João V o Magnânimo, rei de Portugal

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About João V o Magnânimo, rei de Portugal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_V_of_Portugal

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http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_V._%28Portugal%29

Johann V. (Portugal)

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König Johann V. von Portugal

Johann V. (* 22. Oktober 1689 in Lissabon; † 31. Juli 1750 ebenda), genannt „der Großherzige“ (o Magnânimo), war König von Portugal von 1706 bis 1750. Er entstammte dem Haus Braganza.

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Johann V. war der Sohn von König Peter II. von Portugal und dessen zweiter Gemahlin Marie Sophie von der Pfalz. Nach dem Tod seines Vaters bestieg er 1706 den portugiesischen Thron.

Unter ihm wurde in Portugal der Absolutismus eingeführt, nachdem die Cortes, die portugiesische Ständeversammlung, über die der Adel ursprünglich an der Regierung beteiligt war, schon seit 1696 nicht mehr einberufen worden war. Johann V. wurde als fähiger Staatsmann, hoch gebildet und vielseitig interessiert, geschildert, der sich Ludwig XIV. von Frankreich zum Vorbild nahm. Wie in Frankreich kümmerten sich auch in Portugal die Adligen nicht mehr um ihren Landbesitz, sie sanken zu reinen Höflingen herab. Seinen Reichtum, den der König, in der Tradition anderer absolutistischer Könige in Bauten zum seinem Ruhm anlegte (Klosterpalast von Mafra, Universitätsbibliothek von Coimbra, Aquädukt von Águas Livres in Lissabon), stammte aus dem brasilianischen Goldhandel. In seine Regierungszeit fiel das Ende des spanischen Erbfolgekriegs. Einer portugiesischen Armee unter der Führung des Marquês das Minhas gelang es, Madrid einzunehmen, die Spanier und Franzosen siegten dann aber in der Schlacht von Almansa (1707), der Franzose René Duguay-Trouin plünderte Rio de Janeiro. 1713 schlossen Portugal und Frankreich Frieden, 1715 schließlich auch Portugal und Spanien.

Das persönliche Banner König Johann V.

Johann V. trat auf Seiten des Papstes in einen Krieg gegen die Türken ein (Seeschlacht von Matapan, 1717), geriet jedoch bald in Gegensatz zum Heiligen Stuhl, als er versuchte, mehr Einfluss auf die katholische Kirche in Portugal zu gewinnen. Erst als der Papst einwilligte, dass alle Bischöfe Lissabons den Titel eines Kardinals und Patriarchen bekämen und dem König selbst den Titel „Allergläubigster König“ (o Rei fidelíssimo) verlieh, versöhnten sich König und Papst wieder. Unter Johann V. erlebte das Land ein „zweites goldenes Zeitalter“, von dem viele der vom König errichteten Prunkbauten heute noch künden.

Familie [Bearbeiten]

Johann V. heirate am 27. Oktober 1708 in Lissabon Erzherzogin Maria Anna von Österreich (1683–1754), eine Tochter des römisch-deutschen Kaisers Leopold I. und der Eleonore Magdalena von Pfalz-Neuburg. Mit Maria Anna hatte er folgende Kinder:

Das Wappen der portugiesischen Könige von Johann II. bis Manuel II.

   * Maria Bárbara (* 4. Februar 1711; † 27. August 1758) ∞ 1729 König Ferdinand VI. von Spanien
   * Peter (* 19. Oktober 1712; † 29. Oktober 1714)
   * Joseph I. (* 6. Juni 1714; † 24. Februar 1777)
   * Karl (* 2. Mai 1716; † 29. März 1736)
   * Peter III. (* 5. Juli 1717; † 25. Mai 1786) ∞ 1760 Maria I. von Portugal
   * Alexander Franz (* 24. September 1718; † 12. August 1728)
   * Josephine (* 1720; † 1801)

Außerdem hatte er noch mehrere nichteheliche Kinder, darunter

   * Gaspar (* 1716), Erzbischof von Braga
   * Josef (* 1720), Großinquisitor von Portugal

Vorgänger

Peter II.

König von Portugal

1706–1750 Nachfolger

Joseph I.

Normdaten: PND: 119362341 – weitere Informationen

Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 17. März 2010 um 17:51 Uhr geändert. -------------------- John V (Portuguese João, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃ũ]) the Magnanimous (Port. o Magnânimo) (October 22, 1689 – July 31, 1750), 24th (or 25th according to some historians) king of Portugal and the Algarves, was born John-Francis-Anthony in Lisbon and succeeded his father Peter II in December 1706, and was proclaimed on January 1, 1707.

His father had long suffered from lack of heirs, and the relatively new royal house of Braganza was indeed on the verge of going extinct—the king had only one surviving (though sickly) daughter from his first marriage, John's half-sister Isabel Luisa, Princess of Beira. However, after the death of his first wife, the old king remarried, and John's mother was able to produce two children, including John himself. When John was born, he became Prince of Brazil as the king's heir-apparent, as well as the 13th Duke of Braganza.

Since his father had been elderly, John succeeded at quite a young age, only 17. One of his first kingly acts was to intimate his adherence to the Grand Alliance, which his father had joined in 1703. Accordingly, his general Marquês das Minas, along with Lord Galway, advanced into Castile, even taking Madrid, but later sustained the defeat of Almanza (April 14).

In October 1708 he married his maternal first cousin Mary Anne of Austria (1683-1754), daughter of Leopold I, thus strengthening the alliance with Austria.

The series of unsuccessful campaigns that ensued, ultimately terminated in a favourable peace with France in 1713 and with Spain in 1715.

His long reign was characterized by a strengthening of the king's power due to the incomes the crown earned by exploring the newly found gold and diamond mines in Brazil. A fifth of each ton extracted from these mines were crown property, the rest being divided among claim owners, contractors and public administrators. This sudden wealth enabled the king to rule without summoning the Cortes, thus becoming an absolute monarch. Due to his centralistic ruling, he had to endure the political opposition of several noble families and influential clergymen. In what most probably was an effort to tame the upper nobility, John V built his own Versailles, the grand Royal Palace of Mafra.

John V was the greatest patron of the arts in the Europe of his time. The Portuguese Empire was then extremely rich – Portugal collected more gold from the newly found Brazilian mines over a few decades than Spain took from the remaining of Central and South America over 400 years; there were also the very productive diamond and precious gemstone mines that kept the royal coffers full. With this endless supply of money he bought some of the greatest art collections that were available at the time – at a point, in one single occasion, over 80 paintings by great Italian masters were taken in to the royal palace in Lisbon. The music library, already the greatest in the world, was enlarged as was the royal library and other libraries in the country. The King insisted his ambassadors would keep him informed about the state of the arts in foreign countries and would buy only the best from the most reputable artists of the time. Unfortunately most of the great collections amassed by John V and the Portuguese aristocracy, along with the vast majority of the city of Lisbon were suddenly destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755 followed by a tsunami and fire.

John V used much of the crown's treasure to develop Portugal's economy (creating new manufactures all over the country), to patronise the arts and intellectuals (Royal academies were founded), and to advance his country's prestige among its European neighbors after the Crisis of Succession and short-lived union with Spain (1640). His foreign policy followed two simple and unaltered rules: political neutrality in European conflicts and constant negotiations with the Vatican in order to be recognised as a lawful monarch. To this end, he spent heavily in bribes to church officials and embassies to the Pope.

His negotiations with the Vatican gained the recognition of Portugal as a lawful sovereign country by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748 and the title "Most Faithful King" bestowed upon him and his successors by a bull. Six years before receiving this title, John suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralysed and unable to intervene in political affairs. His last years of life were dedicated to religious activities. His early economic measures, which were unpopular among the upper nobility, became ineffective, and public affairs were so dependent on John's rule that they became almost inoperative. John V died on July 31, 1750 in Lisbon, and was succeeded by his son Prince Joseph.

He is an important character of José Saramago's novel Baltasar and Blimunda. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_V_of_Portugal -------------------- John V of Portugal.

(October 22, 1670 – July 31, 1750), 24th (or 25th according to some historians) king of Portugal and the Algarves, was born John-Francis-Anthony in Lisbon and succeeded his father in December 1706, and was proclaimed on January 1, 1707.

His father had long suffered from lack of heirs, and the relatively new royal house of Braganza was indeed on the verge of going extinct—the king had only one surviving (though sickly) daughter from his first marriage, John's half-sister Isabel Luisa, Princess of Beira. However, after the death of his first wife, the old king remarried, and John's mother was able to produce two children, including John himself. When John was born, he became Prince of Brazil as the king's heir-apparent, as well as the 13th Duke of Braganza.

Since his father had been elderly, John succeeded at quite a young age, only 17. One of his first kingly acts was to intimate his adherence to the Grand Alliance, which his father had joined in 1703. Accordingly, his general Marquês das Minas, along with Lord Galway, advanced into Castile, even taking Madrid, but later sustained the defeat of Almanza (April 14).

In October 1708 he married his maternal first cousin Mary Anne of Austria (1683-1754), daughter of Leopold I, thus strengthening the alliance with Austria.

The series of unsuccessful campaigns that ensued, ultimately terminated in a favourable peace with France in 1713 and with Spain in 1715.

His long reign was characterized by a strengthening of the king's power due to the incomes the crown earned by exploring the newly found gold and diamond mines in Brazil. A fifth of each ton extracted from these mines were crown property, the rest being divided among claim owners, contractors and public administrators. This sudden wealth enabled the king to rule without summoning the Cortes, thus becoming an absolute monarch. Due to his centralistic ruling, he had to endure the political opposition of several noble families and influential clergymen. In what most probably was an effort to tame the upper nobility, John V built his own Versailles, the grand Royal Palace of Mafra.

John V was the greatest patron of the arts in the Europe of his time. The Portuguese Empire was then extremely rich – Portugal collected more gold from the newly found Brazilian mines over a few decades than Spain took from the remaining of Central and South America over 400 years; there were also the very productive diamond and precious gemstone mines that kept the royal coffers full. With this endless supply of money he bought some of the greatest art collections that were available at the time – at a point, in one single occasion, over 80 paintings by great Italian masters were taken in to the royal palace in Lisbon. The music library, already the greatest in the world, was enlarged as was the royal library and other libraries in the country. The King insisted his ambassadors would keep him informed about the state of the arts in foreign countries and would buy only the best from the most reputable artists of the time. Unfortunately most of the great collections amassed by John V and the Portuguese Aristocracy, along with the vast majority of the city of Lisbon were suddenly destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755 followed by a tsunami and fire.

John V used much of the crown's treasure to develop Portugal's economy (creating new manufactures all over the country), to patronise the arts and intellectuals (Royal academies were founded), and to advance his country's prestige among its European neighbors after the Crisis of Succession and short-lived union with Spain (1640). His foreign policy followed two simple and unaltered rules: political neutrality in European conflicts and constant negotiations with the Vatican in order to be recognised as a lawful monarch. To this end, he spent heavily in bribes to church officials and embassies to the Pope.

His negotiations with the Vatican gained the recognition of Portugal as a lawful sovereign country by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748 and the title "Most Faithful King" bestowed upon him and his successors by a bull. Six years before receiving this title, John suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralysed and unable to intervene in political affairs. His last years of life were dedicated to religious activities. His early economical measures, which were unpopular among the upper nobility, became ineffective, and public affairs were so dependent on John's rule that they became almost inoperative. John V died on July 31, 1750 in Lisbon, and was succeeded by his son Prince Joseph.

-------------------- Juhana V Jalomielinen (port. João o Magnânimo, 1689–1750) oli Portugalin kuningas. Hän hallitsi Portugalia vuoden 1707 alusta kuolemaansa saakka. Hän oli vanhan isänsä toisen avioliiton lapsi ja nousi valtaan jo 17-vuotiaana. Hänen pitkän valtakautensa aikana valtio rikastui entisestään, kun Brasiliasta tuotettiin kultaa ja timantteja, joista viidennes oli tilitettävä valtiolle. Hän toteutti monia näyttäviä rakennusprojekteja, joista komein on Mafran kuninkaallinen palatsi. Hän teettimyös Coimbran yliopistolle kirjaston ja Lissaboniin akveduktin, joka toi kaupunkiin juomavettä.[ Suuret rahavarat mahdollistivat sen, että Juhana saattoi hallita yksinvaltiaana kutsumatta kansalliskokousta kertaakaan koolle.

Puoliso: Maria Anna of Austria Lapset: Joosef I, Barbara of Portugal, Peter III of Portugal, Infante Alexandre of Portugal

view all 16

João V o Magnânimo, rei de Portugal's Timeline

1689
October 22, 1689
Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
1708
October 27, 1708
Age 19
1711
December 4, 1711
Age 22
December 4, 1711
Age 22
Lisboa, Portugal
1712
1712
Age 22
1714
June 6, 1714
Age 24
Lisbon, Portugal
1716
1716
Age 26
1717
July 5, 1717
Age 27
Lisbon, Portugal
1718
1718
Age 28
1720
1720
Age 30