more accurate to suggest that Igor was established at Kiev by the end of the 930s. The existence of Igor as a historical figure is nevertheless corroborated: Liudprand of Cremona records that "rex…Inger" came to Constantinople, during the reign of Emperor Romanos I, with "mille et eo amplius navibus" (dated to 941 by Franklin & Shepard), and the De administrando imperio names his son "Sphendosthlabus Ingor Russiæ principis filius"[24].

Franklin & Shepard also refer to an apparently corroborating Khazar text, in which the leader is named 'H-L-G-W' [=Oleg?] and is said to have died in the Caspian region.

Oleg negotiated privileged trading terms with Byzantium in [944], the text of which is incorporated into the Primary Chronicle. The main terms of the treaty are corroborated by the De administrando imperio.

The Primary Chronicle records that Oleg was killed by Derevlian Slavs, who lived to the north-east of Kiev and were unwilling to submit to his rule.  m ([930/35]) OLGA [Helga/Haelgha] --- (-969).

The Primary Chronicle records that a wife Olga was brought [to Igor] from Pskov in 903[29]. The date is clearly inconsistent with the suggested birth date of their son Sviatoslav in [935/40] as shown below.

After her husband was killed, the Derevlian Slavs proposed her marriage to their own leader Mal, but the Primary Chronicle records that Olga exacted prompt and effective revenge for her husband's death after besieging the Derevlian capital of Iskorosten.

Olga was regent for her son [from 945 to 964].  Her centre of power was based around Kiev where she owned two halls.

The Primary Chronicle records that Olga was baptised in Constantinople in [957] by the emperor (Konstantinos VII), and took the name HELENA after the mother of Emperor Konstantinos the Great. Cedrenus records that "Elga Rossorum principis uxor" came to Constantinople after her husband died, was baptised, and returned home. The Continuator of Regino records that "legati Helenæ reginæ Rugorum", who had been baptised at Constantinople "sub Romano imperatore Constantinopolitano", visited Otto I King of Germany in 959, and that in 960 "Libutius ex cœnobitis sancti Albani" was consecrated "genti Rugorum episcopus" by "episcopo Adaldago" [archbishop of Bremen].

The Annales Quedlinburgenses record the arrival of "legati Rusciæ gentis ad regem Ottonem" in 960 and his sending "Adalbertum episcopum" to their country. The difference in the two sources of the name of the supposed first bishop is not explained.

The Primary Chronicle records that, during the invasion of the Pechenegs in 968, Olga shut herself in the city of Kiev with her grandsons Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir and that she died in 969.

She was later esteemed to be a saint, her feast day being 11 July. Igor & his wife had one child, Svistoslav.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_of_Kiev

Igor was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945.

Biography

Information about him comes mostly from the Primary Chronicle. According to the document, Igor was son of Rurik, the first king of Kievan Rus':

6378–6387 (870–879). On his deathbed, Rurik bequeathed his realm to Oleg, who belonged to his kin, and entrusted to Oleg’s hands his son Igor', for he was very young.

6388–6390 (880–882). Oleg set forth, taking with him many warriors from among the Varangians, the Chuds, the Slavs, the Merians and all the Krivichians. He thus arrived with his Krivichians before Smolensk, captured the city, and set up a garrison there. Thence he went on and captured Lyubech, where he also set up a garrison. He then came to the hills of Kyiv, and saw how Askold and Dir reigned there.

He hid his warriors in the boats, left some others behind,and went forward himself bearing the child Igor'. He thus came to the foot of the Hungarian hill, and after concealing his troops, he sent messengers to Askold and Dir, representing himself as a stranger on his way to Greece on an errand for Oleg and for Igor', the prince’s son, and requesting that they should come forth to greet them as members of their race.

Askold and Dir straightway came forth. Then all the soldiery jumped out of the boats, and Oleg said to Askold and Dir, “You are not princes nor even of princely stock, but I am of princely birth.” Igor' was then brought forward, and Oleg announced that he was the son of Rurik.

They killed Askold and Dir, and after carrying them to the hill, they buried them there, on the hill now known as Hungarian, where the castle of Ol'ma now stands.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of part of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle.

In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945

(Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death:

"They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart.") and avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev.

The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

Controversy

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources. Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

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From "Russian History in Portrait" ("Русская история в портрете")

http://www.rulex.ru/01090132.htm

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Igor föddes omkring 877 i Novgorod i Kievriket och dog 945. Igor var en varjagisk storfurste i Kiev från 912 till 945. Han bar det nordiska namnet Ingvar assimilerades i Dneprdalen, ett litet härskande skikt av nordbor med det östslaviska bondesamhället. Det finns inte mycket nedtecknat om honom i krönikeboken. Det har spekulerats om krönikan har valt att inte förstora hans maktposition som dominerades samtidigt av Khazaria. Igor var Ruriks son där det också spekuleras om att han var grundaren av dynastin.

Han besegrade två gånger Konstantinopel, 941 och 944. År 913 och 944 plundrade det ryska folket araberna vid Kaspiska havet och de belägrade Albania (nuvarande Azerbajdzjan). Man vet inte om Igor hade något att göra med belägringen av Albania eller om det har varit en helt oberoende grupp varjagiska soldater.

Igor blev brutalt mördad, då han skulle samla in bidrag från Drevlians år 945. Det sägs vara en hämnd från sin fru som han gifte sig med 903, Olga av Kiev. De fick två barn, Oleg och Svjatoslav, blev senare furste av Kiev, född omkring 942.

Ibn Fadlan reste runt i Ryssland och skrev ner sina iakttagelser om ruser i en reseskildring. Om storfursten Igor skriver han, ”har i sitt slott 400 av sina tappraste män, som stupar med honom och låter sig dödas för honom. De har alla sin plats under hans tron, som är mycket stor och prydd med ädelstenar. Där finns också 400 slavinnor, och ofta har han samlag med en av dem i närvaro av sina vapenbröder. Kungen stiger aldrig ner från tronen och när han har naturbehov förrättar han dem i en skål. När han vill rida förs en häst fram till tronen så att han kan stiga upp direkt på den och rida bort”.

Ibn Fadlan beskriver också ryssarnas utseende, ”jag har aldrig sett så fulländade kroppar, de var som palmträd, blonda och rödlätta. De har varken jackor eller kaftaner, utan mannen bär en dräkt som täcker ena sidan av kroppen men lämnar en hand fri. Var och en har med sig en yxa, ett svärd och en kniv, och dessa redskap lämnar de aldrig ifrån sig. Deras svärd är breda, räfflade, av frankisk tillverkning. Från naveln till halsen är de tatuerade i grönt med träd och andra bilder. Alla deras kvinnor har över bröstet en dosa fastgjord, som är av järn, silver, koppar eller guld, efter mannens förmögenhet och inkomst”.

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Storfyrste Igor I av Kiev. Født 875. Død 945. Han var sønn av Fyrste Rurik av Novgorod. Død 879.

Igor var gift med Fyrstinne Olga den Hellige av Pskov. Født 890. Død 969. De hadde sønnen:

1. Storfyrste Svjatoslav I av Kiev. Født omkring 942. Død 972.

Igor var Storfyrste av Kiev 913 - 945.

Igor døde i 945 i kamp med den slaviske stammen Drevljaerne. 1)

1). Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 147. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Russia Rurikid:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/RUSSIA,%20Rurik.htm

[IGOR [Ingvar] ([877/79] or [910/20]-killed Iskorosten [=Korosten] [944/46], bur Dereva near Iskorosten).

The Primary Chronicle names Igor as son of Rurik, adding that he was "very young" at his father´s death[18]. This suggests a birth date in [877/79] for consistency with the report about his supposed father´s death in the same source. However, the chronology of Igor´s son Sviatoslav, which is more robust as shown below, suggests that it is more likely that Igor was born in [910/20].

The Primary Chronicle records that Igor succeeded (his relative) Oleg in 912[19], but this chronology is also difficult to sustain. It is probably more accurate to suggest that Igor was established at Kiev by the end of the 930s[20]. The existence of Igor as a historical figure is nevertheless corroborated by Liudprand of Cremona, who records that Rus traders attacked coastal areas near Constantinople in 941 under a "king named Inger"[21], and the De administrando imperio which names his son "Sphendosthlabus Ingor Russiæ principis filius"[22]. Franklin & Shepard also refers to an apparently corroborating Khazar text, in which the leader is named 'H-L-G-W' [=Oleg?] and is said to have died in the Caspian region[23].

Oleg negotiated privileged trading terms with Byzantium in [944], the text of which is incorporated into the Primary Chronicle[24]. The main terms of the treaty are corroborated by the De administrando imperio[25].

The Primary Chronicle records that Oleg was killed by Derevlian Slavs, who lived to the north-east of Kiev and were unwilling to submit to his rule[26].

m ([930/35]) OLGA [Helga/Haelgha] --- (-969).

The Primary Chronicle records that a wife Olga was brought [to Igor] from Pskov in 903[27]. The date is clearly inconsistent with the suggested birth date of their son Sviatoslav in [935/40] as shown below.

After her husband was killed, the Derevlian Slavs proposed her marriage to their own leader Mal, but the Primary Chronicle records that Olga exacted prompt and effective revenge for her husband's death after besieging the Derevlian capital of Iskorosten[28].

Olga was regent for her son [from 945 to 964]. Her centre of power was based around Kiev where she owned two halls[29].

The Primary Chronicle records that Olga was baptised in Constantinople in [957] by the emperor (Konstantinos VII), and took the name HELENA after the mother of Emperor Konstantinos the Great[30]. She was also in contact with Emperor Otto I in 959[31].

The Primary Chronicle records that, during the invasion of the Pechenegs in 968, Olga shut herself in the city of Kiev with her grandsons Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir and that she died in 969[32]. She was later esteemed to be a saint, her feast day being 11 July.

Igor & his wife had one child:

1. Svyatoslav (b. c.935/940, d. 972, killed in battle, succeeded as Grand Prince of Kiev)

From the Russian Wikipedia page on Igor Rurikovich:

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%8C_%D0%A0%D1%8E%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87

4.↑ Ἴγγωρ (Iggor или Ihor) — Suda: iota, 86

In English:

Igor (in Old Norse, Ingvar, approximately 878-945) was Grand Prince of Kiev Rus (912-945), and the documented son of Rurik.

He was the first Russian prince known by both Byzantine and Western sources.

English Wikipedia Biography: Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

Igor in the annals

In 879, according to the Tale of Bygone Years (from the start of the 12th century), Rurik, founder of the ancient princely dynasty, died, handing power to his kinsman Oleg. Rurik left in Oleg's care his infant son Igor.

When in 882 Oleg approached Kiev, he lured its Vikings rulers, Askold and Dir, from the city and had them killed in the name of Prince Igor, whom the Chronicle called yet a baby: "You are not princes and do not have a princely family, but I have a noble family. And this is the son of Rurik."

In a Russian-Byzantine agreement in 911, Oleg called Igor "The Grand Prince of Russia," or as was documented, Oleg did not consider himself as regent for Igor, but as a subject to a sovereign ruler.

In 903, Igor took a wife from Pskov, Olga, the future Princess of Kiev. Given that the son of Igor and Olga, Svyatoslav, was born in 942, this date of marriage looks extremely doubtful. When Oleg went to Byzantium in 907, he Igor as Viceroy in Kiev. After Oleg's death in 913, Igor became ruler of Kiev Rus.

In 915, Igor made peace with the Pechenegs, which first appeared in Russia after failing in a campaign against Byzantium. Peace with them did not last long, and in 920, Igor again fought them.

The next mention of Igor in the Chronicles is in the summer of 941, when he marched upon Constantinople. This was the first year in which Igor was documented in Byzantine sources (the first time a Russian prince was named in a non-Russian source).

(English Wikipedia says that the Rus plundered the Arabs on the Caspian Sea twice: in 913, when 500 ships pillage Gorgan in present Iran and inland of Baku, but are killed on the way back by Khazar Muslims and tribesmen in the middle Volga; and 944, when the Rus captured the inland town of Barda in present Azerbaijan and plundered the region - only to leave when dysentery started to strike. It's not clear that Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.)

Road to Constantinople 941-944

The old Russian Chronicles tell the story about the campaign of 941, with translations from Hamartolas, but the Chronicle also contains folk traditions that barely survived to the time that the chronicles were written.

The historian Theophanes begins the story of the campaign: "On June 11 in the 14th year of rule (941), 10,000 ships sailed to Constantinople." Liutprand Cremona, Ambassador of King Berengaria of Italy to Byzantium in 949 wrote that more than 1,000 ships under "the King of the Rus, Inger" arrived at the city.

The campaign proved unsuccessful for Igor when in a naval battle, the Russian fleet was partially destroyed by Greek fire. After raiding Byzantine lands, and a number of coastal defeats, Igor returned home in September.

The Russian Chronicle reports the words from the soldiers: "Like lightning, the heavenly hosts of the Greeks came upon us, and blew fire upon us, and that is why they were not overpowered."

The impression made by this raid on the Byzantines was that the name of Igor became the only Russian name that made it into the Byzantine encyclopedic dictionary of the 10th century, which defined a type of vessel.

In 942, Svyatoslav was born to Igor. When he was 3, he became Grand Prince under the tutelage of his mother.

In 943 (the Chronicle dates this as 944, but historians believe it to be 943) Igor gathered a new army of Varangians (Scandinavian mercenaries), Rus (compatriots of Igor), Slavs (Polyanye, Slovenes, Krivichi, and Tivertsy), and Pechenegs, and rode with his cavalry by land, transporting his foot soldiers by sea.

Alerted in advance, the Byzantine Emperor Roman sent ambassadors with generous gifts to meet Igor, who managed to arrive at the Danube. At the same time, Roman sent gifts to the Pechenegs. After a council with his men, Igor, satisfied with the tribute, turned back. Roman's historian Theophanes reports that this event in April 943 was the only time that an enemy of the Byzantines, upon making peace, turned back without a battle, and so they were called Turks. The Byzantines usually used the term Turks for the Hungarians, but sometimes this was used as a name of all the nomadic people from the north (Turks could refer to the Pechenegs). In April, Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentions the beginning of naval commerce between Rus and Byzantium.

In 944, Igor entered a military-commercial treaty with Byzantium. The treaty mentions the names of Igor's nephew, his wife Princess Olga, and his son Svyatoslav. The Chronicle described the adoption of the treaty in Kiev, and mentioned a church in which Christian Vikings took an oath.

Death of Igor

In autumn 945, Igor, at the request of his council, who were dissatisfied with the tribute exacted from the Drevlyans, went there to obtain more. The Drevlyans did not provide troops to fight against the Byzantine Emperor. Perhaps this is why Igor decided to correct the situation at their expense.

Igor arbitrarily increased the amount of tribute from earlier years, and during collection, violence erupted among the people. On his way home, Igor made an unexpected decision: "After some thought, he told his squad to take the tribute home and then come back for him. So his bodyguards were sent back home, and he with a small part of his guards remained, seeking more tribute. The Drevlyans heard he was going to return and listened to the words of Prince Mal, who said that if they make a habit of letting in the wolves to sheep, then the wolves will take all the flock until they are killed: if they did not kill Igor, he will destroy them all. The Derevlyans swarmed from Korosten, and set upon Igor like vigilantes, overwhelming his guard and killing him. And Igor was buried in a tomb among the people of the Derevlyans, where he remains to this day."

(English Wikipedia says: The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering, or poliudie, in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.)

In a letter from Byzantine Emperor Ioan Tsimisces to Svyatoslav 24 years later, he recalled the fate of Prince Inger (Igor). In a statement recorded by Leo the Deacon, the Emperor reported that Igor went camping near certain Germans, who captured, and in their captivity, he was tied to the tops of trees and broken in two. ("They had bent down two birch trees to the prince's feet, and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince's body apart.")

According to legends described in the Chronicles, the widow of Igor, Princess Olga, brutally avenged her husband. Using cunning, she destroyed the Drevlyan elders, killed many of the common folk, burned their capital of Iskorosten, and extracted from those that survived a heavy tribute. Princess Olga, supported by Igor's militia and boyars, became ruler of Rus during the time that Svyatoslav, son of Igor, was growing up.

In a memorial in early literature "Discourse on Law and Grace" by Metropolitan Hilarion of Kiev (c. 1050), the genealogy of Russian princes can be traced to the Russian Prince Igor. A century after the death of Igor, Hilarion called him "Ancient Igor".

The historiography of Igor's life

The so-called Ioachim Chronicle, whose reliable is called into question by historians, report additional information about Igor. They say his mother's name was Efanda Urmanskaya (Norwegian), a princess and favorite wife of Rurik, who received as dowry a town of the Izhora. According to Tatischev, the name "Ingor" comes from the Finnish (or Izhorian) name for Inger.

When Igor reached manhood, Princess Oleg gave him a wife from Izborsk from the noble family of Gostomysl. Her name was Prekrasa, but Oleg renamed her Olga.

There were other women that Igor had, but Olga was the most revered. Other than Svyatoslav, Igor had a son named Gleb, who Svyatoslav would later penalize for his Christian beliefs.

In other cases, the Ioachim Chronicle follows the Tale of Bygone years. Tatischev also sets the date of birth for Igor from various sources: 875 by the schismatics, 861 by Nizhny Novgorod, 865 by Orenburg.

At the start (913/914) and end (943/944) of Igor's reign, the Rus made long sea voyages in the Caspian Sea, of which the Old Russian Chronicles are silent. Chronologically, it is possible that a voyage in 913/914 influenced the arrival of Igor to power, since all its members, according to Arab authors, were killed on the Volga River.

From the Khazar, there is evidence of Igor's campaign against Byzantium being associated with a march on the Caspian Sea in 943-945, which according to Khazar, Arabic, and independent sources, the leader of the Rus was killed. Khazar sources announce the death of the Rus King, calling him X-l-Gu, which is tempting to identify him with Oleg.

The Byzantine message recorded by Leo the Deacon on the death of Igor at the hand of Germans only increases the uncertainty. Perhaps an informant of Leo the Deacon misunderstood the unfamiliar name Drevlyans to be the more familiar Germans.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogentius in his book "On the Control of the Empire" written in 949, said: "Monoksil are some of the Nemogard, in which sat Sfendoslav, son of Ingor, archon of the Rus." Literally, the phrase implies that in 949 Igor was still alive, also implying that Byzantium and Constantinople were aware of the situation in Russia. According to the information compiled by historian Ian Strzhedovsky (in the Sacra Moraviae Historia sive Vita SS. Cyrilli et Methudii of 1710) in 949, Igor was in an alliance with Oleg Morawski against Hungary, but died that same year.

Historians studying the acts of Igor in the Old Russian chronicles, not inconsistencies and far-fetched claims in his biographies, which give rise to varied reconstructions of his reign.

Notes:

6. The Chronicle dates the treaty to 945, but it is known that Emperor Roman, who signed the treaty for Byzantium, was overthrown in December 944. The date of the treaty text is not specified.

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Apparently, this is Bulgarian: assertion that Igor went by Ugor Lachin, grandson of Urus Aydar and son of Lachin, nephew of Khan Dzhilki and parent of Prince Boris who was named at birth Dupo. (No source given.)

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Malusha

Hushållerska.

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Familj med Svjatoslav I av Kiev (942 - 972)

Barn:

Vladimir I 'den helige' av Kiev (960 - 1015)

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Noteringar

Sonen Vladimir var resultatet av en lös förbindelse mellan fursten och hans moders hushållerska, Malusha eller Malmfrid, och räknades därför inte som fullvärdig.

Källa: Vikingar i österled s.47, Mats G. Larsson

Igor föddes omkring 877 i Novgorod i Kievriket och dog 945. Igor var en varjagisk storfurste i Kiev från 912 till 945. Han bar det nordiska namnet Ingvar assimilerades i Dneprdalen, ett litet härskande skikt av nordbor med det östslaviska bondesamhället. Det finns inte mycket nedtecknat om honom i krönikeboken. Det har spekulerats om krönikan har valt att inte förstora hans maktposition som dominerades samtidigt av Khazaria. Igor var Ruriks son där det också spekuleras om att han var grundaren av dynastin.

Han besegrade två gånger Konstantinopel, 941 och 944. År 913 och 944 plundrade det ryska folket araberna vid Kaspiska havet och de belägrade Albania (nuvarande Azerbajdzjan). Man vet inte om Igor hade något att göra med belägringen av Albania eller om det har varit en helt oberoende grupp varjagiska soldater.

Igor blev brutalt mördad, då han skulle samla in bidrag från Drevlians år 945. Det sägs vara en hämnd från sin fru som han gifte sig med 903, Olga av Kiev. De fick två barn, Oleg och Svjatoslav, blev senare furste av Kiev, född omkring 942.

Ibn Fadlan reste runt i Ryssland och skrev ner sina iakttagelser om ruser i en reseskildring. Om storfursten Igor skriver han, ”har i sitt slott 400 av sina tappraste män, som stupar med honom och låter sig dödas för honom. De har alla sin plats under hans tron, som är mycket stor och prydd med ädelstenar. Där finns också 400 slavinnor, och ofta har han samlag med en av dem i närvaro av sina vapenbröder. Kungen stiger aldrig ner från tronen och när han har naturbehov förrättar han dem i en skål. När han vill rida förs en häst fram till tronen så att han kan stiga upp direkt på den och rida bort”.

Ibn Fadlan beskriver också ryssarnas utseende, ”jag har aldrig sett så fulländade kroppar, de var som palmträd, blonda och rödlätta. De har varken jackor eller kaftaner, utan mannen bär en dräkt som täcker ena sidan av kroppen men lämnar en hand fri. Var och en har med sig en yxa, ett svärd och en kniv, och dessa redskap lämnar de aldrig ifrån sig. Deras svärd är breda, räfflade, av frankisk tillverkning. Från naveln till halsen är de tatuerade i grönt med träd och andra bilder. Alla deras kvinnor har över bröstet en dosa fastgjord, som är av järn, silver, koppar eller guld, efter mannens förmögenhet och inkomst”.

Företrädare: Oleg Regenter av Kievriket

912–945

Efterträdare: Olga av Kiev

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_of_Kiev

Igor of Kiev

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Igor

Grand Prince of Rus

Reign 914-945

Coronation 914 (6423 from world creation)

Full name Igor Riurikovich

Died 945

Place of death Iskorosten

Buried ?

Predecessor Oleg

Successor Sviatoslav the Brave

Wife Saint Olga

Offspring Sviatoslav the Brave

Dynasty Rurik Dynasty

Father Rurik

Igor of Kiev, first from right. Illumination from the Radziwiłł Chronicle

Igor (Ukrainian: Ігор, Russian: Игорь, Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945.

[edit] Biography

Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time.[citation needed] That he was Rurik's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources.[1] Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Prince Igor Exacting Tribute from the Drevlyans, by Klavdiy Lebedev (1852-1916).

Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945 (Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart."[2]) and avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev. The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

[edit] See also

   * List of Ukrainian rulers
   * List of Russian rulers

[edit] References

  1. ^ Zuckerman, Constantine. On the Date of the Khazars' Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor. A Study of the Anonymous Khazar Letter from the Genizah of Cairo. // Revue des études byzantines. 1995. 53. Pp. 237–270.
  2. ^ Korosten (Iskorosten) - A small town with a great history, Leonid Tarasenko (November 07, 2008)

[edit] External links

   * Icon of Prince Igor of Kiev, Holy Orthodox Church in North America

Preceded by

Oleg Ruler of Rus Succeeded by

Olga

This page was last modified on 20 May 2010 at 04:06

--------------------------------------

Wikipedia:

Igor († 945), der Sohn Rjuriks, soll nach einer Regentschaftsphase durch Oleg den Weisen 912 die Herrschaft über das spätere Kiewer Rus übernommen und bis 945 innegehabt haben.

Er ist einer der ersten Kiewer Fürsten, bei dem man mit einiger Sicherheit davon ausgehen kann, dass er ein tatsächlicher Mensch und keine Legendengestalt war. Nach seinem Herrschaftsantritt führte er zunächst Krieg gegen den slawischen Stamm der Drewljanen, der versucht hatte, seine Tributspflicht gegenüber Kiew abzuschütteln. 914 unterwarf er sie und zwang ihnen einen erhöhten Tribut auf. Ein Jahr später gelang es ihm, mit dem mächtigen Nomadenstamm der Petschenegen Frieden zu schließen, was vorerst einen Angriff auf Kiew verhinderte. Doch bereits 920 gab es neue Kämpfe mit dem Stamm. 941 erschien Igor mit einer großen Flotte vor Konstantinopel, mit dem in den Jahren zuvor friedliche Handelsbeziehungen bestanden hatten. Nachdem die Kiewer das Umland der Stadt verwüstet hatten, mussten sie sich aber der byzantinischen Armee geschlagen geben und sich zurückziehen. Als Reaktion auf den Angriff scheint Byzanz die Handelsvergünstigungen gestrichen zu haben, die Kiewer Händler bis dahin genossen hatten. Mit einem neuen Kriegszug 944 scheint Igor versucht zu haben, die Wiederherstellung dieser Privilegien zu erzwingen. Die Byzantiner schickten ihm eine Delegation entgegen, die erneute, wenn auch nicht mehr ganz so vorteilhafte Handelsprivilegien für Kiew aushandelten. 945 wendete sich Igor erneut den Drewljanen zu. In einem ersten Kriegszug setzte er eine Erhöhung der Tribute durch, als er kurz darauf einen erneuten Feldzug vorbereitete, wurde er erschlagen. Die Regentschaft für Igors minderjährigen Sohn Swjatoslaw I. übernahm dessen Mutter und Igors Frau Olga.

--------------------

 IGOR (913-945)
 He was, according to the Russian chronicles, the son of Rurik who had come to rule Novgorod. After Rurik's death Igor was taken by his kinsman and protector, Oleg, to Kyiv, where Oleg established the capital of the Rus-Varangian control. He married in 903 Olga, a Scandinavian princess brought from Pskov. Their son was Svyatoslav. They are shown on this family chart. On Oleg's death in 913 Igor began to rule the Slavic-Rus- Varangian principality. The main activity of the Varangian rulers was collecting tribute from the Slavic villagers. And they were also eagerly establishing trading and raiding campaigns down the Dniper as far as Byzantium and the Caucasus.

More rebellions occurred when imported Nordic princes paid more attention to collecting tribute from the people than to creating order and defending them from nomad tribes, which by now often carried out sudden attacks from the south-east. The animosity of the local population towards "Eternal wanderers," as they sometimes called their Nordic rulers in the beginning because they often changed their thrones looking for more rewarding ones, culminated in the assassination of Prince Igor. The Veche of the "Drevlian" tribe found that he exaggerated when he imposed very high tribute and did very little for the people and decided to kill him. (At the death Oleg Prince Igor' was faced with a resurgence of independence among the conquered tribes such as the Drevliane and he quelled the insurgents and then extracted from them an even greater tribute. The Drevliane abided by their Prince until his greed and that of his brazen entourage forced their hand. He was captured alone and tied to two tree trunks which had been forcefully bent down by the furious tribesmen and split into two). The decision was promptly executed but very dearly paid for when later Olga, Igor's wife and acting regent sent two punitive expeditions which decimated the "Drevlian" population. Igor also launched campaigns against Byzantium that resulted in important trade treaties between the Greeks and Rus. He also sent campaigns into the Caucasus - Caspian Sea area.

Chronology:

913 AD - Igor becomes prince of Kyiv.

914 AD Igor attacks Derevlians and imposes larger tribute.

915 AD - Pechenegs arrive from Asia across the steppe and establish peaceful relations at first. They campaign into Balkans to Danube.

916 AD - Pecheneg return from Danube. Igor begins war against them. Meanwhile the Bulgarians and Byzantines are at war in Thrace.

921-29 AD - Bulgarians attack Byzantium and Macedonia.

930-34 AD - Magyars attack Byzantium and Thrace.

935-41 AD - Igor attacks Byzantium by sea. His Rus army loots Asia Minor regions but it eventually defeated by Byzantine navy using "Greek Fire".

944 AD - Russian Chronicles note another campaign by Igor to Danube. But historians now doubt this took place.

945 AD - While on another tribute gathering campaign against the Derevlians, Igor is killed at Iskorosten.

Princes of Kiev:http://www.xenophon-mil.org/rushistory/rulers/kyivprinc.htm

--------------------

BIOGRAPHY: b. c. 877

d. 945, Dereva region [Russia]

also called INGVAR, grand prince of Kiev and presumably the son of Rurik, prince of Novgorod, who is considered the founder of the dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy until 1598. Igor, successor to the great warrior and diplomat Oleg (reigned c. 879-912), assumed the throne of Kiev in 912.

Depicted as a greedy, rapacious, and unsuccessful prince by the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, Igor in 913-914 led an expedition into Transcaucasia that ended in total disaster for his forces. He also conducted two expeditions against Byzantium (941 and 944), but many of his ships were destroyed by the "Greek fire," and the treaty that he finally concluded in 944 was less advantageous to Kiev than the one obtained by Oleg in 911. Igor did manage to extend the authority of Kiev over the Pechenegs, a Turkic people inhabiting the steppes north of the Black Sea, as well as over the East Slavic tribe of Drevlyane. When he went to Dereva (the land of the Drevlyane located in the region of the Pripet River) to collect tribute (945), however, his attempt to extort more than the customary amount provoked the Drevlyane into rebelling and killing him.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica

Wikipedia:

Biography

Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik 's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources. Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945. (Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart.") and avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev . The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie ) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

--------------------

Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Igor (Old East Slavic/Russian: Игорь, Old Norse: Ingvar, Ukrainian: Ігор) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945. Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources.[1] Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Igor was killed[2] while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945 and revenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev. The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

[edit]References

^ Zuckerman, Constantine. On the Date of the Khazars' Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor. A Study of the Anonymous Khazar Letter from the Genizah of Cairo. // Revue des études byzantines. 1995. 53. Pp. 237–270.

^ Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart."[1]

--------------------

Storfyrste av Kijev [Kiev] 913 - 945.

Igor etterfulgte Oleg som hersker over «Kievan Rus». Ifølge en russisk middelalderkrønika (Beretningen om forgangne tider [påbegynt 1037-39]), var Igor sønn til Rurik. Han regnes som den virkelige grunderen av det russiske fyrstedømmet. Kijev var rikets sentrum og omliggende slaviske stammer ble beskattet i skinn og penger.

Hans ekspedisjon i 941 mot Konstantinopel ble slått ned av grekerne. Et nytt angrep i 944 førte til forhandlinger og en kommersiell avtale med Bysants i 945.

Igors hustru, senere Sankt Olga, ble regent for deres sønn, Svyatoslav, etter hans død.

Samtidig som det i Europa på 900- og 1000-tallet var en utvikling i gang mot store territorialstater med grunnlag i romersk og germansk tradisjon, utviklet det seg et helt nytt kraftsentrum i den østlige delen av Europa. Det var Russland som vokste frem på slavisk grunn, oppblandet med et sterkt kulturinnslag fra det østromerske rike, det vil si Bysants. Mellom disse maktgrupperingene forsøkte enkelte mindre statsformasjoner å gjøre seg gjeldende. De viktigste av dem var Böhmen, Mähren, Polen og Ungarn, og de store maktkoalisjonene søkte å utvide sin innflytelse over disse områdene.

   I Novgorod kontrollerte rus-høvdingen Rurik ca. 862-79 de nordlige delene av østerleden, mens stammefrendene hans, Askold og Dir, i Kijev hadde kontrollen over rutens sørlige avsnitt. Da Rurik døde, var sønnen Igor (Ingvar) ennå et barn. Hans slektning og formynder Oleg (Helge) overtok ledelsen (880-912) og begynte å utvide slektens maktsfære. Ved svik fikk han myrdet Askold og Dir og okkuperte Kijev, som nå ble Russlands hovedstad, «de russiske byers mor». Da han senere inntok Smolensk, kontrollerte han et rike som strakte seg langs handelsleden fra Finskebukta og Ladoga til Dnepr's nedre løp, der nomadestammen petsjenegerne lå i bakhold ved elvestrykene og ventet på de reisende. Særlig i vest lyktes det Oleg å underkue endel slaviske stammer med våpenmakt. En liten skandinavisk overklasse av krigere og storkjøpmenn hadde ledelsen i et multinasjonalt samfunn som foruten slaver også innbefattet finskbeslektede folkeslag. Rikets fremste handelsbyer var etter alder og rang disse: Kijev, Tsjernigov, Pereyaslav, Novgorod og Smolensk.

Fordi det lyktes å holde petsjenegerne borte fra Dnepr's nedre løp, og som en følge av angrepet på Bysants i 907, ble ferdselsveiene for fjernhandelen åpnet på ny, og med handelen kom også fruktene av den sørlige høykultur til Russland. Det unge Russland opplevde en tid preget av kraftig utvikling.

Oleg døde omkring 912, muligens så sent som i 922 ifølge «Novgorod Lietopis».

I Igors regjeringstid fortsatte den indre stabiliseringen av riket, særlig fordi stadig flere slaver begynte å nå opp til ledende stillinger, samtidig som varjagerne i stadig større utstrekning begynte å smelte sammen med den slaviske majoriteten. De «russiske» representantene i de første avtaler med Bysants hadde skandinaviske navn, men etter Igors korstog i 941 og 944 fantes det et ganske sterkt innslag av slavere blant forhandlerne om forretningsavtaler.

Kort tid etter hjemkomsten fra kampanjen mot Bysants, ble Igor drept i kamp med den slaviske Drevlianstammen nær byen Iskorosten i et forsøk på å samle inn en tvungen ekstraskatt. Dereva var den viktigste byen i denne folkegruppens område.

Tekst: Tore Nygaard

Kilder:

Cappelens verdenshistorie, bind 5 (1982-87): Østens storriker, side 257-258. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 147. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.

--------------------

Igor (Ukrainian: Ігор, Russian: Игорь, Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945.

Contents [hide]

1 Biography

2 See also

3 References

4 External links

[edit] Biography

Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time.[citation needed] That he was Rurik's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources.[1] Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Prince Igor Exacting Tribute from the Drevlyans, by Klavdiy Lebedev (1852-1916).Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945 (Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart."[2]) and avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev. The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

[edit] See also

List of Ukrainian rulers

List of Russian rulers

[edit] References

1.^ Zuckerman, Constantine. On the Date of the Khazars' Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor. A Study of the Anonymous Khazar Letter from the Genizah of Cairo. // Revue des études byzantines. 1995. 53. Pp. 237–270.

2.^ Korosten (Iskorosten) - A small town with a great history, Leonid Tarasenko (November 07, 2008)

[edit] External links

Icon of Prince Igor of Kiev, Holy Orthodox Church in North America

Preceded by

Oleg Ruler of Rus Succeeded by

Olga

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_of_Kiev"

Categories: 9th-century births | 945 deaths | Rulers of Kievan Rus | Viking Age monarchs | History of Russia | History of Ukraine | Rurik Dynasty | Rurikids | 10th-century Russian princes

--------------------

Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev

Born circa 875 at Novogorod, Kiev

Acceded: 924

Died in 945, murdered by the Drevlians from the town of Korosten .

Although said to be less capable than leaders before and after him, Igor nontheless carried the conquests of Kievian Rus further. He undertook campaigns against Persia, Constantinople and Bulgaria.

Igor married in 903 to St. Olga, Regent of Kiev, who was born circa 890 and died in 969.

Igor and Olga had a son:

Svyatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev

--------------------

According to the Chronicles Igor was Rurik's son, but since historians recently have expressed some doubts about it I'm ending the line at Igor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor%2C_Grand_Prince_of_Kiev

--------------------

According to the Chronicles Igor was Rurik's son, but since historians recently have expressed some doubts about it I'm ending the line at Igor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor%2C_Grand_Prince_of_Kiev

--------------------

Igor was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945. Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources. Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945 and revenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev. The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

--------------------

Biografi

Furste i Kiev (Konugård) från 912. Född omkring 875 i Novgorod, Ryssland. Död 945 i Ukraina. Igor är en rysk form av det nordiska namnet Ingvar. När furst Oleg dog år 912 kunde Igor, den rättmätige arvtagaren till riket, äntligen sätta sig på tronen. En Ibn Fadlan reste i riket och skrev noggrant ner sina iakttagelser i en reseskildring. Rusernas kung, säger han, har i sitt slott 400 av sina tappraste män, som stupar med honom och låter sig dödas för honom. De har alla sin plats under hans tron, som är mycket stor och prydd med ädelstenar. Där finns också 400 slavinnor, och ofta har han samlag med en av dem i närvaro av sina vapenbröder. Kungen stiger aldrig ner från tronen och när han har naturbehov förrättar han dem i en skål. När han vill rida förs en häst fram till tronen så att han kan stiga upp direkt på den och rida bort. Ibn Fadlan beskriver också rusernas utseende, 'jag har aldrig sett så fulländade kroppar, de var som palmträd, blonda och rödlätta. De har varken jackor eller kaftaner, utan mannen bär en dräkt som täcker ena sidan av kroppen men lämnar en hand fri. Var och en har med sig en yxa, ett svärd och en kniv, och dessa redskap lämnar de aldrig ifrån sig. Deras svärd är breda, räfflade, av frankisk tillverkning. Från naveln till halsen är de tatuerade i grönt med träd och andra bilder. Alla deras kvinnor har över bröstet en dosa fastgjord, som är av järn, silver, koppar eller guld, efter mannens förmögenhet och inkomst'. Berättaren kritiserar rusernas dåliga hygien och omåttliga öldrickande. (Källa: Vikingar i österled, Mats G. Larsson)

Gifte och barn

Olga av Kiev.

Gift

 Svjatoslav av Kiev.

--------------------

Född cirka 877, död 945. Varjagisk storfurste i Kiev 912–945. Under Igor som troligen var son till Rurik och bar det nordiska namnet Ingvar assimilerades i Dneprdalen ett litet härskande skikt av nordbor med det östslaviska bondesamhället. Igor var far till Svjatoslav.

Källa: Nationalencyklopedin.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor,_Grand_Prince_of_Kiev -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rorik_of_Dorestad -------------------- http://genealogy.euweb.cz/russia/rurik1.html#IP

Rurik, konung of Novgorod and Ladoga (862-879), +879 (for his identity see NOTE); m.Efanda/Sfandra/Ingrid of Norway, sister of Helgu/Oleg (+912), konung of Novgorod and Kiev; They had issue:

  • A1. Ingvar/Igor "the Old", konung of Novgorod and Kiev (912-945/6), *877, +killed nr Iskorosten 945/946; m.St.Helga/Olga of Pskov (*ca 903 +969), regent in Kiev (945-964)), she was baptised in Constantinople and received the name Elena
    • B1. Svyatoslav I, konung of Novgorod and Kiev (945/6-972), *ca 942, +killed by Pechenegs 972; 1m: Predslava (a Bohemian woman); 2m: Malusha (*ca 944 +1002), a household servant of his mother
      • C1. [1m.] Yaropolk I, Pr of Kiev (972-980), *961, +murdered in Kiev 980; m.NN, a Greek nun
        • D1. Svyatopolk I "the Accursed", Pr of Turov, Great Pr of Kiev (1015)+(1017-19), *980, +on the way to Poland, after the battle on Alta River 1019; m.ca 1013 N, dau.of Boleslav I of Poland
      • C2. [1m.] Oleg, Pr of Iskorosten (972-977), +k.a.977
      • C3. [2m.] Saint Vladimir I "Velikiy" "the Great", Pr of Novgorod (972-980), Great Pr of Kiev (980-1015), *ca 958, +Berestovo 15.7.1015; 1m: in Scandinavia btw 977-980 Olava (Eiriksdottir?) of Sweden; 2m: ca 977 (div 986, from 989 a nun) Rogneda/Ragnheid Ragnvaldsdottir of Norway (*ca 956 +1002 as a nun), dau.of Pr Rogvolod of Polotzk; 3m: Malfrida N (+1002) a Bohemian woman; 4m: Adela N, Bulgarian woman; 5m: Crimea 988 Anna Porphyrogeneta of Byzantium (*13.3.963, +1011); 6m: 1012 N (+1019), dau.of Duke Konrad I of Swabia by Rechlind of Germany
        • D1. [1m./4m.] Vysheslav, Pr of Novgorod (988-1010), +1010
        • D2. [2m.] Izyaslav, Pr of Polotzk (988-1001), *980/981, +1001; for his descendants see HERE
        • D3. [2m.] Vsevolod, Pr of Vladimir-Volynsk (988-995), +ca 995
        • D4. [2m.] Yaroslav I "Mudriy" "the Wise", Pr of Rostov (988-1010), Pr of Novgorod (1013-15), Great Pr of Kiev (1015-17)+(1019-54), *ca 986, +20.2.1054, bur St.Sophia Cathedral; 1m: Saint Anna (+1018, bur St.Sophia Cathedral); m.1019 Pss Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (+10.2.1050, bur St.Sophia Cathedral)
        • ...
        • D5. [2m.] Premyslava, +1015; m.Laszlo of Hungary (+1029)
        • D6. [2m.] Predslava; m.Duke Boleslav III of Bohemia (+1035), other sources say she was a concubine of Boleslaw I of Poland
        • D7. [3m.] Svyatoslav, Pr of Iskorosten (988-1015), +k.a.after 15.7.1015
        • D8. [4m.] Mstislav I "the Brave", Pr of Tmutarakan (988-1024), Great Pr of Chernigov (1024-36), *978, +1036; m.Maria N
          • E1. Yevstafiy, +young 1033
        • D9. [4m.] Saint Boris, Pr of Rostov (1010-15), *ca 990, +murdered 24/25.7.1015; he may have married Aestrid, sister of king Canute I the Great of England, Denmark and Norway
        • D10. [4m.] SaintGleb, Pr of Murom (1010-15), *ca 984, +murdered 5.8.1015
        • D11. [mother uncertain] Stanislav, Pr of Smolensk (978/1010-15), +before 1015
        • D12. [mother uncertain] Sudislav, Pr of Pskov, imprisoned 1035-59, +as a monk in Kiev 1063
        • D13. [6m.] Agafia (Agatha), +as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne ca 1093; for her parentage see notes; m.1038/43 Edward (II) of England (*1016 +1057)
        • D14. [6m.] Dobronega-Maria, *after 1012, +1087; m.1038/42 King Kazimir I of Poland (*25.7.1016 +19.3.1058

http://genealogy.euweb.cz/russia/rurik2.html

Izyaslav, inherited Polotsk from his mother - Pr of Polotzk (988-1001), *ca 980, +1001; He had issue:

  • A1. Vseslav, Pr of Polotzk (1001-03), +1003
  • A2. Bryachislav, Pr of Polotzk (1003-44), Pr of Vitebsk (1021-44), *ca 997, +1044; m.N ("a witch")
    • B1. Vseslav "the Sorcerer", Pr of Polotsk (1044-69)+(1071-1101), Gr Pr of Kiev (IX.1068-IV.1069), *ca 1030, +14.4.1101, bur St.Sophia Cathedral, Polotsk
      • C1. Roman, Pr of Polotzk (1101-16), +1116
      • C2. Gleb, 1st Pr of Minsk (1101-19), Pr of Polotsk (1116-19), +in prison Kiev 1119; m.1090 Anastasia of Turov and Lutsk (*1074, +I.1158)
        • D1-D4
      • C3. Boris, Pr of Polotsk (1119-27), Pr of Drutsk (1101-19), +1127/28
        • D1-D3
      • C4. Rogvolod, Pr of Polotsk (1127-28), +1128
        • D1-D3
      • C5. Davyd, Pr of Polotsk (1128-29), imprisoned with his nephews by Mstislav I and sent to Constantinople in 1129
        • D1-D2
      • C6. Sviatoslav, Pr of Vitebsk (1101-29); m.Sofia of Kiev
        • D1-D4
      • C7. Rostislav, fl 1140
        • D1...

-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. c. 877

d. 945, Dereva region [Russia]

also called INGVAR, grand prince of Kiev and presumably the son of Rurik, prince of Novgorod, who is considered the founder of the dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy until 1598. Igor, successor to the great warrior and diplomat Oleg (reigned c. 879-912), assumed the throne of Kiev in 912.

Depicted as a greedy, rapacious, and unsuccessful prince by the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, Igor in 913-914 led an expedition into Transcaucasia that ended in total disaster for his forces. He also conducted two expeditions against Byzantium (941 and 944), but many of his ships were destroyed by the "Greek fire," and the treaty that he finally concluded in 944 was less advantageous to Kiev than the one obtained by Oleg in 911. Igor did manage to extend the authority of Kiev over the Pechenegs, a Turkic people inhabiting the steppes north of the Black Sea, as well as over the East Slavic tribe of Drevlyane. When he went to Dereva (the land of the Drevlyane located in the region of the Pripet River) to collect tribute (945), however, his attempt to extort more than the customary amount provoked the Drevlyane into rebelling and killing him.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica

Wikipedia:

Biography

Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle. It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik 's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.

He twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus, but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.

Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources. Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.

Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945. (Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince’s feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince’s body apart.") and avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev . The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie ) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe. -------------------- Igor I (Old East Slavic/Russian: Игорь; Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945. Information about him comes mostly from the Primary Chronicle. According to the document, Igor was son of Rurik, the first king of Kievan Rus.

from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_of_Kiev

Об {profile::pre} (Русский)

Игорь Рюрикович - князь киевский. Начал княжить в 912 г. по смерти Олега , который правил за его малолетством.

На первых порах Игорю пришлось усмирять восстание разных славянских племен и устанавливать (914) отношения с печенегами, впервые тогда появившимися в русских степях. Торговые и культурные интересы сосредоточивали внимание Игоревой политики на Византии.

Сведения об Игоре дают не только наши летописи, но и иноземные писатели (Симеон Логовет, Лев Грамматик, Георгий Мних, Кедрин, Зонара, продолжатели Феофана и Амартола, Лев Диакон, кремонский епископ Лиутпранд).

Первый поход Игоря на Византию относится к 941 г. С флотом в несколько сот людей Игоря пристал к берегам Вифинии, распространил свои опустошения до Боспора Фракийского и подступил к Константинополю; но его суда не выдержали "греческого огня", и сам Игорь спасся только с 10 судами.

В 944 г. Игорь при содействии варягов и печенегов возобновил свое нападение на Грецию. Греческие послы встретили его по сию сторону Дуная и предложили выкуп, вследствие чего Игорь возвратился в Киев.

В 945 г. прибыли в Киев греческие послы для подтверждения этого мира; с ними Игорь отправил в Царьград своих послов, которые и заключили договор, приводимый летописцем под 945 г.

В этом наиболее пространном из договоров русских с греками X века (напечатан в 1-м выпуске "Хрестоматии по истории русского права" Владимирского-Буданова , где и литература), весьма много положений частного международного права, в которых усматривали древнерусские народные обычаи; на основании их Эверс нарисовал цельную картину нашего древнего юридического быта. Сергеевич ("Журнал Министерства Народного Просвещения", 1882, № 1), утверждая, что положения эти действовали только на греческой территории, и притом в столкновениях греков с русскими (а не русских между собой), доказывает, что при составлении договора русские обычаи принимались во внимание лишь постольку, поскольку не противоречили стремлению греков наложить узду на примитивные нравы Руси и, в частности, на господствовавшее у нее начало самоуправства. Этим значение договора, как источника русского права, в значительной степени умаляется; зато выдвигается другая сторона договоров русских с греками, как первых по времени памятников, в которых выразилось влияние на Русь Византии. Кроме племен, обитавших по обе стороны верхнего и среднего Днепра, владения Руси при Игоре распространялись, по-видимому, на юго-восток до Кавказа и Таврических гор, на что указывает статья договора 945 г., обязывавшая Игоря не допускать нападений черных болгар (т. е. болгар, обитавших на нижней Кубани и в восточной части Крыма) на Корсунь и другие греческие города в Тавриде.

На севере владения Игоря доходили до берегов Волхова; по словам Константина Багрянородного, при жизни Игоря в Новгороде княжил сын его, Святослав .

Смерть Игоря летопись относит к 945 г. Не удовольствовавшись данью, уже полученной с древлян, Игорь с небольшой частью дружины вернулся к ним за новой данью; древляне возмутились и убили Игоря. По словам византийского историка Льва Диакона, древляне привязали его к верхушкам двух нагнутых друг к другу деревьев, а потом отпустили их, и Игорь был разорван.

- См. "П. С. Р. Л." (I, 8 - 10, 12, 18 - 24; II, 238, 239, 241 - 243; Срезневский "Договоры с греками X века" ("Исторические Чтения о языке и словесности"); Н.А. Лавровский "О византийском элементе в языке договоров русских с греками" (1853); В.И. Сергеевич "Лекции и исследования по истории русского права"; М.Д. Приселков "Очерки церковно-политической истории Киевской Руси в X - XII веках"; А.Е. Пресняков "Княжье право древней Руси".

И́горь (возможно др.-исл. Ingvar, ок. 878—945 гг.) — великий князь Киевской Руси, по летописи — сын Рюрика.

Первый русский князь, известный по синхронным византийским (как греч. 'Ιγγωρ) и западноевропейским источникам.

Игорь в летописи

В 879 году, согласно «Повести временных лет» (начало XII века), умирает основатель древнерусской княжеской династии Рюрик, передав власть своему родичу Олегу. Рюрик оставил на попечение Олега малолетнего сына, Игоря. Когда в 882 году Олег подошёл к Киеву, где правили варяги Аскольд и Дир, он хитростью выманил киевских князей из города и приказал убить их именем Игоря, которого летопись называет ещё младенцем: «Не князья вы и не княжеского рода, но я княжеского рода. А это сын Рюрика.»

В русско-византийском договоре 911 года Олег назван «великим князем русским», то есть в документальном источнике он считался не регентом при Игоре, а полновластным правителем.

В 903 году Игорю привели жену из Пскова, Ольгу, будущую княгиню киевскую. Учитывая то, что сын Игоря и Ольги Святослав родился в 942 году, дата женитьбы Игоря выглядит крайне сомнительной. Когда Олег в 907 году отправился на Византию, то оставил Игоря наместником в Киеве. После смерти Олега Игорь в 913 году стал правителем Киевской Руси. Даты смерти Олега и, соответственно, начала правления Игоря, условны; подробнее см. в статье Вещий Олег.

В 914 году Игорь воевал с древлянами и возложил на них дань больше Олеговой.

В 915 году Игорь заключил мир с печенегами, которые впервые появились на Руси, проходя походом на Византию. Мир с печенегами долго не продержался, в 920 Игорь воевал с ними.

Следующее известие о деяниях Игоря летопись относит к 941 году, походу на Царьград. С этого года свидетельства об Игоре впервые появляются в византийских источниках того времени (стал первым русским князем, названным по имени в нерусских источниках).

Поход на Царьград 941—944 годов

Основная статья: Русско-византийская война 941—944 годов

Древнерусские летописи в рассказе о походе 941 года восходят к переводам Продолжателя Амартола[1], но также содержат следы народного предания, едва сохранившегося ко времени написания летописей.

Продолжатель Феофана так начинает рассказ о походе: «11 июня четырнадцатого индикта [ 941 года ] на десяти тысячах судов приплыли к Константинополю росы...».[2] Лиутпранд Кремонский, посол итальянского короля Беренгария в Византию в 949 году, замечает о более тысячи кораблей у «короля русов Ингере». [3] Поход сложился неудачно для Игоря, в морском бою русский флот был частично уничтожен греческим огнём. После набегов на византийские земли и ряда поражений Игорь в сентябре того же года вернулся домой. Русский летописец передаёт слова уцелевших воинов: «Будто молнию небесную имеют у себя греки и, пуская ее, пожгли нас; оттого и не одолели их.» О впечатлении, произведённом этим набегом на византийцев, свидетельствует следующий факт. Имя Игоря[4] стало единственным из русских имён, попавшим в византийский энциклопедический словарь X века, известный как Суда.

В 942 году у Игоря рождается Святослав, ставший через 3 года великим князем под опекой матери.[5]

В 943 году (летописная дата 944 год, но историки считают доказанным 943) Игорь собрал новое войско из варягов (скандинавских наёмников), руси (соплеменники Игоря), славян (поляне, словене, кривичи и тиверцы), печенегов и двинулся на Византию конницей по суше, а большей частью войска по морю. Предупреждённый заранее византийский император Роман выслал послов с богатыми дарами навстречу Игорю, который успел достичь Дуная. Одновременно Роман выслал дары печенегам. После совета с дружиной Игорь, удовлетворённый данью, повернул назад. Продолжатель Феофана сообщает о подобном событии в апреле 943 года, только противник византийцев, заключивший мир и повернувший назад без сражения, был назван как турки. Турками византийцы именовали обычно венгров, но иногда широко применяли название ко всем кочевым народам с севера (то есть под турками могли подразумеваться печенеги). Месяц апрель Константин Багрянородный упоминал в связи с началом навигации русов в Византию.

В следующем 944 году[6], Игорь заключил военно-торговый договор с Византией. В договоре упоминаются имена племянников Игоря, его жены княгини Ольги и сына Святослава. Летописец, описывая утверждение договора в Киеве, сообщил о церкви, в которой приносили клятву варяги-христиане.

Смерть Игоря

Осенью 945 года Игорь по требованию дружины, недовольной своим содержанием, отправился за данью к древлянам. Древляне не числились в составе войска, потерпевшего разгром в Византии. Возможно поэтому Игорь решил поправить положение за их счёт. Игорь произвольно увеличил величину дани прежних лет, при её сборе дружинники творили насилие над жителями. На пути домой Игорь принял неожиданное решение:

«Поразмыслив, сказал своей дружине: "Идите с данью домой, а я возвращусь и похожу еще". И отпустил дружину свою домой, а сам с малой частью дружины вернулся, желая большего богатства. Древляне же, услышав, что идет снова, держали совет с князем своим Малом: "Если повадится волк к овцам, то вынесет все стадо, пока не убьют его; так и этот: если не убьем его, то всех нас погубит" [...] и древляне, выйдя из города Искоростеня, убили Игоря и дружинников его, так как было их мало. И погребен был Игорь, и есть могила его у Искоростеня в Деревской земле и до сего времени.»[7]

Спустя 25 лет в письме Святославу византийский император Иоанн Цимисхий напомнил о судьбе князя Игоря, именуя его Ингером. В изложении Льва Диакона император сообщал о том, что Игорь отправился в поход на неких германцев, был захвачен ими в плен, привязан к верхушкам деревьев и разорван надвое.[8]

По преданию, изложенному в летописи, вдова Игоря, княгиня Ольга, жестоко отомстила древлянам. Она хитростью уничтожила их старейшин, перебила много простого народа, сожгла Искоростень и возложила на них тяжёлую дань. Княгиня Ольга при поддержке дружины и бояр Игоря стала править Русью, пока подрастал маленький Святослав, сын Игоря.

В раннем памятнике древнерусской словесности, «Слове о законе и благодати» митрополита Илариона Киевского (до 1050 г.), генеалогия русских князей прослеживается до Игоря. Всего спустя около 100 лет после гибели Игоря Иларион назвал его «древним Игорем». Игоря в ряду других прославленных князей поминает автор «Задонщины», поэтического творения конца XIV века:

«Той бо вещий Боян, воскладая свои златыя персты на живыя струны, пояше славу русскыим князем: первому князю Рюрику, Игорю Рюриковичу и Святославу Ярославичу, Ярославу Володимеровичу...»[9]

Так называемая Иоакимовская летопись, достоверность которой ставится историками под сомнение, сообщает дополнительные сведения о Игоре. Мать его была Ефанда, урманская (норманская) княжна и любимая жена Рюрика, получившая в приданое город Ижора. По мнению В.Н. Татищева имя "Ингорь", происходит от финского (ижорского) имени Ингер. Когда Игорь возмужал, князь Олег привёл ему жену из Изборска, из знатного рода Гостомысла. Её звали Прекраса, но Олег переименовал в Ольгу. Были у Игоря потом другие жены, но Ольгу чтил более других. У Игоря, кроме Святослава, был ещё сын Глеб, которого Святослав казнил за христианские убеждения. [10] В остальном Иоакимовская летопись следует за «Повестью временных лет». В.Н. Татищев также приводит даты рождения Игоря из различных списков: 875 в Раскольничем, 861 в Нижегородском, 865 в Оренбургском.[11]

В начале (913/914) и конце (943/944) правления Игоря русы совершили крупные морские походы в Каспийском регионе (см. Каспийские походы русов), о которых древнерусские летописи умалчивают. Хронологически возможно, что поход в 913/914 гг. повлиял на приход Игоря к власти, так как все его участники, согласно арабским авторам, были перебиты на Волге. По хазарским свидетельствам поход Игоря на Византию был связан с походом на Каспий в 943—945 гг. (см. Набег русов на Бердаа (943)), в котором, согласно хазарскому и арабскому независимым источникам, предводитель русов погиб. Хазарский источник сообщает о гибели именно «царя русов», именуя его X-л-гу[12], что делает заманчивым его отождествление с Вещим Олегом.

Византийское сообщение Льва Диакона о гибели Игоря от рук германцев лишь увеличивает неопределённость. Возможно, информатор Льва Диакона неправильно понял на слух незнакомый этноним "древляне" как более знакомый "германе".

Византийский император Константин Багрянородный в сочинении «Об управлении империей», написанном в 949 году, заметил: «Моноксилы являются одни из Немогарда, в котором сидел Сфендослав, сын Ингора, архонта Росии...» Буквально эта фраза подразумевает то, что к 949 году Игорь был ещё жив, так как по сочинению росы ежегодно по торговым делам приходили в Византию, и Константинополь был осведомлён о положении на Руси. По сведениям, изложенным историком Яном Стржедовским (в Sacra Moraviae Historia sive Vita SS. Cyrilli et Methudii, 1710 г.) в 949 году Игорь заключил союз с Олегом Моравским против Венгрии, но умер в том же году.

Историки, изучающие деяния Игоря по древнерусским летописям, отмечают нестыковки и натяжки в его биографии, что даёт повод к различным реконструкциям его правления.

Примечания

↑ Показывать компактно

1.↑ Продолжатель Амартола — хроника Симеона Логофета, включённая в Хронограф Амартола

2.↑ Продолжатель Феофана. к. VI. Царствование Романа

3.↑ Лиутпранд Кремонский, Книга воздаяния («Антаподосис»), кн.5, XV

5.↑ О дате рождения сообщает Ипатьевская летопись. В Лаврентьевском списке эта информация пропущена.

6.↑ Повесть временных лет относит заключение договора на 945 год, но известно, что император Роман, представляющий с сыновьями византийскую сторону по договору, был свергнут в декабре 944. Дата заключения договора в его тексте не указана.

7.↑ «Повесть временных лет» в переводе Д.С. Лихачева

8.↑ Лев Диакон, «История», кн. 6.10

9.↑ Игорь Рюрикович в энциклопедии "Слова о полку Игореве" — цитата приведена по наиболее раннему списку (ГПБ, Кирилло-Белозерск. собр., № 9/1086, л. 122 об.). Более поздние списки несколько корректируют содержание цитаты.

10.↑ В.Н. Татищев, История Российская, ч.1, гл.4

11.↑ В.Н. Татищев, История Российская, ч.2, прим. 60

12.↑ Транскрипция древнееврейского текста не позволяет точнее передать фонетику имени.

Источники

Новгородская первая летопись старшего и младшего изводов. — М.-Л.: «Издательство Академии Наук СССР», 1950. — 659 с. //«Ізборник». Історія України IX-XVIII

Ипатьевский список «Повести временных лет»//«Ізборник». Історія України IX-XVIII

ИГОР = УГОР ЛАЧИН - внук на кан Урус Айдар, Син на Лачин, племенник на кан Джилки и родственик на княз Борис от рода Дуло.

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Igor I of Kiev's Timeline

878
878
Novgorod, Russia
912
912
Age 34
912
- 945
Age 34
Kiev, Ukraine
930
930
Age 52
Kiev, Ukraine
942
July 942
Age 64
Kiev, Kiev city, Kyiv city, Ukraine
945
October 945
Age 67
Iskorosten (Korosten), Chernihivs'ka oblast, Ukraine
October 945
Age 67
Korosten, Chernihivs'ka oblast, Ukraine
1929
November 30, 1929
Age 67
November 30, 1929
Age 67
November 30, 1929
Age 67