Mariana Victoria of Spain, Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves (1718 - 1781) MP

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Death: Died in Palácio de Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal
Occupation: Queen of Portugal, infanta de España, Queen of Portugal 1750-1777, Infanta of Spain
Managed by: Terje Wølner-Hanssen
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About Mariana Victoria of Spain, Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariana_Victoria_of_Spain

Mariana Victoria of Spain

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Mariana Victoria

Mariana by Miguel António do Amaral, 1773

Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves

Tenure 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777

Spouse Joseph I of Portugal and the Algarves

Issue

Maria I of Portugal

Infanta Mariana

Infanta Doroteia

Infanta Benedita, Princess of Brazil

Full name

Spanish: Mariana Victoria de Espana

Portuguese: Mariana Vitória de Espana

French: Marie Anne Victoire d'Espagne

House House of Braganza

House of Bourbon

Father Philip V of Spain

Mother Elisabeth Farnese

Born 31 March 1718(1718-03-31)

Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Died 15 January 1781 (aged 62)

Palácio de Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal

Burial Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon

Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain (Portuguese: Mariana Vitória) (31 March 1718 – 15 January 1781) was Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves as the wife of Joseph I. She also acted as regent of Portugal.

She has descendants ranging from the present King of Spain, King of Belgium, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Parma (the Parma line was founded by her second surviving brother Philip) and a French Pretender, the Count of Paris.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Biography
         o 1.1 France
   * 2 Marriage
   * 3 Queen
   * 4 Regent
   * 5 Queen Dowager
   * 6 Issue
   * 7 Ancestors
   * 8 Titles, styles, honours and arms
         o 8.1 Titles and styles
   * 9 See also
   * 10 References

[edit] Biography

Born at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Madrid, she was the eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and his second wife Elisabeth Farnese. Her mother was the heiress of the Duchy of Parma which was owned by Mariana's great uncle Francesco Farnese.

Main article: Descendants of Philip V of Spain

At the time of her birth, Mariana Victoria was fourth in line to the throne of Spain.

[edit] France

As of 1721, the Infanta was engaged to her first cousin Louis XV of France. The couple were to have their first meeting at the Île des Faisans ("Isle of Pheasents") where their common ancestors, Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain, had met in 1660. It was at the isle that she had to leave her Spanish retinue behind; Mariana Victoria arrived in Paris on 2 March 1721 amongst much celebration. During her time in Paris, she lived with Louis at the Palais du Louvre. In France her name was changed to Marie Anne Victoire d'Espagne or de Bourbon.

The young princess was said to have been in awe of her husband to be and even followed him around Versailles where she was transported and lived for a time. Known as l'infante Reine (Queen-Infanta) while in France, she was placed in the care of the old Dowager Princess of Conti - the eldest illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV and Louise de La Vallière.

The marriage proposal was part of a wider set of engagements which included the proposal (and marriage) of Philip V's eldest son Louis I of Spain to Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans and another proposal of Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans to the young Infante Charles of Spain. Philippine Élisabeth and Louise Élisabeth were both daughters of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the regent of France. The latter marriage never occurred. Like Mariana Victoria, Philippine was eventually sent back home. The Regent who had worked to secure the marriage had died, and the new Prime Minister, Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, feared chaos if the young king Louis XV would die without male offspring - and with the 7 years old Infante, offspring was still far away. It was decided to seek another bride for the king, one of sufficient age.

Mariana Victoria in 1724, Nicolas de Largillière.

Mariana Victoria by Alexis Simon Belle.

Mariana Victoria was popular with all at the court, apart from the king himself. Accoding to the mother of the Régent, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Mariana was the sweetest and prettiest little thing. She was often praised as witty child. Louis XV disliked the child and avoided her presence.

Her arrival in Spain was not taken well by the Spanish, and caused a diplomatic riot between Spain and France. The offended Spanish soon after concluded a treaty with Austria (Treaty of Vienna (1725)), whilst England sought support from France.

Her younger sister Infanta Maria Theresa was later married to the eldest son of Louis XV Louis, Dauphin of France (1729–1765).

[edit] Marriage

In 1724 her father abdicated the throne in favour of her half brother, Louis; he was king for just nine months and died in August. As such her father became king again; due to her mother having given birth to the future Duke of Parma, Mariana Victoria was still able to inherit as she had not yet married Louis XV; She remained fourth in line for some time.

The engagement was later broken off; in 1727, the Portuguese Marquis of Abrantes (Portuguese Ambassador) was at the Spanish court and he began arrangements for the betrothal of Mariana and the future Joseph I of Portugal. She married Joseph on 19 January 1729 at Elvas, Portugal. This marriage was once again part of a larger scheme which involved Mariana's half brother, Infante Ferdinand (then the Prince of Asturias) marrying the oldest sister of Joseph, Infanta Barbara of Portugal. Ferdinand and Barbara married the day after Mariana and Joseph.

From her marriage, she was known as the Princess of Brazil as she was the wife of the Prince of Brazil who was the heir to the throne. She was known by this title for some 21 years during which all her children were born.

[edit] Queen

At the death of her father-in-law, John V of Portugal, in 1750 she and her husband became the rulers of the vast Portuguese Empire. During her husbands reign the devastating 1755 Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755, in which around 100,000 people lost their lives. The earthquake caused Joseph to develop a severe case of claustrophobia and he was never again comfortable living within a walled building. Consequently, he moved the royal court to an extensive complex of tents in the hills of Ajuda.

It was during this time that the famous Marquis of Pombal rose to power in Portugal and was its unofficial ruler.

She was also slightly involved with the Távora affair of 1758-9 where an assassination plot against her husband was meant to have been plotted against him by the Távora family; Pombal later ordered the execution of all members but thanks to the intervention of Mariana and her daughter, the then Princess of Brazil, the women and children were spared. Mariana and her daughter were not fans of the King's fondness for Pombal and he was dismissed in the reign of her daughter.

A very serious woman, she had inherited her husband's independence and willpower; her husband was often unfaithful but the proud Mariana Victoria was not afraid to talk about it in open society - something a Queen Consort was never expected to do. Mariana Victoria was a great fan of music and had inherited the Bourbon passion for hunting. During her life in Portugal, she maintained a correspondence with her family in Spain. She also saw the enlargement of the stunning Queluz National Palace outside the capital.

[edit] Regent

When her husband was declared incapable of ruling in 1774, she was proclaimed Regent, and acted as the Regent for Portugal in all matters until Joseph's death on 24 February 1777. Upon her husband's death, their eldest daughter Maria became the first queen regnant as Maria I of Portugal. Even in her daughter's reign she used to exert much influence on her daughter who would often ask her mothers advice on most matters of state.

[edit] Queen Dowager

In October 1777, Mariana Victoria went to her home country then ruled by her older brother Charles III.

Staying in Spain for just over a year, residing both in Madrid and at Aranjuez, she was responsible for helping to arrange marriages for her grandchildren (Maria's children) and children of her brother King Charles. One of these marriages was between the Infante Gabriel of Spain and Mariana Victoria's grand daughter the Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal[1]. The second marriage was between the Infanta Charlotte of Spain, eldest daughter of Charles IV of Spain and Mariana's grandson the Inafnte John of Portugal.

While in Spain Mariana Victoria had had an attack of Rheumatism and was confined to a wheelchair for some time in August 1778. She returned to Portugal in November 1778. By the time of her return, Mariana was suffering from Heat disease as well Arthritis.[2]

She died at the Real Barraca de Ajuda (Royal Tent)[3], Lisbon, Portugal at the age of 62 having outlived her husband for just under 4 years. When she died, her daughter Maria I wrote to the king of Spain, Charles III that Mariana's death had been such a painful blow for she was a precious companion in every way.[4]

She was buried at the Royal Monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon where her husband had been buried in 1777.

In 1816, her great-grandson Pedro I of Brazil became the first emperor of Brazil; the Brazilian Imperial Family was formed by him and his wife Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria who was a descendant of Mariana's oldest brother, Charles III of Spain.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mariana Victoria of Spain

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of

Mariana Victoria of Spain

Escudo de España (mazonado).svg

Reference style Her Most Faithful Majesty

Spoken style Your Most Faithful Majesty

Alternative style Sire

[edit] Titles and styles

   * 31 March 1718 – 19 January 1729 Her Royal Highness Dona Mariana Victoria, Infanta of Spain
   * 19 January 1729 – 31 July 1750 Her Royal Highness the Princess of Brazil
   * 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777 Her Most Faithful Majesty the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
   * 24 February 1777 – 15 January 1781 Her Most Faithful Majesty the Dowager Queen of Portugal and the Algarves

[edit] See also

Biography portal

Europe portal

   * List of Portuguese monarchs

[edit] References

  1. ^ Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal was named after her grand mother and born at Queluz in 1768
  2. ^ Roberts. Jennifer, the Madness of Queen Maria; Templeton Press, 2009, p.62-3
  3. ^ the Real Barraca had been erected by her husband at Ajuda after the 1755 earthquake
  4. ^ Roberts. Jennifer, the Madness of Queen Maria; Templeton Press, 2009, p.68

This page was last modified on 7 June 2010 at 09:17. -------------------- Mariana Victoria of Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mariana Victoria of Bourbon (Portuguese: Mariana Vitória) (March 31, 1718 – January 15, 1781) was queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves due to her marriage to Joseph I.

[edit]Biography

Mariana Victoria was the eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese. As a child, she was engaged to Louis XV of France, but went back to Spain to continue her education. The engagement was later broken off and she was instead engaged to the future Joseph I of Portugal. She married Joseph on January 19, 1729. When her husband was declared incapable of ruling in 1774, she was proclaimed Regent, and acted as the Regent for Portugal in all matters until Joseph's death on February 24, 1777. Upon her husband's death, their eldest daughter Maria became the first queen regnant as Maria I of Portugal.

Marriage and Children

Four daughters by Joseph I of Portugal:

Maria, Queen of Portugal

Infanta Mariana

Infanta Doroteia

Infanta Benedita

view all

Mariana Victoria of Spain, Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves's Timeline

1718
March 31, 1718
Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
1729
January 19, 1729
Age 10
Elvas, Portalegre, Portugal
1734
December 17, 1734
Age 16
Lisbon, Portugal
1736
October 7, 1736
Age 18
Lisboa, Portugal
1739
September 21, 1739
Age 21
Lisboa, Portugal
1746
July 25, 1746
Age 28
Lisboa, Portugal
1781
January 15, 1781
Age 62
Palácio de Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal
????
Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, Portugal