John Thomas Gulick (1832 - 1923)

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Place of Burial: Honolulu, Honolulu, Hawaii
Birthplace: Waimea, Kauai, HI, USA
Death: Died in Honolulu, HI
Managed by: Doug Robinson
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About John Thomas Gulick

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._T._Gulick

John Thomas Gulick (1832–1923) was an American missionary and naturalist. He is credited with some of the first modern evolutionary study, starting with a collection of Hawaiian land snails.


Life


John Thomas Gulick was born on March 13, 1832, in Waimea on Kauaʻi Island, during the Kingdom of Hawaii. His father was missionary Peter Johnson Gulick (1796–1877) and mother was Fanny (Thomas) Gulick (1798–1883). In 1851, he started to collect and study Hawaiian land snails. He had been interested in snails (a field now known as Conchology) since his early teens, and developed independently the concept of their evolution. He discovered many species of snails were only found in very specific areas within the islands, and there was no overlap between these areas.


In 1853, after reading Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle and Hugh Miller's The Footprints of the Creator, Gulick presented his paper, "The Distribution of Plants and Animals", to the Punahou School Debating Society. In 1855, he enrolled for one year at New York University and then Williams College in Massachusetts, and studied in their Lyceum of Natural History. In 1859, he was elected Lyceum President, and graduated with an A.B. degree.


Gulick followed a family tradition of attending theological school, and enrolled in Union Theological Seminary in New York City from 1859 to 1861. While there, he read Darwin's On the Origin of Species. He then collected shells in Panama and Japan.


On August 22, 1864, Gulick was ordained as a missionary in China, but also continued his study of snails. On September 3, 1864 he married Emily De la Cour. In 1872, he wrote "On the Variation of Species as Related to Their Geographical Distribution, Illustrated by the Achatinellinae", which was published in the journal Nature. In 1872, he traveled to England for two years. While there, he corresponded with Charles Darwin regarding his studies. He finally met Darwin and gave him a synopsis of an upcoming paper. That paper was "On Diversity of Evolution Under One Set of External Conditions", which was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. in 1873. Gulick then returned to China, and remained there until 1875.


After his first wife died in 1875 he moved to Japan to continue missionary work. As in China, he studied snails while performing as a missionary. On May 31, 1880 he married Frances Amelia Stevens (1848–1928). In 1888 he went again to London where his paper "Divergent Evolution Through Cumulative Segregation" was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. He met George Romanes who worked with Gulick to further refine evolution biology. In 1889, he received an honorary A.M. and Ph.D from Adelbert College of Western Reserve University. In 1891, another paper, "Intensive Segregation, or Divergence Through Independent Transformation" was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology.


He moved to Oberlin, Ohio in 1899. He expanded his study to societal evolution in humans, coming to believe societal evolution could be attributed to altruistic motives and a spirit of cooperation between humanity. He put forth this thesis in his paper "Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal" in 1905 and received an honorary Ph.D. by Oberlin College.


Later in 1905, he returned to Hawaii and sold his shell collection to Charles Montague Cooke, Jr. the new curator of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. He remained there until his death, on April 14, 1923 in Honolulu. He and his second wife are buried in the Mission Houses cemetery. They had two children, Addison and Louise (Gulick) Whitaker.


Evolutionary theories


In 1872, Gulick was the first to propose the theory that the majority of evolutionary changes are the result of chance variation, which has no effect on the survival and reproductive success of a species (today called "genetic drift"). He came to this theory while noting that there was a large diversity of local populations of Hawaiian land snails (Achatinella) which showed random variation under seemingly identical environmental conditions. Although he certainly promoted the importance of random factors in evolution, he also was a strong supporter of Darwinian natural selection, and this led to disagreement with Moritz Wagner's "Migration Theory" of the origin of species.


In 1888, Gulick introduced new terms for two patterns of evolution that can be observed: the term monotypic evolution (previously called "transformation;" today "anagenesis") and the term "polytypic evolution" (previously called "diversification"; today "cladogenesis") – simultaneous processes, such as the multiplication of species, manifested by different populations and incipient species. George Romanes later adopted this terminology during his evolutionary studies.


Gulick later proposed general geographic models of speciation, and disputed Moritz Wagner's more extreme claims that geographic speciation was the only possible route to speciation.


Romanes said of Gulick:


...to his essays on the subject I attribute a higher value than to any other work in the field of Darwinian thought since the dat of Darwin's death.


Criticism


Gulick reported collecting 44,500 Hawaiian snails in just three years. Some were of no scientific value because he did not record where they were obtained. Of many of the species he collected, no similar species remain in the wild today. Some modern observers attribute the extinction of many endemic Hawaiian snail species to him and fellow collectors such as his schoolmate David Dwight Baldwin.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.T._Gulick

John Thomas Gulick (1832–1923) was an American missionary and naturalist from Hawaii. He is credited with some of the first modern evolutionary study, starting with a collection of Hawaiian land snails.

Life

John Thomas Gulick was born on March 13, 1832, in Waimea on Kauaʻi Island, during the Kingdom of Hawaii. His father was missionary Peter Johnson Gulick (1796–1877) and mother was Fanny (Thomas) Gulick (1798–1883). In 1851, he started to collect and study Hawaiian land snails. He had been interested in snails (a field now known as Conchology) since his early teens, and developed independently the concept of their evolution. He discovered many species of snails were only found in very specific areas within the islands, and there was no overlap between these areas.

In 1853, after reading Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle and Hugh Miller's The Footprints of the Creator, Gulick presented his paper, "The Distribution of Plants and Animals", to the Punahou School Debating Society. In 1855, he enrolled for one year at New York University and then Williams College in Massachusetts, and studied in their Lyceum of Natural History. In 1859, he was elected Lyceum President, and graduated with an A.B. degree.

Gulick followed a family tradition of attending theological school, and enrolled in Union Theological Seminary in New York City from 1859 to 1861. While there, he read Darwin's On the Origin of Species. He then collected shells in Panama and Japan.

On August 22, 1864, Gulick was ordained as a missionary in China, but also continued his study of snails. On September 3, 1864 he married Emily De la Cour. In 1872, he wrote "On the Variation of Species as Related to Their Geographical Distribution, Illustrated by the Achatinellinae", which was published in the journal Nature. In 1872, he traveled to England for two years. While there, he corresponded with Charles Darwin regarding his studies. He finally met Darwin and gave him a synopsis of an upcoming paper. That paper was "On Diversity of Evolution Under One Set of External Conditions", which was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. in 1873. Gulick then returned to China, and remained there until 1875.

After his first wife died in 1875 he moved to Japan to continue missionary work. As in China, he studied snails while performing as a missionary. On May 31, 1880 he married Frances Amelia Stevens (1848–1928). In 1888 he went again to London where his paper "Divergent Evolution Through Cumulative Segregation" was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. He met George Romanes who worked with Gulick to further refine evolution biology. In 1889, he received an honorary A.M. and Ph.D from Adelbert College of Western Reserve University. In 1891, another paper, "Intensive Segregation, or Divergence Through Independent Transformation" was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology.

He moved to Oberlin, Ohio in 1899. He expanded his study to societal evolution in humans, coming to believe societal evolution could be attributed to altruistic motives and a spirit of cooperation between humanity. He put forth this thesis in his paper "Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal" in 1905 and received an honorary Ph.D. by Oberlin College.

Later in 1905, he returned to Hawaii and sold his shell collection to Charles Montague Cooke, Jr. the new curator of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. He remained there until his death, on April 14, 1923 in Honolulu. He and his second wife are buried in the Mission Houses cemetery. They had two children, Addison and Louise (Gulick) Whitaker.

Evolutionary theories

In 1872, Gulick was the first to propose the theory that the majority of evolutionary changes are the result of chance variation, which has no effect on the survival and reproductive success of a species (today called "genetic drift"). He came to this theory while noting that there was a large diversity of local populations of Hawaiian land snails (Achatinella) which showed random variation under seemingly identical environmental conditions. Although he certainly promoted the importance of random factors in evolution, he also was a strong supporter of Darwinian natural selection, and this led to disagreement with Moritz Wagner's "Migration Theory" of the origin of species.

In 1888, Gulick introduced new terms for two patterns of evolution that can be observed: the term monotypic evolution (previously called "transformation;" today "anagenesis") and the term "polytypic evolution" (previously called "diversification"; today "cladogenesis") – simultaneous processes, such as the multiplication of species, manifested by different populations and incipient species. George Romanes later adopted this terminology during his evolutionary studies.

Gulick later proposed general geographic models of speciation, and disputed Moritz Wagner's more extreme claims that geographic speciation was the only possible route to speciation.

Romanes said of Gulick:

...to his essays on the subject I attribute a higher value than to any other work in the field of Darwinian thought since the date of Darwin's death.

Criticism

Gulick reported collecting 44,500 Hawaiian snails in just three years. Some were of no scientific value because he did not record where they were obtained. Of many of the species he collected, no similar species remain in the wild today. Some modern observers attribute the extinction of many endemic Hawaiian snail species to him and fellow collectors such as his schoolmate David Dwight Baldwin.

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John Thomas Gulick's Timeline

1832
March 13, 1832
Waimea, Kauai, HI, USA
1854
September 3, 1854
Age 22
Hong Kong
1880
May 31, 1880
Age 48
Osaka, Japan
1900
1900
Age 67
Russia, Lorain, Ohio
1910
1910
Age 77
Honolulu, Honolulu, Hawaii
1923
April 14, 1923
Age 91
Honolulu, HI