Matching family tree profiles for John Hore, Sr. 1552
About John Hore, Sr. 1552
BURIAL Record: https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/JDC5-WNG
His will states that he divided his mineral mining rights between his sons.
If we could find the tin mining rights records for the previous owner of the mining rights in John's will, we might identify John's father, who is the most likely previous owner, if the previous owner is another Hore. Then we can look at the will of the previous owner of the tin mine to see if John is mentioned as a son. These may have been "stream" mining rights, but I am not sure. Here is the location of the probate record of John's will. I've not seen the original manuscript of the will to uncover the name of the mineral rights. The computer digitized OCR copy is garbled as to the name of the mineral rights, so someone needs to look at the original manuscript:
Update 2014: Do not erase. Just add any comments or suggestions below, if you like.
CHAGFORD: The proposed Chagford father does not quite match DNA results as the descendants of the Chagford Hoars do not match the known descendants of this John Hore b.1552. Thus the proposed father from the Chagford line (John Hore b.circa 1526 in Axminster) was removed: http://www.geni.com/people/John-Hore/6000000021246179595 The only was that this John b.1552 belongs with the Chagford Hores is if someone who was tested had a cuckolded lineage. They do however, share a common ancestor in very deep antiquity, but not in any generation of the era of the Chagford branch, it would have been thousands of years earlier.
TRENOUTH: It does NOT appear that Roscarrock was the mother of John Hore b.1552 is correct. This proposed line was removed as a potential father. John Hore b.1552 may be related to this line, but NOT as a son of Roscarrack at this generation. We have evidence that this John Hore b.1552 is NOT the son of John Hore of Trenouth with Elizabeth Rsocarrock as his mother. This John Hore b.1552 was not on the official pedigree given contemporaneously at the time of the Cornwall Visitations by family members in the 1600s. Furthermore, the estate of John Hore reveals him to NOT be the eldest son of two very wealthy parents. Not only is a John Hore b1552 NOT on the pedigree of Hore of Trenouth at all, the pedigree of Hore of Trenouth states another Hore male (who was born later) was the Hore of Trenouth heir. If this John Hore had been the first-born son of the Hore of Trenouth at this generation as claimed, as the elder son, he would have been the heir. Although John b.1552 was a yeoman and comfortably well-off, his estate is still too modest to be the heir of Roscarrock and Hore of Trenouth who were among the wealthiest of Cornwall families. It is however possible that John Hore is related to the Trenouth line at an earlier generation. We would need a y-DNA test from a descendant of the Hore of Trenouth line to see if this John Hore b.1552 is related to the Trenouth line at an upstream generation. By the way, as the Shona Hore males descend from this John Hore b.1552, the men in her line should match the yDNA of other tested descendants of this John Hore b.1552.
Hore Web Site, managed by Shona Hore (Contact) states: Birth: 1552 Death: 1589 Parents: John Hore, Elizabeth Hore (born Roscarrock) Siblings: Richard Hore, William Hore, Thomas Hore, Mary Hore, Francis Hore, Dorothi Hore, Francis Hore Wife: UNKNOWN Hore Children: Stephen Hore, Johan Hore, Constance Hore, Florence Hore, Alson Hore, Mary Hore, John Hore
The family of Le Hore are said by convention to have arrived in England with the Norman Conquest as William Le Hore, who was given lands in Wales or Gloucestershire. A branch participated in the invasion of Ireland as a knight of Henry II and was awarded land as overlords. A second son of the Irish noble Hore, returned to England to marry a Devon heiress of Risford.
There are a few Le Hore names across England. There is a Gloucester Hore line, and possibly other Hore lines of direct Saxon origin not via the Norman conquest.
The Cornish Hores do not appear in Cornwall until after 1550 or so.
A presumption was that John Hore b.1552 may have been the son of John Hore of Axminster b.1525, who was a member of the Risford Hore family of Chagford. However contemporary descendants of the Cornish Hores and the Risford Devon Hores do not yet show a close DNA match in the last 500 years, but instead show a match within 1300 years.
Thus, it seems best to disconnect this John Hore b.1552 from the Devon Hore of Axminster line until more convincing evidence of paternity is found.
This John Hore also does not appear to be the son of the gentleman John Hoare of Trenouth (of Cornwall) who married the heiress Elizabeth Roscarrock, as the dates and names do not quite match up, but may be connected at another point.
One possibility is that a separate Hore line came directly to Cornwall from Frisia or Saxon Germany in 1550 or so, consistent with the yDNA R1b evident in present-day Cornish Hores. The noble Norman-Devon-Irish Hores are presumed to be L-21 and the Gloucester Hoares perhaps I1 yDNA. It may be noted however that Normans were also of R1b lineage as well as I1.
Queen Elizabeth I brought in a number of German (Saxon) engineering mining experts into Cornwall during this period who were given special rights because they introduced the latest engineering methods to England. Perhaps John Hore was such a man. UPDATE: The dates are off for this John Hore to be one of the men brought to Cornwall by Queen Elizabeth.
John Hore probably spoke English not Cornish, and perhaps from Devon, and John or his father perhaps relocated to Cornwall when there was a vacuum of opportunity due to the recent male depopulation of Cornwall in 1549. Before that, there were relatively few, if any, Saxons in Cornwall, being mortal enemies. The Cornish had established a border at the River Tamar centuries earlier. However, after the massacre of the Cornishmen in 1549 many more English began to enter the region.
Since John Hore was born in 1552, clearly his father survived the slaughter of the Cornish in 1549. The birth of this John, nor his father, is not found at Roche parish. The family is thus newly arrived at Roche, dying there, but not born at Roche. Their records would be at their previous parish.
In 1549, from 10 to 20% of the total Cornish population were killed during the Prayer Book Rebellion. Those killed were mostly the adult males. Typically, half of a population is adult and half children, which of course are comprised of 50-50 male and female. Thus only 5 to 10% of the adult male population of Cornwall may have survived, mostly the elderly. Because of the eradication of the Cornish men, this generation is often a block on many pedigrees in Cornwall. Many parishes churches were also destroyed with their records.
The cause of the mass killing was the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. After Henry VIII broke with Rome, King Edward VI declared that that all worship would be in English only. This delighted the English population who could read the bible for the first time in their own language. However, most of the people of Cornwall did not speak English, they spoke Cornish.
The Protestant English Prayer Book was imposed and the Catholic Latin Prayer Books were to be destroyed. The Cornish did not speak Latin or English and the Latin Prayer Book had been beloved and familiar for centuries. The Cornish people rose up to object and were slaughtered in what can be described as genocide. Thousands of Cornishmen were were executed. The loss of the adult male population is one of the major factors that led to the extinction of the Cornish language. The name Hore is not Cornish. It is Saxon. The Hore family spoke English.
It is worthy of note that on many maps produced before the 17th century, Cornwall was depicted as a separate nation on a par with Wales and Ireland; famous examples include Gerardus Mercator's Atlas  and the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Furthermore, the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 originated among Cornish tin miners who opposed the raising of taxes by Henry VII in order to make war on Scotland. This levy was resented for the economic hardship it would cause; it also intruded on a special Cornish tax exemption. The rebels marched on London, gaining supporters as they went, but were defeated at the Battle of Deptford Bridge. This resulted in many tin mines being abandoned by their Cornish captains when they were killed.
The presence of minerals in Cornwall was the reason for the conquest of Britain by the Roman Empire and the reason for trade with other great ancient civilisations.
ORIGIN OF HORE
Le Hore, Hore, Hoar, Hoare are not actually Cornish in origin. Hore is Norman or Frisian Saxon, not Cornish, and both the Normans and Saxons had been traditional enemies of the Cornish for centuries. However, once the Hores entered Cornwall they became a permanent part of Cornish pedigrees.
The word Hore or Høre was pronounced with a silent H for many centuries. There is a Hore of Nordic, Frisian or Saxon origin deriving from Hörgr, which meant holy place. The standing stones of Stonehenge were once called Hoar stones and the old name of the island castle of St. Michael's Mount of Cornwall was once called "The Hoar Rock in the Woods." (See below for more discussion of the derivation of Hor.) The hörgr was a type of religious structure or altar made of stones found in the Norse Saga legends and Germanic legends. The word Heurel and Herr derives from Hore. Herr meant Sir or Baron in Germanic languages and from Heurel derives the noble title of Earl.
From Middle High German is found hēr, hēre, from Old High German hēr ( from which derives meanings of “noble, sublime, austere, venerable, aged, holy”), from Proto-Germanic *hairaz (“grey, hoary”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱēy(w)-, *ḱyē(w)- (“grey”). Cognate with English hore or hoar (venerable or “grey”).HEHR, shares the same Old North Germanic derivation and also carries the identical meanings of: "Noble, sublime, holy, austere, venerable, grey and hoary (as in colour).
Hore is one of the oldest Indo-European words meaning "origin". The word hour derives from hore. In the oldest catalan (ancestor of Spanish) the word for hour is still "Hore". The French word for hour is still heure. Even in Somali, the word hore, means "beginning."
At its root, it means source as in origin, or hour, which means cycle of time. Hor is also from where we acquire the name of Thor and also very old ice and snow, as in hoar frost. Nordic religions taught that the source of everything originated from deep hoar frost, which made sense if they observed that as the Ice Age glaciers melted, green life and animals appeared in the place of the hoar frost.
Hor or Or means "source" in ancient Egyptian, Greek, Sanskrit and Hebrew as well.
In the scholarly paper, "Beyond the Hoar Stone", author Michael Swisher explains that hoar stones were symbolic to the ancient peoples of the boundary between the familiar living world of men and the sacred ancient unknown past where our ancestral heroes once tread. The first mention of hoar stones in Beowulf is in the the Sigemund episode in which Sigemund, representative of the bold race of heroes, enters the realm of the dragon by descending beneath the Hoar Stone. Later, the dying Beowulf exhorts Wiglaf to go beneath the Hoar Stone into the dragon's lair to finish the deed and to retrive the hoard of gold. Quote: "Fare thou with haste now. Bring me the hoard, Wiglaf, that my dying eyes may be refreshed by a sight of it. To behold the hoard ’neath the hoar-stone."
The name has been a noble one, and the current unflattering association of the word is relatively recent. The presence of a W was originally pronounced with a very definite W sound as in Where, When, What and was not in any way confused as a homonym as it is today. Because of this confusion, the hoar stones of Stonehenge have recently been called blue stones and other substitutes.
LE HORE MARRIED INTO CORNISH LINES:
Hore Family of Axminster
There were two possible ancestors found with a child of the name of John Hore in the correct time frame, but could not yet pinpoint which one definitively by confirmation of having the correct wife of Contaunce and this set of children. To date, a likely ancestor is from Axminster Devon, which was a Saxon region of Devon where there was a large presence of Hores in the tin and stannary (coin) business derived form the Hores of Chagford who were of Norman origin, with probable deeper ancestors from Frisia.
The Hore family of Devonshire had their troubles too. Axminster, a key parish for the Hore family, was also devastated in many ways after the Reformation began leading to a diaspora of Hores into Cornwall, where there was a need of men.
The River Tamar had long been a barrier between Cornwall and the rest of England, including the Saxons in adjacent Devon.
Records show Saxon Christianity rooted at Axminster Devon in the eighth century (786 AD) focused on a "Minster"- a monastic community. It is uncertain where the original Church was located as it was destroyed with the Reformation. There are however stories of Saxon Princes, squabbles, battles and burials, and on this site an ancient burial uncovered in the nineteenth century revealed a person of substance and high standing. Athelstan, Alfred's grandson, who reigned over the house of Wessex 924-939 founded a college of priests here. With the coming of the Normans in 1066, the eleventh and twelfth centuries brought an infusion of fresh ideas, new ways, and adventurous architecture, the old structures were overlaid. The Saxon Church however had held fast to the Christian faith in difficult and often brutal times, nurturing sound learning, music, defending justice and mercy, sending missionaries to Europe notably Winfrith (St Boniface) of Crediton. Newenham Abbey stood for three hundred years until the dissolution of the monasteries.
A Richard Hore of Trenouth married into the wealthy Cornish Trenouth family. Where was he from?
Another Hore married a Godolphin, one of the highest ranking families of Cornwall.
Members of the Devon Hore family moved into Cornwall after many males of Cornwall had not been wiped out in the 1548 rebellion, leaving a vacuum.
POSSIBLE PARENTS? Harry or Richard?
Parent OPTION 1. JOHN HORE of Coylton was baptized on 14 August 1552 in Colyton Devon. Son of Harry Hore, whose given name was probably Henry, as "Harry" was the familiar form of Henry at that time. https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/NBZD-H68
Parent OPTION 2. RICHARD HORE of Axminster: c.1525-d.1584. (His parents were: John Hore c.1505 and Margaret b.1538-d.1561. This Richard survived the Prayer Rebellion, while his brother John was killed. He also had a sister called Florence. His grandparents were: Thomas Hore b.1480 of Rushford Devon and Margery Speke b.1487) Richard Hore 1525 married Jane Seward. Their three children were: John, named in honor of his father, and perhaps his brother who had been killed. Plus sisters Alice and Pashowe.
EXCLUDED: John Hore c.1527 d.1549 was the younger brother of the Richard of Axminster above. (He was killed in the rebellion after the imposition of Protestantism, so he could not be the father of this John Hore who was born in 1552. ) His parents were also John Hore b.1505 in Devon and Margaret d.1538. His siblings were Florence and Richard. No record has yet been found for any wife or children. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=hoardresearch&id=I102
Citizens who had sided with Monmouth were later executed at Axminster and near Weston Zoyland in Somerset, while in Cornwall thousands of others were executed or exiled into white slavery as the first slaves to work in the new colonies.
CHAGFORD Branch? The Hores of this particular Devon line may have been younger sons who broke off of the Chagford branch and lived at Axminster. The 17th century brought them trouble too: the English Civil War and Monmouth' s Rebellion resulted in hundreds of local people being killed; the Axminster tower was damaged, and Axminster people were brutalized.
The Chagford Monor Hore family sold their tin interests at Chagford and founded the Hoare Bank on Fleet Street London, the oldest surviving bank in England today.
The Chagford Manor is now owned by another London family.
(UPDATE: This Hore male line does not match the DNA of the Chagford Hore line. The DNA of Chagford descendants does not match the DNA of known descendants of this John Hore in spite of obvious close geographical and tin mine evidence. Unless, perhaps, if male lineage of a descendant was cuckolded.
This line is perhaps from the Trenouth line, but the dates do not seem to square.)
From Cornwall or Devon:
There are two large southwest Hore Families: Hore of Chagford Devon and Hore of Trenouth Cornwall who may be a descendant of the Chaford branch or is of a separate male line. They are geographically adjacent but have different coats of arms. (OR: this John Hore may not be related to either, but that is unlikely.)
This John Hore was both a yeoman landowner and owned tin mining rights which may suggest that he may have been a descendant of a Devon Richard le Hore who was a large landowner in 1344 with the royal rights to tin mining in the region who might be the source of an inheritance of mining rights for this John may have been born of a younger son who received some smaller inheritance, which was a common way people acquired ownership.
John's pedigree is currently stalled at this generation, with two possible lines of parentage. If we could find the marriage record showing who the parents were, that would point to which parent was correct. However, many churches and their records in the region of both Roche and Chagford were destroyed in his father's generation due to the Protestant Reformation launched by King Henry VIII and Edward VI at that time. However, as more people post pedigrees online his parentage may be revealed. There are several possible parents known, but we need documentary proof to exclude incorrect lines.
In 1344 there is a significant entry in the subsidy rolls relating to the owners of the rights to the Royal Tinworks in Chagford. In those rolls, one Richard le Hore is taxed three pence in subsidies in the area of Teignbridge. In those same rolls, Roland de Risford was taxed four pence in subsidies in the area of Wonford. The lands of Wonford and Teignbridge adjoin each other.
Both Richard le Hore and Roland de Risford were tinners of the gentry class, who owned land and instead of relying on just livestock or crops for wealth, they employed laborers to work their streamworks along the river Teign (pronounced "tin"). They were both landowning tin workers, with adjacent properties, and probably business associates.
Richard le Hore was a man of means, for he held a king's license to exploit the lucrative tinworks in Teignbridge. In 1349 he arranged the marriage of his son Robert to Alice, an heiress to Rushford Manor. She was the only child of Roland and Grace de Risford.
The marriage settlement of 1350 between Robert le Hore and Grace de Risford marks the beginning of the Hore family at the manor of Rushford. At this time the Norman designation "le" began to disappear from the name.
We do not know how this John Hore is exactly related, or not, to Richard le Hore who owned the tinworks at Teignbridge, but we see by his will that this John Hore actually owned a portion of the former Teignbridge tinworks and lands, so he is very likely some sort of a descendant of Richard le Hore, though not necessarily of Chagford, but likely.
The property acquired from the marriage settlement was not the whole manor of Rushford, but probably a sixth of it. According to the deed, it is quite possible that this property could have contained the Rushford Mill situated by the bridge over the river Teign.
Robert Hore, the founder of a mining family with the royal stannary rights: Like his father and grandfather before him, Robert Hore was also in the tin business and lived might have also owned the mills at the manor of Rushford, as the family once lived there. Rushford was famous for its watermill. The watermills were used to assist in both mining and milling and they milled grain for the inhabitants of the region.
Hore undoubtedly was a gentleman as the Hore family was granted a coat-of-arms by the crown. Robert used a seal with this coat-of-arms on the original marriage settlement.
By 1352 Roland de Risford had died, and the Monk family succeeded to the lordship of Rushford.
However, Robert Hore continued as owner of the tinworks of Chagford, which included Rushford. By 1377 Robert Hore had acquired all of the tinworks previously owned by the De Risford family.
By 1381 Robert Hore had died, and his mining interests were inherited by his son, William Hore (d.1396).
The descendants of Robert Hore continued to be free-holding landowners or as tenants of Rushford lands for several centuries, until they became the sole lords of the manor in the early 1600s.
This John Hore b.1552 was a free landowner, owning mining rights, which he divided in his will between two sons. (See his will below)
The Hore family gradually diluted mineral right ownership through inheritance or sale. Eventually these mines were no longer worked or were acquired by the big companies that emerged during the Industrial Revolution. Perhaps the mines owned by this John Hore were eventually sold to Treffrey mining ventures who consolidated and industrialized the Cornish and Devon mines.
The mines are now closed.
Today, Rushford Manor, the old Devonshire property belonging to the Family of Hore of Risford, once called Risford and then Rushford Manor, is now called Rushford Barton and belongs to the London family of Reverend Hayter Hames, the former Rector of Chagford, who purchased it from the Earl of Portsmouth.
The word Risford became in time changed to Rishford, and again afterwards to Rushford, which is the present name. The Reverend Mr. Colby, who edited the ' Devonshire Visitation ' for the Harleian Society, has read it from the manuscript as Rifford. This is wrong; he has mistaken the long f for the letter f. The former residence of the Hore family is now the Rushford Mill ; and the residence of the Whyddon family, Whyddon Hall, close by, the seat of one of the then Justices of England, is now the Red Lion Public- house ! How true the words of Ovid: "Tempera mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis." The Hore family, for many generations, were buried in Chagford Church, on the left-hand side of the Communion Table.
The name of Hore or Hoare is said to be of Norman or Frisian Saxon lineage The name first appears in England in Norfolk with the great Saxon invasion after the Romans left Britain. There was a Saxon settlement held by Saxon kings in Cornwall and in Devon at Okehampton, who were overthrown with the Norman invasion. Okehampton Castle is in the region of the tin works. This line appears to descend from the Hore line deriving from Norman knights of the name William le Hore and Phillippe le Hore who settled in Devon. A Frisian Saxon origin of the name Hore would be consistent with the use of Hor or Herr for barons in Germanic countries. Frisian Saxons were, of course, Nordic too.
An example of how the word "hore" was used to indicate reverently gray-haired, "Though I olde and hore be..." by Chaucer, from the Canterbury Tales.
Tin Stannaries: Tin was once used to make coins. Tin was also used in combination with copper to make bronze. The oldest bronze foundry in Europe was found in Cornwall, which had the richest sources of tin. Greek, Roman, Phoenician and other merchants from the Mediterranean civilizations, travelled to Cornwall in classical antiquity to buy tin to make bronze. The word stannary is historically applied to: (1) A tin mine, especially in Cornwall or Devon, South West England. (2) A region containing tin works (mines and refineries, assay offices, etc.). The principal role of a stannary town was the collection of tin coinage, the proceeds of which were passed to the Duchy of Cornwall or the Royal Crown. With the abolition of tin coinage in 1838 (following extensive petitioning by the Cornish tin industry for simplification of the taxation rules), the principal purpose for coinage town status ceased. However coinage towns still retained certain historic rights to appoint stannators to Cornwall's Stannary Parliament.
The English word stannary is derived from the Middle English stannarie, through Medieval Latin stannaria "tin mine," ultimately from Late Latin stannum "tin" (cf. the symbol for the chemical element Sn). The native Cornish word is sten and tin-workings stenegi.
Devon stannaries are usually referred to by the names of stannary towns. These towns were the locations where refined tin (or white tin) was assessed, coined, and sold. They were also the location for some of the institutions associated with the operation of the stannary.
King Edward I's 1305 Stannary Charter established Tavistock, Ashburton and Chagford as Devon's stannary towns, with a monopoly on all tin mining in Devon, a right to representation in the Stannary Parliament and a right to the jurisdiction of the Stannary Courts. Plympton became the fourth Devon stannary town in 1328 after a powerful lobby persuaded the Sheriff of Devon that it was nearer the sea and therefore had better access for merchants.
The Devon stannary towns are all on the fringes of Dartmoor, which is the granite upland which bore the tin.
The four Cornish stannaries were (from west to east):
1. Penwith and Kerrier: Most of the hundreds of Penwith and Kerrier (including the granite outcrops of Land's End and Carnmenellis). 2. Tywarnhaile: St Agnes and the Carn Brea area. 3. Blackmore: the Hensbarrow granite upland, now better known as the St Austell moors or the china clay country. 4. Foweymore: the historic name for Bodmin Moor.
The geographical jurisdiction of each Cornish stannary was more clearly demarcated that of the others than was the case in Devon, as each represented a separate tin-bearing area, but the boundaries were not precisely laid down. The relative productivity of the stannaries varied greatly and was in no way related to their size.
The towns at which coinage was carried out in Cornwall varied over time. The Cornish coinage towns included at various times: Penzance, Truro, Helston, St Austell, Bodmin (probably), Liskeard and Lostwithiel. Penryn twice attempted to acquire coinage town status, supported by Falmouth, but failed on both occasions due to strong opposition from the established coinage towns.
Revival of the Cornish Stannary Parliament (CSP): On 20 May 1974 a pressure group claiming to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament assembled in Lostwithiel. The group interpreted the 1508 charter as applying to all descendents of Cornish tin-miners and claimed that they had the power to veto all laws made in Westminster, not only those relating to the tin and mineral industries. This group sought to re-assert Cornwall as a separate entity not subject to the British Parliament.
Cornishmen who are descended from Cornish tin-workers have automatic membership in this modern Cornish government based in the 1508 charter.
In 1999 the Cornish Stannary Parliament commenced a new campaign they termed "Operation Chough". The organisation wrote to English Heritage ordering them to remove all signs bearing that title from sites in Cornwall by 31 July. Over eleven months eighteen signs were removed from sites in Cornwall including Carn Euny, Chysauster, Pendennis Castle and Tintagel Castle, reputed as the birthplace of King Arthur. The "Keeper of the Seal of the Stannary Parliament" wrote to English Heritage saying "The signs have been confiscated and held as evidence of English cultural aggression in Cornwall. Such racially motivated signs are deeply offensive and cause distress to many Cornish people".
Today, elections to the Revived Cornish Stannary are from among the Cornish Stannary Community. To be a member of the Cornish Stannary Community you have to declare that, "I am Cornish as one of my parents is of direct indigenous Cornish descent or I am Cornish by marriage, and that therefore, I consider myself to be an "heir and successor" of the Cornish Stannary Community who secured the Charter of Pardon from King Henry VII in 1508". The elected officers of the Cornish Stannary Parliament are not published.
Descendants of John Hore would be eligible for membership and election to the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament.
The CSP claim that Cornish people are subject to forced assimilation by an educational system that fails to provide them with an adequate level of knowledge about their own Cornish history and, hence, their identity. They also claim that there are persistent attempts by state authorities to deny Cornish people their identity, for example, in the national census, pupil level annual school census, exclusion from the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, and denial of adequate financial cultural/linguistic resources resulting in the death of the Cornish language and being subsumed into merely a British, but not Cornish identity. 
The organisation's website claims that the group has been active in seeking repayment of centuries of exploitation by alleged over-taxation on tin mined in Cornwall, and to have lodged documents with the European Court of Human Rights.
The CSP sent an invoice to the Duchy of Cornwall for the sum of £20,067,900,000 claiming recovery of alleged overcharged taxation on tin. In order to calculate the bill, historical tin production figures for Cornwall were derived from a privately published undergraduate thesis of 1908. 
The CSP documents claims a financially exploitative and racial motive for overcharging the Celtic Cornish people for the benefit of a succession of various Prince of Wales over the centuries; since the Duchy of Cornwall had designated the lands of Cornwall as a region to be exploited to provide an income to the heir to the English crown, the Prince of Wales, who also holds the title of the Duke of Cornwall.
The bias in English law begins with the education system. The history curriculum starts with 'Roman and Anglo-Saxons', and thereby, deletes the Celtic Cornish from history. There is a complete denial of the fact that, on the first Christmas day, over 2000 years ago, the whole of Britain was populated by the indigenous Celts speaking their own Celtic languages, Cornish being one. England did not exist. Cornwall existed in pre-historical, Iron Age, and Bronze Age times long before the Romans, Normans, and Germanic Angles and Saxons arrived. King Edward III recognised Cornwall (Kernow) as the land of the Cornish people and he respected the fact that they had not taken it away from anyone else. The Romans recognized them are a unique people, that they largely left alone. The Cornish are original inhabitants of Britain. The others, including the English, were invaders into their land.
Mining in Cornwall and Devon launched the early Bronze Age approximately 2,300 BC and ended with the South Crofty tin mine in Cornwall closing in 1998.
Tin was in great demand for the manufacturing of both bronze and pewter. Thousands of church bells, whose bronze depended on Cornish tin, were widespread across Europe by AD 1000.
Cornwall and Devon sustained an internationally important medieval tin industry. English pewter is made of Cornish tin. Tin was exported for the manufacture of pewter in Northern Europe as a whole. Before china dish ware, pewter was used as tableware.
There is strong archaeological evidence for trade between Cornwall and the eastern Mediterranean. The first account of Cornwall comes from the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (ca. 90 BCE–ca. 30 BCE), paraphrased the 4th-century BCE geographer Pytheas, who had sailed to Britain, as thus:
"The inhabitants of that part of Britain called Belerion (or Land's End) from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the earth in which it is produced ... Here then the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul, and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhône." 
Who these merchants were is not known. Historical sources such as Strabo, though not entirely reliable, state that the Phoenicians traded tin with Cornwall. However, today since we see that there is no archaeological evidence whatsoever for Phoenician presence, therefore it is presumed that the traders with Classical Europe and the Mediterranean were another group other than the Phoenicians and modern historians have debunked earlier antiquarian constructions of any "Phoenician legacy" of Cornwall.
The heir to the throne of England has been made the Duke of Cornwall since 1421, who was, and still is, the largest landowner in the Duchy of Cornwall, which was dedicated to give the heir to the throne of England an income, by law. This meant that a great portion of profits and wealth of Cornwall was siphoned off by the heir to the throne of England. There is a Cornish national movement to redirect the local resources of Cornwall to the indigenous people of Cornwall, similar to the rights given to the American Indians to the resources of the lands of the Indian reservations. As of yet, the Cornish people have not won any particular ancestral rights, but have been accorded a form of status recognition as an indigenous people by the United Nations.
In the 18th Century with the invention of steam driven pumps, Cornish mining became the first truly industrial capitalistic concern, launching the Industrial Revolution on many counts.
The machine driven pump was powered by steam engine and was capable of lifting hundreds of gallons of water per minute from great depths. In 1710, the first steam driven water pump was installed in Cornwall, allowing deep mining to take place for the first time. These pumps were so successful that the output of tin and copper rose prodigiously and Cornwall became the home of deep mining industrial techniques. This technology was adopted in mining regiojns around the world. Cornishmen war in high demand to introduce their mining techniques result in in a great diaspora of entire communities of Cornishmen to North and South America, Australia, South Africa, and continental Europe.
In Cornwall, steam technology was extended to the invention of the locomotive for the purpose of transporting the heavy Cornish mined ore. Soon, locomotives were also used for transportation of people, and steam was further developed for use in industrial weaving mills and other factories.
Cornwall at this time became a leader in science and engineering. The first productive and industrial harnessing of steam was made possible by Cornishman, Richard Trevithick, launching the Industrial Revolution.
Sir Humphrey Davies, a Cornishman, was the first president of the Royal Society, the premier British scientific society, then and now.
Another John Hore became a famous engineer for technological innovations to the building of canals of the Kennet River, techniques which were extended to rivers across England and then the world. He was perhaps related to the our Hores of the Devon and Cornish mines, as men of the mines and mills learned how to control river flow.
WILL of JOHN HORE:
Will written 1589.
In the name of God amen the iiij th day of February Annu Domini 1589.
I, John Hore of the parish of Roche in the County of Cornwall beinge sick in body but of perfect rememberance thankes be given to god so make this my last will and testatemt in manner & forme followinge... First I geve & bequeath my soule into the hands of almighty god and my body to be buryed in the church of roche <........> the same & do geve to the saied church .vs.
Item geve and bequeath to the pore of the parish of landey(?) ij s.
Item I do geve to John Hore my sonne tenne pounds of good & lanfus (?)...y of England & the right of one half dole in the tyneworke called (?) vaysy ston after the feast of St. Michaell the Archangel next coming.
I do geve to my daughter Flowence Hore xx li.
Item I do geve to my daughter Constaunce Hore xx li.
Item I do gev(e) to my daughter Mary Hore to be payed to her when she accomplysh the adge of xviij years. xx li .
Item I do geve to my daughter Tempperaunce. vj viij d. & vnto her ij children each of them one lamb;
Item i do ge my daughter Alson Hore j lamb besydes the money that was promised with her in mayyadge.
Item I do geve to my daughter Johan one yeow and a lamb.
Item I do geve to Robert Haite clerk parson of Roche vj s viiij d
The residew of all my goodes not given nor be I do geve and bequeath to Stephi Hore my son whom I do ordeyne make executor of this my lst will & testam & I do appoynt ouseers Matthew Hore, crystop; John Tompyken, & Edward Leveddon these being wytnesses, Robert Haite clark, Steven West with others -- dated the day yere above wrytten.
CHILDREN OF JOHN HORE:
1. Temperance Hore 1570 –
2. Stephen Hore 1579 – 1637
3. Mary Hore 1580 –
4. Florence Hore 1586 –
5. Constance Hore 1588 –
6. Alison Hore 1589 –
7. Johnan Hore 1589 –
This John Hore b. 1552 is NOT the direct son of John Hore of Trenouth b. 1529 or either of his wives: Catheryn Penkevill of Elizabeth Roscarrack. Please see Hoare of Trenouth pedigree attached. Do not merge this profile as a descendant of John Hore and Catherine Pentivell or Elizabeth Roscarrick. It is obviously not correct. Just look at the dates, the names on the pedigree, and the Will of John Hore and the holdings of the Trenouth family. John Hore was a landowner, but not of the extreme wealth of the Hores of Trenouth at this generation. This particular John may have been a cousin but was not the son (or a daughter) at this point in the pedigree of the great Trenouth/Hoare family who were one of the biggest landholders in the 1500's in Cornwall.
If you look up the Hoare of Trenouth pedigree, you find the established pedigree and see that they did not have children named Mary or John. Thus this Mr. and Mrs. John Hore do not belong on the Hoare of Trenouth pedigree at this point. This line of Hores are very possibly cousins to the Hores of Trenouth. Just not here at this generation as proposed by one researcher, and the connection was removed.
Chagford: This Hore is likely a cousin to the Hore / Hoare family of Trenouth and more likely a direct descendant of the Hores of Chagford, however it may be difficult to connect because when Henry VIII broke away from the Pope and established the Church of England, there were thousands of churches destroyed and their baptismal, burial and marriage records destroyed with the destruction of many church. (Furthermore, there was a massacre of most of the Cornish adult males in 1549. After this, many Devon men moved into the Cornwall vacuum.) There is a record that the church at Chagford was destroyed that the Hore family had used for generations. The generation before this John Hore is the generation when the church at Chagford was destroyed. We have not yet located a certain record of the father of this John Hore, but there are several candidates. The Roche Parish church where this John Hore was buried only has records from 1571, not before. The extensive pedigree in possession by the Hoars who moved to Massachusetts, who originated from the Devon Chagford Hore line, did not yield an obvious connection to this John Hore, except that they were geographically co-located, both in the tin business by inherited ownership of mines, and both families repeated the use of the names John, Stephan, William, and Robert. Please keep researching for a record to accurately extend our tree.
This John Hore was a landowner, including owning property with ancestral mining rights, thus well-to-do compared to the average populace of peasants and tradesman.
He was of yeoman class, derived of a minor gentry Hore line.
He left most everything to his son Stephan and a smaller estate to another son. The girls mostly only received their dowry, and a modest parting gift at the death of the father, as was custom if there was a son in the family.
If we could read in the will the name of the exact tinworks he owned, we could find out more information. Owners of tinworks did not mine themselves, but hired men to work it for them and often hired related individuals.
Comments found On the Origin of Le Hore:
Many genealogies list one Phillipe le Hore and William le Hore as the progenitors of the English Hore family. Let us examine that name: William is not a French name, it is Germanic. Guillaume is the French equivalent of William. However, no French knight of that name circa the Norman conquest was found, or Robert, or the Latin forms: Robertus or Williamius or Wilhelmius. The name first appears as Normans who conquered Wales and then participate din the conquest of Ireland.
Le Hore would be an odd name for a Norman to use, as it does not employ the usual "de" article, such as William de Normandie, which means "from" a certain place as was customary for French knights and barons who were designated by the land they owned. "Le" does not mean "of" or "from". "Le" means "The".
People in those days wrote phonetically as they heard it with variable spelling. However, the French never wrote the letter "e" to preceded the letter "h".
This implies a name of Norse or Germanic origin passing through Normandy where the name acquired a French language veneer.
A French phonetisization according to the French sound of Le Hore might be "l'hors" , which means "the outside source". The "s" is silent in French and would sound like "le Hore to the English ear. Thus in this scenario, William Le Hore would translate as William of Outside Source or simply, William the Outsider.
It could be that a William fought with the Normans as an "outsider" meaning he was not Norman. Hore is not Cornish or Celtic either. Perhaps he was considered a foreigner because he was Anglo-Saxon, not Norman.
Hore is not French Norman. It is not Celtic. It is also not a Cornish, Breton or Welsh name.
Hore is not a place name, that can be disignated by "de".
Hore is classified as "Old English" of deeper Anglo Saxon and ultimately old Norse origin.
Before the invasion in 1066, William the Conqueror imported soldiers from surrounding provinces to improve the fighting abilities of his army. These knights were quickly assimilated into the Norman aristocracy and many stood by William’s side at Hastings, and subsequently became prominent among Anglo-Norman baronial families in England. It is known that William asked men from Poitou, Burgundy, Brittany, Flanders, Germany, Denmark and Italy to join his army. In exchange for their services, William promised them a share of the land and wealth of England.
Danish Horick: Hore is not French, but it could easily be Danish. There is one family legend that relates that our Hore originates from Denmark in the person of King Horick c. 850 whose men participated in the Viking invasion of Paris. King Horick had two sons. After King Horick was killed, his sons became enemies and one prince remained in Denmark while the other Prince of Denmark fled to Normandy. The descendants of the Danish prince would have been in Normandy for about 200 years before the Norman invasion of England
William le Hore may have already been in Norman English at the time of the invasion, an Englishman encountered and befriended by the Normans and characterized as "le".
Hore of Wales, ireland Devon and Cornwall: The recorded descendants of one William le Hore held land in Wales and was the Standard Bearer for the invasion of King Henry II into Ireland where he was given a seat of land. His descendants were recorded as marrying the heiress of the Chagford family of Devon where the Hore family flourished in Devon and Cornwall. This is the most likely connection to this John Hore because of the Devon Cornwall location and the fact that this John Hore was a landowner in the are with mining rights to the great tinworks if Devon, which had been largely controlled by the Hores of Chagford.
Hoar as Elder and Judge: The word Hoar is a very old word meaning holy that reaches back into the deepest antiquity of the Northern peoples of Europe. It is cognate for "Hor" or "Her" which means a venerated elder, judge, or holy leader in Early Norse, Dutch, Frisian, and Germanic languages. Hoar meant grey-haired or frost, which is the colour of grey-white. Hoar frost was the old grey frost that won't melt. Old glaciers were grey. Hoary was a reverent world for old grey elders. It was the grey-haired elders of ancient peoples who served as judges for their communities. Thus elders who sat as judges were called her or hor heads, meaning grey-haired. These elders drew on their life experience and the legal precedent remembered in similar cases to make their judgements. Druids had such a system. Hore is cognate for "Herr" as in Freiherr, which means baron or ruler in German.
It is believed that a class of judges emerged, based on the fact that they were the grey-haired elders in the society, who were called variously as: Herr, Hor, Her, or Hoar in early Northern European Norse and Germanic tribes.
The laws of Northern European peoples were codified and held in the memory by these designated elders who acted as judges in disputes, meting out justice according to their ancient tribal rote, based on careful memorization of precedent cases.
Hor means source or origin. The word Hore has been pronounced with both a guttural H, or silently as in "ore" meaning "origin" in the earliest proto-European languages, as well as in Greek, Hebrew and Sanskrit.
Norse Hoar: The early Norse religion mythology story told that the origin of the world emerged from the great Hoar Frost gods of ancient glaciers. As the glaciers of the European Ice Ages melted and retreated, and in their place emerged all that was green and lovely. The melting of hoar frost was the origin of green lands.
All people were said to have originated from the grey-haired elders. The Norse Hoar god was a god of judgment and the the god of thunder Thor, is a derivation of Hor, which meant origin of time in pre-norse Indo-European; and even further back, the word Hor meant time, as in the word hour, derived from proto-Greek, Anatolian, Assyrian as shared with the Egyptian words of the god Horus, the god of time. The word Hor variably pronounced as Ore is one of the oldest and most enduring words to mean origin or time. Hor in Hebrew meant the source of light. Or meant the source from which choices between alternatives subdivided.
Each megalithic standing stones of Stonehenge and other megalithic structures were once called hoar stones. The most revered location of Cornwall, the island castle of St. Michael's Mount was originally called "The Hoar Rock in the Woods" of a time of such antiquity that the mount was not yet surrounded by the sea, which would have been before the current sea levels from the melt of the last European Ice Age.
Perhaps the Hores were once a family line from the priestly class, from which judges were drawn in the Nordic and Frisian Saxon or pre-Roman Druidic era. Druidic judges were a priestly class, not a warrior class. Whereas, the Germanic use of Herr indicated a baronial warrior leader, not a priest.
Hore is a name, like Herr, meaning "elder grey-haired" who might have served as judges, in the ancient pre-Roman communities such as the Druids or an earlier society. The Herr class in Germany retained the old name in the feudal baronial title of Freiherr. However, in Britain the old judges of the old Northern European ways were replaced by Roman law. After the Roman invasion, these "judges" would have been out of a job, when the Druids were dispersed, pushed aside by Roman law. Later, what we now call English Law, emerged as a distinct legal system: part modern, feudal, part Roman, part ancient Druidic, and the even earlier mesolithic societies.
The spectacular island off the coast of Cornwall where now sits the castle of St. Michaels Mount, was originally called, "The hoar rock in the woods" indicating an earlier time of lower sea-levels, when the mount was surrounded by forest, not water. The island is said to be a remnant of Lyonnesse, which stretched out from Cornwall, now covered by sea and silt. A similar island in the English Channel off the French coast of Normandy was once also called by the same name, "The hoar rock in the woods."
Preface of a book about the Hore / Hoar family......
Early History and Genealogy of the Families of Hore and Hoare, By Edward Hoare, Alfred Russell Smith Publishing Co., London 1883.
THE following account of the Early History and Genealogy of the Families of Hore and Hoare has engaged my attention for a large number of years. in consequence of a considerable number of very early deeds and documents of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. with other relics of the families, having come into lily possession, and which have been the means of assisting me greatly in my investigations and researches, and guiding me into the proper paths for procuring much which otherwise might have been unnoticed and unknown.
I have during that period, I may say almost unassisted, amassed an immense amount of valuable and interesting information, at great labour, and much expense to myself, and which may prove also hereafter useful to future members of the families as well as to those now existing. I have therefore thought it a pity that all this information, obtained at so great care and labour,. should be lost, as would most probably be the case, if unrecorded, when I shall have passed away a genealogist seldom arising in a family, perhaps not even once throughout a century. I have therefore resolved on printing a limited number of copies, giving not only very full and copious pedigrees of all the various families and their different branches, but also interspersing it throughout, as far as space permitted me to do so, with anecdotes and incidents in the lives of many of the principal persons, and my authorities also for many of the transactions here recorded, thereby reviving the remembrance and the almost now forgotten memories of the past.
The volume is not published through any ancestral vanity or silly ideas, neither is it brought forth in hopes of profit or gain. Truth, and truth alone, has been my only object, my guiding star throughout, and in seeking if, I have gone to the fountainhead for every information regardless of time, expense, or trouble. Nearly all such has been obtained from Legal sources and evidences, Public Records. Wills, Heraldic and Funeral Visitations, Family Deeds and Documents, Broadsides. Parish Registers, old Pedigrees, Manuscripts, Family Letters, and most of the best Periodicals, Journals, Magazines, and Papers of the times. I have discarded all hearsay tales, old women's gossip, and foolish fables. and sifted every thing with care, whilst quietly following my pursuits. and silently but thoughtfully "Wending on my way.
I now submit it to the various members of the different families herein interested, and to the public, and ill so doing, with the hope that, like its collector and compiler, they may also find-
Nor rough nor rugged are the ways Of Hoar Antiquity, but strewn with flowers
THE name and family of Hore and Hoare is one of very great antiquity. The name is of Eastern origin, and signifies a boundary or mark. It is derived from the Armoric "Men-har," whence the Celtic "Mein-heir," a boundary stone, whence the Greek "aura," and the Latin "hora," an hour being merely a subdivision, a mark, and a boundary of time. All this will be more fully seen on referring to Mr. William Hamper's" Essay on Hoar-stones," memorial marks and boundary stones, published in the "Archaeologia," volume xxv., and also separately (Birmingham, 4to, 1820).
The word "hore" and "hoar" has also been used to designate the colour grey or silver white; and has thus been used by Chaucer in his "Canterbury Tales," such signification having been derived from those ancient pillars and monuments of memorial and boundary-the Hoar-stones, they being universally hoary-headed, and white with age and antiquity.
When the word "Hore" (for this is its earliest spelling) was first assumed as a surname it is now impossible to decide. Some are inclined to suppose it was first so used during the Crusades, when surnames became general; but this is not so, as the name has been found in much earlier times.
Others speculated ascribing it to Mount Horeb, the tribe of the Horites, the territory of La Hore, and even to the Egyptian Deity Horus ; but all this is merely imaginary, and dealing too far back with the distance and darkness of long past ages.
This is because the word Hor, pronounced as a guttural Or means "source of light" in the semitic Hebrew, Egyptian and Sanskrit languages. "Hor" is from whence the word "hour" came.
De Burgho derives the name from the town of Hore, and the Hore Abbey, situated near the rock of Cashel, in the county of Tipperary, founded about the year 1260.
In the time of King William the Conqueror, there was also a town of the name Hore in Hampshire, as mentioned in "Domesday Book" for that county; and at the same period there were lands, meadows, woods, etc., named Tiara and Horam in the county of Suffolk, belonging to Robertus Malet, as may be seen by reference to the " Domesday Book " for that county.
Families of the name Hore have been found in very early times, and in records in England, Wales, and Ireland, the adjective "le" being very generally affixed thereto, as "le Hore;" they have also been found with the words "de la Hore" and "de la Hora," but not frequently.
I will now mention some of the earliest instances of families and persons of this name which have come under my immediate observation and researches, and also the various forms in which the name had been spelt, as Hore, Hora, Hoor, Hoore, Horre, Horey, Horrie, Horam, Horem, Hoar, and Hoare.
1. Alardus le Hore paid fines to King John, in A.D. 1208, for lands in Muriel in "Com. Buckingham." ("Cap. dom. Westmin.")
2. Walterus le Hore held lands, in the year 1235, of King Henry III., in Leatherhead, in the county of Surrey, for the service of keeping a house in which to contain prisoners. (Manning's "History of Surrey," and "Placita Coronae," 19th year of King Henry HI.)
3. Robertus le Hore was living in London in 1331.
4. Walterus le Hore accompanied the Earl of Northampton, with a large number of nobles, knights, and other gentlemen of qualitie," into parts beyond the sea, on the King's service, and bad letters of protection and attorney from King Edward III., in the year 1337.
5. John Hoor had also similar letters from King Henry IV., in 1405, to accompany the King's son, the Duke of Lancaster. (Rymer's "Faedera.")
6. The heiress of Hore of Gloucestershire married Henry de Clifford, Lord of Frampton, temp. King Henry IV.
7. John Hore was at the siege of Rouen, in the train of King Henry V.
8. Thomas Hoore, or Hore, was a Justice of the Peace for Southwark, in the year 1496.
9. The heiress of Hore of Marston, in Oxfordshire, married Unton Croke, son of Sir John Croke, the father of Sir Richard Croke. (See Burke's Commoners," volume i., page 357.)
10. Another family of the name Hore was distinguished in the same county and also in Cambridgeshire, and possessed the Lordship of Elsefield, in the county of Oxford, and the Manors of Childerley magna and parva, Luworth, Boxworth, and Magna Ravele, in Cambridgeshire; Wysshawe and Langley, in Warwickshire; and Barlee, or Hore’s land, in Hertfordshire ; and left Editha Hore its heiress, who married Thomas Fuithorpe, Esquire, of Barnard Castle; of this same house was Sir Nicholas Hore, Knight, who, about 1470, married Katherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Cotton, of Landwade, in Cambridgeshire, Knight. (See Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire," Dugdale's "Warwickshire," and Burke's "Commoners," volume iv., page 712, and various other works.)
11. In Devonshire and Cornwall two ancient families of the name Hore flourished. From the former are descended the families of the two baronets of the name Hoare, which are given in the following pages, and which are supposed, with every probability of reason and truth, and by an early and well-supported tradition, to be descended from the very ancient family of Hore, of Pole Hore, in the county of Wexford, in Ireland, and previously from Pembroke, in Wales, as will be seen treated of here in an abridged form.
The pedigree and arms of the Cornwall family of Hore of Trenouth, in that county, will be found in the Heraldic Visitation for the county of Cornwall, taken in 1620, and among the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum. Their armorial bearings were, Azure, on a bend argent, three torteaux gules. It is a curious fact that though the word Hore is thus used throughout the entire pedigree, the last male member of the family, in 1620, signed the Visitation, spelling his name John Hoare, to which it would appear he had then changed it from the ancient Hore to the modern form of Hoare.
The families of the name in Hertfordshire, and Warwickshire, may not be connected with the Devonshire or Wexford families, as their armorial bearings being totally different.
The Warwickshire family of Hore, of Elmedon, and elsewhere, ended early in co-heirs, married to Boteler, Hanslap, Pudsey, and others, as may be seen in Dugdale's "Warwickshire" (volume i., page 348, and volume Ii., page 1001). Their armorial bearings were, Argent, a chevron gules, between three stags' heads cabossed of the last.
In Wales the family was of high distinction, as well as in England, where, says Verstegan, "I find many of this surname of good note and special regard, in many places of this kingdom." They held lands in the twelfth century in South Wales, after its conquest by the Normans, and acquired considerable estates in the adjoining shires and counties, holding high martial offices in the Marches of Wales, and serving as Sheriffs and representatives in Parliament for their counties and boroughs.
In the church of Digswell, in Hertfordshire, just across the border from Wales, there is a very fine sepulchral brass to a Thomas Hoore (thus spelt), a member of the Mercers' Company of London, with his wife Alicia, his four sons and eight daughters, all represented on the brass. It is dated March 20th, 1495, the period of his death. It was formerly over the grave in the nave of the church, but was removed, at the restoration of the building in the year 1814, within the rails of the Communion table. where it is now to be seen, with several other brasses. A description of it, with the inscriptions, will be found in Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire." Volume ii., page 325. A Thomas Hore, supposed to be one of his sons, was rector of Digswell. at the time of the decease of the mein her of the Mercers' Company, but which he resigne4 in the year 1497, June 1st, having been appointed thereto 13th of August, 1494. and no mention is made of any person of the name. in after times, in the parish records. In the books of the Mercers' Company of London there is only the date of the admission of Thomas Hore as a member of the Company, in 1457, and the name of the mercer, John Artone, to whom be served his apprenticeship. On the brass the armorial bearings, impaled with those of his wife, are the same as those of the Devonshire family.
In the church of Hayes, near Bromley, in the county of Kent, there is another brass over the grave of John Hoare, who was rector of the parish of Hayes, in Orpington, and who deceased in the year 1584, February 11th, aged 83 years, having been rector over 18 years. It is in rhyme, and in 01(1 English black-letter characters. I give it here in full, as it is very quaint and Curious:
Who faine would lyve he must not feare to dye death is the waie That leades to lief and glorious Joies that triumphs over Claie Come poore bewaile this want, Come ffriend lament & saie with me This man did dye to lyve, and lyves though dead his body be ffull xviii yeeres a Rector here he was, and then John Hoare Unwedd, Deceast, one thousand yeeres ffybe hundred eighty foure the xi daie of februarie when he had lyved lx score & three.
This John Hoare was a member of the Devonshire family of Risford, near Chagford, but I am at present unable to say exactly to which particular branch of the family he belonged, as at this very period I find many of the name John Hoare scattered among different parts of England. There was formerly the figure of a priest in canonicals, a likeness and representing the deceased, over the inscription, but this was cut off and stolen for the sake of the old brass by some workmen, during the latter part of the last century when the church was undergoing repairs. In the "Journal of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland," for the year 1881, will be found a full description of this interesting brass, communicated by me to that Society, at their meeting, March 3rd, 1581, volume xxxvlll., pages 229, 230, and 231.
There are many early Wills of members and persons of the names Hore and Hoare in the Prerogative Office of Doctors' Commons, in Somerset House, London, a large number of which I have examined, and whence I have obtained much information. I here give the dates and names of those from the middle part of the fifteenth to the end of the seventeenth century.
1458. Isabell Hore. 1466. Thomas Hoore, or Hore, of Bristol. 1537. Richard Hore of Norfolk. 1547. William Hore. 1569. Richard Hore. 1583. Matthew Hore. 1585. John Hore. 1592. Thomas Hore. 1595. Henry Hore. 1597. Roger Hore. 1598. John Hore. 1602. Thomas Hore. 1622. Augustine Hore of Devonshire. 1626. William Hoare, or Hoore, a Mariner, Owner, and Captain of a ship, the Angel, of Saint Catherine's, East Smithfield, London. 1628. Edward Hore. 1628. Richard Hore. 1630. Barbara Hore. 1630. Henry Hore. 1633. Thomas Hore of Middlesex. 1636. Charles Hore of Gloucestershire. 1640. Robert Hore of Devonshire. 1641. John Hoare of London. 1653. Henry Hore of London. 1654. Ralphe Hore of Saint Botolph’s, Aldgate, London. 1654. Phillip Hore of Cornwall. 1654. Thomas Hore of Cornwall. 1655. Henry Hore, or Hoare, of Buckinghamshire. 1657. John Hore of Devonshire. 1676. Elizabeth Hore of Devonshire. 1677. Cecilia Hoare of London. 1677. John Hoore. 1678. Joseph Hoare. 1679. Thomas Hoare of London. 1680. Richard Hoare of London. 1683. John Hore. 1684. John Hoare of Devonshire. 1684. John Hore of Devonshire. 1696. Edward Hoare, a distiller, at Ratcliffe, parish of Stebeneath (Stepney). Middlesex.
Many of the name Hore sat as Members of Parliament in various Counties and Boroughs in England. I give the names of from the writs, now preserved in the Hanaper Office, London.
29th Year of King Edward I., 1300-130L Radulphus le Hore, for Milborne Port Borough, Somersetshire.
8th Year of King Edward III., 1333A. Thomas le Hore, for the County of Kent.
12th Year of King Edward III., 1337-8. Stephanus le Hore, for Dorchester Borough, Dorsetshire.
22nd Year of King Edward III., 1348. Stephanus le Hore, for Dorchester Borough, Dorsetshire.
8th Year of King Richard II., 1384. Willielmus Hore, for the County of Rutland.
8th Year of King Henry V., 1420. Willielmus Hore, for the City of Chichester, County of Sussex.
9th Year of King Henry V., 1421, 31st of March. Johannes Hore, for Bridport Borough, Dorsetshire.
9th Year of King Henry V., 1421, 10th of November. Johannes Horey, for the County of Dorset.
3rd Year of King Henry VI., 1425, 29th of March. Johannes Hore, for the County of Cambridge.
9th Year of King Henry VI., ~30. Willielmus Hore, for the City of Chichester, County of Sussex.
15th Year of King Henry VI., 1436-7, 22nd of November, 1436. Gilbertus Hore, for the County of Cambridge.
7th Year of King William Ill., 1695, 23r(l of October. Roger Hoar, merchant, for Bridgwater Borough, County of Somerset.
10th Year of King William III., 1698, 25th of July. Roger Hoare, Esquire, for Bridgwater Borough, County of Somerset.
A new election took place, 29th of November, 1699, for Bridgwater Borough vice Roger Hoare, Esquire, deceased.
Having given these particulars so far, which, indeed, I might have increased very largely, respecting early members of the name and various families, I now proceed to give the pedigrees of the different families of the names Hore and Hoare, with their branches, with which I am myself connected, and from which I am directly descended.
Pedigree of Hore and Hoare.
The Founder of this Family was Robertus Hore, who, about 1330, married an heiress of the family of Fforde of Chagford in the county of Devon. A very ancient and well-grounded tradition existed, well known in very many branches of the family long separated by time and distance, and supported also by early pedigrees and manuscripts, that he was a younger brother of William Le Hore or Thomas Le Hore, of Pole Hore in the county of Wexford, whose ancestor, Sir William Le Hore, was one of the fifty knights who, during the reign of King Henry the Second, went over from Pembroke in Wales, with Maurice Fitz Gerald, Robert de Barry, Robert Fitz Stephen, and others, icr the conquest of Ireland, and to whom the estate of Pole Hore and other lands in the county of Wexford were granted by Strongbow, and which still remain in the possession of his lineal descendant, the present Philip Herbert Hore, Esq., of Pole Hore. (See the pedigree of that family in Burke's "Commoners," vol. iv., pp. 712-716.)
The tradition states that this Robertus Hore was an extremely fine and handsome man, who went over to Devonshire to seek his fortune, and while there won the heart and the affections of the heiress of Fforde of Chagford, and having married her settled there, and thus became the Founder of the family.
The armorial bearings of both families are in perfect accordance with this tradition, for an old manuscript of the fourteenth century states thus: "Sir William Le Hore was one of the fifty knights who went over from Pembroke in Wales for the conquest of Ireland, and at the siege of Wexford he was the standard-bearer, and bore the Standard of the Eagle, wherefore in commemoration of such he was given the eagle with expanded wings as his armorial insignia; he was ~so called the White Knight, in allusion to his name Hore, some suppose from his fair appear- ance, others say from his suit of white armour, the word hore then signifying the colour white."
The Devonshire family of Hore had for their armorial bearings the eagle with expanded wings, with two necks, within an engrailed bordure; these marks in Heraldry are frequently found given to a junior branch of a family still existing in its senior members and lines.
Robertus Hore =. heiress of Fforde of Chagford. Married about 1330.
Robertus Hore. =. .
Robertus Hore, tertius. With him the pedigre = Alicia, sole daughter and heiress, commences, about the year 1360, in the Heraldic by Gracia his wife, of Rowland Visitation for the county of Devon, taken in the de Risford, of the parish of year 1620, and among the Harleian MSS. in the Chagford, county of Devon. British Museum.
Willelmus Hore, filius et haeres, 4 Ricardus II., 1381......
Robertus Hore, 20 Ricardus II., 1397.~....
Wilelmus Hore, 37 Henricus VI., 1459.........
Robertus Hore, 10 Edwarius IV., 1470.........
Willelmus Hore, 20 Henricus VII.., 1507.—
Willelinus Hore, 16 Henricus = filia de Westcott, VIII., 1525. corn. Devon.
Willelmus Hore, tempore = filia de Perriman, Reginae Mariae. corn. Devon.
The Hoare Family
There appears to be more than one family bearing the name of Hore, Hoar or Hoare, their different strains being revealed by the different Heraldry of their Arms.
The family of immediate concern is first mentioned when a knight referred to as ‘le Hore’ believed to be a Norman, crosses the Channel with William the Conqueror in 1066. Nearly 30 years later, in 1093, le Hore, either the same knight or his son, is recorded at Pembroke, South Wales, helping to subdue and control the area.
In 1169, Dermot MacMurdagh, claimant to the throne of Leinster, came to the English court and petitioned Henry II for help with his claim to the throne. After negotiations had been concluded successfully, Henry sent a message to Richard de Clare, First Earl of Pembroke, also called ‘Strongbow’, to gather together a hundred picked knights and embark for Ireland. There, they threw themselves into the cause, and during the besieging and capture of Wexford in May 1169, Sir William le Hore was standard bearer and Phillipe Le Hore, the father (brother or son) of William. His standard carried a Norman design based on ancient Germanic Saxon tradition of a double-headed eagle. By this capture, King Dermot gained his objective and Leinster was restored to him.
Either this Richard de Clare, or his son, married Dermot’s daughter and on his death became the next King of Leinster. Perhaps this was the ultimate objective of Henry when he lent his knights; a certain ally in Ireland. The de Clare’s lived on in history, becoming rulers of Thomond, part of which, County Clare, is named after them. Grants of land were made to the knights who had helped Dermot, and Sir William, in recognition of his services, received the estate which became Pole Hore in the Barony of Forth, County Wexford, together with the right to use, as armorial bearings ‘an eagle with expanded wings’. This castle and estate continued in the Hore family until the 20th century. (Owned by Philip Herbert Hore in 1907).
Whilst the main le Hore family continued in Ireland, one of the younger sons of a descendant of Sir William, Robertus, in 1330 crossed back to England. Legend says he was a very handsome young man and he certainly caught the eye of a Devon heiress, known as ‘the heiress of Fforde’ and settled at Risford , Chagford. Where they settled is now called Rushford Mill.
In 1630, there was a Heraldic Visitation to Devon and the opportunity was taken to record significant families in the County, and the herald noted a Hore pedigree, commencing with the third Robert, who married the heiress of Rowland de Risford in 1360.
By this time, the double headed eagle was well established as the family arms, and there is a record of the South East branch of the Devon family recording their version of the arms as - ‘Sable an eagle displayed with two necks within a bordure engrailed argent’ and its crest was - ‘on a wreath of colours a deers head and neck proper erased argent.’ Its earliest motto was a punning one; Datur Hora Amori, which transliterates to "Give Time to Love." I am not sure where the pun is, with this too literal translation. A better translation would reveal the dignity as well as the nuance of the pun intended. Of other mottoes, ‘Constanter’ is used by the Irish branch.
Generations came and went at Risford until 1630, when William (c.1578-c.1638) sold the estate to an ancestor of the Earl of Portsmouth, and moved to London.
(One of William’s sons/Williams elder son), Edward Hoare (c.1626-1690), for some reason, moved back to Ireland and settled in Cork and there raised a family. His elder son, also Edward (c.1651-1709), became first sheriff and then mayor, of Cork and until the late 18th century the Hoares lived the life of the Irish Protestant landowner .
Then Edward 3 (1723-1788), grandson of Edward 2 moves across the Irish Sea, possibly to join his only son, Edward Henry Hoare, and dies in London.
Edward Henry (1760-1843) became a minister in the Church of England, and (two)of his sons followed him into the calling. In 1832 he becomes vicar of Thrussington, not far from his elder son’s village of Barkby, and there he remains until his death in 1843.
The Rev. Edward Hatch Hoare (1790-1873), eldest son of E. Henry, became vicar of Barkby in 1828 and remained there until his death.
Both Barkby and Thrussington’s Hoare vicars, father and son, lie with other family members, in the large grave to the East of Barkby Church
His brother, Henry (1792-1866) seems first to have been a curate at Thurlaston Leicestershire (his eldest daughter was born there in 1821) before moving to Framfield, Herts, to become the vicar there until his death. His good works for the church there are still remembered.
Descendants of this Protestant line of the family are now not only in most parts of the British Isles, but also, by Puritan emigration in the 17th century by Hezekiah Hoare and others, a significant presence in the USA.
Among the first Norman and Flemish adventurers to come to Ireland under Maurice Fitzgerald were two cousins of Sir William le Harper, who had been granted Harperstown.
These were brothers, Sir William and Sir Philip le Hore, from Devonshshire or Wales of Saxon Norman origin.
William le Hor (1154-1189) was 1 of 50 knights who invaded Ireland.
The brothers were granted a large tract of land on the east of the river then known as 'The Pill', but now called Horetown river.
Here they erected Horetown Castle, and gradually became the biggest landowners in the English Pale of the Shire.
In 1257, William Hore, son of Philip Hore of Horetown, married the only child of John Roche of Drinagh, a branch of another old Norman family who had settled in South Wexford. William inherited the Drinagh estate as a result.
A grand-child of this union, a William Hore also, in 1336 married Agatha, only child of John le Harper of Harperstown, with whom he received the Harperstown property. It was the seat of the Hores from that until 1878.
John Hore, Sr. 1552's Timeline
March 24, 1572
Roche, Cornwall, England
St Just-in-Roselands, Cornwall, England
February 11, 1589
February 11, 1589
Roche, Cornwall, England