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Władysław II Jagiełło (Jagiellonowie), krol polski

Nicknames: "Ягайло", "Владислав II Ягелло. Jogáila (Йога́йла)", "Ягайла", "Władysław II Jagiełło"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Vilnius, Lithuania
Death: Died in Gorodok Yagellonski,L'vov,Ukraine
Place of Burial: Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of Algirdas Koriat Michał, didysis kunigaikštis and Yuliana Maria Tverskaya
Husband of Anna Cylejska; Jadwiga Andegaweńska; Zofia Holszańska and Elżbieta Granowska z Pileckich
Father of Jadwiga Jagiellonka; Elżbieta Bonifacja Jagiellonka; Władysław III Warneńczyk, król; Kazimierz Jagiellończyk and Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Andrzej, król Polski
Brother of Kenna Joanna; Helena Yevpraxia Olgierdovna of Lithuania, Princess of Lithuania; Boleslovas Švitrigaila of Lithuania; Skirgaila Jan Kazimierz Prince of Trakai; Kaributas Dmitri Younger and 7 others
Half brother of Dymitr Starszy Olgierdowic; Yevfrosinia Olgierd dotter Smolenska; Teodora Princess of Lithuania; Miss Olgerdovna Princess of Lithuania; Agrafenija Princess of Lithuania and 6 others

Occupation: b. 1362/1363, m. 2-7-1421/1422
Managed by: Andrzej Hennel
Last Updated:

About Jogaila / Władysław II Jagiełło

Familypedia - Wladyslaw II Jagiellon (c1362-1434) and List of rulers of Lithuania

Jogaila on Wikipedia in English

Władysław Jagiełło w Wikipedii po Polsku

Little is known of Jogaila's early life, and even his date of birth is not certain. Previously historians have given his date of birth as 1352, but some recent research suggests a later date—about 1362.[6] He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty and probably born in Vilnius. His parents were Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana, daughter of Alexander I, Grand Prince of Tver.

The Lithuania to which Jogaila succeeded in 1377 was a political entity composed of two different nationalities and two political systems: ethnic Lithuania in the north-west and the vast Ruthenian territories of former Kievan Rus', comprising lands of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of western Russia.[7] At first, Jogaila—like his father, who had besieged Moscow in 1370[8]—based his rule in the southern and eastern territories of Lithuania, while his uncle, Kęstutis, the duke of Trakai, continued to rule the north-western region.[9] Jogaila's succession, however, soon placed this system of dual rule under strain.[4]

At the start of his reign, Jogaila was preoccupied with unrest in the Lithuanian Rus' lands. In 1377–78, for example, his own half-brother, the russified Andrei of Polotsk, maneuvered to secede to Moscow.[10] In 1380, Andrei and another brother, Dmitry, sided with Prince Dmitri of Moscow against Jogaila's alliance with the Tatar Khan Mamai.[11] Jogaila failed to arrive with his troops in time to support Mamai,[10] who was defeated by Prince Dmitri at the Battle of Kulikovo, after which the principality of Moscow posed a heightened threat to Lithuania. In the same year, Jogaila began a struggle for supremacy with Kęstutis.

In the north-west, Lithuania faced constant armed incursions from the monastic state of the Teutonic Order—founded after 1226 to fight and convert the pagan Baltic tribes of Prussians, Yotvingians and Lithuanians—which had established itself as a centralised regional power. In 1380, Jogaila secretly concluded the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Order, in which he agreed to the Christianisation of Lithuania in return for the Order's backing against Kęstutis.[4] When Kęstutis discovered the plan, the Lithuanian Civil War began. He seized Vilnius, overthrew Jogaila, and pronounced himself grand duke in his place.[12]

In 1382, Jogaila raised an army from his father's vassals and confronted Kęstutis near Trakai. Kęstutis and his son Vytautas, under a promise of safe conduct from Skirgaila, Jogaila's brother, entered Jogaila's encampment in Vilnius for negotiations but were tricked and imprisoned in the castle of Kreva, where Kęstutis was found dead, probably murdered, a week later.[13] Vytautas escaped to the Teutonic fortress of Marienburg and was baptised there under the name Wigand.[12]

Jogaila conducted further talks with the Order formulating the Treaty of Dubysa, which renewed his promises of Christianisation and granted the Knights Samogitia west of the Dubysa river. The Knights, however, pretending to assist both cousins at once, entered Lithuania in summer 1383 and seized most of Samogitia, opening a corridor between Teutonic Prussia and Teutonic Livonia further north. Having taken arms with the Knights, Vytautas then accepted assurances from Jogaila about his inheritance and joined him in attacking and looting several Prussian castles

When the time came for Jogaila to choose a wife, it became clear that he intended to marry a Christian. His Russian mother urged him to marry Sofia, daughter of Prince Dmitri of Moscow, who required him first to convert to Orthodoxy.[15] That option, however, was unlikely to halt the crusades against Lithuania by the Teutonic Order, who regarded Orthodox Christians as schismatics and little better than heathens

Jogaila chose therefore to accept a Polish proposal to become a Catholic and marry the eleven-year-old Queen Jadwiga of Poland.[16][17] He was also to be legally adopted by Jadwiga's mother, Elisabeth of Hungary, so retaining the throne in the event of Jadwiga's death.[12] On these and other terms, on 14 August 1385 at the castle of Kreva, Jogaila agreed to adopt Christianity, repatriate lands "stolen" from Poland by its neighbours, and terras suas Lithuaniae et Russiae Coronae Regni Poloniae perpetuo applicare, a clause interpreted by historians to mean anything from a personal union between Lithuania and Poland to a prenuptial agreement superseded when the marriage took place.[18] The agreement at Krėva has been described both as far-sighted and as a desperate gamble.[19]

Jogaila was duly baptised at the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków on 15 February 1386 and from then on formally used the name Władysław or Latin versions of it.[20] An official declaration of the baptism was sent to Grand Master Ernst von Zöllner, who had declined an invitation to become the new Christian's godfather, at the Order's capital, Marienburg.[21] The royal baptism triggered the conversion of most of Jogaila's court and knights, as well as mass baptisms in Lithuanian rivers,[22] a beginning of the final Christianization of Lithuania. Though the ethnic Lithuanian nobility were the main converts to Catholicism—both paganism and the Orthodox rite remained strong among the peasants—the king's conversion and its political implications created lasting repercussions for the history of both Lithuania and Poland

Before Władysław's arrival in Kraków for the wedding, Queen Jadwiga despatched one of her knights, Zawisza the Red, to confirm that her future husband was really a human, as she had heard he was a bear-like creature, cruel and uncivilised.[23] Despite her misgivings, the marriage went ahead on 4 March 1386, two weeks after the baptism ceremonies, and Jogaila was crowned King Władysław by archbishop Bodzanta. In time, the Poles discovered their new ruler to be a civilised monarch with a high regard for Christian culture, as well as a skilled politician and military commander. An athletic man, with small, restless, black eyes and big ears,[24] Władysław dressed modestly and was said to be an unusually clean person, who washed and shaved every day, never touched alcohol, and drank only pure water.[23][25] His pleasures included listening to Ruthenian fiddlers and hunting.[26] Some medieval chroniclers attributed such model behaviour to Wladyslaw's conversion

Władysław and Jadwiga reigned as co-monarchs; and though Jadwiga probably had little real power, she took an active part in Poland's political and cultural life. In 1387, she led two successful military expeditions to Red Ruthenia, recovered lands her father had transferred from Poland to Hungary, and secured the homage of Petru I, Voivode of Moldavia.[28] In 1390, she also personally opened negotiations with the Teutonic Order. Most political responsibilities, however, fell to Władysław, with Jadwiga attending to the cultural and charitable activities for which she is still revered.[28]

Soon after Władysław's accession to the Polish throne, Władysław granted Vilnius a city charter like that of Kraków, modelled on the Magdeburg Law; and Vytautas issued a privilege to a Jewish commune of Trakai on almost the same terms as privileges issued to the Jews of Poland in the reigns of Boleslaus the Pious and Casimir the Great.[29] Władysław's policy of unifying the two legal systems was partial and uneven at first but achieved a lasting influence.[28][30]

One effect of Władysław's measures was to be the advancement of Catholics in Lithuania at the expense of Orthodox elements; in 1387 and 1413, for example, Lithuanian Catholic boyars were granted special judicial and political privileges denied the Orthodox boyars.[31] As this process gained momentum, it was accompanied by the rise of both Rus' and Lithuanian identity in the fifteenth century

Władysław's baptism entirely failed to end the crusade of the Teutonic Knights, who claimed his conversion was a sham, perhaps even a heresy, and renewed their incursions on the pretext that pagans remained in Lithuania.[12][33] From now on, however, the Order found it harder to sustain the cause of a crusade and faced the growing threat to its existence posed by a genuinely Christian Lithuania.[34][35]

If anything, Władysław and Jadwiga's policy of Catholicising Lithuania served to antagonise rather than disarm their Teutonic rivals. They sponsored the creation of the diocese of Vilnius under bishop Andrzej Wasilko, the former confessor of Elisabeth of Hungary. The bishopric, which included Samogitia, then largely controlled by the Teutonic Order, was subordinated to the see of Gniezno and not to that of Teutonic Königsberg.[12] The decision may not have improved Władysław's relations with the Order, but it served to introduce closer ties between Lithuania and Poland, enabling the Polish church to freely assist its Lithuanian counterpart.[22]

In 1389, Władysław's rule in Lithuania faced a revived challenge from Vytautas, who resented the power given to Skirgaila in Lithuania at the expense of his own patrimony.[14] Vytautas started a civil war in Lithuania, aiming to become the Grand Duke. On 4 September 1390, the joint forces of Vytautas and the Teutonic Grand Master, Konrad von Wallenrode, laid siege to Vilnius, which was held by Władysław's regent Skirgaila with combined Polish, Lithuanian and Ruthenian troops.[4][36] Although the Knights, "with all their powder shot away", lifted the siege of the castle after a month, they reduced much of the outer city to ruins.[37] This bloody conflict was eventually brought to a temporary halt in 1392 with the secret Treaty of Ostrów, by which Władysław handed over the government of Lithuania to his cousin in exchange for peace: Vytautas was to rule Lithuania as the Grand Duke until his death, under the overlordship of a supreme prince or duke in the person of the Polish monarch.[38] Vytautas accepted his new status but continued to demand Lithuania's complete separation from Poland

This protracted period of war between the Lithuanians and the Teutonic Knights was ended on 12 October 1398 by the Treaty of Salynas, named after the islet in the Neman River where it was signed. Lithuania agreed to cede Samogitia and assist the Teutonic Order in a campaign to seize Pskov, while the Order agreed to assist Lithuania in a campaign to seize Novgorod.[28] Shortly afterwards, Vytautas was crowned as a king by local nobles; but the following year his forces and those of his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh of the White Horde, were crushed by the Timurids at the Battle of the Vorskla River, ending his imperial ambitions in the east and obliging him to submit to Władysław's protection once more

On 22 June 1399, Jadwiga gave birth to a daughter, baptised Elżbieta Bonifacja; but within a month both mother and baby were dead from birth complications, leaving the fifty-year-old king sole ruler of Poland and without an heir. Jadwiga's death, and with it the extinction of the Angevin line, undermined Władysław's right to the throne; and as a result old conflicts between the nobility of Lesser Poland, generally sympathetic to Władysław, and the gentry of Greater Poland began to surface. In 1402, Władysław answered the rumblings against his rule by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland, a political match which re-legitimised his monarchy.

Poland under king Władysława Jagiełły of PolandThe Union of Vilnius and Radom of 1401 confirmed Vytautas's status as grand duke under Władysław's overlordship, while assuring the title of grand duke to the heirs of Władysław rather than those of Vytautas: should Władysław die without heirs, the Lithuanian boyars were to elect a new monarch.[40][41] Since no heir had yet been produced by either monarch, the act's implications were unforeseeable, but it forged bonds between the Polish and Lithuanian nobility and a permanent defensive alliance between the two states, strengthening Lithuania's hand for a new war against the Teutonic Order in which Poland officially took no part.[34][39] While the document left the liberties of the Polish nobles untouched, it granted increased power to the boyars of Lithuania, whose grand dukes had till then been unencumbered by checks and balances of the sort attached to the Polish monarchy. The Union of Vilnius and Radom therefore earned Władysław a measure of support in Lithuania.[28]

In late 1401, the new war against the Order overstretched the resources of the Lithuanians, who found themselves fighting on two fronts after uprisings in the eastern provinces. Another of Władysław's brothers, the malcontent Švitrigaila, chose this moment to stir up revolts behind the lines and declare himself grand duke.[33] On 31 January 1402, he presented himself in Marienburg, where he won the backing of the Knights with concessions similar to those made by Jogaila and Vytautas during earlier leadership contests in the Grand Duchy

The war ended in defeat for Władysław. On 22 May 1404 in the Treaty of Raciąż, he acceded to most of the Order's demands, including the formal cession of Samogitia, and agreed to support the Order's designs on Pskov; in return, Konrad von Jungingen undertook to sell Poland the disputed Dobrzyń Land and the town of Złotoryja, once pawned to the Order by Władysław Opolski, and to support Vytautas in a revived attempt on Novgorod.[40] Both sides had practical reasons for signing the treaty at that point: the Order needed time to fortify its newly acquired lands, the Poles and Lithuanians to deal with territorial challenges in the east and in Silesia.

Also in 1404, Władysław held talks at Vratislav with Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, who offered to return Silesia to Poland if Władysław supported him in his power struggle within the Holy Roman Empire.[42] Władysław turned the deal down with the agreement of both Polish and Silesian nobles, unwilling to burden himself with new military commitments in the west

In December 1408, Władysław and Vytautas held strategic talks in Navahrudak, where they decided to foment a revolt against Teutonic rule in Samogitia to draw German forces away from Pomerelia. Władysław promised to repay Vytautas for his support by restoring Samogitia to Lithuania in any future peace treaty.[44] The uprising, which began in May 1409, at first provoked little reaction from the Knights, who had not yet consolidated their rule in Samogitia by building castles; but by June their diplomats were busy lobbying Władysław's court at Oborniki, warning his nobles against Polish involvement in a war between Lithuania and the Order.[45] Władysław, however, bypassed his nobles and informed new Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen that if the Knights acted to suppress Samogitia, Poland would intervene. This stung the Order into issuing a declaration of war against Poland on 6 August, which Władysław received on 14 August in Nowy Korczyn.[45]

The castles guarding the northern border were in such bad condition that the Knights easily captured those at Złotoryja, Dobrzyń and Bobrowniki, the capital of Dobrzyń Land, while German burghers invited them into Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberg). Władysław arrived on the scene in late September, retook Bydgoszcz within a week, and came to terms with the Order on 8 October. During the winter, the two armies prepared for a major confrontation. Władysław installed a strategic supply depot at Płock in Masovia and had a pontoon bridge constructed and transported north down the Vistula.[46]

Meanwhile, both sides unleashed diplomatic offensives. The Knights despatched letters to the monarchs of Europe, preaching their usual crusade against the heathens;[47] Władysław countered with his own letters to the monarchs, accusing the Order of planning to conquer the whole world.[48] Such appeals successfully recruited many foreign knights to each side. Wenceslas IV of Bohemia signed a defensive treaty with the Poles against the Teutonic Order; his brother, Sigismund of Luxembourg, allied himself with the Order and declared war against Poland on 12 July, though his Hungarian vassals refused his call to arms

When the war resumed in June 1410, Władysław advanced into the Teutonic heartland at the head of an army of about 20,000 mounted nobles, 15,000 armed commoners, and 2,000 professional cavalry mainly hired from Bohemia. After crossing the Vistula over the pontoon bridge at Czerwińsk, his troops met up with those of Vytautas, whose 11,000 light cavalry included Ruthenians and Tatars.[51] The Teutonic Order's army numbered about 18,000 cavalry, mostly Germans and 5,000 infantry. On 15 July, at the Battle of Grunwald,[52] after one of the largest and most ferocious battles of the Middle Ages,[53] the allies won a victory so overwhelming that the Teutonic Order's army was virtually annihilated, with most of its key commanders killed in combat, including Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode. Thousands of troops were reported to have been slaughtered on either side

The road to the Teutonic capital Marienburg now lay open, the city undefended; but for reasons the sources do not explain, Władysław hesitated to pursue his advantage.[55] On 17 July, his army began a laboured advance, arriving at Marienburg only on 25 July, by which time the new Grand Master, Heinrich von Plauen, had organised a defence of the fortress.[56][57] The apparent half-heartedness of the ensuing siege, called off by Władysław on 19 September, has been ascribed variously to the impregnability of the fortifications, to high casualty figures among the Lithuanians, and to Władysław's unwillingness to risk further casualties; but a lack of sources precludes a definitive explanation. Paweł Jasienica, in his monumental Polska Jagiellonów (Poland of the Jagiellons) suggests Władysław, as a Lithuanian, might have wished to preserve the equilibrium between Lithuania and Poland, the Lithuanians having suffered particularly heavy casualties in the battle.[58] Other historians point out that Władysław might have assumed Marienburg was impregnable and therefore seen no advantage in a lengthy siege with no guarantee of success.[

The war ended in 1411 with the Peace of Thorn, in which neither Poland nor Lithuania drove home their negotiating advantage to the full, much to the discontent of the Polish nobles. Poland regained Dobrzyń Land, Lithuania regained Samogitia, and Masovia regained a small territory beyond the Wkra river. Most of the Teutonic Order's territory, however, including towns which had surrendered, remained intact. Władysław then proceeded to release many high-ranking Teutonic Knights and officials for apparently modest ransoms.[60] This failure to exploit the victory to his nobles' satisfaction provoked growing opposition to Władysław's regime after 1411, further fuelled by the granting of Podolia, disputed between Poland and Lithuania, to Vytautas, and by the king's two-year absence in Lithuania.[61]

A lingering Polish distrust of Władysław, who never became fluent in Polish, was expressed later in the century by the chronicler and historian Jan Długosz:

“ He loved his country Lithuania and his family and brothers so much that without hesitation he brought to the Polish kingdom all kinds of wars and troubles. The crown's riches and all it carried he donated towards the enrichment and protection of Lithuania.[62] ”

In an effort to outflank his critics, Władysław promoted the leader of the opposing faction, bishop Mikołaj Trąba, to the archbishopric of Gniezno in autumn 1411 and replaced him in Kraków with Wojciech Jastrzębiec, a supporter of Vytautas.[61] He also sought to create more allies in Lithuania. In 1413, in the Union of Horodło, signed on 2 October, he decreed that the status of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was "tied to our Kingdom of Poland permanently and irreversibly" and granted the Catholic nobles of Lithuania privileges equal to those of the Polish szlachta. The act included a clause prohibiting the Polish nobles from electing a monarch without the consent of the Lithuanian nobles, and the Lithuanian nobles from electing a grand duke without the consent of the Polish monarch

In 1414, a sporadic new war broke out, known as the "Hunger War" from the Knights' scorched-earth tactics of burning fields and mills; but both the Knights and the Lithuanians were too exhausted from the previous war to risk a major battle, and the fighting petered out in the autumn.[61] Hostilities did not flare up again until 1419, during the Council of Constance, when they were called off at the papal legate's insistence.[61]

The Council of Constance proved a turning point in the Teutonic crusades, as it did for several European conflicts. Vytautas sent a delegation in 1415, including the metropolitan of Kiev; and Samogitian witnesses arrived at Constance at the end of that year to point out their preference for being "baptised with water and not with blood".[64] The Polish envoys, among them Mikołaj Trąba, Zawisza Czarny, and Paweł Włodkowic, lobbied for an end to the forced conversion of heathens and to the Order's aggression against Lithuania and Poland.[65] As a result of the Polish-Lithuanian diplomacy, the council, though scandalised by Włodkowic's questioning of the monastic state's legitimacy, denied the Order's request for a further crusade and instead entrusted the conversion of the Samogitians to Poland-Lithuania.[66]

The diplomatic context at Constance included the revolt of the Bohemian Hussites, who looked upon Poland as an ally in their wars against Sigismund, the emperor elect and new king of Bohemia. In 1421, the Bohemian Diet declared Sigismund deposed and formally offered the crown to Władysław on condition he accept the religious principles of the Four Articles of Prague, which he was not prepared to do.[67]

In 1422, Władysław fought another war, known as the Gollub War, against the Teutonic Order, defeating them in under two months before the Order's imperial reinforcements had time to arrive. The resulting Treaty of Lake Melno ended the Knights' claims to Samogitia once and for all and defined a permanent border between Prussia and Lithuania.[68] The terms of this treaty have, however, been seen as turning a Polish victory into defeat, thanks to Władysław's renunciation of Polish claims to Pomerania, Pomerelia, and Chełmno Land, for which he received only the town of Nieszawa in return.[69] The Treaty of Lake Melno closed a chapter in the Knights' wars with Lithuania but did little to settle their long-term issues with Poland. Further sporadic warfare broke out between Poland and the Knights between 1431 and 1435.

Cracks in the cooperation between Poland and Lithuania after the death of Vytautas in 1430 had offered the Knights a revived opportunity for interference in Poland. Władysław supported his brother Švitrigaila as grand duke of Lithuania,[70] but when Švitrigaila, with the support of the Teutonic Order and dissatisfied Rus' nobles,[32] rebelled against Polish overlordship in Lithuania, the Poles, under the leadership of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków, occupied Podolia, which Władysław had awarded to Lithuania in 1411, and Volhynia.[71] In 1432, a pro-Polish party in Lithuania elected Vytautas's brother Žygimantas as grand duke,[70] leading to an armed struggle over the Lithuanian succession which stuttered on for years after Władysław's death.

--------------------

Jogaila, King of Poland.

Born about 1348

in Vilnius

Died 1 June 1434

in Gródek Jagielloński (now Horodok, Ukraine)

Buried Wawel Cathedral

Reign Lithuanian grand duke (later supreme duke) from 1377; king of Poland from 1386

to 1 June 1434

Coronation As Polish king: 4 March 1386

in Wawel Cathedral

Family or dynasty Jagiellon dynasty

Coat of Arms Vytis.

Parents Algirdas

Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver

Marriage and children with Jadwiga of Poland:

Elżbieta Bonifacja
with Anna of Celje:
Jadwiga of Lithuania
with Elisabeth of Pilica:
None
with Sophia of Halshany:
Władysław III of Poland, † Casimir IV Jagiellon

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło; (b. about 1348; died 1 June 1434), was Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle, Kęstutis. In 1386, he converted to Christianity, was baptized as Władysław, married the young Queen Jadwiga of Poland, inducted into the Order of the Dragon and was crowned Polish king as Władysław Jagiełło. His reign in Poland lasted a further forty-eight years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish-Lithuanian union. He gave his name to the Jagiellon branch of the established Lithuanian Gediminids dynasty, which ruled both states until 1572, and became one of the most influential dynasties in medieval Central and Eastern Europe.

Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. He held the title Didysis Kunigaikštis. As King of Poland, he pursued a policy of close alliances with Lithuania against the Teutonic Order. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn (1411), secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish-Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's "Golden Age".

Little is known of Jogaila's early life, and even his date of birth is not certain. Previously historians have given his date of birth as 1352, but some recent research suggests a later date—about 1362. He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty and probably born in Vilnius. His parents were Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana, daughter of Alexander I, Grand Prince of Tver.

The Lithuania to which Jogaila succeeded in 1377 was a political entity composed of two different nationalities and two political systems: ethnic Lithuania in the north-west and the vast Ruthenian territories of former Kievan Rus', comprising lands of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of western Russia. At first, Jogaila—like his father, who had besieged Moscow in 1370—based his rule in the southern and eastern territories of Lithuania, while his uncle, Kęstutis, the duke of Trakai, continued to rule the north-western region. Jogaila's succession, however, soon placed this system of dual rule under strain.

At the start of his reign, Jogaila was preoccupied with unrest in the Lithuanian Rus' lands. In 1377–78, for example, his own half-brother, the russified Andrei of Polotsk, maneuvered to secede to Moscow. In 1380, Andrei and another brother, Dmitry, sided with Prince Dmitri of Moscow against Jogaila's alliance with the Tatar Khan Mamai.[11] Jogaila failed to arrive with his troops in time to support Mamai,[ who was defeated by Prince Dmitri at the Battle of Kulikovo, after which the principality of Moscow posed a heightened threat to Lithuania. In the same year, Jogaila began a struggle for supremacy with Kęstutis.

In the north-west, Lithuania faced constant armed incursions from the monastic state of the Teutonic Order—founded after 1226 to fight and convert the pagan Baltic tribes of Prussians, Yotvingians and Lithuanians—which had established itself as a centralised regional power. In 1380, Jogaila secretly concluded the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Order, in which he agreed to the Christianisation of Lithuania in return for the Order's backing against Kęstutis.[4] When Kęstutis discovered the plan, the Lithuanian Civil War began. He seized Vilnius, overthrew Jogaila, and pronounced himself grand duke in his place.

In 1382, Jogaila raised an army from his father's vassals and confronted Kęstutis near Trakai. Kęstutis and his son Vytautas, under a promise of safe conduct from Skirgaila, Jogaila's brother, entered Jogaila's encampment in Vilnius for negotiations but were tricked and imprisoned in the castle of Kreva, where Kęstutis was found dead, probably murdered, a week later. Vytautas escaped to the Teutonic fortress of Marienburg and was baptised there under the name Wigand.

Jogaila conducted further talks with the Order formulating the Treaty of Dubysa, which renewed his promises of Christianisation and granted the Knights Samogitia west of the Dubysa river. The Knights, however, pretending to assist both cousins at once, entered Lithuania in summer 1383 and seized most of Samogitia, opening a corridor between Teutonic Prussia and Teutonic Livonia further north. Having taken arms with the Knights, Vytautas then accepted assurances from Jogaila about his inheritance and joined him in attacking and looting several Prussian castles.

When the time came for Jogaila to choose a wife, it became clear that he intended to marry a Christian. His Russian mother urged him to marry Sofia, daughter of Prince Dmitri of Moscow, who required him first to convert to Orthodoxy. That option, however, was unlikely to halt the crusades against Lithuania by the Teutonic Order, who regarded Orthodox Christians as schismatics and little better than heathens.

Wawel Cathedral's towersJogaila chose therefore to accept a Polish proposal to become a Catholic and marry the eleven-year-old Queen Jadwiga of Poland. He was also to be legally adopted by Jadwiga's mother, Elisabeth of Hungary, so retaining the throne in the event of Jadwiga's death. On these and other terms, on 14 August 1385 at the castle of Kreva, Jogaila agreed to adopt Christianity, repatriate lands "stolen" from Poland by its neighbours, and terras suas Lithuaniae et Russiae Coronae Regni Poloniae perpetuo applicare, a clause interpreted by historians to mean anything from a personal union between Lithuania and Poland to a prenuptial agreement superseded when the marriage took place. The agreement at Krėva has been described both as far-sighted and as a desperate gamble.

Jogaila was duly baptised at the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków on 15 February 1386 and from then on formally used the name Władysław or Latin versions of it. An official declaration of the baptism was sent to Grand Master Ernst von Zöllner, who had declined an invitation to become the new Christian's godfather, at the Order's capital, Marienburg. The royal baptism triggered the conversion of most of Jogaila's court and knights, as well as mass baptisms in Lithuanian rivers, a beginning of the final Christianization of Lithuania. Though the ethnic Lithuanian nobility were the main converts to Catholicism—both paganism and the Orthodox rite remained strong among the peasants—the king's conversion and its political implications created lasting repercussions for the history of both Lithuania and Poland.

Cross of Jagiellons, Władysław's personal insignia, acquired after his marriageBefore Władysław's arrival in Kraków for the wedding, Queen Jadwiga despatched one of her knights, Zawisza the Red, to confirm that her future husband was really a human, as she had heard he was a bear-like creature, cruel and uncivilised. Despite her misgivings, the marriage went ahead on 4 March 1386, two weeks after the baptism ceremonies, and Jogaila was crowned King Władysław by archbishop Bodzanta. In time, the Poles discovered their new ruler to be a civilised monarch with a high regard for Christian culture, as well as a skilled politician and military commander. An athletic man, with small, restless, black eyes and big ears, Władysław dressed modestly and was said to be an unusually clean person, who washed and shaved every day, never touched alcohol, and drank only pure water. His pleasures included listening to Ruthenian fiddlers and hunting. Some medieval chroniclers attributed such model behaviour to Wladyslaw's conversion.

Jadwiga's sarcophagus, Wawel CathedralWładysław and Jadwiga reigned as co-monarchs; and though Jadwiga probably had little real power, she took an active part in Poland's political and cultural life. In 1387, she led two successful military expeditions to Red Ruthenia, recovered lands her father had transferred from Poland to Hungary, and secured the homage of Petru I, Voivode of Moldavia.[28] In 1390, she also personally opened negotiations with the Teutonic Order. Most political responsibilities, however, fell to Władysław, with Jadwiga attending to the cultural and charitable activities for which she is still revered.

Soon after Władysław's accession to the Polish throne, Władysław granted Vilnius a city charter like that of Kraków, modelled on the Magdeburg Law; and Vytautas issued a privilege to a Jewish commune of Trakai on almost the same terms as privileges issued to the Jews of Poland in the reigns of Boleslaus the Pious and Casimir the Great. Władysław's policy of unifying the two legal systems was partial and uneven at first but achieved a lasting influence.

One effect of Władysław's measures was to be the advancement of Catholics in Lithuania at the expense of Orthodox elements; in 1387 and 1413, for example, Lithuanian Catholic boyars were granted special judicial and political privileges denied the Orthodox boyars. As this process gained momentum, it was accompanied by the rise of both Rus' and Lithuanian identity in the fifteenth century.

VytautasWładysław's baptism entirely failed to end the crusade of the Teutonic Knights, who claimed his conversion was a sham, perhaps even a heresy, and renewed their incursions on the pretext that pagans remained in Lithuania. From now on, however, the Order found it harder to sustain the cause of a crusade and faced the growing threat to its existence posed by a genuinely Christian Lithuania.

If anything, Władysław and Jadwiga's policy of Catholicising Lithuania served to antagonise rather than disarm their Teutonic rivals. They sponsored the creation of the diocese of Vilnius under bishop Andrzej Wasilko, the former confessor of Elisabeth of Hungary. The bishopric, which included Samogitia, then largely controlled by the Teutonic Order, was subordinated to the see of Gniezno and not to that of Teutonic Königsberg. The decision may not have improved Władysław's relations with the Order, but it served to introduce closer ties between Lithuania and Poland, enabling the Polish church to freely assist its Lithuanian counterpart.

In 1389, Władysław's rule in Lithuania faced a revived challenge from Vytautas, who resented the power given to Skirgaila in Lithuania at the expense of his own patrimony. Vytautas started a civil war in Lithuania, aiming to become the Grand Duke. On 4 September 1390, the joint forces of Vytautas and the Teutonic Grand Master, Konrad von Wallenrode, laid siege to Vilnius, which was held by Władysław's regent Skirgaila with combined Polish, Lithuanian and Ruthenian troops. Although the Knights, "with all their powder shot away", lifted the siege of the castle after a month, they reduced much of the outer city to ruins.This bloody conflict was eventually brought to a temporary halt in 1392 with the secret Treaty of Ostrów, by which Władysław handed over the government of Lithuania to his cousin in exchange for peace: Vytautas was to rule Lithuania as the Grand Duke until his death, under the overlordship of a supreme prince or duke in the person of the Polish monarch. Vytautas accepted his new status but continued to demand Lithuania's complete separation from Poland.

This protracted period of war between the Lithuanians and the Teutonic Knights was ended on 12 October 1398 by the Treaty of Salynas, named after the islet in the Neman River where it was signed. Lithuania agreed to cede Samogitia and assist the Teutonic Order in a campaign to seize Pskov, while the Order agreed to assist Lithuania in a campaign to seize Novgorod. Shortly afterwards, Vytautas was crowned as a king by local nobles; but the following year his forces and those of his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh of the White Horde, were crushed by the Timurids at the Battle of the Vorskla River, ending his imperial ambitions in the east and obliging him to submit to Władysław's protection once more.

On 22 June 1399, Jadwiga gave birth to a daughter, baptised Elżbieta Bonifacja; but within a month both mother and baby were dead from birth complications, leaving the fifty-year-old king sole ruler of Poland and without an heir. Jadwiga's death, and with it the extinction of the Angevin line, undermined Władysław's right to the throne; and as a result old conflicts between the nobility of Lesser Poland, generally sympathetic to Władysław, and the gentry of Greater Poland began to surface. In 1402, Władysław answered the rumblings against his rule by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland, a political match which re-legitimised his monarchy.

Poland under king Władysława Jagiełły of PolandThe Union of Vilnius and Radom of 1401 confirmed Vytautas's status as grand duke under Władysław's overlordship, while assuring the title of grand duke to the heirs of Władysław rather than those of Vytautas: should Władysław die without heirs, the Lithuanian boyars were to elect a new monarch. Since no heir had yet been produced by either monarch, the act's implications were unforeseeable, but it forged bonds between the Polish and Lithuanian nobility and a permanent defensive alliance between the two states, strengthening Lithuania's hand for a new war against the Teutonic Order in which Poland officially took no part. While the document left the liberties of the Polish nobles untouched, it granted increased power to the boyars of Lithuania, whose grand dukes had till then been unencumbered by checks and balances of the sort attached to the Polish monarchy. The Union of Vilnius and Radom therefore earned Władysław a measure of support in Lithuania.

In late 1401, the new war against the Order overstretched the resources of the Lithuanians, who found themselves fighting on two fronts after uprisings in the eastern provinces. Another of Władysław's brothers, the malcontent Švitrigaila, chose this moment to stir up revolts behind the lines and declare himself grand duke. On 31 January 1402, he presented himself in Marienburg, where he won the backing of the Knights with concessions similar to those made by Jogaila and Vytautas during earlier leadership contests in the Grand Duchy.

The war ended in defeat for Władysław. On 22 May 1404 in the Treaty of Raciąż, he acceded to most of the Order's demands, including the formal cession of Samogitia, and agreed to support the Order's designs on Pskov; in return, Konrad von Jungingen undertook to sell Poland the disputed Dobrzyń Land and the town of Złotoryja, once pawned to the Order by Władysław Opolski, and to support Vytautas in a revived attempt on Novgorod. Both sides had practical reasons for signing the treaty at that point: the Order needed time to fortify its newly acquired lands, the Poles and Lithuanians to deal with territorial challenges in the east and in Silesia.

Also in 1404, Władysław held talks at Vratislav with Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, who offered to return Silesia to Poland if Władysław supported him in his power struggle within the Holy Roman Empire. Władysław turned the deal down with the agreement of both Polish and Silesian nobles, unwilling to burden himself with new military commitments in the west.

In December 1408, Władysław and Vytautas held strategic talks in Navahrudak, where they decided to foment a revolt against Teutonic rule in Samogitia to draw German forces away from Pomerelia. Władysław promised to repay Vytautas for his support by restoring Samogitia to Lithuania in any future peace treaty. The uprising, which began in May 1409, at first provoked little reaction from the Knights, who had not yet consolidated their rule in Samogitia by building castles; but by June their diplomats were busy lobbying Władysław's court at Oborniki, warning his nobles against Polish involvement in a war between Lithuania and the Order. Władysław, however, bypassed his nobles and informed new Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen that if the Knights acted to suppress Samogitia, Poland would intervene. This stung the Order into issuing a declaration of war against Poland on 6 August, which Władysław received on 14 August in Nowy Korczyn.

The castles guarding the northern border were in such bad condition that the Knights easily captured those at Złotoryja, Dobrzyń and Bobrowniki, the capital of Dobrzyń Land, while German burghers invited them into Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberg). Władysław arrived on the scene in late September, retook Bydgoszcz within a week, and came to terms with the Order on 8 October. During the winter, the two armies prepared for a major confrontation. Władysław installed a strategic supply depot at Płock in Masovia and had a pontoon bridge constructed and transported north down the Vistula.

Meanwhile, both sides unleashed diplomatic offensives. The Knights despatched letters to the monarchs of Europe, preaching their usual crusade against the heathens; Władysław countered with his own letters to the monarchs, accusing the Order of planning to conquer the whole world. Such appeals successfully recruited many foreign knights to each side. Wenceslas IV of Bohemia signed a defensive treaty with the Poles against the Teutonic Order; his brother, Sigismund of Luxembourg, allied himself with the Order and declared war against Poland on 12 July, though his Hungarian vassals refused his call to arms.

Battle of Grunwald, 1410. Painting by Jan MatejkoWhen the war resumed in June 1410, Władysław advanced into the Teutonic heartland at the head of an army of about 20,000 mounted nobles, 15,000 armed commoners, and 2,000 professional cavalry mainly hired from Bohemia. After crossing the Vistula over the pontoon bridge at Czerwińsk, his troops met up with those of Vytautas, whose 11,000 light cavalry included Ruthenians and Tatars. The Teutonic Order's army numbered about 18,000 cavalry, mostly Germans and 5,000 infantry. On 15 July, at the Battle of Grunwald, after one of the largest and most ferocious battles of the Middle Ages, the allies won a victory so overwhelming that the Teutonic Order's army was virtually annihilated, with most of its key commanders killed in combat, including Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode. Thousands of troops were reported to have been slaughtered on either side.

The Teutonic Order's castle at MarienburgThe road to the Teutonic capital Marienburg now lay open, the city undefended; but for reasons the sources do not explain, Władysław hesitated to pursue his advantage. On 17 July, his army began a laboured advance, arriving at Marienburg only on 25 July, by which time the new Grand Master, Heinrich von Plauen, had organised a defence of the fortress. The apparent half-heartedness of the ensuing siege, called off by Władysław on 19 September, has been ascribed variously to the impregnability of the fortifications, to high casualty figures among the Lithuanians, and to Władysław's unwillingness to risk further casualties; but a lack of sources precludes a definitive explanation. Paweł Jasienica, in his monumental Polska Jagiellonów (Poland of the Jagiellons) suggests Władysław, as a Lithuanian, might have wished to preserve the equilibrium between Lithuania and Poland, the Lithuanians having suffered particularly heavy casualties in the battle. Other historians point out that Władysław might have assumed Marienburg was impregnable and therefore seen no advantage in a lengthy siege with no guarantee of success.

Polish and Lithuanian conflict with Teutonic Prussia, 1377–1434.The war ended in 1411 with the Peace of Thorn, in which neither Poland nor Lithuania drove home their negotiating advantage to the full, much to the discontent of the Polish nobles. Poland regained Dobrzyń Land, Lithuania regained Samogitia, and Masovia regained a small territory beyond the Wkra river. Most of the Teutonic Order's territory, however, including towns which had surrendered, remained intact. Władysław then proceeded to release many high-ranking Teutonic Knights and officials for apparently modest ransoms.[60] This failure to exploit the victory to his nobles' satisfaction provoked growing opposition to Władysław's regime after 1411, further fuelled by the granting of Podolia, disputed between Poland and Lithuania, to Vytautas, and by the king's two-year absence in Lithuania.

A lingering Polish distrust of Władysław, who never became fluent in Polish, was expressed later in the century by the chronicler and historian Jan Długosz:

“ He loved his country Lithuania and his family and brothers so much that without hesitation he brought to the Polish kingdom all kinds of wars and troubles. The crown's riches and all it carried he donated towards the enrichment and protection of Lithuania. ”

In an effort to outflank his critics, Władysław promoted the leader of the opposing faction, bishop Mikołaj Trąba, to the archbishopric of Gniezno in autumn 1411 and replaced him in Kraków with Wojciech Jastrzębiec, a supporter of Vytautas. He also sought to create more allies in Lithuania. In 1413, in the Union of Horodło, signed on 2 October, he decreed that the status of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was "tied to our Kingdom of Poland permanently and irreversibly" and granted the Catholic nobles of Lithuania privileges equal to those of the Polish szlachta. The act included a clause prohibiting the Polish nobles from electing a monarch without the consent of the Lithuanian nobles, and the Lithuanian nobles from electing a grand duke without the consent of the Polish monarch.

In 1414, a sporadic new war broke out, known as the "Hunger War" from the Knights' scorched-earth tactics of burning fields and mills; but both the Knights and the Lithuanians were too exhausted from the previous war to risk a major battle, and the fighting petered out in the autumn. Hostilities did not flare up again until 1419, during the Council of Constance, when they were called off at the papal legate's insistence.

The Council of Constance proved a turning point in the Teutonic crusades, as it did for several European conflicts. Vytautas sent a delegation in 1415, including the metropolitan of Kiev; and Samogitian witnesses arrived at Constance at the end of that year to point out their preference for being "baptised with water and not with blood". The Polish envoys, among them Mikołaj Trąba, Zawisza Czarny, and Paweł Włodkowic, lobbied for an end to the forced conversion of heathens and to the Order's aggression against Lithuania and Poland. As a result of the Polish-Lithuanian diplomacy, the council, though scandalised by Włodkowic's questioning of the monastic state's legitimacy, denied the Order's request for a further crusade and instead entrusted the conversion of the Samogitians to Poland-Lithuania.[

The diplomatic context at Constance included the revolt of the Bohemian Hussites, who looked upon Poland as an ally in their wars against Sigismund, the emperor elect and new king of Bohemia. In 1421, the Bohemian Diet declared Sigismund deposed and formally offered the crown to Władysław on condition he accept the religious principles of the Four Articles of Prague, which he was not prepared to do.

In 1422, Władysław fought another war, known as the Gollub War, against the Teutonic Order, defeating them in under two months before the Order's imperial reinforcements had time to arrive. The resulting Treaty of Lake Melno ended the Knights' claims to Samogitia once and for all and defined a permanent border between Prussia and Lithuania.[68] The terms of this treaty have, however, been seen as turning a Polish victory into defeat, thanks to Władysław's renunciation of Polish claims to Pomerania, Pomerelia, and Chełmno Land, for which he received only the town of Nieszawa in return.[69] The Treaty of Lake Melno closed a chapter in the Knights' wars with Lithuania but did little to settle their long-term issues with Poland. Further sporadic warfare broke out between Poland and the Knights between 1431 and 1435.

Cracks in the cooperation between Poland and Lithuania after the death of Vytautas in 1430 had offered the Knights a revived opportunity for interference in Poland. Władysław supported his brother Švitrigaila as grand duke of Lithuania, but when Švitrigaila, with the support of the Teutonic Order and dissatisfied Rus' nobles, rebelled against Polish overlordship in Lithuania, the Poles, under the leadership of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków, occupied Podolia, which Władysław had awarded to Lithuania in 1411, and Volhynia.

Władysław's second wife, Anna of Celje, had died in 1416, leaving a daughter, Jadwiga. In 1417, Władysław married Elisabeth of Pilica, who died in 1420 without bearing him a child, and two years later, Sophia of Halshany, who bore him two surviving sons. The death in 1431 of Princess Jadwiga, the last heir of Piast blood, released Władysław to make his sons by Sophia of Halshany his heirs, though he had to sweeten the Polish nobles with concessions to ensure their agreement, since the monarchy was elective. Władysław finally died in 1434, leaving Poland to his elder son, Władysław III, and Lithuania to his younger, Casimir, both still minors at the time.

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Jogaila

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło[1] (born ca. 1348; died 1 June 1434), was Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle, Kęstutis. In 1386, he converted to Christianity, was baptized as Władysław, married the young Queen Jadwiga of Poland, inducted into the Order of the Dragon and was crowned Polish king as Władysław Jagiełło.[2] His reign in Poland lasted a further forty-eight years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish-Lithuanian union. He gave his name to the Jagiellon branch of the established Lithuanian Gediminids dynasty, which ruled both states until 1572,[3] and became one of the most influential dynasties in medieval Central and Eastern Europe.[4]

Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. He held the title Didysis Kunigaikštis.[5] As King of Poland, he pursued a policy of close alliances with Lithuania against the Teutonic Order. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn (1411), secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish-Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's "Golden Age".

Early life

[edit]Lithuania

Little is known of Jogaila's early life, and even his date of birth is not certain. Previously historians have given his date of birth as 1352, but some recent research suggests a later date—about 1362.[6] He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty and probably born in Vilnius. His parents were Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana, daughter of Alexander I, Grand Prince of Tver.

The Lithuania to which Jogaila succeeded in 1377 was a political entity composed of two different nationalities and two political systems: ethnic Lithuania in the north-west and the vast Ruthenian territories of former Kievan Rus', comprising lands of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of western Russia.[7] At first, Jogaila—like his father, who had besieged Moscow in 1370[8]—based his rule in the southern and eastern territories of Lithuania, while his uncle, Kęstutis, the duke of Trakai, continued to rule the north-western region.[9] Jogaila's succession, however, soon placed this system of dual rule under strain.[4]

At the start of his reign, Jogaila was preoccupied with unrest in the Lithuanian Rus' lands. In 1377–78, for example, his own half-brother, the russified Andrei of Polotsk, maneuvered to secede to Moscow.[10] In 1380, Andrei and another brother, Dmitry, sided with Prince Dmitri of Moscow against Jogaila's alliance with the Tatar Khan Mamai.[11] Jogaila failed to arrive with his troops in time to support Mamai,[10] who was defeated by Prince Dmitri at the Battle of Kulikovo, after which the principality of Moscow posed a heightened threat to Lithuania. In the same year, Jogaila began a struggle for supremacy with Kęstutis.

In the north-west, Lithuania faced constant armed incursions from the monastic state of the Teutonic Order—founded after 1226 to fight and convert the pagan Baltic tribes of Prussians, Yotvingians and Lithuanians—which had established itself as a centralised regional power. In 1380, Jogaila secretly concluded the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Order, in which he agreed to the Christianisation of Lithuania in return for the Order's backing against Kęstutis.[4] When Kęstutis discovered the plan, the Lithuanian Civil War began. He seized Vilnius, overthrew Jogaila, and pronounced himself grand duke in his place.[12]

In 1382, Jogaila raised an army from his father's vassals and confronted Kęstutis near Trakai. Kęstutis and his son Vytautas, under a promise of safe conduct from Skirgaila, Jogaila's brother, entered Jogaila's encampment in Vilnius for negotiations but were tricked and imprisoned in the castle of Kreva, where Kęstutis was found dead, probably murdered, a week later.[13] Vytautas escaped to the Teutonic fortress of Marienburg and was baptised there under the name Wigand.[12]

Jogaila conducted further talks with the Order formulating the Treaty of Dubysa, which renewed his promises of Christianisation and granted the Knights Samogitia west of the Dubysa river. The Knights, however, pretending to assist both cousins at once, entered Lithuania in summer 1383 and seized most of Samogitia, opening a corridor between Teutonic Prussia and Teutonic Livonia further north. Having taken arms with the Knights, Vytautas then accepted assurances from Jogaila about his inheritance and joined him in attacking and looting several Prussian castles.[14]

[edit]Baptism and marriage

See also: Jadwiga of Poland

When the time came for Jogaila to choose a wife, it became clear that he intended to marry a Christian. His Russian mother urged him to marry Sofia, daughter of Prince Dmitri of Moscow, who required him first to convert to Orthodoxy.[15] That option, however, was unlikely to halt the crusades against Lithuania by the Teutonic Order, who regarded Orthodox Christians as schismatics and little better than heathens.[12][4]

Jogaila chose therefore to accept a Polish proposal to become a Catholic and marry the eleven-year-old Queen Jadwiga of Poland.[16][17] He was also to be legally adopted by Jadwiga's mother, Elisabeth of Hungary, so retaining the throne in the event of Jadwiga's death.[12] On these and other terms, on 14 August 1385 at the castle of Kreva, Jogaila agreed to adopt Christianity, repatriate lands "stolen" from Poland by its neighbours, and terras suas Lithuaniae et Russiae Coronae Regni Poloniae perpetuo applicare, a clause interpreted by historians to mean anything from a personal union between Lithuania and Poland to a prenuptial agreement superseded when the marriage took place.[18] The agreement at Krėva has been described both as far-sighted and as a desperate gamble.[19]

Jogaila was duly baptised at the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków on 15 February 1386 and from then on formally used the name Władysław or Latin versions of it.[20] An official declaration of the baptism was sent to Grand Master Ernst von Zöllner, who had declined an invitation to become the new Christian's godfather, at the Order's capital, Marienburg.[21] The royal baptism triggered the conversion of most of Jogaila's court and knights, as well as mass baptisms in Lithuanian rivers,[22] a beginning of the final Christianization of Lithuania. Though the ethnic Lithuanian nobility were the main converts to Catholicism—both paganism and the Orthodox rite remained strong among the peasants—the king's conversion and its political implications created lasting repercussions for the history of both Lithuania and Poland.[22]

[edit]Reception in Poland

Before Władysław's arrival in Kraków for the wedding, Queen Jadwiga despatched one of her knights, Zawisza the Red, to confirm that her future husband was really a human, as she had heard he was a bear-like creature, cruel and uncivilised.[23] Despite her misgivings, the marriage went ahead on 4 March 1386, two weeks after the baptism ceremonies, and Jogaila was crowned King Władysław by archbishop Bodzanta. In time, the Poles discovered their new ruler to be a civilised monarch with a high regard for Christian culture, as well as a skilled politician and military commander. An athletic man, with small, restless, black eyes and big ears,[24] Władysław dressed modestly and was said to be an unusually clean person, who washed and shaved every day, never touched alcohol, and drank only pure water.[23][25] His pleasures included listening to Ruthenian fiddlers and hunting.[26] Some medieval chroniclers attributed such model behaviour to Wladyslaw's conversion.[27]

[edit]Ruler of Lithuania and Poland

Władysław and Jadwiga reigned as co-monarchs; and though Jadwiga probably had little real power, she took an active part in Poland's political and cultural life. In 1387, she led two successful military expeditions to Red Ruthenia, recovered lands her father had transferred from Poland to Hungary, and secured the homage of Petru I, Voivode of Moldavia.[28] In 1390, she also personally opened negotiations with the Teutonic Order. Most political responsibilities, however, fell to Władysław, with Jadwiga attending to the cultural and charitable activities for which she is still revered.[28]

Soon after Władysław's accession to the Polish throne, Władysław granted Vilnius a city charter like that of Kraków, modelled on the Magdeburg Law; and Vytautas issued a privilege to a Jewish commune of Trakai on almost the same terms as privileges issued to the Jews of Poland in the reigns of Boleslaus the Pious and Casimir the Great.[29] Władysław's policy of unifying the two legal systems was partial and uneven at first but achieved a lasting influence.[28][30]

One effect of Władysław's measures was to be the advancement of Catholics in Lithuania at the expense of Orthodox elements; in 1387 and 1413, for example, Lithuanian Catholic boyars were granted special judicial and political privileges denied the Orthodox boyars.[31] As this process gained momentum, it was accompanied by the rise of both Rus' and Lithuanian identity in the fifteenth century.[32]

[edit]Challenges

Władysław's baptism entirely failed to end the crusade of the Teutonic Knights, who claimed his conversion was a sham, perhaps even a heresy, and renewed their incursions on the pretext that pagans remained in Lithuania.[12][33] From now on, however, the Order found it harder to sustain the cause of a crusade and faced the growing threat to its existence posed by a genuinely Christian Lithuania.[34][35]

If anything, Władysław and Jadwiga's policy of Catholicising Lithuania served to antagonise rather than disarm their Teutonic rivals. They sponsored the creation of the diocese of Vilnius under bishop Andrzej Wasilko, the former confessor of Elisabeth of Hungary. The bishopric, which included Samogitia, then largely controlled by the Teutonic Order, was subordinated to the see of Gniezno and not to that of Teutonic Königsberg.[12] The decision may not have improved Władysław's relations with the Order, but it served to introduce closer ties between Lithuania and Poland, enabling the Polish church to freely assist its Lithuanian counterpart.[22]

In 1389, Władysław's rule in Lithuania faced a revived challenge from Vytautas, who resented the power given to Skirgaila in Lithuania at the expense of his own patrimony.[14] Vytautas started a civil war in Lithuania, aiming to become the Grand Duke. On 4 September 1390, the joint forces of Vytautas and the Teutonic Grand Master, Konrad von Wallenrode, laid siege to Vilnius, which was held by Władysław's regent Skirgaila with combined Polish, Lithuanian and Ruthenian troops.[4][36] Although the Knights, "with all their powder shot away", lifted the siege of the castle after a month, they reduced much of the outer city to ruins.[37] This bloody conflict was eventually brought to a temporary halt in 1392 with the secret Treaty of Ostrów, by which Władysław handed over the government of Lithuania to his cousin in exchange for peace: Vytautas was to rule Lithuania as the Grand Duke until his death, under the overlordship of a supreme prince or duke in the person of the Polish monarch.[38] Vytautas accepted his new status but continued to demand Lithuania's complete separation from Poland.[39][28]

This protracted period of war between the Lithuanians and the Teutonic Knights was ended on 12 October 1398 by the Treaty of Salynas, named after the islet in the Neman River where it was signed. Lithuania agreed to cede Samogitia and assist the Teutonic Order in a campaign to seize Pskov, while the Order agreed to assist Lithuania in a campaign to seize Novgorod.[28] Shortly afterwards, Vytautas was crowned as a king by local nobles; but the following year his forces and those of his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh of the White Horde, were crushed by the Timurids at the Battle of the Vorskla River, ending his imperial ambitions in the east and obliging him to submit to Władysław's protection once more.[4][39]

[edit]King of Poland

On 22 June 1399, Jadwiga gave birth to a daughter, baptised Elżbieta Bonifacja; but within a month both mother and baby were dead from birth complications, leaving the fifty-year-old king sole ruler of Poland and without an heir. Jadwiga's death, and with it the extinction of the Angevin line, undermined Władysław's right to the throne; and as a result old conflicts between the nobility of Lesser Poland, generally sympathetic to Władysław, and the gentry of Greater Poland began to surface. In 1402, Władysław answered the rumblings against his rule by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland, a political match which re-legitimised his monarchy.

The Union of Vilnius and Radom of 1401 confirmed Vytautas's status as grand duke under Władysław's overlordship, while assuring the title of grand duke to the heirs of Władysław rather than those of Vytautas: should Władysław die without heirs, the Lithuanian boyars were to elect a new monarch.[40][41] Since no heir had yet been produced by either monarch, the act's implications were unforeseeable, but it forged bonds between the Polish and Lithuanian nobility and a permanent defensive alliance between the two states, strengthening Lithuania's hand for a new war against the Teutonic Order in which Poland officially took no part.[34][39] While the document left the liberties of the Polish nobles untouched, it granted increased power to the boyars of Lithuania, whose grand dukes had till then been unencumbered by checks and balances of the sort attached to the Polish monarchy. The Union of Vilnius and Radom therefore earned Władysław a measure of support in Lithuania.[28]

In late 1401, the new war against the Order overstretched the resources of the Lithuanians, who found themselves fighting on two fronts after uprisings in the eastern provinces. Another of Władysław's brothers, the malcontent Švitrigaila, chose this moment to stir up revolts behind the lines and declare himself grand duke.[33] On 31 January 1402, he presented himself in Marienburg, where he won the backing of the Knights with concessions similar to those made by Jogaila and Vytautas during earlier leadership contests in the Grand Duchy.[40]

[edit]Defeat

The war ended in defeat for Władysław. On 22 May 1404 in the Treaty of Raciąż, he acceded to most of the Order's demands, including the formal cession of Samogitia, and agreed to support the Order's designs on Pskov; in return, Konrad von Jungingen undertook to sell Poland the disputed Dobrzyń Land and the town of Złotoryja, once pawned to the Order by Władysław Opolski, and to support Vytautas in a revived attempt on Novgorod.[40] Both sides had practical reasons for signing the treaty at that point: the Order needed time to fortify its newly acquired lands, the Poles and Lithuanians to deal with territorial challenges in the east and in Silesia.

Also in 1404, Władysław held talks at Vratislav with Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, who offered to return Silesia to Poland if Władysław supported him in his power struggle within the Holy Roman Empire.[42] Władysław turned the deal down with the agreement of both Polish and Silesian nobles, unwilling to burden himself with new military commitments in the west.[43]

[edit]Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic war

Main articles: Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War and Battle of Grunwald

In December 1408, Władysław and Vytautas held strategic talks in Navahrudak Castle, where they decided to foment a Samogitian uprising against Teutonic rule to draw German forces away from Pomerelia. Władysław promised to repay Vytautas for his support by restoring Samogitia to Lithuania in any future peace treaty.[44] The uprising, which began in May 1409, at first provoked little reaction from the Knights, who had not yet consolidated their rule in Samogitia by building castles; but by June their diplomats were busy lobbying Władysław's court at Oborniki, warning his nobles against Polish involvement in a war between Lithuania and the Order.[45] Władysław, however, bypassed his nobles and informed new Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen that if the Knights acted to suppress Samogitia, Poland would intervene. This stung the Order into issuing a declaration of war against Poland on 6 August, which Władysław received on 14 August in Nowy Korczyn.[45]

The castles guarding the northern border were in such bad condition that the Knights easily captured those at Złotoryja, Dobrzyń and Bobrowniki, the capital of Dobrzyń Land, while German burghers invited them into Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberg). Władysław arrived on the scene in late September, retook Bydgoszcz within a week, and came to terms with the Order on 8 October. During the winter, the two armies prepared for a major confrontation. Władysław installed a strategic supply depot at Płock in Masovia and had a pontoon bridge constructed and transported north down the Vistula.[46]

Meanwhile, both sides unleashed diplomatic offensives. The Knights despatched letters to the monarchs of Europe, preaching their usual crusade against the heathens;[47] Władysław countered with his own letters to the monarchs, accusing the Order of planning to conquer the whole world.[48] Such appeals successfully recruited many foreign knights to each side. Wenceslas IV of Bohemia signed a defensive treaty with the Poles against the Teutonic Order; his brother, Sigismund of Luxembourg, allied himself with the Order and declared war against Poland on 12 July, though his Hungarian vassals refused his call to arms.[49][50]

[edit]Battle of Grunwald

When the war resumed in June 1410, Władysław advanced into the Teutonic heartland at the head of an army of about 20,000 mounted nobles, 15,000 armed commoners, and 2,000 professional cavalry mainly hired from Bohemia. After crossing the Vistula over the pontoon bridge at Czerwińsk, his troops met up with those of Vytautas, whose 11,000 light cavalry included Ruthenians and Tatars.[51] The Teutonic Order's army numbered about 18,000 cavalry, mostly Germans and 5,000 infantry. On 15 July, at the Battle of Grunwald,[52] after one of the largest and most ferocious battles of the Middle Ages,[53] the allies won a victory so overwhelming that the Teutonic Order's army was virtually annihilated, with most of its key commanders killed in combat, including Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode. Thousands of troops were reported to have been slaughtered on either side.[54]

The road to the Teutonic capital Marienburg now lay open, the city undefended; but for reasons the sources do not explain, Władysław hesitated to pursue his advantage.[55] On 17 July, his army began a laboured advance, arriving at Marienburg only on 25 July, by which time the new Grand Master, Heinrich von Plauen, had organised a defence of the fortress.[56][57] The apparent half-heartedness of the ensuing siege, called off by Władysław on 19 September, has been ascribed variously to the impregnability of the fortifications, to high casualty figures among the Lithuanians, and to Władysław's unwillingness to risk further casualties; but a lack of sources precludes a definitive explanation. Paweł Jasienica, in his monumental Polska Jagiellonów (Poland of the Jagiellons) suggests Władysław, as a Lithuanian, might have wished to preserve the equilibrium between Lithuania and Poland, the Lithuanians having suffered particularly heavy casualties in the battle.[58] Other historians point out that Władysław might have assumed Marienburg was impregnable and therefore seen no advantage in a lengthy siege with no guarantee of success.[56]

[edit]Final years

[edit]Dissent

The war ended in 1411 with the Peace of Thorn, in which neither Poland nor Lithuania drove home their negotiating advantage to the full, much to the discontent of the Polish nobles. Poland regained Dobrzyń Land, Lithuania regained Samogitia, and Masovia regained a small territory beyond the Wkra river. Most of the Teutonic Order's territory, however, including towns which had surrendered, remained intact. Władysław then proceeded to release many high-ranking Teutonic Knights and officials for apparently modest ransoms.[59] This failure to exploit the victory to his nobles' satisfaction provoked growing opposition to Władysław's regime after 1411, further fuelled by the granting of Podolia, disputed between Poland and Lithuania, to Vytautas, and by the king's two-year absence in Lithuania.[60]

A lingering Polish distrust of Władysław, who never became fluent in Polish, was expressed later in the century by the chronicler and historian Jan Długosz:

“ He loved his country Lithuania and his family and brothers so much that without hesitation he brought to the Polish kingdom all kinds of wars and troubles. The crown's riches and all it carried he donated towards the enrichment and protection of Lithuania.[61] ”

In an effort to outflank his critics, Władysław promoted the leader of the opposing faction, bishop Mikołaj Trąba, to the archbishopric of Gniezno in autumn 1411 and replaced him in Kraków with Wojciech Jastrzębiec, a supporter of Vytautas.[60] He also sought to create more allies in Lithuania. In 1413, in the Union of Horodło, signed on 2 October, he decreed that the status of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was "tied to our Kingdom of Poland permanently and irreversibly" and granted the Catholic nobles of Lithuania privileges equal to those of the Polish szlachta. The act included a clause prohibiting the Polish nobles from electing a monarch without the consent of the Lithuanian nobles, and the Lithuanian nobles from electing a grand duke without the consent of the Polish monarch.[62]

[edit]Last conflicts

In 1414, a sporadic new war broke out, known as the "Hunger War" from the Knights' scorched-earth tactics of burning fields and mills; but both the Knights and the Lithuanians were too exhausted from the previous war to risk a major battle, and the fighting petered out in the autumn.[60] Hostilities did not flare up again until 1419, during the Council of Constance, when they were called off at the papal legate's insistence.[60]

The Council of Constance proved a turning point in the Teutonic crusades, as it did for several European conflicts. Vytautas sent a delegation in 1415, including the metropolitan of Kiev; and Samogitian witnesses arrived at Constance at the end of that year to point out their preference for being "baptised with water and not with blood".[63] The Polish envoys, among them Mikołaj Trąba, Zawisza Czarny, and Paweł Włodkowic, lobbied for an end to the forced conversion of heathens and to the Order's aggression against Lithuania and Poland.[64] As a result of the Polish-Lithuanian diplomacy, the council, though scandalised by Włodkowic's questioning of the monastic state's legitimacy, denied the Order's request for a further crusade and instead entrusted the conversion of the Samogitians to Poland-Lithuania.[65]

The diplomatic context at Constance included the revolt of the Bohemian Hussites, who looked upon Poland as an ally in their wars against Sigismund, the emperor elect and new king of Bohemia. In 1421, the Bohemian Diet declared Sigismund deposed and formally offered the crown to Władysław on condition he accept the religious principles of the Four Articles of Prague, which he was not prepared to do.[66]

In 1422, Władysław fought another war, known as the Gollub War, against the Teutonic Order, defeating them in under two months before the Order's imperial reinforcements had time to arrive. The resulting Treaty of Lake Melno ended the Knights' claims to Samogitia once and for all and defined a permanent border between Prussia and Lithuania.[67] The terms of this treaty have, however, been seen as turning a Polish victory into defeat, thanks to Władysław's renunciation of Polish claims to Pomerania, Pomerelia, and Chełmno Land, for which he received only the town of Nieszawa in return.[68] The Treaty of Lake Melno closed a chapter in the Knights' wars with Lithuania but did little to settle their long-term issues with Poland. Further sporadic warfare broke out between Poland and the Knights between 1431 and 1435.

Cracks in the cooperation between Poland and Lithuania after the death of Vytautas in 1430 had offered the Knights a revived opportunity for interference in Poland. Władysław supported his brother Švitrigaila as grand duke of Lithuania,[69] but when Švitrigaila, with the support of the Teutonic Order and dissatisfied Rus' nobles,[32] rebelled against Polish overlordship in Lithuania, the Poles, under the leadership of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków, occupied Podolia, which Władysław had awarded to Lithuania in 1411, and Volhynia.[70] In 1432, a pro-Polish party in Lithuania elected Vytautas's brother Žygimantas as grand duke,[69] leading to an armed struggle over the Lithuanian succession which stuttered on for years after Władysław's death.[71]

[edit]Succession

Władysław's second wife, Anna of Celje, had died in 1416, leaving a daughter, Jadwiga. In 1417, Władysław married Elisabeth of Pilica, who died in 1420 without bearing him a child, and two years later, Sophia of Halshany, who bore him two surviving sons. The death in 1431 of Princess Jadwiga, the last heir of Piast blood, released Władysław to make his sons by Sophia of Halshany his heirs, though he had to sweeten the Polish nobles with concessions to ensure their agreement, since the monarchy was elective. Władysław finally died in 1434, leaving Poland to his elder son, Władysław III, and Lithuania to his younger, Casimir, both still minors at the time.[72]

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jogaila --------------------

29 январь 1402 брак: ♀ Anna Cylejska Cilli [Cilli] р. 1381 ум. 21 январь 1416 8 апрель 1408 рождение ребёнка: Kraków, Polska, ♀ Jadwiga Jagiellonka [Jagiellończycy] р. 8 апрель 1408 ум. 8 декабрь 1431

-------------------- Władysław II Jagiełło (ur. zapewne ok. 1362[1], zm. 1 czerwca 1434 w Gródku) – wielki książę litewski w latach 1377–1381 i 1382–1392, król Polski i najwyższy książę litewski w latach 1386–1434. Syn Olgierda i jego drugiej żony Julianny, córki księcia twerskiego Aleksandra, wnuk Giedymina. Założyciel dynastii Jagiellonów. Poprzez powiązania rodzinne był także potomkiem polskiej dynastii Piastów[2]. Za jego panowania państwo polsko-litewskie było największym królestwem świata chrześcijańskiego[3]. Objął tron wielkoksiążęcy w Wilnie po śmierci ojca w 1377. Odsunął od władzy współksięcia Kiejstuta. W 1385 zawarł z Polską unię w Krewie, zobowiązując się do przyjęcia chrztu i chrystianizacji Litwy oraz poślubienia królowej polskiej Jadwigi w zamian za tron polski, który objął rok później. W 1401 oddał władzę na Litwie swojemu stryjecznemu bratu, księciu Witoldowi, zachowując tytuł najwyższego księcia Litwy (supremus dux Lituaniae). Prowadził wielką wojnę z zakonem krzyżackim (1409–1411) i dowodził zwycięskimi wojskami polsko-litewskimi w bitwie pod Grunwaldem. Pokojami toruńskim i melneńskim uregulował stosunki Polski i Litwy z Krzyżakami. Nie przyjął zaproponowanego mu przez husytów tronu czeskiego. Za cenę licznych przywilejów szlacheckich wywalczył sukcesję tronu polskiego dla syna Władysława. Spis treści [ukryj] 1 Tytuł królewski 2 Lata panowania 2.1 Władysław Jagiełło jako wielki książę litewski 2.1.1 Walki z Krzyżakami 2.1.2 Sojusz z Tatarami 2.1.3 Walka z Kiejstutem 2.1.4 Walka z Witoldem 2.2 Początek panowania w Polsce 2.3 Wielka wojna 3 Po zwycięstwie grunwaldzkim 4 Życie prywatne 4.1 Żony 5 Ciekawostki 6 Genealogia 7 Zobacz też 8 Bibliografia 9 Życie prywatne 10 Przypisy 11 Linki zewnętrzne Tytuł królewski[edytuj]

Wladislaus dei gracia Rex Polonie, nec non terrarum Cracovie, Sandomirie, Siradie, Lancicie, Cuyauie, Lituanie princeps supremus, Pomeranie, Russieque dominus et heres, etc. Tłumaczenie: Władysław z Bożej Łaski król Polski, pan i dziedzic ziemi krakowskiej, sandomierskiej, sieradzkiej, łęczyckiej, Kujaw, Pomorza i Rusi Czerwonej, najwyższy książę Litwy. Lata panowania[edytuj]

Władysław Jagiełło jako wielki książę litewski[edytuj] Jeszcze przed śmiercią ojca, Jagiełło został wyraźnie wyznaczony przez niego na następcę tronu litewskiego. Władzę objął w maju 1377. Początek rządów był bardzo niespokojny, ze względu na to, że stryj Kiejstut jak i przyrodni bracia: książę briański i drucki Dymitr Starszy, książę połocki Andrzej, książę czernihowski i czartoryski Konstanty, książę kijowski Włodzimierz czy książę ratneński Fiodor mogli pokusić się o zdobycie władzy na Litwie. Władysław musiał także zmierzyć się z wrogością ze stron Wielkiego Księstwa Moskiewskiego i zakonu krzyżackiego. W momencie objęcia rządów przez Jagiełłę powierzchnia Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego wynosiła około 800 000 km². Jagiełło zdawał sobie sprawę z politycznej wagi przyjęcia chrztu przez Litwę. Chrystianizacja bowiem nie tylko umocniłaby autorytet władcy wobec jego prawosławnych poddanych, ale także odebrałaby moralne prawo do prowadzenia podboju Litwy przez zakon krzyżacki, który stale głosił, iż powodem jego obecności nad Bałtykiem jest konieczność nawracania Litwinów na wiarę chrześcijańską. Walki z Krzyżakami[edytuj] W latach 1377-1379 ziemie litewskie pod Wilnem oraz Podlasie, należące do Kiejstuta, były zajadle atakowane przez Krzyżaków. Na pustoszenie terytoriów litewskich Giedyminowic odpowiadał pustoszeniem krajów zakonnych. 29 września 1379 zawarł z zakonem krzyżackim układ w Trokach, na mocy którego Krzyżacy zobowiązali się nie najeżdżać na ziemie Kiejstuta, za to mieli wolną rękę w najazdach na ziemie Jagiełły. W konsekwencji 27 lutego 1380 w Rydze a następnie 31 maja 1380 w lasach dawidowych Jagiełło zawarł z Krzyżakami kilkumiesięczne układy, mówiące o swobodzie w atakowaniu ziem Kiejstuta. Umowy te były rewanżem Jagiełły za traktat Kiejstuta, pozwalające mu skupić się na polityce wschodniej. Sojusz z Tatarami[edytuj] W polityce zagranicznej Jagiełło utrzymywał bardzo dobre stosunki z władcą Tatarów Mamajem, który w 1378 poniósł klęskę od wojsk moskiewskich w bitwie nad Wożą. Pogromca Mamaja, wielki książę moskiewski Dymitr Doński, czynnie popierał opozycję książąt litewskich wobec Jagiełły. W związku z tym spodziewano się, że w wojnie rusko-tatarskiej Jagiełło poprze Tatarów. Ustalono, że 1 września 1380 wojska wielkiego księcia litewskiego i Mamaja połączą się nad Donem, skąd wspólnie ruszą na Moskwę. Wódz tatarski przybył na umówione miejsce i cały tydzień oczekiwał na wojska litewskie, lecz do spotkania nie doszło. 8 września 1380 stoczono bitwę na Kulikowym Polu, w której Tatarzy ponieśli dotkliwą klęskę. Różnie można tłumaczyć absencję Litwinów na polu walki. Latopisy ruskie podają, że Jagiełło był o 3-4 godziny od pola bitwy. Można jednak mniemać, że w interesach Litwy było, aby Tatarzy nie uzyskali zupełnej przewagi nad Rusią, ponieważ wówczas staliby się groźni dla Litwy. Walka z Kiejstutem[edytuj]

Osobny artykuł: Litewska wojna domowa (1381-1384).

1 listopada 1381 Kiejstut niespodziewanie uderzył na Wilno i wziął do niewoli Jagiełłę wraz z jego matką i młodszymi braćmi. Jagiełło został zmuszony do pisemnego zrzeczenia się władzy wielkoksiążęcej na rzecz stryja. Kiejstut ofiarował zdetronizowanemu zamek w Krewie i Księstwo witebskie. Tam miał mieć go na oku z pobliskiego Połocka przywrócony do władzy przez Kiejstuta Andrzej Olgierdowic. Zamach stanu był odwetem za traktaty Jagiełły z Krzyżakami podpisanymi w 1380. Gdy w 1382 Kiejstut udał się z wyprawą wojenną do zakonu krzyżackiego, Jagiełło ułożył plan powrotu na tron. Namówił księcia siewierskiego Korybuta, aby ten odmówił wielkiemu księciu udzielenia pomocy wojskowej przeciw Krzyżakom i płacenia rocznej daniny. Kiejstut, niepodejrzewający Olgierdowiców o zmowę, prowadził dalej oblężenie Jurborka. W tym samym czasie Jagiełło zorganizował wojsko i ruszył na Wilno. Tam przy pomocy mieszczan pod wodzą Hanulona 12 czerwca 1382 pokonał Witolda, który pod nieobecność ojca zastępował go. Gdy o tych wydarzeniach dowiedział się Kiejstut, wyruszył do Wilna, lecz w drugiej dekadzie czerwca 1382 został pokonany przez Korybuta. Walka z Witoldem[edytuj]

Osobny artykuł: Litewska wojna domowa (1389-1392).

Początek panowania w Polsce[edytuj] Po śmierci króla Ludwika Węgierskiego na tronie Polski została osadzona w 1384 jego najmłodsza, jedenastoletnia córka, Jadwiga Andegaweńska. Panowie krakowscy postanowili wydać ją za Jagiełłę. 14 sierpnia 1385 została zawarta unia w Krewie. 11 stycznia 1386 w Wołkowysku panowie małopolscy formalnie dokonali wyboru Jagiełły na tron polski. 15 lutego 1386 władca przyjął chrzest i imię Władysław, po swoim ojcu chrzestnym Władysławie Opolczyku. Na matkę chrzestną poproszono Jadwigę Pilecką z Melsztyna h. Leliwa, wdowę po wojewodzie sandomierskim Ottonie z Pilczy. Po zawarciu unii z Polską przyjął chrzest ponownie, tym razem w obrządku łacińskim i przeszedł na katolicyzm[4]. Trzy dni po chrzcie Jagiełło poślubił Jadwigę, zaś 4 marca 1386 w katedrze wawelskiej został koronowany na króla Polski przez arcybiskupa gnieźnieńskiego Bodzantę. Opierając się na duchowieństwie polskim, w 1387 przeprowadził chrystianizację Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego. Sam przetłumaczył wówczas dla swojego ludu Modlitwę Pańską i Skład Apostolski. W 1406 król-neofita ufundował kościół Bożego Ciała w Poznaniu, wzniesiony na miejscu domniemanej profanacji hostii, dokonanej przez Żydów. Władca odwiedzał to sanktuarium przed każdą wyprawą wojenną. Spowiednikiem i doradcą króla był biskup chełmski Jan Biskupiec. W Chełmie, mieście jego siedziby biskupiej, za wyróżniający się udział w bitwie grunwaldzkiej Chorągwi Chełmskiej Białego Niedźwiedzia król ufundował kościół pw. Rozesłania Apostołów. Związkowi Litwy z Polską próbował przeciwdziałać brat stryjeczny Jagiełły, Witold, który w Wielkim Księstwie Litewskim prowadził samodzielną politykę. Jednakże niepowodzenia w wojnie z Tatarami i Krzyżakami zmusiły go do współpracy z Koroną. W 1387 we Lwowie złożył Jagielle hołd lenny hospodar mołdawski Piotr I, a w 1389 w Sandomierzu król Polski przyjął hołd lenny z ziem Nowogrodu Wielkiego od swojego brata Lingwena. 10 września 1395 w Sandomierzu, Władysław Jagiełło zawarł polsko-pomorski traktat sojuszniczy z książętami pomorskimi Świętoborem III i Bogusławem VIII[5]. 1 sierpnia 1404 w Kamieńcu Podolskim hołd Jagielle złożył hospodar Mołdawii Aleksander Dobry, który w 1410 wziął udział w bitwie pod Grunwaldem. Wielka wojna[edytuj]

Osobny artykuł: Wielka wojna z zakonem krzyżackim.

Powstałe z ziem Królestwa Polskiego i Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego państwo stało się największym w ówczesnej Europie. Jagiełło zaczął przygotowywać się do rozprawy z zakonem krzyżackim, zajmującym nad Bałtykiem zdobyte ziemie pruskie, polskie i litewską Żmudź. Wojna z nim rozpoczęła się w 1409. Pierwsi uderzyli Krzyżacy, zajmując szereg polskich miast przygranicznych, w tym Bydgoszcz. 15 lipca 1410 roku na polach pod Grunwaldem doszło do wielkiej bitwy pomiędzy wojskami zakonu, wspomaganymi przez Marchię Brandenburską, króla węgierskiego Zygmunta Luksemburskiego i rycerstwo zachodniej Europy, a połączonymi siłami polsko-litewskimi, wspartymi oddziałami ruskimi, tatarskimi i zaciężnymi oddziałami czeskimi. W wojnie aktywnie uczestniczył również Związek Jaszczurczy zawiązany w 1397 w Prusach. Była to tajna organizacja Polaków, która zajmowała się obroną mieszkańców przed uciskiem krzyżackim. Starcie zakończyło się rozbiciem wojsk krzyżackich. Na placu boju padł kwiat rycerstwa krzyżackiego wraz z wielkim mistrzem zakonu Ulrichem von Jungingenem. Wojnę zakończył 1 lutego 1411 pokój w Toruniu, zobowiązujący Krzyżaków do zwrotu ziemi dobrzyńskiej, Żmudzi i zapłacenia kontrybucji w wysokości 100 tys. kop groszy praskich za wykup jeńców[6]. Po zwycięstwie grunwaldzkim[edytuj]

Po zwycięstwie grunwaldzkim Jagiełło odbył dwuletnią triumfalną podróż po rozległych terytoriach Litwy, od Żmudzi po Czerkasy nad dolnym Dnieprem. Podczas zjazdu w Lubowli w 1412 Władysław II zawarł układ z Zygmuntem Luksemburskim (tzw. zastaw spiski), na mocy którego w zamian za pożyczkę pieniężną król Polski otrzymał w zastaw 13 miast na Spiszu. W 1413 między Litwą i Polską została zawarta unia horodelska, potwierdzająca i uściślająca wspólnotę obu państw. Za udział w walkach z zakonem i za uznanie królewskich męskich potomków następcami tronu Jagiełło przyznał szlachcie szereg przywilejów (m.in. przywilej czerwiński i statut warcki). Znacznie wzrósł też autorytet państwa polsko-litewskiego w całej Europie. Na wielkim soborze biskupów i uczonych świeckich w Konstancji, odbytym w latach 1414-1418, odrzucono oskarżenia zakonu wobec pogańskiej Litwy i odmówiono Krzyżakom prawa do nawracania tego kraju. Jagiełło nie wykorzystał zwycięstwa pod Grunwaldem do całkowitego zajęcia terytorium wroga. Krzyżacy nadal stanowili istotne zagrożenie, zwłaszcza dla Litwy, co jednak cementowało też związek obu państw. W 1414 roku wybuchła tzw. Wojna głodowa na skutek ataku wojsk Jagiełły wspieranych przez książąt śląskich i mazowieckich oraz księcia Witolda, które w przeciągu kilku tygodni zajęły całą Warmię po Elbląg i Braniewo niszcząc poważnie najbogatsze południowo-zachodnie terytoria zakonne. W wyniku wojny zawarto Rozejm pod Brodnicą. W 1420 roku posłowie przybyli z Czech zaproponowali Jagielle przyjęcie korony czeskiej. W kwietniu 1421 roku Jagiełło zawarł z margrabią Brandenburgii Fryderykiem I Hohenzollernem sojusz zaczepno-odporny skierowany przeciwko zakonowi krzyżackiemu. W 1422 roku Zakon krzyżacki wypowiedział Polsce wojnę (wojna golubska), w których wojska polskie zdobyły Bratian, Zabrzeźno i Golub i spustoszyły Prusy Zakonne, natomiast siły Zakonu unikały bezpośrednich starć zamykając się w zamkach. W wyniku wojny Krzyżacy zrzekli się ostatecznie swych roszczeń do litewskiej Żmudzi w pokoju melneńskim oraz zwrócili Polsce Nieszawę, Orłowo i Murzynowo[6]. W 1431 roku Zakon krzyżacki zdecydował się wesprzeć ponownie zbuntowanego przeciw Polsce Świdrygiełłę i zaatakował Ziemię Dobrzyńską, Kujawy i Krajnę. W związku z tym wybuchał Wojna polsko-krzyżacka w latach 1431-1435 w trakcie której w 1432 roku w Pabianicach doszło do zawarcia sojuszu polsko-husyckiego, który zaowocował wspólną wyprawą na Nową Marchię i Pomorze Gdańskie w roku 1433, przerwaną przez zawarty w tym samym roku Rozejm w Łęczycy. Jak donosi Jan Długosz, w drodze na Ruś król zatrzymał się w Medyce, gdzie przeziębił się, słuchając śpiewu słowików[7] i wkrótce zmarł w Gródku. Po Władysławie II Jagielle królem Polski został jego syn Władysław III Warneńczyk. Władysław II Jagiełło był najdłużej panującym królem Polski, zasiadał na polskim tronie przez 48 lat, 2 miesiące i 27 dni. Życie prywatne[edytuj]

Historycy wielokrotnie spekulowali na temat relacji pomiędzy Władysławem Jagiełłą i jego pierwszą żoną, Jadwigą. Dominuje przekonanie, iż Jadwiga była w tym politycznym związku nieszczęśliwa, ze względu na różnicę wieku, wychowania, kultury itd. Według odmiennej koncepcji zaprezentowanej ostatnio, Jagiełło był dla Jadwigi raczej postacią ojcowską, a ich współżycie mogło mieć stosunkowo harmonijny charakter[8]. Stałym motywem w literaturze jest także rzekomy prymitywizm i nieokrzesanie Jagiełły. Tego rodzaju zarzuty nie znajdują potwierdzenia w źródłach historycznych - przykładowo rachunki królewskie zaświadczają, że król ubierał się zgodnie z ówczesną modą. Tak też jadał[9]. Władysław Jagiełło był zapalonym myśliwym i każdej zimy odbywał łowy w rozległych puszczach litewskich. Co najmiej dwukrotnie polował w Puszczy Białowieskiej, pierwszy raz w grudniu 1409 roku gromadząc dla wojsk zapasy solonej dziczyzny przed planowaną wojną z zakonem krzyżackim, drugi raz w 1426 roku ukrywając sie w puszczy przed epidemią dżumy. Wtedy siedemdziesięcioletni król złamał nogę podczas polowania na niedźwiedzia[10].

Ciekawostki[edytuj]

Kamienny pielgrzym w Nowej Słupi Król Władysław Jagiełło był częstym gościem opactwa łysogórskiego. Jak wynika z relacji Jana Długosza, ilekroć król odwiedzał sanktuarium świętokrzyskie, zatrzymywał się w Słupi. Dalszą drogę, już jako pielgrzym, pokonywał pieszo. Stąd trakt ten nazwano Drogą Królewską. Przy drodze tej, u stóp Łysej Góry stoi kamienny posąg zwany Pielgrzymem Świętokrzyskim. Figura przedstawia klęczącego mężczyznę z rękami złożonymi do modlitwy, odzianego w długi, spadający do stóp płaszcz. Posąg ów owiany jest licznymi legendami. Jedno z podań powiada, że król Władysław Jagiełło, jadąc z Litwy do Krakowa, zatrzymał się na Świętym Krzyżu, gdzie ojcowie pokazywali mu różne pamiątki z przeszłości oraz relikwie. Król chciał ich dotknąć i wyciągnął rękę, za co został ukarany – ręka stała się bezwładna. Dopiero po odbyciu pokuty i dłuższej modlitwie król wyzdrowiał. Z wdzięczności za odzyskane zdrowie kazał wykuć w kamieniu siebie jako pokutnika, a figurę ustawić przy Drodze Królewskiej. Władysław Jagiełło miał bardzo liczne rodzeństwo 11 braci i 9 sióstr, nie umiał czytać ani pisać, był analfabetą[11]. Mimo braku wykształcenia interesował się i angażował w sprawy związane ze sztuką i nauką. Nazwę "Jagiełło" otrzymał w 1947 roku najmniejszy z dziewięciu polskich transatlantyków - jedyny tego rodzaju statek pod znakiem GAL-u, jaki powstał w hamburskiej stoczni "Blohm und Voss". Był to również jedyny oceaniczny statek pasażerski, jaki trafił (pośrednio) pod polską banderę w ramach niemieckich reparacji po II wojnie światowej. Służył bardzo krótko - już bowiem w 1949 roku trafił pod banderę ówczesnego Związku Radzieckiego, jako "Piotr Wielikij". Z kolei nazwę "Władysław Jagiełło" otrzymał jeden z drobnicowców szczecińskiego typu B-445.

Życie prywatne[edytuj]

Urszula Borkowska, Dynastia Jagiellonów w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2011. Jadwiga Krzyżaniakowa, Jerzy Ochmański, Władysław II Jagiełło, Ossolineum, Wrocław 2006. Stefan M. Kuczyński: Wielka wojna z Zakonem Krzyżackim w latach 1409-1411, Wydawnictwo MON, Warszawa 1960 Karol Szajnocha: Jadwiga i Jagiełło 1374-1413: Opowiadanie historyczne, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, Warszawa 1969 Przypisy

↑ Według ustaleń starszej literatury Władysław II Jagiełło miał urodzić się ok. 1352. Jednak obecnie przeważa pogląd, że władca ten urodził się około 10 lat później. Zobacz artykuł T. Wasilewskiego, „Przegląd Wschodni”, 1991, J. Tęgowski, Pierwsze pokolenia Giedyminowiczów, Wrocław – Poznań 1999, s. 124-125. Za wcześniejszą datą urodzin opowiada się Jarosław Nikodem. Zob. Jarosław Nikodem, Jadwiga. Król Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 2009, s. 350-362. ↑ Kultura Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego, Kraków 2011, s. 544. ↑ Anna Boczkowska, Sarkofag Władysława II Jagiełły i Donatello, Gdańsk 2011, s. 27. ↑ Nicolas Zernov, Wschodnie chrześcijaństwo. PAX 1967, str. 119. ↑ 79. W: Źródła do kaszubsko-polskich aspektów Pomorza Zachodniego do roku 1945. T. I: Pomorze Zachodnie pod rządami książąt plemiennych i władców z dynastii Gryfitów. Poznań – Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie, 2006, s. 123. ISBN 83-7177-459-1. Za: Lites ac res gestae inter Polonos T.I, wyd. II, nr 34, s. 419-420 ↑ 6,0 6,1 Jerzy Wyrozumski, Historia Polski do roku 1505, PWN, Warszawa 1987, str.195-198. ↑ Małgorzata Duczmal: Jagiellonowie : leksykon biograficzny. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1996, s. 474. ISBN 83-08-02577-3. ↑ Jarosław Nikodem, Jadwiga. Król Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 2009, s. 350-362; Kamil Janicki, Jadwiga i Jagiełło, "Ciekawostki historyczne", 19 września 2010. ↑ Urszula Borkowska, Dynastia Jagiellonów w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2011, s. 272 i n., 290 i n. ↑ Tomasz Samojlik (red.): Ochrona i Łowy. Puszcza Białowieska w czasch królewskich. Białowieża: Zakład Badania Ssaków Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2005. ISBN 83-907521-5-8. ↑ Wojny polsko-krzyżackie – Witold Mikołajczak – ISBN 978-83-60383-14-8 – Wydawnictwo: Replika 2009 str. 76

Linki zewnętrzne

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C5%82adys%C5%82aw_II_Jagie%C5%82%C5%82o

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

Род Гедиминовичи Пол мужчина Полное имя от рождения Ягайло (Владислав II) Ольгердович Смена имени Яков Родители ♂ # Ольгерд Александр Алексей Гедиминович [Гедиминовичи] р. ок. 1296? ум. 24 май 1377 ♀ w Иулиания Александровна Тверская [Рюриковичи Тверские] р. ок. 1325? ум. ок. 1392? Вики-страница wikipedia:ru:Ягайло События

ок. 1362? рождение: Вильнюс, Литва с 1377 по 1381 титул: великий князь Литовский, под именем Ягайло с 1382 по 1386 титул: великий князь Литовский, под именем Ягайло 18 февраль 1386 брак: ♀ w Ядвига (Хедвиге) д'Анжу (Анжуйская) [Анжу-Сицилийские] р. 3 октябрь 1372 ум. 17 июль 1399 с 4 март 1386 по 1 июнь 1434 титул: король Польши, под именем Владислав II Ягайло 1399 рождение ребёнка: ♀ ? [Гедиминовичи] р. 1399 ум. 1399 2 май 1417 брак: ♀ # Эльжбета из Пи́лицы ? (Грановская) [Пилецкие] р. ок. 1372? ум. 12 май 1420 между 7 февраль 1422 - 24 февраль 1422 брак: ♀ # Софья Андреевна Гольшанская [Гольшанские] р. ок. 1405? ум. 21 сентябрь 1461 31 октябрь 1424 рождение ребёнка: Краков, Польша, ♂ # Владислав III Варнcкий Ягеллон [Ягеллоны] р. 31 октябрь 1424 ум. 10 ноябрь 1444 30 ноябрь 1427 рождение ребёнка: Краков, Польша, ♂ # Казимир IV Ягеллон [Ягеллоны] р. 30 ноябрь 1427 ум. 7 июнь 1492 1 июнь 1434 смерть: Городок Заметки

Родоначальник династии Ягеллонов

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Jogaila / Władysław II Jagiełło's Timeline

1362
1362
Vilnius, Lithuania
1382
1382
- 1384
Age 20

In 1384 m. Žygimantas flees captivity and goes to Marienburg castle, built by Teutonic Order on the river of Dubysa, where he joints his older brother Vytautas.

1386
February 18, 1386
Age 24
Of,Visegrad,Pest,Hungary
1386
Age 24
Poland
1399
June 22, 1399
Age 37
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1402
January 29, 1402
Age 40
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1408
April 8, 1408
Age 46
1417
May 2, 1417
Age 55
1422
February 7, 1422
Age 60
Lithuania
1424
October 31, 1424
Age 62
Kraków,Kraków,Poland