Jonathan Dayton, Signer of the US Constitution, 4th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

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Jonathan Dayton

Birthplace: Elizabeth, Union, NJ, USA
Death: Died
Place of Burial: Saint John's Episcopal Church, New Jersey, USA
Immediate Family:

Son of Brig. General Elias Dayton and Hannah Rolfe
Husband of Susan Williamson
Father of Susan Williamson Beasley
Brother of Jane Berrien; Elias Bayley Dayton and Mary Dayton

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Jonathan Dayton, Signer of the US Constitution, 4th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Jonathan Dayton (October 16, 1760 – October 9, 1824) was an American politician from the U.S. state of New Jersey. He was the youngest person to sign the United States Constitution and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, serving as the fourth Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and later the U.S. Senate. Dayton was arrested in 1807 for treason in connection with Aaron Burr's conspiracy, he was never put on trial, but his national political career never recovered.

Early life

Dayton was born in Elizabethtown (now known as Elizabeth) in New Jersey. He was the son of Elias Dayton, a merchant who was prominent in local politics and had served as a militia officer in the French and Indian War and as a general in the Colonial Army. After graduating from the local academy, run by Tapping Reeve and Francis Barber, he attended the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University) with Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. He left the College of New Jersey in 1775 to fight in the revolution, though he would later receive an honorary degree in 1776.


During the Revolutionary War Dayton, 15 at the outbreak in 1775, served under his father in the 3rd New Jersey Regiment as an ensign. By 1777 Dayton had become a lieutenant serving under Washington fighting, at both the battles of Brandywine Creek and Germantown. The Daytons remained with Washington at Valley Forge, and helped push the British from their position in New Jersey into the Safety of New York City. In October 1780, Dayton along with an uncle were captured by loyalist who held him captive for the winter, released in the coming year. They again served under Dayton's father, Elias Dayton, in the New Jersey Brigade. Now only 19, Dayton was promoted to rank of captain and transferd to the 2d New Jersey, where he took part in the ensuing Yorktown Campaign fighting at the Battle of Yorktown.


After the war, Dayton studied law and established a practice, dividing his time between land speculation, law, and politics. After serving as a New Jersey delegate to the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention ( which he was the youngest member of, at the age of 26), he became a prominent Federalist legislator. He was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly from 1786–1787, and again in 1790, and served in the New Jersey Legislative Council (now the New Jersey Senate) in 1789.

Dayton was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1789, but he did not take his seat until he was elected again in 1791. He served as speaker for the Fourth and Fifth Congress. Like most Federalists, he supported the fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton, and helped organize the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion. He supported the Louisiana Purchase and opposed the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801.

Wealthy from his heavy investments in Ohio where the city of Dayton would later be named after him, Dayton lent money to Aaron Burr becoming involved by association in the "conspiracy" in which Burr was accused of intending to conquer parts of what is now the western United States. (This was never proven.) Dayton was exonerated, but his effectively ended his political career.

Late life and family

He married Susan Williamson and had two daughters but their marriage date is unknown.

After resuming his political career in New Jersey, he died in 1824 in his hometown and was interred in an unmarked grave now under the present St. John's Episcopal Church in Elizabeth which replaced the original church in 1860.

Dayton, Ohio

The city of Dayton, Ohio, was named after Jonathan Dayton. While he never set foot in the area, he was a signatory to the constitution and, at the time the city was established in 1796, he owned (in partnership with Arthur St. Clair, James Wilkinson and Israel Ludlow) 250,000 acres (1,011 km²) in the Great Miami River basin.


The Jonathan Dayton High School in Springfield Township, Union County, New Jersey and the Dayton neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey are named in his honor.

Political career

New Jersey General Assembly, 1786–1787, 1790

Speaker, 1790

Delegate to Federal Constitutional Convention, 1787

Delegate to Continental Congress, 1787–1788

New Jersey State Council, 1790

United States House of Representatives, March 4, 1791 – March 4, 1799

Speaker of the House, Fourth and Fifth Congresses

Chairman of Committee on Elections, Third Congress

United States Senate, March 4, 1799 – March 4, 1805

New Jersey Assembly, 1814–1815

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Jonathan Dayton, Signer of the US Constitution, 4th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives's Timeline

October 16, 1760
Elizabeth, Union, NJ, USA
Age 19
September 17, 1787
- September 17, 1787
Age 26
Independence Hall, Philadelphia,

The Signers of the U. S. Constitution

New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

Rufus King
Nathaniel Gorham

Roger Sherman
William Samuel Johnson

New York
Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey
William Livingston
David Brearley
William Paterson
Jonathan Dayton

Benjamin Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robert Morris
George Clymer
Thomas FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
Gouverneur Morris
James Wilson

George Read
Gunning Bedford, Jr.
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jacob Broom

James McHenry
Daniel Carroll
Dan of St. Thomas Jenifer

John Blair
James Madison, Jr.
George Washington

North Carolina
William Blount
Richard Dobbs Spaight
Hugh Williamson

South Carolina
John Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

William Few
Abraham Baldwin

Biographies of the Founding Fathers

Colonial Hall now contains 103 biographical sketches of America's founding fathers. At this time we have divided them up into 3 groups:
As you will see there are still many biographies that need to be added to our site, including a new category: Other Founding Fathers.

The biographies on this site are primarily from 1 of the following 2 sources:
Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence, by the Rev. Charles A. Goodrich. Published in 1829.
The United States Manual of Biography and History, by James V. Marshall. Published by James B. Smith & Co., in Philadelphia in the year 1856.
The U.S. Constitution at the National Archives

Age 63
Saint John's Episcopal Church, New Jersey, USA