Jeanne III d'Albret, titular Reina de Navarra

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Jeanne III d'Albret, titular Reina de Navarra

Also Known As: "Jeanne", "Joan III", "Juana III", "Wueen of Navarre"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Pau, Béarn, France
Death: Died in Paris, Yvelines, Ile-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Henri II d'Albret, rey de Navarra and Marguerite d'Angoulême, Reina de Navarra
Wife of Wilhelm V "the Rich", Duke of Jülich, Cleves & Berg and Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Bourbon et de Vendôme
Mother of Henri de Bourbon; Henri IV, roi de France et de Navarre; Louis de Bourbon; Catherine de Bourbon and Madeleine de Bourbon
Sister of Jean d'Albret
Half sister of Marguerite d'Alençon

Occupation: titular Queen of Navarre (May 25, 1555 - June 9, 1572); Duchess consort of Vendôme; 1555 - Jun. 9, 1572
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Jeanne III d'Albret, titular Reina de Navarra

Jeanne III de Navarre, couramment appelée Jeanne d'Albret, née le 7 janvier 1528 à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, morte le 9 juin 1572 à Paris, fut reine de Navarre de 1555 à 1572.

Elle était fille d'Henri II (1503-1555) dit Henri d'Albret, roi de Navarre (1517-1555) et de Marguerite de France (1492-1549), dite Marguerite d'Angoulême, sœur aînée du roi de France François Ier.

Sommaire

1 Mariage et descendance

2 Jeanne d'Albret et le protestantisme

3 Notes

4 Titulature de Jeanne d'Albret

5 Bibliographie

6 Liens externes


Mariage et descendance

Elle avait épousé en premières noces le 13 juillet 1541 Guillaume de Clèves (° 1516 - † 1592), duc de Gueldre, de Clèves, de Juliers, de Berg, comte de Zutphen, de la Marck, et de Ravensberg. Le mariage fut annulé en 1546.

Jeanne d'Albret épouse en secondes noces à Moulins le 20 octobre 1548 Antoine de Bourbon (1518-1562), fils de Charles de Bourbon (1489-1537), duc de Vendôme, et de Françoise d'Alençon.

De cette union sont nés :

Henri (1551-1553), duc de Beaumont

Henri (1553-1610), d'abord roi de Navarre (1572-1610) sous le nom d'Henri III, puis roi de France (1589-1610) sous le nom d'Henri IV

Louis-Charles (1555 - 1557), comte de Marles

Madeleine (1556 - 1556)

Catherine (1559 - 1604), duchesse d'Albret, comtesse d'Armagnac et de Rodez, mariée en 1599 à Henri II, duc de Lorraine

Jeanne d'Albret et le protestantisme

C’est en 1560 qu’elle se convertit au protestantisme. Par l’ordonnance du 19 juillet 1561, elle autorise le calvinisme dans son royaume. Elle entame après la mort d'Antoine, en 1562 une série de mesures visant à implanter la Réforme en Béarn. Parmi elles, on compte la publication du catéchisme de Calvin en béarnais (1563), la fondation d'une académie protestante à Orthez (1566), la rédaction de nouvelles Ordonnances ecclésiastiques (1566, 1571), la traduction en basque du Nouveau Testament par Jean de Liçarrague (1571), et la traduction en béarnais du Psautier de Marot, par Arnaud de Salette (1568). Une farouche opposition catholique se manifeste qui aboutit à ce que leur culte soit interdit et le clergé expulsé (1570).

En 1568, elle prend la tête du mouvement protestant et emmène le prince Henri de Navarre, son fils âgé de quinze ans, à La Rochelle que Jeanne administre dans tous les domaines, à l'exception des affaires militaires. Elle assure la communication avec les princes étrangers alliés, dont elle tente de conserver le soutien, surtout après la mort de Condé en mars 1569. Contrairement aux prévisions, le parti huguenot tient bon, et même après la défaite de Moncontour, Jeanne refuse de se rendre. Mais au début de 1570, elle doit s'incliner devant la volonté de négocier de ses coreligionnaires. Elle quitte La Rochelle en août 1571, pour revenir sur ses terres. Une fois la paix de Saint-Germain signée, elle proteste à cause de sa mauvaise application.

Jeanne d’Albret va ensuite entreprendre de longues négociations à Paris, pour unir son fils Henri à Marguerite de France, la troisième fille de Catherine de Médicis. Elle doit cependant accepter une condition : Marguerite ne se convertira pas à la religion protestante. Le mariage doit avoir lieu le 18 août 1572. Cependant, Jeanne III d’Albret n'y participera pas : elle meurt de la tuberculose le 9 juin 1572. Son décès soudain, affaiblissant opportunément le parti huguenot peu de temps avant le massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy, suscitera a posteriori des rumeurs infondées d'empoisonnement[1].

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Jeanne III of Navarre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jeanne III, known as Jeanne d'Albret (7 January 1528 – 9 June 1572) was Queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme and mother of King Henry IV of France. She was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement.[1]

Early years

Jeanne was born in Pau, Béarn, France[2] on 7 January 1528, the daughter of Henry II of Navarre and Marguerite of Angoulême. Marguerite was the sister of King Francis I of France, and Jeanne grew up at the French court. She was a Huguenot, raised in the French Protestant Reformed faith. In her youth she had been a frivolous and high-spirited princess, but she had also, at an early age, displayed a tendency to be stubborn and unyielding.[3] In 1541, when Jeanne was thirteen, King Francis married her, against her will, to William "the Rich", Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. She had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, Anne de Montmorency.[4][5] This political marriage was annulled four years later due to nonconsummation.

After the death of Francis in 1547, and the accession of King Henry II, Jeanne was married to Antoine de Bourbon, "first prince of the blood," who would become heir to the French throne in the event that the Valois' produced no male heirs. Her marriage to Antoine was a romantic match, despite the fact that he was a notorious philanderer whose frequent absences left Jeanne in complete charge of the household which she managed with an firm hand. They had five children; only two of whom, Henry and Catherine, lived to adulthood.

On 25 May 1555 Henry II of Navarre died, and Jeanne and her husband became rulers of Navarre.

[edit]Queen of Navarre

In the first year of her reign, Jeanne d'Albret called a conference of beleaguered Huguenot ministers which led to her declaring Calvinism the official religion of her kingdom after publicly embracing the teachings of Calvin on Christmas Day 1560. Jeanne became a fanatic, which resulted in the proscription of Catholicism. Priests and nuns were duly banished, churches destroyed, and Catholic ritual prohibited.[6] She was described as "small of stature, frail but erect". Her face was narrow, her light eyes cold, unmoving, and her lips thin. She was highly intelligent, but austere and self-righteous. Her speech was sharply sarcastic and vehement. Agrippa d' Aubigne, the Huguenot chronicler described Jeanne as having "a mind powerful enough to guide the highest affairs".[7]

[edit]French Wars of Religion

The power struggle between Catholics and Huguenots for control of the French court and France as a whole led to the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion in 1562. Antoine de Bourbon chose to support the Catholics, but was mortally wounded at the siege of Rouen. Jeanne's son Henry now became "first prince of the blood."

In 1567 war broke out again, and Jeanne sought refuge in the Huguenot city of La Rochelle. From there she conducted peace negotiations, and in 1570 a marriage of convenience was arranged between her son Henry and King Charles IX's sister Marguerite. On 9 June 1572, two months before the wedding was due to take place, Jeanne died, unexpectedly, in Paris. A popular rumour which circulated shortly afterward, contended that Jeanne had been poisoned by the regent Catherine de' Medici, the mother of her son's prospective bride who allegedly sent her a pair of perfumed gloves, skillfully poisoned by her profumer, René Bianco, a fellow Florentine. An autopsy, however, proved that Jeanne died of natural causes.[8]

[edit]Titles

[edit]by birth

Queen of Navarre (1555-1572)

Duchess of Albret (1555-1572)

Countess of Limoges (1555-1572)

Countess of Foix (1555-1572)

Countess of Armagnac (1555-1572)

Countess of Bigorre (1555-1572)

Countess of Périgord (1555-1572)

[edit]by marriage

Duchess of Vendôme (1550-1562)

Duchess of Beaumont (1550-1562)

Countess of Marle (1548-1562)

Countess of La Fère (1548-1562)

Countess of Soissons (1550-1562)

[edit]Marriages and Issue

In 1541 Jeanne married William, Duke of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Kleve-Mark, annulled in 1545, with no issue.

On 20 October 1548 she married Antoine de Bourbon and they had the following children:

Henri, Duc de Beaumont (1551-1553)

Henri IV, King of France (13 December 1553-14 May 1610)

Louis (1555- 1557)

Madeleine (1556)

Catherine (7 February 1559-13 February 1604). Married Henry I, Duke of Lorraine in 1599.

[edit]References

^ Mark Strage"Women of Power".p.148

^ <ref>ThePeerage.com</li> <li id="cite_note-2">#cite_ref-2|^ Strage.p.149</li> <li id="cite_note-3">#cite_ref-3|^ Strage.p.149.</li> <li id="cite_note-4">#cite_ref-4|^ Francis Hackett "Francis The First"p.419.</li> <li id="cite_note-5">#cite_ref-5|^ Strage.p.150.</li> <li id="cite_note-6">#cite_ref-6|^ Strage.p150.</li> <li id="cite_note-7">#cite_ref-7|^ Strage.ps.155-6</li></ol></ref>

Mark Strage "Women of Power". Published bt Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1976.

Francis Hackett "Francis The First".

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_III_of_Navarre

eanne III of Navarre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jeanne III

Jeanne III of Navarre

painted by François Clouet, 1570

Queen of Navarre

Reign 25 May 1555 – 9 June 1572

Predecessor Henry II

Successor Henry III

Spouse Antoine de Bourbon

Issue

Henry III of Navarre (later King Henry IV of France)

Catherine, Duchess of Lorraine

House House of Albret

Father Henry II of Navarre

Mother Marguerite of Angoulême

Born 16 November 1528

Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France

Died 9 June 1572

Paris

Religion Huguenot

Jeanne III (16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Joan III or Jeanne d'Albret, was Queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henry of Bourbon, who became King of Navarre as well as of France as the first Bourbon king.

She was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement.[1]

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Early years
   * 2 Queen of Navarre
   * 3 French Wars of Religion
   * 4 Titles
         o 4.1 by birth
         o 4.2 by marriage
   * 5 Marriages and Issue
   * 6 Ancestry
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 References

[edit] Early years

Jeanne was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France[2][3]at five o'clock in the afternoon on 16 November 1528,[4][5][6] the daughter of Marguerite of Angoulême and Henry II of Navarre. Her mother, the daughter of Louise of Savoy and Charles, Count of Angoulême, was the sister of King Francis I of France and Jeanne grew up at the French court. She was a Huguenot, raised in the French Protestant Reformed faith.

In her youth she had been a frivolous and high-spirited princess, but she also, at an early age, had displayed a tendency to be stubborn and unyielding.[7] In 1541, when Jeanne was twelve, her uncle, King Francis I, married her, against her will, to William "the Rich", Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, brother of Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England. Unwilling, she had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, Anne de Montmorency.[7] [8] This political marriage was annulled four years later due to not having been consummated.

After the death of Francis in 1547 and the accession of King Henry II to the throne, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, "first prince of the blood".

Her marriage to Antoine was a romantic match, despite the fact that he was a notorious philanderer. His frequent absences left Jeanne in complete charge of a household which she managed with a firm and resolute hand. They had five children; only two of whom, Henry, king of France from 1589 to 1610 and king of Navarre from 1572 to 1610, and Catherine, lived to adulthood.

On 25 May 1555, Henry II of Navarre died, at which time Jeanne and her husband became joint rulers of Navarre. After his death in 1562, she continued to rule as a sole queen regnant.

[edit] Queen of Navarre

In the first year of her reign, Queen Regnant Jeanne III called a conference of beleaguered Huguenot ministers. She later declared Calvinism the official religion of her kingdom after publicly embracing the teachings of Calvin on Christmas Day 1560. Following the imposition of Calvinism, priests and nuns were banished, Catholic churches destroyed, and Catholic ritual prohibited.[9] She commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque and Béarnese for the benefit of her subjects.

She was described as "small of stature, frail but erect", her face was narrow, her light-coloured eyes, cold and unmoving, and her lips thin. She was highly intelligent, but austere and self-righteous. Her speech was sharply sarcastic and vehement. Agrippa d' Aubigne, the Huguenot chronicler described Jeanne as having "a mind powerful enough to guide the highest affairs".[9]

[edit] French Wars of Religion

The power struggle between Catholics and Huguenots for control of the French court and France as a whole, led to the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion in 1562. Antoine de Bourbon chose to support the Catholics, but was mortally wounded at the siege of Rouen. Jeanne's son Henry then became "first prince of the blood."

Jeanne's position in the conflicts remained neutral until 1568, when she actively supported the Huguenot cause and sought refuge in the city of La Rochelle[10]. She took a leading role in negotiating the peace settlement which ended this war and in 1570 a marriage of convenience was arranged between her son Henry and King Charles IX's sister Marguerite. On 9 June 1572, two months before the wedding was due to take place, Jeanne died unexpectedly, in Paris. A popular rumour which circulated shortly afterward, contended that Jeanne had been poisoned by the regent Catherine de' Medici, the mother of her son's prospective bride who allegedly sent her a pair of perfumed gloves, skillfully poisoned by her perfumer, René Bianco, a fellow Florentine. This fanciful chain of events also appears in the Romantic writer Alexandre Dumas's 1845 novel La Reine Margot. An autopsy, however, proved that Jeanne died of natural causes.[11]

[edit] Titles

Statue of Jeanne III in Jardin du Luxembourg.

[edit] by birth

   * Queen of Navarre (1555–1572)
   * Duchess of Albret (1555–1572)
   * Countess of Limoges (1555–1572)
   * Countess of Foix (1555–1572)
   * Countess of Armagnac (1555–1572)
   * Countess of Bigorre (1555–1572)
   * Countess of Périgord (1555–1572)

[edit] by marriage

   * Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1541–1545)
   * Duchess of Vendôme (1550–1562)
   * Duchess of Beaumont (1550–1562)
   * Countess of Marle (1548–1562)
   * Countess of La Fère (1548–1562)
   * Countess of Soissons (1550–1562)

[edit] Marriages and Issue

In 1541 Jeanne married William, Duke of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Kleve-Mark, a marriage that was annulled in 1545, with no issue.

On 20 October 1548, she married Antoine de Bourbon and they had the following children:

   * Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Beaumont (1551–1553)
   * Henri de Bourbon (future Henri IV), King of France (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), the first of the Bourbon kings
   * Louis de Bourbon (1555–1557) Count of Marle
   * Madeleine de Bourbon (1556)
   * Catherine de Bourbon (7 February 1559 – 13 February 1604), Catherine of Navarre, who became Duchess of Lorraine when she married Henry I, Duke of Lorraine in 1599

Notes

  1. ^ Strage 1976, p. 148.
  2. ^ Nancy Lyman Roelker, 1968, p. 7
  3. ^ Pierre Babelon, Henri IV, 1982, p. 28
  4. ^ Roelker, p.7
  5. ^ Babelon, p.27
  6. ^ Francis Hackett, Francis the First, p.347
  7. ^ a b Strage 1976, p. 149.
  8. ^ Hackett 2007, p. 419.
  9. ^ a b Strage 1976, p. 150.
 10. ^ Departing on August 23 (Nancy Lyman Roelker, Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret: 1528-1572, (Cambridge Massachusetts, 1968) p297) and arriving on September 28 (Roelker, Queen of Navarre, p301)
 11. ^ Strage 1976, p. 155-6.

[edit] References

   * Babelon, Jean-Pierre (1982). Henri IV. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2213012016. 
   * Hackett, Francis (2007). Francis the First. City: Burman Press. ISBN 1406706825. 
   * Roelker, Nancy Lyman (1968). Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret: 1528-1572. Cambridge Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674741501. 
   * Strage, Mark (1976). Women of Power. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151983704.

This page was last modified on 13 July 2010 at 13:34. -------------------- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johanna_III._%28Navarra%29

Johanna III. (Navarra)

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Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne III. von Navarra, besser bekannt als Jeanne d'Albret (* 7. Januar 1528 in Pau, Aquitanien, Frankreich; † 9. Juni 1572 in Paris), war von 1555 bis 1572 Königin von Navarra.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
   * 2 Titel durch Geburt
   * 3 Titel durch Eheschließung
   * 4 Kinder
   * 5 Romanhafte Darstellung
   * 6 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Sie war Tochter Heinrichs II. (1503–1555), genannt Henri d'Albret, König von Navarra (1517–1555) und von Margarete von Angoulême, der Schwester des französischen Königs Franz I..

Sie heiratete 1541 Wilhelm V., Herzog von Jülich-Kleve-Berg. Die Ehe wurde nicht vollzogen und fünf Jahre später annulliert. Auf Betreiben ihrer Mutter und ihres Onkels heiratete sie dann im Jahr 1548 Anton von Bourbon (1518–1562), Sohn von Charles de Bourbon (1489–1537), Herzog von Vendôme, und seiner Frau Françoise d'Alençon. Als Königin von Navarra betrieb sie die Ausrottung der katholischen Lehre, wodurch sie Spannungen mit dem französischen Hof erzeugte. Ihr Sohn Heinrich sollte als erster Prinz von Geblüt an den Hof in Paris geholt werden, doch sie widersetzte sich und so erlebte ihr Sohn seine frühe Kindheit in Navarra. Allerdings konnte sie sich dem Ruf bald nicht mehr widersetzen und er verbrachte die nächste Zeit auf Wunsch der Königinmutter Katharina von Medici in Frankreich. In der Folgezeit unterstützte sie die Hugenotten zumindest moralisch und starb wenige Tage vor der Bluthochzeit ihres Sohnes in Paris. Ihr Privatarzt war der Franzose Jean Bauhin, beraten wurde sie von Théodore de Bèze.

Titel durch Geburt [Bearbeiten]

   * Königin von Navarra (1555–1572)
   * Herzogin von Albret (1555–1572)
   * Gräfin von Limoges (1555–1572)
   * Gräfin von Foix (1555–1572)
   * Gräfin von Armagnac (1555–1572)
   * Gräfin von Bigorre (1555–1572)
   * Gräfin von Périgord (1555–1572)

Titel durch Eheschließung [Bearbeiten]

   * Herzogin von Bourbon (1548–1562)
   * Herzogin von Vendôme (1550–1562)
   * Herzogin von Beaumont (1550–1562)
   * Gräfin von Marle (1548–1562)
   * Gräfin von La Fère (1548–1562)
   * Gräfin von Soissons (1550–1562)

Kinder [Bearbeiten]

   * Heinrich (* 21. September 1551; † 20. August 1553), Herzog von Beaumont
   * Heinrich (* 14. Dezember 1553; † 10. Mai 1610), zunächst als Heinrich III. König von Navarra (1572–1610), später als Heinrich IV., König von Frankreich (1589–1610)
   * Louis-Charles (* 19. Februar 1554; † 13. Februar 1557)
   * Madeleine (* 12. April 1557; † 25. April 1557)
   * Catherine (* 7. Februar 1558; † 13. Februar 1604) verheiratet mit Herzog Heinrich II. von Lothringen

Romanhafte Darstellung [Bearbeiten]

   * Ernst Wurm: Die Adlerin. Roman der Johanna von Navarra Speidelsche, Wien 1936; wieder: ebd. 1956

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   *
      Commons: Jeanne d'Albret – Album mit Bildern und/oder Videos und Audiodateien
   * Johanna III. (Navarra). In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL).

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Heinrich II. Königin von Navarra

1455–1472 Heinrich III.

Kofürstin von Andorra

1455–1472

Normdaten: PND: 102292906 | WP-Personeninfo

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Jeanne III d'Albret, titular Reina de Navarra's Timeline

1528
January 7, 1528
Pau, Béarn, France
1541
July 14, 1541
Age 13
Paris, Seine, France
1548
October 20, 1548
Age 20
Moulins
1551
1551
Age 23
1553
December 13, 1553
Age 25
Pau,Navarre,France
1555
1555
Age 27
1556
1556
Age 28
1559
1559
Age 31
Paris, France
1572
June 9, 1572
Age 44
Paris, Yvelines, Ile-de-France, France
????
Alencon?