Jean de Luxembourg, King of Bohemia

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Johann von Luxemburg (von Böhmen), comte de Luxembourg

Also Known As: "John of Bohemia", "Jang de Blannen", "luxemburgisch Jang de Blannen", "französisch Jean de Luxembourg", "Jean l’Aveugle", "Nederlands Jan de Blinde"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Of, Praha, Praha, Czechoslovakia
Death: Died in Battle of Crécy, Somme, Ponthieu, France
Place of Burial: Cathédrale de Notre-Dame, Luxembourg
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor and Margaretha van Brabant
Husband of Eliška - Elisabeth Přemyslovna, Česká královna and Beatrix de Clermont, Queen of Bohemia
Father of Mikuláš Lucemburský; Colette de Luxembourg; Markéta Lucemburská of Bohemia; Bonne de Luxembourg, reine consort de France; Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and 6 others
Brother of Marie de Luxembourg, reine de France and Béatrice de Luxembourg
Half brother of Jean de Lantwijck

Occupation: König von Böhmen 1310–1346, Markgraf von Mähren, Graf von Luxemburg und Titularkönig von Polen 1310–1335.
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:

About Jean de Luxembourg, King of Bohemia

Johann von Luxemburg (tschechisch Jan Lucemburský, luxemburgisch Jang de Blannen, französisch Jean de Luxembourg, Jean l’Aveugle; * 10. August 1296; † 26. August 1346 in Crécy), auch Johann von Böhmen, später Johannes der Blinde genannt, war König von Böhmen 1310–1346, Markgraf von Mähren, Graf von Luxemburg und Titularkönig von Polen 1310–1335.

http://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jang_de_Blannen

  • Lëtzebuergesch

Jang de Blannen Grof vu Lëtzebuerg

10. August 1296 – 26. August 1346

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Bohemia

John of Bohemia 'the Blind'

  • German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg;
  • Czech: Jan Lucemburský

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BIOGRAPHY: b. Aug. 10, 1296, Luxembourg d. Aug. 26, 1346, Crécy, France byname JOHN OF LUXEMBOURG, OR JOHN OF BOHEMIA, CZECH JAN LUCEMBURSKÝ, OR JAN S CECH, king of Bohemia from 1310 until his death, and one of the more popular heroic figures of his day, who campaigned across Europe from Toulouse to Prussia. He was born the son of the future Holy Roman emperor Henry VII of the house of Luxembourg and was made count of Luxembourg in 1310. At about the same time, he also was named king of Bohemia, and on Feb. 7, 1311, he was solemnly crowned at Prague. When his father died in 1313, John was too young to succeed him as emperor and supported instead the election of Louis the Bavarian as Emperor Louis IV (1314). John subsequently sided with Louis in his struggle against Frederick of Austria (1322); but in later years he was estranged from the Emperor, especially after Louis's alliance with England against France in the Hundred Years' War. John's own sympathies strongly favoured the French. He had sent his own son, the future emperor Charles IV, to be reared in Paris, and he several times fought in the service of France. Throughout his reign, John campaigned variously against the Lithuanians and the Russians, against Hungary, England, and Austria, and in northern Italy and in the Tirol. He extended his Bohemian crownland northward, acquiring parts of Upper Lusatia (1320-29) and Silesia (1327-30), and also made himself master of much of Lombardy. His lavish expenditures, heavy taxation, and incessant peregrinations, however, cost him popularity at home and enhanced the power of the Bohemian nobility. John's continuing quarrels with the Emperor brought him into alliance with the papacy; and in 1346, in concert with Pope Clement VI, he secured the formal deposition of Louis IV and the election of his son Charles as king of the Romans (July 1346). He then went to help King Philip VI of France against the English but was killed at the Battle of Crécy. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- John of Bohemia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John the Blind (Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Czech: Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309, King of Bohemia, and titular King of Poland from 1310. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. John was French by education, but deeply involved in the politics of Germany. In 1310, John married Elisabeth, heiress of Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, and thereby became King of Bohemia and so one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. The object of the hostility of the Czech nobility, however, he gave up the administration of Bohemia and embarked on a life of travel, spending time in Luxembourg and the French court. His travels took him to Silesia, Poland, Lithuania, Tyrol, Northern Italy, Papal Avignon, and Languedoc, where he was governor from 30 November 1338 to November 1340. He lost his eyesight from ophthalmia, while crusading in Lithuania with the Teutonic order. He retained his crown even after Elisabeth's death in 1330. His second wife was Beatrice, daughter of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. He was killed whilst fighting alongside the French against the English at the Battle of Crécy, part of the Hundred Years' War. The chronicler Froissart left the following account of John's last actions: ...for all that he was nigh blind, when he understood the order of the battle, he said to them about him: 'Where is the lord Charles my son?' His men said: 'Sir, we cannot tell; we think he be fighting.' Then he said: 'Sirs, ye are my men, my companions and friends in this journey: I require you bring me so far forward, that I may strike one stroke with my sword.' They said they would do his commandment, and to the intent that they should not lose him in the press, they tied all their reins of their bridles each to other and set the king before to accomplish his desire, and so they went on their enemies. The lord Charles of Bohemia his son, who wrote himself king of Almaine and bare the arms, he came in good order to the battle; but when he saw that the matter went awry on their party, he departed, I cannot tell you which way. The king his father was so far forward that he strake a stroke with his sword, yea and more than four, and fought valiantly and so did his company; and they adventured themselves so forward, that they were there all slain, and the next day they were found in the place about the king, and all their horses tied each to other. After the battle, legend states that John's personal crest (a pair of black wings) and motto Ich dien ("I Serve") were adopted in slightly modified form by Edward, the Black Prince, and since then they have been part of the badge of the Prince of Wales. John was succeeded as King of Bohemia by his eldest son Charles (later Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor). In Luxembourg, he was succeeded by his son by his second wife, Wenceslaus.

Quotes

According to the Cronica ecclesiae pragensis benesii krabice de weitmile, before he died at the Battle of Crécy, he cried: "God willing, it will never happen that a Bohemian king runs off a fight!"

He was married two times: First, to Elizabeth I of Bohemia. In this marriage he had the following children: Margaret of Bohemia (8 July 1313–11 July 1341, Prague), married in Straubing 12 August 1328 to Henry XIV, Duke of Bavaria. Bonne (21 May 1315–11 September 1349, Maubuisson), married in Melun 6 August 1332 to King John II of France. Charles IV (14 May 1316–29 November 1378), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. Ottokar ("Otto") (22 November 1318–20 April 1320), Prince of Bohemia. John Henry (Jan Jindrich) (12 February 1322, Mělník–12 November 1375), Margrave of Moravia. Anna (1323–3 September 1338), twin of Elizabeth, married 16 February 1335 to Otto, Duke of Austria. Elizabeth (1323–1324), twin of Anna. Second (December 1334), to Beatrix of Bourbon, daughter of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. This marriage produced two children: Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg (25 February 1337, Prague–7 December 1383, Luxembourg), Duke of Luxembourg and Brabant. Bonne

References

The Chronicles of Froissart, translated by Lord Berners, edited by G.C. Macaulay. The Harvard Classics. [1] CRONICA ECCLESIAE PRAGENSIS BENESSII KRABICE DE WEITMILE [2]

Family and children

-------------------- (10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. He is known for having died while actively fighting in a military battle at age 50, after having been blind for a decade.

Raised in Paris, John was French by education, but deeply involved in the politics of Germany. In 1310 his father arranged the marriage of the 14-year-old with Elisabeth from the Přemyslid dynasty, sister of the deceased King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia. John campaigned Bohemia and was elected king by deposition of Henry of Carinthia, he thereby became one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire and - in succession of Wenceslaus III - claimant to the Polish and Hungarian throne. His attempts to follow his father as King of the Romans failed with the election of Louis IV of Wittelsbach in 1314. He later would support Louis in his rivalry with Frederick the Fair of Habsburg, culminating in the 1322 Battle of Mühldorf and in return receive the Egerland as lien.

Like his predecessor Henry the object of the hostility of the Czech nobility, "alien king" John soon gave up the administration of Bohemia and embarked on a life of travel, spending time in Luxembourg and the French court. His travels took him to Silesia, Poland, Lithuania, Tyrol, Northern Italy and Papal Avignon. A rival of King Władysław I the Elbow-high to the Polish crown, John supported the Teutonic Knights in the Polish–Teutonic War from 1326 to 1332. He also made several Silesian dukes swear an oath of allegiance to him until the conflict was settled by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin: Władysław's successor King Casimir III the Great of Poland renounced all claims to Silesia in exchange for John's waiver of the Polish throne, confirmed by the Congress of Visegrád in the same year.

John lost his eyesight at age 39 or 40 from ophthalmia in 1336, while crusading in Lithuania. A treatment by the famous physician Guy de Chauliac had no positive effects. At the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War in 1337 he allied with King Philip VI of France and even was governor of Languedoc from 30 November 1338 to November 1340. He was killed at age 50 in 1346, while fighting alongside the French against the English at the Battle of Crécy. The medieval chronicler Jean Froissart left the following account of John's last actions: ..for all that he was nigh blind, when he understood the order of the battle, he said to them about him: 'Where is the lord Charles my son?' His men said: 'Sir, we cannot tell; we think he be fighting.' Then he said: 'Sirs, ye are my men, my companions and friends in this journey: I require you bring me so far forward, that I may strike one stroke with my sword.' They said they would do his commandment, and to the intent that they should not lose him in the press, they tied all their reins of their bridles each to other and set the king before to accomplish his desire, and so they went on their enemies. The lord Charles of Bohemia his son, who wrote himself king of Almaine and bare the arms, he came in good order to the battle; but when he saw that the matter went awry on their party, he departed, I cannot tell you which way. The king his father was so far forward that he strake a stroke with his sword, yea and more than four, and fought valiantly and so did his company; and they adventured themselves so forward, that they were there all slain, and the next day they were found in the place about the king, and all their horses tied each to other.

After the battle, legend states that John's personal crest (a pair of black wings) and motto Ich dien ("I Serve") were adopted in slightly modified form by Edward, the Black Prince, and since then they have been part of the badge of the Prince of Wales.

John was succeeded as King of Bohemia by his eldest son Charles (later Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor). In Luxembourg, he was succeeded by his son by his second wife, Wenceslaus.

The manner of his death gave rise to the obsolescent idiom, "to fight like King John of Bohemia", meaning "to fight blindly". -------------------- Jean Ier de Luxembourg[1], dit l'Aveugle né le 10 août 1296, roi de Bohême en 1310 par son premier mariage, comte de Luxembourg en 1313, roi titulaire de Pologne. Devenu aveugle en 1340 suite à une opération manquée aux yeux[2], il meurt au cours de la bataille de Crécy le 26 août 1346.

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Jean Ier de Bohême. Une page de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Ier_de_Boh%C3%AAme

John of Bohemia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_I,_Count_of_Luxemburg

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Jean de Luxembourg, King of Bohemia's Timeline

1296
August 10, 1296
Of, Praha, Praha, Czechoslovakia
1310
August 30, 1310
Age 14
Spiers
1313
July 8, 1313
Age 16
Of, Praha. Praha, Czechoslovakia
1315
May 20, 1315
Age 18
Prague, Czech Republic
1316
May 14, 1316
Age 19
Praha, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
1318
November 22, 1318
Age 22
(Bohemia), Czech Republic
1319
March 27, 1319
Age 22
Of, Praha. Praha, Czechoslovakia
March 27, 1319
Age 22
Of, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
1322
February 12, 1322
Age 25
(Melnik, Bohemia), Melnik, Czech Republic
1322
Age 25
Praha