Jacme I 'el Conquistador' de Aragón, rey de Aragón (1208 - 1276) MP

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Nicknames: "Jayme", "Jagme", "Jaume d'Aragó", "el Conqueridor"
Birthplace: Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
Death: Died in Valencia, Spain
Occupation: King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier, Rey de Aragón, Conde de Barcelona y Señor de Montpellier, Rey de Aragón (1213-1276), Conde de Barcelona (1213-1276), Señor de Montpellier (1213-1276), Koning van Aragon
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Jacme I 'el Conquistador' de Aragón, rey de Aragón

Jaime I de Aragón De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaime_I_de_Arag%C3%B3n

Have alook at History Video of Jaume 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8AfxI1vtO4

Jaime I de Aragón (Montpellier, 2 de febrero de 1208 - Alcira, 27 de julio de 1276) fue rey de Aragón (1213 - 1276), de Valencia (1239-76) y de Mallorca (1229-1276), conde de Barcelona (1213-1276), señor de Montpellier (1219-1276) y de otros feudos en Occitania.

Hijo de Pedro II el Católico y de María de Montpellier, era el heredero de dos importantes linajes: la Casa de Aragón y el de los emperadores de Bizancio, por parte de su madre.

Tuvo una infancia difícil. Su padre, que acabaría repudiando a la reina, sólo llegó a concebirlo mediante engaño de algunos nobles y eclesiásticos que temían por la falta de un sucesor, y la colaboración de María, haciendo creer a Pedro que se acostaba con una de sus amantes. Estas circunstancias produjeron el rechazo de Pedro II hacia el pequeño Jaime, a quien no conoció sino a los dos años de su nacimiento. A esa edad, el rey hizo un pacto matrimonial para entregar a su hijo Jaime a la tutela de Simón, Señor de Montfort, para casarlo con la hija de éste, Amicia, para lo cual el niño iba a ser recluido en el castillo de Carcasona hasta los 18 años.

A la muerte de su padre, durante la cruzada albigense, en la batalla de Muret (1213), Simón de Montfort se resistió a entregar a Jaime a los aragoneses hasta después de un año de reclamaciones y sólo por mandato del papa Inocencio III. Durante su minoría de edad, estuvo bajo la tutela de los caballeros templarios en el castillo de Monzón, habiendo sido encomendado a Guillém de Mont-Rodon, junto con su primo de la misma edad, el Conde de Provenza Ramón Berenguer V. Mientras, actuaba como regente del reino el conde Sancho Raimúndez, hijo de Petronila de Aragón y Ramón Berenguer IV y tío abuelo de Jaime. Heredó el señorío de Montpellier a la muerte de su madre (1213).

Huérfano de padre y madre, tenía unos 6 años cuando fue jurado en las Cortes de Lérida de 1214. En septiembre de 1218 se celebraron por primera vez en Lérida unas Cortes generales de aragoneses y catalanes, en las cuales fue declarado mayor de edad.

En febrero de 1221 se desposó con Leonor de Castilla, hermana de Doña Berenguela y tía de Fernando III de Castilla. Anulado su primer casamiento por razón de parentesco, contrajo segundo matrimonio con la princesa Violante (8 de septiembre de 1235), hija de Andrés II, rey de Hungría. Por el testamento de su primo Nuño Sánchez, heredó los condados de Rosellón y Cerdaña y el vizcondado de Fenolledas en Francia (1241).

De su primera mujer, Leonor, tuvo a don Alfonso (1229-1260). Se casó con Constanza de Moncada.

De la segunda, Violante de Hungría, tuvo a:

Don Pedro (futuro Pedro III el Grande), que le sucedió en los reinos de Aragón, Valencia y en los condados catalanes. Don Jaime (futuro Jaime II de Mallorca), que heredó el reino de Mallorca, que comprendía las islas Baleares —Mallorca, Menorca (todavía bajo el poder de un soberano musulmán aunque tributaria desde 1231), Ibiza y Formentera—, los condados del Rosellón y la Cerdaña y los territorios que el Conquistador conservaba en Occitania (el señorío de Montpellier, el vizcondado de Carlades, en Auvernia, y la baronía de Omelades, contigua a Montpellier). Don Fernando (1245-1250), que murió niño. Don Sancho (1250-1275), arcediano de Belchite, abad de Valladolid y arzobispo de Toledo, falleció prisionero de los moros granadinos. Doña Violante de Aragón (1236-1301), mujer de Alfonso X el Sabio. Doña Constanza (1239-1269), esposa del infante castellano Don Manuel, hermano de Alfonso X el Sabio. Doña Sancha, que se hizo monja y murió en Jerusalén. Doña María (1248-1267), religiosa también. Doña Isabel (1247-1271), esposa de Felipe III el Atrevido, hijo de San Luis de Francia. -------------------- James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the Principality of Catalonia from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Catalan supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He made Catalan the official language of his domains[2] and sponsored Catalan literature, even a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

James was born at Montpellier as the only child of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles with the Cathar heretics of Albi on one side and the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them on the other. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento.

James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.[3]

In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.[4]

James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández:

Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca:

Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca -------------------- Jaime I, Rey de Aragón ▼1 M, #106799, b. 1205, d. 25 July 1276 Last Edited=5 May 2009

Jaime I, Rey de Aragón was born in 1205. ▼1 He was the son of Pedro II, Rey de Aragón and Marie de Montpelier. ▼2 He married, firstly, Eleanor de Castilla, daughter of Alfonso VIII, Rey de Castilla and Eleanor Plantagenet, in 1221. ▼2 He and Eleanor de Castilla were divorced in 1229. ▼1 He married, secondly, Yolante Arpád, daughter of Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary and Yolande de Courtney, on 8 September 1235. He married, thirdly, Theresa Vidaure after 1251. ▼2 He died on 25 July 1276.

    Jaime I, Rey de Aragón also went by the nick-name of Jaime 'the COnqueror' (?). ▼3 He succeeded to the title of Rey Jaime I de Aragón in 1213. ▼2

Child of Jaime I, Rey de Aragón and Eleanor de Castilla -1. Alfonso de Aragón, Infante de Aragón ▼2 b. c 1200, d. 1260

Children of Jaime I, Rey de Aragón and Yolante Arpád -1. Yolante de Aragón+ ▼4 d. 1300 -2. Pedro de Ayerve ▼4 -3. Sancho de Aragón ▼4 d. 1275 -4. Constanza de Aragón+ ▼5 d. c 1269 -5. Pedro III, Rey de Aragón+ ▼4 b. 1236, d. 1285 -6. Isabel de Aragón+ ▼4 b. 1243, d. 28 Jan 1271 -7. Jaime I, Rey de Majorca+ ▼4 b. 1243, d. 1311

Source / Forrás: http://thepeerage.com/p10680.htm#i106799

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon -------------------- James I of Aragon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Catalan supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He made Catalan the official language of his domains[2] and sponsored Catalan literature, even a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

Early life and reign until majority

James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento. James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.[3] In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.[4] [edit]Acquisition of Urgell

In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax' mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James' father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit. James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses.[5] She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal.

Relations with France and Navarre

From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene.[6] In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia. [edit]Reconquista

After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Mediterranean Sea, where he conquered the Balearic Islands (Majorca 1229; Minorca 1232; Ibiza 1235) and where Valencia capitulated 28 September 1238. During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. On 26 March 1244, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Almizra to determine the zones of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between them. Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly-created Kingdom of Valencia. James signed it on that date, but Alfonso did not affirm it until much later. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. [edit]Crusade of 1269

The "khan of Tartary" (actually the Ilkhan) Abaqa corresponded with James in early 1267, inviting him to join forces with the Mongols and go on Crusade.[7] James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269.[8] Pope Clement IV tried to dissuade James from Crusading, regarding his moral character as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a Crusade. After organising the government for his absence and assembling a fleet at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to sail east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. A storm, however, drove him off course and he landed at Aigues-Mortes. According the the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a Crusade. I James' bastard sons Pedro Fernández and Fernán Sánchez, who had been given command of part of the fleet, did continue on their way to Acre, where they arrived in December. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. During the demonstration, Egyptian troops hidden in the bushes ambushed a returning Frankish force which had been in Galilee. James' sons, initially eager for a fight, changed their minds after this spectacle and returned home via Sicily, where Fernán Sánchez was knighted by Charles of Anjou.

Patronage of art, learning, and literature

James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles.[9] James was a patron of the University of Montpellier, which owed much of its development to his impetus.[10] He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly.[11] In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso. James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers."[12] James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, Llibre dels fets in Catalan, which is the first self-chronicle of a Christian king. As well as a fine example of autobiography the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; the growth of national sentiment based on homeland, language, and culture; and medieval military tactics. James also wrote the Libre de la Saviesa or "Book of Wisdom." The book contains proverbs from various authors going back as far as King Solomon and as close to his own time, such as Albert the Great. It even contains maxims from the medieval Arab philosophers and from the Apophthegmata Philosophorum of Honein ben Ishak, which was probably translated at Barcelona during his reign. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period.[13] Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse.[14] In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon and Catalonia. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible.[15]

Succession

The favour James showed his illegitimate offspring led to protest from the nobles, and to conflicts between his sons legitimate and illegitimate. When one of the latter, Fernán Sánchez, who had behaved with gross ingratitude and treason to his father, was slain by the legitimate son Peter, the old king recorded his grim satisfaction. At the close of his life, James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary: the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July.

Marriages and children

James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate: Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children: Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy. James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons. By Blanca d'Antillón: Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández: Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca: Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

-------------------- James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a significant place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

Early life and reign until majority

James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento.

James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.

In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms. Acquisition of Urgell

In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau IV de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax's mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James's father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.

James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses. She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. Relations with France and Navarre

From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene. In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession.

James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia. Reconquest

After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Mediterranean Sea, where he conquered Majorca on 10 September in 1229 and the rest of the Balearic Islands; Minorca 1232; Ibiza 1235) and where Valencia capitulated 28 September 1238. Chroniclers say he used gunpowder in the siege of Museros castle.

During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. On 26 March 1244, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Almizra to determine the zones of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between them. Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly-created Kingdom of Valencia. James signed it on that date, but Alfonso did not affirm it until much later. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. Crusade of 1269

The "khan of Tartary" (actually the Ilkhan) Abaqa corresponded with James in early 1267, inviting him to join forces with the Mongols and go on Crusade.[6] James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269.[7] Pope Clement IV tried to dissuade James from Crusading, regarding his moral character as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a Crusade. After organising the government for his absence and assembling a fleet at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to sail east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. A storm, however, drove him off course and he landed at Aigues-Mortes. According to the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a Crusade.

James' bastard sons Pedro Fernández and Fernán Sánchez, who had been given command of part of the fleet, did continue on their way to Acre, where they arrived in December. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. During the demonstration, Egyptian troops hidden in the bushes ambushed a returning Frankish force which had been in Galilee. James' sons, initially eager for a fight, changed their minds after this spectacle and returned home via Sicily, where Fernán Sánchez was knighted by Charles of Anjou.

Patronage of art, learning, and literature

James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles.

James was a patron of the University of Montpellier, which owed much of its development to his impetus. He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly. In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso.

James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers." James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, Llibre dels fets in Catalan, which is the first self-chronicle of a Christian king. As well as a fine example of autobiography the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; and medieval military tactics. More controversially, some historians have looked at these writings as a source of Catalan identity, separate from that of Occitania and Rome.

James also wrote the Libre de la Saviesa or "Book of Wisdom". The book contains proverbs from various authors going back as far as King Solomon and as close to his own time, such as Albert the Great. It even contains maxims from the medieval Arab philosophers and from the Apophthegmata Philosophorum of Honein ben Ishak, which was probably translated at Barcelona during his reign. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period.

Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse. In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible. Succession

The favour James showed his illegitimate offspring led to protest from the nobles, and to conflicts between his sons legitimate and illegitimate. When one of the latter, Fernán Sánchez, who had behaved with gross ingratitude and treason to his father, was slain by the legitimate son Peter, the old king recorded his grim satisfaction.

In his Will James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary: the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. Always the home de fembres (“lady’s man”), he eloped with the wife of one of his vassals in his final years and was excommunicated for his efforts by Pope Gregory X. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July. Marriages and children Aragonese and Valencian Royalty House of Barcelona Aragon Arms.svg Alfonso II Children include

  Peter (future Peter II of Aragon)
  Alfonso II, Count of Provence

Peter II Children include

  James (future James I of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca)

James I

  Peter (future Peter III of Aragon and I of Valencia and Sicily)
  James II of Majorca
  Violant, Queen of Castile
  Constance, Infanta of Castile
  Isabella, Queen of France

Peter III (I of Valencia and Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso III of Aragon and I of Valencia)
  James (future James I of Sicily and II of Aragon and Valencia)
  Frederick II of Sicily
  Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal
  Yolanda, Duchess of Calabria

Alfonso III (I of Valencia) James II (I of Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)

Alfonso IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  Peter (future Peter IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)

Peter IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  Constance, Queen of Sicily
  John (future John I of Aragon and Valencia)
  Martin (future Martin II of Sicily and I of Aragon and Valencia)
  Eleanor, Queen of Castile
  Isabella, Countess of Urgel

Grandchildren include

  Ferdinand (future Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily)
  Isabella, Countess of Urgel and Coimbra

John I

  Yolande, Queen of France

Martin I (II of Sicily)

James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

  1. Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre

In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

  1. Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile
  2. Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III
  3. Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia
  4. James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc
  5. Ferdinand (1245–1250)
  6. Sancha (1246–1251)
  7. Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France
  8. Mary (1248–1267), nun
  9. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279)
 10. Eleanor (born 1251, died young)

James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

  1. James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica
  2. Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe

The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fail.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

  1. Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro

By Berenguela Fernández:

  1. Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar

By Elvira Sarroca:

  1. Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

-------------------- James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fale.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández:

Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca:

Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca -------------------- James I the Conqueror[1] (2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon to the south and into and across the Mediterranean as far as Naples: into Valencia to the south and the Balearic Islands, Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples to the east [the Aragonese Crown had been forced to renounce its claims to territories north of the Pyrenees, except for James's patrimony of Montpellier, by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215]. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consulat de Mar,[2] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels feyts, and made Catalan the official language on his domains.[2]

Contents [hide] 1 Early life and reign until majority 2 Acquisition of Urgell 3 Relations with France and Navarre 4 Reconquista 5 Crusade of 1269 6 Patronage of art, learning, and literature 7 Succession 8 Marriages and children 9 Notes 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links


[edit] Early life and reign until majority


Barcelonan coin bearing James's effigyJames was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento.

James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.[3]

In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.[3]


Page from a 1343 copy of the Libre dels feyts by Celestí Destorrents [edit] Acquisition of Urgell In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau IV de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax' mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James's father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.

James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James's earliest mistresses.[4] She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal.

[edit] Relations with France and Navarre From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene.[5] In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession.

James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia.

[edit] Reconquista


Map of the conquest of Majorca, 1229After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Mediterranean Sea, where he conquered Majorca on 10 September in 1229 and the rest of the Balearic Islands; Minorca 1232; Ibiza 1235) and where Valencia capitulated 28 September 1238.

During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. On 26 March 1244, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Almizra to determine the zones of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between them. Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly-created Kingdom of Valencia. James signed it on that date, but Alfonso did not affirm it until much later. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile.

[edit] Crusade of 1269


Valencian coin with the inscription Iacobus rex Valencie (James, king of Valencia)The "khan of Tartary" (actually the Ilkhan) Abaqa corresponded with James in early 1267, inviting him to join forces with the Mongols and go on Crusade.[6] James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269.[7] Pope Clement IV tried to dissuade James from Crusading, regarding his moral character as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a Crusade. After organising the government for his absence and assembling a fleet at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to sail east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. A storm, however, drove him off course and he landed at Aigues-Mortes. According to the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a Crusade. I

James's bastard sons Pedro Fernández and Fernán Sánchez, who had been given command of part of the fleet, did continue on their way to Acre, where they arrived in December. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. During the demonstration, Egyptian troops hidden in the bushes ambushed a returning Frankish force which had been in Galilee. James's sons, initially eager for a fight, changed their minds after this spectacle and returned home via Sicily, where Fernán Sánchez was knighted by Charles of Anjou.

[edit] Patronage of art, learning, and literature Aragonese and Valencian Royalty House of Barcelona


Alfonso II Children include

  Peter (future Peter II of Aragon) 
  Alfonso II, Count of Provence 

Peter II Children include

  James (future James I of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca) 

James I

  Peter (future Peter III of Aragon and I of Valencia and Sicily) 
  James II of Majorca 
  Violant, Queen of Castile 
  Constance, Infanta of Castile 
  Isabella, Queen of France 

Peter III (I of Valencia and Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso III of Aragon and I of Valencia) 
  James (future James I of Sicily and II of Aragon and Valencia) 
  Frederick II of Sicily 
  Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal 
  Yolanda, Duchess of Calabria 

Alfonso III (I of Valencia) James II (I of Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso IV of Aragon and II of Valencia) 

Alfonso IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  Peter (future Peter IV of Aragon and II of Valencia) 

Peter IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  John (future John I of Aragon and Valencia) 
  Martin (future Martin II of Sicily and I of Aragon and Valencia) 
  Eleanor, Queen of Castile 

Grandchildren include

  Ferdinand (future Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily) 

John I

  Yolande, Queen of France 

Martin I (II of Sicily)


James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles.[2]


First page of the Libre dels feyts, from a MS of 1325James was a patron of the University of Montpellier, which owed much of its development to his impetus.[8] He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly.[2] In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso.

James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers."[9] James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, Llibre dels fets in Catalan, which is the first self-chronicle of a Christian king. As well as a fine example of autobiography the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; and medieval military tactics. More controversially, some historians have looked at these writings as a source of Catalan identity, separate from that of Occitania and Rome.

James also wrote the Libre de la Saviesa or "Book of Wisdom." The book contains proverbs from various authors going back as far as King Solomon and as close to his own time, such as Albert the Great. It even contains maxims from the medieval Arab philosophers and from the Apophthegmata Philosophorum of Honein ben Ishak, which was probably translated at Barcelona during his reign. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period.[9]

Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse.[10] In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible.[11]

[edit] Succession


James's sepulchre in the Cathedral of Tarragona Mummified head of James, exhumed in 1856The favour James showed his illegitimate offspring led to protest from the nobles, and to conflicts between his sons legitimate and illegitimate. When one of the latter, Fernán Sánchez, who had behaved with gross ingratitude and treason to his father, was slain by the legitimate son Peter, the old king recorded his grim satisfaction.

In his will, James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary: the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July.

[edit] Marriages and children James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fail.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández:

Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca:

Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

[edit] Notes ^ Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire. ^ a b c d Chaytor, pag. 96 ^ a b Chaytor, pag. 82 ^ Chaytor, pag. 83. ^ Chaytor, pag. 86 ^ Chaytor, 90. ^ Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 330-332 ^ Chaytor, pag 96. ^ a b Chaytor, pag. 93 ^ Chaytor, pag. 94 ^ Chaytor, pag 94

[edit] Bibliography Chaytor, H. J. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. London: Methuen, 1933.

[edit] Further reading The book of deeds of James I of Aragon. A translation of the medieval Catalan Libre dels fets. Trans. Damian Smith and Helen Buffery (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003) (Crusade Texts in Translation, 10.) Pp. xvii + 405 incl. 5 maps.

[edit] External links The Chronicle Of James I Of Aragon, full online book James I of Aragon, based on 1911's Enycyclopaedia Britannica Medieval Sourcebook, e-text of James's grant of trade privileges to Barcelona, 1232, freeing the city from tolls and imposts with his realms The Worlds of Alfonso the Learned and James the Conqueror, Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia, Robert Ignatius Burns, S.J. James I, at Find-A-Grave The Barcelona Maritime Code of 1258, written by James I The life and times of James the first, book by Francis Darwin Swift Preceded by Peter II King of Aragon 1213-1276 Succeeded by Peter III Count of Barcelona 1213-1276 Preceded by New Creation King of Valencia 1238—1276 King of Majorca 1231-1276 Succeeded by James II Preceded by Marie Lord of Montpellier 1219-1276

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon"

-------------------- James I the Conqueror (2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon to the south and into and across the Mediterranean as far as Naples: into Valencia to the south and the Balearic Islands, Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples to the east [the Aragonese Crown had been forced to renounce its claims to territories north of the Pyrenees, except for James's patrimony of Montpellier, by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215]. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consulat de Mar,] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels feyts, and made Catalan the official language on his domains.

James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento.

James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.

In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.

Acquisition of Urgell In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau IV de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax' mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James's father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.

James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James's earliest mistresses. She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal.

Relations with France and Navarre

From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene. In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession.

James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia.

Marriages and children James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fail.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández:

Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca:

Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

-------------------- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon James I of Aragon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search James I of Aragon.

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a significant place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. Contents [show]

   * 1 Early life and reign until majority
   * 2 Acquisition of Urgell
   * 3 Relations with France and Navarre
   * 4 Reconquest
   * 5 Crusade of 1269
   * 6 Patronage of art, learning, and literature
   * 7 Succession
   * 8 Marriages and children
   * 9 Ancestry
   * 10 Notes
   * 11 References
   * 12 External links

[edit] Early life and reign until majority

James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento.

James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.[2]

In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.[3] [edit] Acquisition of Urgell

In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau IV de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax's mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James's father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.

James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses.[4] She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. [edit] Relations with France and Navarre

From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene.[5] In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession.

James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia. [edit] Reconquest

After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Mediterranean Sea, where he conquered Majorca on 10 September in 1229 and the rest of the Balearic Islands; Minorca 1232; Ibiza 1235) and where Valencia capitulated 28 September 1238. Chroniclers say he used gunpowder in the siege of Museros castle.

During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. On 26 March 1244, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Almizra to determine the zones of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between them. Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly-created Kingdom of Valencia. James signed it on that date, but Alfonso did not affirm it until much later. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. [edit] Crusade of 1269

The "khan of Tartary" (actually the Ilkhan) Abaqa corresponded with James in early 1267, inviting him to join forces with the Mongols and go on Crusade.[6] James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269.[7] Pope Clement IV tried to dissuade James from Crusading, regarding his moral character as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a Crusade. After organising the government for his absence and assembling a fleet at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to sail east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. A storm, however, drove him off course and he landed at Aigues-Mortes. According to the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a Crusade.

James' bastard sons Pedro Fernández and Fernán Sánchez, who had been given command of part of the fleet, did continue on their way to Acre, where they arrived in December. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. During the demonstration, Egyptian troops hidden in the bushes ambushed a returning Frankish force which had been in Galilee. James' sons, initially eager for a fight, changed their minds after this spectacle and returned home via Sicily, where Fernán Sánchez was knighted by Charles of Anjou. Statue of James I at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (J. León, 1753). [edit] Patronage of art, learning, and literature

James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles.[8]

James was a patron of the University of Montpellier, which owed much of its development to his impetus.[9] He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly.[10] In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso.

James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers."[11] James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, Llibre dels fets in Catalan, which is the first self-chronicle of a Christian king. As well as a fine example of autobiography the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; and medieval military tactics. More controversially, some historians have looked at these writings as a source of Catalan identity, separate from that of Occitania and Rome.

James also wrote the Libre de la Saviesa or "Book of Wisdom". The book contains proverbs from various authors going back as far as King Solomon and as close to his own time, such as Albert the Great. It even contains maxims from the medieval Arab philosophers and from the Apophthegmata Philosophorum of Honein ben Ishak, which was probably translated at Barcelona during his reign. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period.[12]

Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse.[13] In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible.[14] [edit] Succession

The favour James showed his illegitimate offspring led to protest from the nobles, and to conflicts between his sons legitimate and illegitimate. When one of the latter, Fernán Sánchez, who had behaved with gross ingratitude and treason to his father, was slain by the legitimate son Peter, the old king recorded his grim satisfaction.

In his Will James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary: the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. Always the home de fembres (“lady’s man”), he eloped with the wife of one of his vassals in his final years and was excommunicated for his efforts by Pope Gregory X. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July. [edit] Marriages and children Aragonese and Valencian Royalty House of Barcelona Aragon Arms.svg Alfonso II Children include

  Peter (future Peter II of Aragon)
  Alfonso II, Count of Provence

Peter II Children include

  James (future James I of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca)

James I

  Peter (future Peter III of Aragon and I of Valencia and Sicily)
  James II of Majorca
  Violant, Queen of Castile
  Constance, Infanta of Castile
  Isabella, Queen of France

Peter III (I of Valencia and Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso III of Aragon and I of Valencia)
  James (future James I of Sicily and II of Aragon and Valencia)
  Frederick II of Sicily
  Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal
  Yolanda, Duchess of Calabria

Alfonso III (I of Valencia) James II (I of Sicily) Children include

  Alfonso (future Alfonso IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)

Alfonso IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  Peter (future Peter IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)

Peter IV (II of Valencia) Children include

  Constance, Queen of Sicily
  John (future John I of Aragon and Valencia)
  Martin (future Martin II of Sicily and I of Aragon and Valencia)
  Eleanor, Queen of Castile
  Isabella, Countess of Urgel

Grandchildren include

  Ferdinand (future Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily)
  Isabella, Countess of Urgel and Coimbra

John I

  Yolande, Queen of France

Martin I (II of Sicily)

James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

  1. Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre

In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

  1. Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile
  2. Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III
  3. Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia
  4. James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc
  5. Ferdinand (1245–1250)
  6. Sancha (1246–1251)
  7. Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France
  8. Mary (1248–1267), nun
  9. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279)
 10. Eleanor (born 1251, died young)

James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

  1. James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica
  2. Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe

The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fail.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

  1. Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro

By Berenguela Fernández:

  1. Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar

By Elvira Sarroca:

  1. Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

[edit] Ancestry {{ahnentafel-compact5

|style=font-size: 60%; line-height: 80%; |border=1 |boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0; |boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc; |boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9; |boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc; |boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc; |boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe; |1= 1. James I of Aragon |2= 2. Peter II of Aragon |3= 3. Marie of Montpellier

|4= 4. Alfonso II of Aragon |5= 5. Sancha of Castile |6= 6. William VIII of Montpellier |7= 7. Eudokia Komnene

|8= 8. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona |9= 9. Petronila of Aragon |10= 10. Alfonso VII of León and Castile |11= 11. Richeza of Poland |12= 12. William VII of Montpellier |13= 13. Matilda of Burgundy |14= 14. Isaac Komnenos |15= 15. Irene Synadene

|16= 16. Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona |17= 17. Douce I, Countess of Provence

|18= 18. Ramiro II of Aragon |19= 19. Agnes of Aquitaine

|20= 20. Raymond of Burgundy |21= 21. Urraca of León and Castile

|22= 22. Władysław II the Exile |23= 23. Agnes of Babenberg

|24= 24. William VI of Montpellier |25= 25. Sibylle del Vasto

|26= 26. Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy |27= 27. Template:Felicia-Matilda of Mayenne

|28= 28. John II Komnenos [edit] Notes

  1. ^ Chaytor, 96.
  2. ^ Ibid, 82.
  3. ^ Ibid.
  4. ^ Ibid, 83.
  5. ^ Ibid, 86.
  6. ^ Chaytor, 90.
  7. ^ Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 330-332
  8. ^ Ibid, 96.
  9. ^ Ibid.
 10. ^ Ibid.
 11. ^ Ibid, 93.
 12. ^ Ibid.
 13. ^ Ibid, 94.
 14. ^ Ibid.

[edit] References

   * Chaytor, H. J. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. London: Methuen, 1933.
   * The book of deeds of James I of Aragon. A translation of the medieval Catalan Libre dels fets. Trans. Damian Smith and Helen Buffery (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003) (Crusade Texts in Translation, 10.) Pp. xvii + 405 incl. 5 maps.

[edit] External links Crusades portal

   * Full online book The Chronicle Of James I Of Aragon
   * [1] James I of Aragon
   * Medieval Sourcebook: e-text of James's grant of trade privileges to Barcelona, 1232, freeing the city from tolls and imposts with his realms
   * The Worlds of Alfonso the Learned and James the Conqueror - Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed.
   * The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia - Robert Ignatius Burns, S.J.
   * James I at Find-A-Grave
   * The Barcelona Maritime Code of 1258
   * The life and times of James the first

Preceded by Peter II King of Aragon 1213-1276 Succeeded by Peter III Count of Barcelona 1213-1276 Preceded by New Creation King of Valencia 1238—1276 King of Majorca 1231-1276 Succeeded by James II Preceded by Marie Lord of Montpellier 1219-1276 -------------------- James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate:

Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children:

Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand (1245–1250) Sancha (1246–1251) Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France Mary (1248–1267), nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279) Eleanor (born 1251, died young) James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy.

James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last Will as being in the line of Successon to the Throne, should the senior lines fale.

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons.

By Blanca d'Antillón:

Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro By Berenguela Fernández:

Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar By Elvira Sarroca:

Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca -------------------- James I the Conqueror, Lord of Montpellier, Crown of Aragon, Legislator, Organiser. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragones supermacy in he Western Mediterranean. He developed the Catalan, sponsering Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his on reign: The Libre dels Fets. He built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida. He was a patron of the University of Montpellier. He founded a studium at Valencia and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV. He wrote an autobiography of "Bookd of Deeds". he wrote Libre de la Saviesa or Boof of Wisdom. James prevented any vernaculor translation of the Bible in 1233. -------------------- James I the Conqueror[1] (2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon to the south and into and across the Mediterranean as far as Naples: into Valencia to the south and the Balearic Islands, Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples to the east [the Aragonese Crown had been forced to renounce its claims to territories north of the Pyrenees, except for James's patrimony of Montpellier, by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215]. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consulat de Mar,[2] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels feyts, and made Catalan the official language on his domains.[2]

-------------------- James owed his name to his mother's strange whim of placing 12 lighted candles, name for the 12 Apostles, around his cradle & determining that the last to burn out should be his patron. He was described as 'tall, muscular, dignified & never knew a day of illness'. -------------------- King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier --------------------

    Jaime I, Rey de Aragón was born in 1205.1 He married, firstly, Eleanor de Castilla, daughter of Alfonso VIII, Rey de Castilla and Eleanor Plantagenet, in 1221.2 He and Eleanor de Castilla were divorced in 1229.1 He married, secondly, Yolante Arpád, daughter of Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary and Yolande de Courtney, on 8 September 1235. He married, thirdly, Theresa Vidaure after 1251.2 He died on 25 July 1276.
     Jaime I, Rey de Aragón also went by the nick-name of Jaime 'the Conqueror' (?).3 He was the son of Pedro II, Rey de Aragón and Marie de Montpellier.2 He succeeded to the title of Rey Jaime I de Aragón in 1213.2

Child of Jaime I, Rey de Aragón and Theresa Vidaure

   Jaime Fernandez de Aragon, Baron de Jerica+4

Child of Jaime I, Rey de Aragón and Eleanor de Castilla

   Alfonso de Aragón, Infante de Aragón2 b. c 1200, d. 1260

Children of Jaime I, Rey de Aragón and Yolante Arpád

   Yolante de Aragón+5 d. 1300
   Pedro de Ayerve5
   Sancho de Aragón5 d. 1275
   Constanza de Aragón+6 d. c 1269
   Pedro III, Rey de Aragón+5 b. 1236, d. 1285
   Isabel de Aragón+5 b. 1243, d. 28 Jan 1271
   Jaime I, Rey de Majorca+5 b. 1243, d. 1311

Citations

   [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 62. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
   [S16] Jirí Louda and Michael MacLagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition (London, U.K.: Little, Brown and Company, 1999), table 45. Hereinafter cited as Lines of Succession.
   [S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 116. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World.
   [S5028] Cecilia Wilkinson, "re: Wilkinson Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 4 December 2010. Hereinafter cited as "re: Wilkinson Family."
   [S16] Louda and MacLagan, Lines of Succession, table 46.
   [S16] Louda and MacLagan, Lines of Succession, table 47.
view all 54

Jaime I el Conquistador, rey de Aragón's Timeline

1208
February 1, 1208
Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
1221
February 6, 1221
Age 13
Agreda
1223
1223
Age 14
[alternate birth date]
1228
February 1228
Age 20
1235
1235
Age 26
Barcelona, Espana
1236
1236
Age 27
1239
1239
Age 30
Carrión de los Condes, CL, Spain
1239
Age 30
1240
1240
Age 31
Aragon, Spain
1243
May 31, 1243
Age 35
Montpellier, Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon, France