Juana I la Loca, reina nominal de Castilla

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Juana I 'la Loca' de Castilla y Aragón, reina nominal de Castilla

Nicknames: "La Loca", "The mad", "The Mad", "Joanna Of /Aragon/", "La Folle", "Juana I la Loca", "reina nominal de Castilla"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Toledo, Toledo, Castille La Mancha, Spain
Death: Died in Tordesillas, Valladolid, Castille and Leon, Spain
Place of Burial: Royal Chapel of Granada, Calle Oficios, 1, Granada, Spain
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Fernando II el Católico, rey de Aragón and Isabel I la Católica, reina consorte de Castilla
Wife of Felipe I el Hermoso, Rey de Castilla
Mother of Leonor de Habsburgo, reine de France; Isabella von Österreich, Habsburg, Dronning af Danmark, Norge og Sverige; Carlos V, rey de España y emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor; Maria von Habsburg, Königin zu Ungarn und Böhmen and 1 other
Sister of Isabel de Castela e Aragão, rainha consorte de Portugal; Juan de Castilla y Aragón, príncipe de Asturias; Maria de Castela e Aragão, rainha consorte de Portugal; N.N. and Catherine of Aragon, Queen consort of England
Half sister of Juan d'Aragón, príncipe de Girona; Alonso de Aragón, arzobispo de Zaragoza y Valencia; D. Juana de Aragón; María de Aragón, monja de Madrigalejo and María de Aragón, monja de Madrigalejo

Occupation: Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand of Spain, Duchess consort of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, Lothier, and Luxemburg, Margravine consort of Namur, Countess consort of Artois, Flanders, Charolais, Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland., Queen, Housewife, Queen of Aragon
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Juana I 'la Loca' de Castilla y Aragón, reina nominal de Castilla

1504-55 Queen Juana la Loca of Castilla, Des Asturias and Galicia

1516-55 Queen of Aragón (Spain)

She succeeded her mother, Isabel I in 1505 and father Fernando in 1516. Her father had nominated her as heir of all his possession with her son as regent, because of her mental instability. Her husband Felipe I was king and regent 1504-06 and her son, Carlos I (and V of the Holy Roman Empire) became king in 1516. Juana lived (1479-1555).

Life

In 1496 at Lille, Joanna was married to the Archduke Philip the Handsome, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and at Ghent in February 1500, she gave birth to future emperor Charles V.

The death of her only brother John, Prince of Asturias, her eldest sister Isabella of Asturias, queen of Portugal, and then of the latter's infant son Miguel, Prince of Asturias, made Joanna the heiress of the Spanish kingdoms. Her only living siblings were Maria of Aragon and Catherine of Aragon, three and six years younger than Joanna. In 1502 the cortes of Castile and of Aragon recognized her and her husband as their future sovereigns, the Princess and Prince of Asturias.

Joanna was said to pine day and night for her husband while he was overseas, and when she eventually joined Philip in Flanders, her passionate jealousy and constant suspicion of him made her notorious, if not necessarily beloved, in the local court.

Her mother's death left Joanna Queen of Castile in November of 1504. She and Philip set sail from Flanders to Spain, where he would become king consort. Their ships were wrecked on the English coast and the couple became guests of Henry VII at Windsor Castle. After they continued their trip to Spain, they landed at Coruña in 1506 and started their trip south for Joanna's coronation. Ferdinand, her father, claimed that Joanna was being kept prisoner by Philip and that he was speaking for her, and therefore Ferdinand should be made Joanna's co-regent. This conflict threatened to lead to civil war. However, Philip unexpectedly died due to typhus fever in Burgos in September 1506. Some believe that Joanna became completely deranged at this point — it was almost impossible to get her away from the corpse of her husband. Another possibility is that she was using her status as a widow taking her husband to his desired place of rest as an excuse to travel freely through Spain. She may have been afraid to be shut away as had happened before. Joanna was in her last trimester of pregnancy and may have felt especially vulnerable.

This worked in Ferdinand's favour and he was able to convince Joanna to grant him co-regency. He kept her isolated in the castle of Tordesillas and ruled as regent. After his death in 1516, Joanna's son Charles assumed the regency and was proclaimed co-king. Joanna was kept prisoner at Tordesillas; however, with the Revolt of the Comuneros (1520–1522) she had a chance to resume her sole sovereignty but failed to take it. She had been kept ignorant of everything that had happened in the twenty years since she had been captive. When Charles succeeded in quelling the uprising, Joanna was locked up for the rest of her life in a windowless room in the castle of Tordesillas. She died on Good Friday, April 12, 1555.

Joanna was the last of the original Spanish royals; after her, all royalty on the Spanish throne was from houses that had come from abroad — though most of the future monarchs also were born in Spain. Most historians believe she suffered from schizophrenia and she was kept locked away and imprisoned. Needed to legitimize the claims of her father and son to the throne, Joanna only nominally remained Queen regnant of Castile until her death.

She is entombed in the Capilla Real of Granada, alongside her parents, her husband, and her nephew Miguel.

Her niece was Mary I of England, known as Bloody Mary.

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Juana la Loca

Heredera de un imperio en el que jamás se ponía el Sol, bellísima, inteligente y bien dotada para la música, Juana de Aragón y Castilla, segunda hija de los reyes católicos de España, pasó a la historia con el impiadoso apelativo de "Juana la Loca". Se lo ganó después de actos tan desmesurados como velar por espacio de 19 años el cadáver de su marido. Para los historiadores, el de ella no era un desequilibrio cualquiera: tuvo origen en un gran amor que ciertas circunstancias transformaron en locura.

Nacida en Toledo el 6 de noviembre de 1479, Juana era la que tenía menos posibilidades de llegar a ocupar el trono entre los hijos de los Reyes Católicos. Pero ésta se comportaba con mentalidad de futura monarca, demostrando un sentido de dignidad personal y de responsabilidad política altamente desarrollado. Sus padres encontraron que Juana era la hija ideal para emparentar la corte de Castilla con la de Alemania. La fórmula: unir en matrimonio a Juana con Felipe, hijo del emperador alemán Maximiliano I.

En 1496, rodeada de un espléndido cortejo, Juana partió a Flandes a conocer a su prometido y celebrar el casamiento.

Las crónicas sobre el primer encuentro son diversas. Al parecer, bastó con que se miraran a los ojos para que aflorase una pasión irrefrenable. En realidad esta versión es poco creíble si se tiene en cuenta el mundo disciplinado y puritano del que venía Juana, sumando a su sólida conciencia de ser heredera de una corona. Pero el tiempo y la leyenda la muestran tan vulnerable al sufrimiento por amor, que la anécdota parece cierta.

Tras la boda, y a medida que el tiempo pasaba, su amor por Felipe crecía con el mismo ritmo que la desconfianza y la sospecha de no ser correspondida. Su apolíneo consorte (no por nada llamado Felipe el Hermoso) se dedicaba a hacer lo que mejor sabía: cortejar a toda mujer bella y noble que se le cruzara. Frívolo y superficial, apegado a los placeres y al lujo, se sentía incómodo en España, donde tenía que llevar una vida austera, totalmente ajena al refinamiento y las diversiones de la corte flamenca. Cuando por fin decide volver a Flandes, Juana queda sumida en la desesperación. Poco a poco, su dolor comienza a enajenarla a tal punto que un día toma una determinación: seguir a Felipe a Flandes y ser una esposa como Dios manda. Los Reyes Católicos, disgustados por la suerte que corre el matrimonio de su hija, le ruegan que no abandone España. Pero la decisión de Juana es muy firme.

El mismo día que desembarcó en Brujas comprobó, desolada, que su marido pasaba el tiempo haciendo vida de soltero. Tenía una novia, una mujer noble, bellísima y muy destacada socialmente por su simpatía y su histrionismo. Perturbada, Juana mandó castigar severamente a la amante de su marido, exigiendo que le cortaran el pelo hasta la raíz. Felipe reaccionó ante la violencia de su mujer: primero la insultó, y luego le pegó. El abismo entre ellos se hizo evidente, pero a pesar de todo en el año 1500 nace el primer hijo de la pareja: sería el futuro Carlos V de Alemania (Carlos I de España).

En ese punto parecía que sus cavilaciones de esposa agraviada terminarían, a favor de la reciente maternidad. Pero su vida se complicó más seriamente aún. La educación de su hijo fue motivo de discusión y nada de lo que ella había planeado para él pudo cumplirse.

En poco tiempo murieron los hermanos de Juana y, finalmente, el 26 de noviembre de 1504, también desaparecía Isabel la Católica, dejándole el trono. De vuelta en España Juana no vivió para gobernar: su mente no aceptaba otra ocupación que la de amar y sufrir por su marido. Felipe, mientras tanto, intrigaba y hacía valer su condición de marido de una persona que no estaba en su sano juicio. Delante de Juana y de todo el mundo hacía notar que era el padre de sus hijos, uno de los cuales estaba en la línea sucesoria, y que todo esto lo habilitaba para gobernar. Juana estaría loca de amor, pero jamás dispuesta a que Felipe se transformara en victimario de su propio padre, Fernando, y de su hijo. Se entabla más que la lucha por la sucesión, un enfrentamiento entre dos razas y dos dinastías. Muchas veces Juana flaquea por amor, otras se pone abiertamente en contra de las ambiciones de Felipe, hasta que finalmente la solución viene de manera inesperada.

Un frío día de septiembre, cuando ya hacía dos años que gobernaba el reino, Felipe buscó un poco de distracción en Burgos. En el palacio del condestable se sumó a un juego de pelota con don Juan de Castilla y otros amigos. Tras disputar un agitado partido, cansado y sudoroso bebió un vaso de agua helada que le provocó una severa inflamación faríngea. Incapaz de superar el agudo estado febril que lo mantuvo postrado durante varios días, murió el 24 de septiembre de 1507.

Cuando Juana recibió la desgraciada noticia no derramó una sola lágrima; pero su rostro adquirió para siempre un rictus de desconsuelo. Su amado Felipe fue enterrado de manera provisoria en la Cartuja de Miraflores, desde donde debía ser trasladado a la Capilla real de Granada, el lugar indicado por el protocolo. Juan no dejó de acudir un solo día a la cripta de Miraflores; luego de almorzar en el monasterio, pedía a los monjes que abrieran el cajón para acariciar a su marido. Le aterraba pensar que podrían llevar el cadáver de Felipe a Flandes, y necesitaba constatar a diario de que el cuerpo seguía estando allí. El 20 de diciembre de ese año, retiró el cajón del monasterio y comenzó un lúgubre vagar por los campos y ciudades abrazada al ataúd. El espectáculo macabro del carruaje destartalado y la cara pálida y aterrada de Juana conmocionaban a la gente en los caminos. Con sólo 28 años y dos hijos, madre del futuro rey Carlos V, Juana se transformó a partir de ese momento en una mujer patética. Finalmente recaló en Tordesillas, a orillas del río Duero, y depositó el cadáver en el monasterio de Santa Clara, en un lugar que ella podía vigilar permanentemente desde su habitación privada.

Sus días terminaron a los 75 años, entre el amor y la locura, el poder y el abandono, según quien haga el análisis. Ella, murió apasionada.

:: MysteryPlanet ::

Juana I

Reina nominal de Castilla, de León, de Navarra, de Aragón, de Mallorca, de Nápoles, de Sicilia y de Valencia, Condesa nominal de Barcelona


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Reina nominal de Castilla y de León

Reinado 26 de noviembre de 1504 – 12 de abril de 1555

Predecesor Isabel I

Sucesor Carlos I

Reina nominal de Aragón, Navarra, Mallorca, Nápoles, Sicilia y Valencia

Condesa nominal de Barcelona

Reinado 25 de enero de 1516[1] - 12 de abril de 1555

Predecesor Fernando II

Sucesor Carlos I

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Reinado 14 de marzo de 1516 – 16 de enero de 1556

Nacimiento 6 de noviembre de 1479

Toledo, España 

Fallecimiento 12 de abril de 1555 (75 años)

Tordesillas, España 

Entierro Capilla Real de Granada

Consorte Felipe I de Castilla

Descendencia Leonor de Austria

Carlos I

Isabel de Austria

Fernando I de Habsburgo

María de Hungría

Catalina de Austria

Casa Real Casa de Trastámara

Padre Fernando II el Católico

Madre Isabel I la Católica

Juana I de Trastámara, conocida como Juana la Loca (Toledo, 6 de noviembre de 1479 – Tordesillas, 12 de abril de 1555), fue Reina de Castilla de 1504 a 1555. Fue primero infanta de Castilla y Aragón, luego archiduquesa de Austria, duquesa de Borgoña y Brabante y condesa de Flandes. Finalmente, Reina propietaria de Castilla y de León, de Galicia, de Granada, de Sevilla, de Murcia y Jaén, de Gibraltar, de las islas Canarias y de las Indias Occidentales (1504 – 1555), de Navarra (1515 – 1555) y de Aragón, de Nápoles y Sicilia (1516 – 1555), además de otros títulos como condesa de Barcelona y señora de Vizcaya, títulos heredados tras la muerte de sus padres, con lo cual unió definitivamente las coronas que conformaron España, a partir del 25 de enero de 1516.

Tabla de contenidos

1 Doña Juana, infanta de Castilla y de Aragón

2 Archiduquesa de Austria, duquesa de Borgoña y Brabante y condesa de Flandes

3 Reina de Castilla

4 Retiro a Tordesillas

5 Movimiento comunero

6 Muerte de Doña Juana

7 La reina Juana y el Romanticismo

8 Antecesores

9 Descendencia

10 Filmografía

11 Notas

12 Bibliografía

13 Véase también

14 Enlaces externos


Doña Juana, infanta de Castilla y de Aragón  

De la casa de Trastámara, la reina Juana fue la tercera hija de Fernando II el Católico y de Isabel I la Católica. El 6 de noviembre de 1479 nació en la antigua capital visigoda de Toledo y fue bautizada con el nombre del santo patrón de su familia, al igual que su hermano mayor, Juan.

Desde pequeña fue muy inteligente, recibió una esmerada educación propia de una infanta e improbable heredera de Castilla basada en la obediencia más que en el gobierno, a diferencia de la exposición pública y las enseñanzas del gobierno requeridos en la instrucción de un príncipe. En el estricto e itinerante ambiente de la Corte Castellana de su época, Juana fue alumna aventajada en comportamiento religioso, urbanidad, buenas maneras y manejo propios de la corte, sin desestimar artes como la danza y la música, entrenamiento como jinete y el conocimiento de lenguas romances propias de la península Ibérica además del francés y latín. Entre sus principales preceptores se encontraban el sacerdote dominico Andrés de Miranda, la amiga y tutora de la reina Isabel, Beatriz Galindo, apodada «la Latina», y, por supuesto, su madre. Aunque Isabel la Católica procuró vigilar la educación de sus hijos, sus deberes de gobierno no pudieron dejar mucho tiempo para ocuparse de una hija a la que, según T. de Azcona, «nunca llegó a entender y dirigir».

El manejo de la casa de la infanta y, por ende, de su ambiente inmediato, estaba totalmente dominado por sus padres. La casa incluía personal religioso (confesor, sacristán, limosnero y capellanes), oficiales administrativos (mayordomos, camareros, caballerizos, todos estos con distinta graduación, además de un contador, un tesorero y un secretario), personal encargado de la alimentación (cocineros, ballesteros de maza, maestresala, panadero, repostero, coperos y catadores), personal preocupado de la salud y protección y personal de servicio (criadas y esclavas canarias), meticulosamente seleccionados por sus padres sin intervención de ella misma. A diferencia de Juana, su hermano, don Juan de Aragón, Príncipe de Asturias y de Gerona, comenzó a hacerse cargo de su casa y de posesiones territoriales como entrenamiento en el dominio de su futuro Reino.

Archiduquesa de Austria, duquesa de Borgoña y Brabante y condesa de Flandes

Contrato matrimonial entre Juana y Felipe el Hermoso (1495). Archivo General de Simancas.Como ya era costumbre en la Europa de esos siglos, Isabel y Fernando negociaron los matrimonios de todos sus hijos con el fin de asegurar sus objetivos diplomáticos y estratégicos. Conscientes de las aptitudes de Juana y de su posible desempeño en otra corte, así como la necesidad de reforzar los lazos con el Sacro Emperador Romano Germánico, Maximiliano I de Habsburgo, contra los cada vez más hegemónicos monarcas franceses de la dinastía Valois, ofrecieron a Juana para su hijo, Felipe, archiduque de Austria, duque de Borgoña, Brabante, Limburgo y Luxemburgo, conde de Flandes, de Habsburgo, de Hainaut, de Holanda, de Zelanda, Tirol y Artois, y señor de Amberes y Malinas entre otras ciudades. A cambio de este enlace, los Reyes Católicos pedían la mano de la hija de Maximiliano, Margarita de Austria, como esposa para el príncipe Juan. Anecdóticamente, Juana ya había sido considerada por el Delfín Carlos, heredero del trono francés, de la Dinastía Valois, y en 1489 pedida en matrimonio por el rey de los escoceses, Jacobo IV, de la Dinastía Estuardo.

En agosto de 1496, la futura archiduquesa partió desde la playa de Laredo, Cantabria, en una de las carracas genovesas al mando del capitán Juan Pérez. Pero la flota también incluía, para demostrar el esplendor de la Corona Castellana a las tierras del norte y su poderío al hostil rey francés, otros 131 buques, desde naos a carabelas, con una tripulación de 15.000 hombres. Juana fue despedida por su madre y hermanos, e inició su rumbo hacia la lejana y desconocida tierra flamenca, hogar de su futuro esposo. La travesía tuvo algunos contratiempos que, en primer lugar, la obligaron a tomar refugio en Portland, Inglaterra, el 31 de agosto. Cuando finalmente la flota pudo acercarse a Middelburg, Zelanda, una carraca genovesa que transportaba a 700 hombres, las vestimentas de Juana y muchos de sus efectos personales, chocó contra un banco de piedras y arena y se hundió.[2]

Juana, por fin en las tierras del norte, no fue recibida por su prometido, que se encontraba en Alemania. Ello se debía a la oposición de los consejeros francófilos de Felipe a las alianzas de matrimonio pactadas por su padre el Emperador. Aún en 1496, los consejeros albergaban la posibilidad de convencer a Maximiliano de la inconveniencia de una alianza con Castilla y las virtudes de una alianza con Francia. El ambiente de la corte con el que se encontró Juana era radicalmente opuesto al que ella vivió en su Castilla natal. Por un lado, la sobria, religiosa y familiar corte castellana contrastaba con la festiva, desinhibida e individualista corte borgoñona-flamenca. En efecto, a la muerte de la emperatriz María de Borgoña, la casa de Felipe, de 4 años, había sido rápidamente dominada por los grandes nobles borgoñones, principalmente a través de consejeros adeptos y fieles a sus intereses. A diferencia de Castilla, las grandes decisiones eran tomadas de acuerdo con los fines de estos importantes nobles a través del influenciable Felipe.

Aunque los futuros esposos no se conocían, se enamoraron locamente al verse. No obstante, Felipe pronto perdió el interés en la relación, lo cual hizo nacer en Juana unos celos patológicos. Al poco tiempo llegaron los hijos, que agudizaron los celos de Juana. El 24 de noviembre de 1498, en la ciudad de Lovaina, cerca de Bruselas, nació su primogénita, Leonor, llamada así en honor a la abuela paterna de Felipe, Leonor de Portugal. Juana vigilaba a su esposo todo el tiempo, y pese al avanzado estado de gestación de su segundo embarazo, del que nacería Carlos (llamado así en honor al abuelo materno de Felipe, Carlos el Temerario), el 24 de febrero de 1500, asistió a una fiesta en el palacio de Gante. Aquel mismo día tuvo a su hijo, según se dice, en los lavabos del palacio. Al año siguiente, el 18 de julio de 1501, en Bruselas, nació su tercera hija, llamada Isabel en honor a su abuela materna, Isabel la Católica.

Reina de Castilla  

Juana I de Castilla por Juan de Flandes.Muertos sus hermanos Juan (1497) e Isabel (1498), así como el hijo de ésta, el infante portugués Miguel (1500), Juana se convirtió en heredera de Castilla y Aragón. Cuando en 1503 su marido, Felipe, se marchó a Flandes a resolver unos asuntos, parece ser que se agravó su estado mental. Decidió entonces partir a Castilla junto a sus padres, especialmente por petición de su madre, preocupada por su estado de salud, pues estaba encinta por cuarta vez. En Bruselas se quedaron sus tres hijos mayores. El 10 de marzo de 1503, en la ciudad de Alcalá de Henares, cerca a Madrid, dio a luz un hijo, al que se llamó Fernando en honor a su abuelo materno, Fernando el Católico.

Muerta la reina Isabel (26 de noviembre de 1504), se planteó el problema de la sucesión en Castilla. Su padre Fernando la proclamó reina de Castilla y tomó las riendas de la gobernación del reino acogiéndose a la última voluntad de Isabel la Católica.

Pero el marido de Juana, el archiduque Felipe no estaba por la labor de renunciar al poder y en la concordia de Salamanca (1505) se acordó el gobierno conjunto de Felipe, Fernando el Católico y la propia Juana. Juana resolvió retirarse temporalmente a la corte de Bruselas, donde el 15 de septiembre de 1505 dio a luz a su quinto hijo, una niña llamada María.

A la llegada del matrimonio de los Países Bajos, se manifestaron las malas relaciones entre el yerno (apoyado por la nobleza castellana) y el suegro de modo que por la concordia de Villafáfila (1506), Fernando se retiró a Aragón y Felipe fue proclamado rey de Castilla en las Cortes de Valladolid con el nombre de Felipe I. El 25 de septiembre de ese año muere Felipe I el Hermoso supuestamente envenenado, y entonces aumentan los rumores sobre el estado de locura de Juana. En ese momento Juana decidió trasladar el cuerpo de su esposo, desde Burgos, el lugar donde había muerto y en el que ya había recibido sepultura, hasta Granada, tal como él mismo lo había dispuesto viéndose morir (excepto su corazón que deseaba que se mandase a Bruselas, como así se hizo), viajando siempre de noche. La reina Juana no se separará ni un momento del féretro, y este traslado se prolongará durante ocho fríos meses por tierras castellanas. Acompañan al féretro gran número de personas entre las que hay religiosos, nobles, damas de compañía, soldados y sirvientes diversos que, cual procesión sirve ésta para que las murmuraciones sobre la locura de la reina aumenten cada día entre los habitantes de los pueblos que atraviesan. Después de unos meses, los nobles «obligados» por su posición a seguir a la reina, se quejan de estar perdiendo el tiempo en esa «locura» en lugar de ocuparse como debieran de sus tierras. En la ciudad de Torquemada, el 14 de enero de 1507, da a luz a su sexto hijo y póstumo de su marido, una niña bautizada con el nombre de Catalina.


Escudo de Juana I de Castilla.Ante el evidente desequilibrio mental de la reina, Fernando vuelve a ser regente de Castilla ante el llamamiento del Cardenal Cisneros, dada la creciente inestabilidad propiciada por la nobleza.

La demencia de la reina seguía agravándose. No quería cambiarse de ropa, no quería lavarse y finalmente, su padre decidió a encerrarla en Tordesillas el mes de enero del año 1509, para evitar que se formase un partido nobiliario en torno de su hija,[3] encierro que mantendría su hijo Carlos I más adelante.

En 1515 su padre, Fernando II de Aragón, cede a Castilla el Reino de Navarra, que había conquistado tres años antes.

En 1516 murió Fernando II el Católico, y por su testamento, Juana se convirtió en reina nominal en Aragón, pero varias instituciones de la Corona aragonesa no la reconocían como tal en virtud de la complejidad institucional de los fueros; entretanto su hijo Carlos se benefició de la coyuntura de la incapacidad de Juana para proclamarse rey, aprovechándose de la legitimidad que tenía su madre como heredera de los Reyes Católicos en Castilla y en Aragón, de forma que se añadió él mismo a los títulos reales que les correspondían a su madre. Así oficialmente, ambos, Juana y Carlos, correinaron en Castilla y Aragón, de hecho, ella nunca fue declarada incapaz por las Cortes Castellanas ni se le retiró el título de Reina. Mientras vivió, en los documentos oficiales debía figurar en primer lugar el nombre de la reina Juana. A la muerte de Fernando el Católico, ejerció la regencia de Aragón el arzobispo de Zaragoza, don Alonso de Aragón, hijo natural de Fernando el Católico y en Castilla el Cardenal Cisneros hasta la llegada de Carlos desde Flandes.

Retiro a Tordesillas  

Desde que su padre la recluyera, la reina Juana permaneció en una casona-palacio de Tordesillas hasta que murió, el 12 de abril de 1555, después de 46 años de reclusión forzosa y siempre vestida de negro, con la única compañía de su última hija, Catalina (hasta que salió ésta para casarse con Juan III de Portugal), ninguneadas y maltratadas física y psicológicamente por sus servidores. Especialmente duros fueron los largos años de servicio de los marqueses de Denia, Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas y su esposa, que daban preferencia a sus propias hijas antes que a la reina Juana y a Catalina, hermana del emperador. El marqués cumplió su función con más celo y eficacia del que hubiera sido necesario, como parecía jactarse en carta dirigida al emperador y que comentaba N. Sanz y Ruiz de la Peña. En esa carta, el marqués aseguraba que, aunque doña Juana se lamentaba constantemente diciendo que la tenía encerrada «como presa» y que quería ver a los grandes, «porque se quiere quejar de cómo la tienen», el rey debía estar tranquilo, porque él controlaba la situación y sabía dar largas a esas peticiones. Todo ello demuestra, como señala Manuel Fernández Álvarez, que el confinamiento de doña Juana era cuestión de Estado, y así lo vieron tanto el Rey Católico como Carlos I. Si Juana no gobernaba era por incapacidad mental. Pero si se empezaba a rumorear que la reina estaba cuerda, los adversarios del nuevo rey afirmarían que era un usurpador. De ahí que la figura de doña Juana se convirtiera en una pieza clave para legitimar el movimiento de las Comunidades.

Nunca más se le permitió salir del palacio de Tordesillas, ni siquiera para visitar la tumba de su esposo a escasa distancia de palacio durante un tiempo, antes de su traslado definitivo a Granada, ni a pesar de que en Tordesillas se declarara la peste. Su padre Fernando y, después, su hijo Carlos, siempre temieron que si el pueblo veía a la reina, la legítima soberana, se avivarían las voces que siempre hubo en contra de sus respectivos gobiernos.

Movimiento comunero 

El levantamiento comunero (1520) la reconoció como soberana en su lucha contra Carlos I. Sin embargo, la reina nunca tomó partido en esta guerra.

Después del incendio de Medina del Campo, el gobierno del cardenal Adriano de Utrech se tambaleó. Muchas ciudades y villas se sumaron a la causa comunera, y los vecinos de Tordesillas asaltaron el palacio de la reina obligando al marqués de Denia a aceptar que una comisión de los asaltantes hablara con doña Juana. Entonces se enteró la reina de la muerte de su padre y de los acontecimientos que se habían producido en Castilla desde ese momento. Días más tarde Juan de Padilla se entrevistó con ella, explicándole que la Junta de Ávila se proponía acabar con los abusos cometidos por los flamencos y proteger a la reina de Castilla, devolviéndole el poder que le había sido arrebatado, si es que ella lo deseaba. A lo cual doña Juana respondió: «Sí, sí, estad aquí a mi servicio y avisadme de todo y castigad a los malos». El entusiasmo comunero, después de esas palabras, fue enorme. Su causa había de ser legitimada por el apoyo de la reina.

A partir de ahí el objetivo de los comuneros sería, en primer lugar demostrar que doña Juana no estaba loca y que todo había sido un complot, iniciado en 1506, para apartarla del poder; y después, que la reina, además de con sus palabras, avalara con su firma los acuerdos que se fueran tomando. Para ello, la Junta de Ávila, se trasladó a Tordesillas, que se convertiría por algún tiempo, en centro de actuación de los comuneros. Después de estos cambios, todos, incluso el cardenal, afirmaban que doña Juana «parece otra» porque se interesaba por las cosas, salía, conversaba, cuidaba de su personal y, por si fuera poco, pronunciaba unas atinadas y elocuentes palabras ante los procuradores de la Junta. Palabras que, una vez refrendadas, se comenzaron a difundir. La cuestión en este caso sería averiguar si esas afirmaciones las realizó la reina en la forma en que se recogieron por los notarios presentes, puesto que las expresiones —como señala J. Pérez— se parecen demasiado a las afirmaciones que formulaban los comuneros. Pero la Junta necesitaba algo más que palabras de la reina, necesitaba documentos, necesitaba la firma real para validar sus actuaciones. Una firma que podía suponer el final del reinado de Carlos, como recuerda a éste el cardenal Adriano: «si firmase su alteza, que sin duda alguna todo el Reino se perderá». Pero en esto los comuneros, como antes los partidarios del rey, tropezaron con la férrea negativa de doña Juana, a la que ni ruegos, ni amenazas hicieron firmar papel alguno.

A finales de 1520, el ejército imperial entró en Tordesillas, restableciendo en su cargo al marqués de Denia. Juana volvió a ser una reina cautiva, como aseguraba su hija Catalina, cuando comunicaba al emperador que a su madre no la dejaban siquiera pasear por el corredor que daba al río: «y la encierran en su cámara que no tiene luz ninguna».

La vida de doña Juana se deterioró progresivamente, como testimoniaron los pocos que consiguieron visitarla. Sobre todo cuando su hija menor, que procuró protegerla frente al despótico trato del marqués de Denia, tuvo que abandonarla para contraer matrimonio con el rey de Portugal.

Desde ese momento los episodios depresivos se sucedieron cada vez con más intensidad. De su apatía apenas le sacaban las visitas de su hijo el emperador o de sus nietos.


La Demencia de Doña Juana (1867), de Lorenzo Vallés. Museo del Prado (Madrid).

Muerte de Doña Juana  [editar]En los últimos años, a la enfermedad mental se unía la física, teniendo grandes dificultades para caminar. Entonces volvió a hablarse de su indiferencia religiosa, llegándose incluso a comentar que podía estar endemoniada. Por ello, su nieto Felipe pidió a un jesuita, el futuro san Francisco de Borja, que la visitara y averiguara qué había de cierto en todo ello. Después de hablar con ella, el santo aseguró que las acusaciones carecían de fundamento y que, dado su estado mental, quizá la reina no había sido tratada adecuadamente. Algo después, tuvo que volver el santo a visitarla, pero en esta ocasión para confortarla en el momento de su muerte. Y lo hizo tan bien, que incluso se afirmó que la reina había recuperado la razón, por haber encontrado —dice san Francisco de Borja— «muy diferente sentido en las cosas de Dios del que hasta allí se había conocido en su Alteza». Falleció en Tordesillas (Valladolid) en 12 de abril de 1555, a los 76 años.

Doña Juana la Loca (1877), de Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz. Museo del Prado (Madrid).

La reina Juana y el Romanticismo  [editar]La figura de la reina Juana fue muy atractiva para el romanticismo, porque reunía una serie de características muy queridas por éste: La pasión arrebatadora de un amor no correspondido, la locura por desamor, los celos desmedidos y la necrofilia. Tanto fue así, que numerosos artistas consagraron alguna de sus obras al personaje de Juana la Loca: Eusebio Asquerino y Gregorio Romero (Felipe el Hermoso), Manuel Tamayo y Baus (Locura de amor), Emilio Serrano (Doña Juana la Loca), Lorenzo Vallés (La demencia de doña Juana de Castilla), (Juana la Loca Tragedia en Cuatro Actos) por Santiago Sevilla. Pero, sin duda, la obra más famosa inspirada en la reina fue el cuadro Doña Juana la Loca (1877), de Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, actualmente en el Museo del Prado.
Antecesores  

Antecesores de Juana Juana I de Castilla Padre:

Fernando II de Aragón Abuelo paterno:

Juan II de Aragón Bisabuelo paterno:

Fernando I de Aragón

Bisabuela paterna:

Leonor de Alburquerque

Abuela paterna:

Juana Enríquez Bisabuelo paterno:

Fadrique Enríquez

Bisabuela paterna:

Merina de Córdoba

Madre:

Isabel I de Castilla Abuelo materno:

Juan II de Castilla Bisabuelo materno:

Enrique III de Castilla

Bisabuela materna:

Catalina de Lancaster

Abuela materna:

Isabel de Portugal Bisabuelo materno:

Infante Juan de Portugal

Bisabuela materna:

Isabel de Braganza

Descendencia  

Con su esposo Felipe I el Hermoso ella tuvo seis hijos:

Leonor (1498 – 1558), reina consorte de Portugal siendo la tercera esposa de Manuel I de Portugal y a la muerte de este contrajo matrimonio con Francisco I de Francia;

Carlos (1500 – 1558), rey de España (1516-1556), con el nombre de Carlos I, y Emperador del Sacro Imperio (1519-1558) con el nombre de Carlos V;

Isabel (1501 – 1526), reina consorte de Dinamarca y la Unión de Kalmar, esposa de Cristián II.

Fernando (1503 – 1564), Emperador del Sacro Imperio, con el nombre de Fernando I, al suceder a su hermano Carlos en el puesto, juntos crearon la línea austriaca y española de los Habsburgo;

María (1505 – 1558), reina consorte de Hungría y Bohemia, esposa de Luis II y a la muerte de este fue Gobernadora de los Países Bajos;

Catalina (1507 – 1578), fue reina consorte de Portugal, casada con Juan III, fue abuela del rey Sebastián I de Portugal.

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Joanna of Castile, (November 6, 1479 – April 12, 1555), called Joanna the Mad (Juana La Loca), was Queen regnant of Castile and Aragon jointly with her son the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She was the second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Isabella of Castile, and was born at Toledo.


In 1496 at Lier, just north of Brussels, Joanna was married to the Archduke Philip the Handsome, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Between 1498 and 1507 she gave birth to six children, two emperors and four queens. Arguably the most important one was Charles V in 1500.

The death of her only brother John, Prince of Asturias, her eldest sister Isabella of Asturias, Queen of Portugal, and then of the latter's infant son Miguel, Prince of Asturias, made Joanna the heiress of the Spanish kingdoms. Her only living siblings were Maria of Aragon and Catherine of Aragon, three and six years younger than Joanna. In 1502 the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognized Joanna as legitimate heiress to the Castilian throne, and Philip as her legitimate consort. She was then named Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally given to the heir of Castile. Also, in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, alleged oath to Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.

Joanna was said to pine day and night for her husband while he was overseas, and when she eventually joined Philip in Flanders, her passionate jealousy and constant suspicion of him made her notorious, if not necessarily beloved, in the local court.

Upon the death of Isabella of Castile in November 1504, Joanna became Queen regnant of Castile, and her husband de jure uxoris King; Joanna's father, Ferdinand, lost his title of 'King of Castile', although his wife's will permitted him to govern the country in Joanna's absence, or, if Joanna was unwilling to rule it herself, until Charles reached the age of 20. Ferdinand refused to accept this: he minted Castilian coins in the name of "Ferdinand and Juana, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Aragon", and in early 1505 persuaded the Cortes that Joanna's "illness...is such that the said Queen Doña Juana our Lady cannot govern"; the Cortes then appointed Ferdinand as Joanna's guardian, and as administrator and governor of the kingdom. However, Philip the Handsome was unwilling to accept any threat to his own chances of ruling Castile, and this way, he also coined coins in name of "Philip and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Archdukes of Austria, etc". In response Ferdinand embarked upon a pro-French policy, marrying Germaine de Foix, the niece of Louis XII of France (and his own great-niece), in the hope that she would produce a son to inherit Aragon, and perhaps Castile.

Ferdinand's remarriage merely strengthened support for Philip and Joanna in Castile, and in late 1505 the pair decided to travel to Castile. Leaving Flanders on 10 January 1506, their ships were wrecked on the English coast and the couple became guests of Henry VII at Windsor Castle. They were only able to leave on 21 April, by which time civil war was looming in Castile: Philip apparently considered landing in Andalusia and summoning the nobles to take up arms against Ferdinand. Instead, he and Joanna landed at Coruña on 26 April, upon which the Castilian nobility abandoned Ferdinand en masse. Ferdinand then met with Philip at Villafafila on 20 June 1506, and handed over the government of Castile to his "most beloved children", promising to retire to Aragon. Philip and Ferdinand then signed a second treaty, agreeing that Joanna's mental instability made her incapable of rule, and promising to exclude her from government. Ferdinand then proceeded to repudiate the agreement on the same afternoon, declaring that Joanna should never be deprived of her rights as Queen Proprietress of Castile. A fortnight later, having come to no fresh agreement with Philip, and thus effectively retaining his right to interfere if he considered his daughter's rights to be infringed, he abandoned Castile, leaving Philip to govern in Joanna's stead.


By virtue of the agreement of Villafáfila, the procurators of Cortes met in Valladolid on 9 July. On 12 July, they swore Philip and Juana together as kings, and their son Charles as their inheritor. This arrangement did not last long. On 25 September 1506 Philip died suddenly of typhus fever in Burgos. Joanna, pregnant with her sixth child, then made attempts to secure her rights to rule alone, in her own name; however, her arrogance and coldness towards important figures of the kingdom, the rumours of her mental instability and the unwillingness of the men around her to accept her rights doomed the endeavour. By 20 December 1506, she had quietly abandoned Burgos, heading for the village of Torquemada. By now, she was being characterised as "lost, without any sense", although her Secretary, Juan Lopez, declared her "more sane than her mother". She refused to trust Spanish women, even going so far as sending for a midwife from Flanders to assist in her delivery, and was characterised as refusing to abandon her dead husband's corpse. Meanwhile, the country fell into disorder. Her heir, Charles, was a six-year old child being raised in his aunt's care in far-off Flanders; her father, Ferdinand, remained in his own dominions, allowing the crisis to reach a head. A regency council under Archbishop Cisneros was set up (against the Queen's orders) but it was unable to manage the growing public disorder; plague and famine devastated the kingdom, with supposedly half the population perishing of one or the other; and the Queen was unable to secure the funds she required to shore up her power. In the face of this, Ferdinand returned to Castile in July 1507: a coincidental remission of the plague and famine quieted the instability, but left an impression that the health of the Kingdom had been restored by the return of Ferdinand.

Ferdinand and Joanna met at Hornillos on 30 July 1507; Ferdinand then constrained her to yield up power to himself. On 17 August she summoned three members of the royal council and ordered them to inform the grandees, in her name, of Ferdinand's return: "That they should go to receive his highness and serve him as [they would] her person and more." She refused to sign the instructions: a last gesture of defiance, and a statement that she did not as Queen regnant endorse the surrender of her own royal power. Nonetheless, she was thereafter Queen only in name, and all documents, though issued in her name, were signed with Ferdinand's signature, "I the King". He would be named administrator of the kingdom by the Cortes of Castile in 1510, although he would entrust the government mainly to Cisneros. Joanna he would eventually confine in Tordesillas, near Valladolid, in February 1509, after having dismissed all of her faithful servants and appointing a small retinue faithful to him alone. By this time, she would appear to have been almost completely mad: some accounts claim that she took her husband's corpse with her to Tordesillas, to keep it close to her.


Joanna's eldest three children, Charles (left), Eleanor (center), Isabella (right)Ferdinand would die in 1516, an embittered man: his second wife, Germaine, had failed to provide him with a male heir, leaving his daughter as his heiress. Ferdinand resented that Aragon and - in theory on the death of Joanna, in reality upon his own death - Castile would pass to this foreign grandchild, to whom he had transferred his hatred of Philip; instead, he nurtured hopes that his younger grandson and namesake, Ferdinand, who had been born and raised in Spain, could succeed, even naming Ferdinand as his heir in his will before being persuaded to revoke it and name Charles as his heir instead. When he died, Aragon and its associated crowns passed to Joanna, being governed in his absence by Ferdinand's bastard son, Alonso de Aragon. Castile, still nominally subject to Joanna, continued to be governed by Cisneros due to the Queen's continuing insanity, although a group of nobles, led by the Duke of Infantado, attempted to proclaim the Infante Ferdinand as King of Castile. The attempt failed, and in October 1517, Charles arrived in Asturias. On 4 November, he and his sister Eleanor met Joanna at Tordesillas – there they secured from her the necessary authorization to allow Charles to rule as her co-King in Castile. Despite her acquiescence to his wishes, her imprisonment would continue; although the Castilian Cortes, meeting in Valladolid, would spite Charles by addressing him only as Su Alteza ("Your Highness") and reserving Majestad ("Majesty") for Joanna, no-one seriously considered rule by Joanna a real proposition.

In 1520, the Revolt of the Comuneros against Charles and perceived foreign influence over Castile broke out. The rebel leaders demanded that Castile be governed in accordance with the supposed practices of the Catholic Kings; in an attempt to legitimise their rebellion, the rebels turned to Joanna. As theoretical sovereign monarch, if she gave written approval of the rebellion, it would be legalised and would triumph. In an attempt to prevent this, Don Antonia de Rojas, Bishop of Mallorca, led a delegation of royal councilors to Tordesillas, asking her to sign a document denouncing the Comuneros; she demurred, requesting that he present her specific provisions. Before this could be done, the Comuneros in turn stormed the city (which had been left practically undefended) and requested her support (prompting Adrian of Utrecht, the regent appointed by Charles, to declare that the emperor would lose Castile if she did so). Persuaded by Ochoa de Landa and her confessor, Fray Juan de Avila, she showed sympathy to the comuneros, but refused to sign: to do so, she was persuaded, would cause irreparable damage to her kingdom and to her son's rights. Charles repaid her loyalty to him when he quelled the uprising, having her locked up for the rest of her life in a windowless room in the castle of Tordesillas. There, her condition degenerated further. She was convinced that the ladies of the household were plotting to kill her, and by willful preference was hungry and dirty. Her courtiers reported consistent difficulty getting her to eat, sleep, or change her clothes. She died on Good Friday, April 12, 1555 at age 75.

Most historians believe she suffered from schizophrenia and she was kept locked away and imprisoned. However, there is debate about her condition considering her symptoms were only apparent when she was being controlled or confined. Some historians[who?] argue she suffered from either manic depression or clinical depression, worsened by her situation and the treatment she received from her husband and father, both of whom wanted her out of the way in order to assume rulership for themselves. To legitimize the claims of her father and son to the throne, Joanna only nominally remained Queen regnant of Castile until her death.

She is entombed in the Capilla Real of Granada, alongside her parents, her husband, and her nephew Miguel.

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Joanna (Spanish: Juana I) (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), called Joanna the Mad (Juana La Loca) reigned as Queen of Castile jointly with her husband Philip the Handsome and later also as Queen of Aragon jointly with her son the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.[1] She is most famous for having been obsessed with her husband, never recovering from his loss. She was the last monarch of the House of Trastámara and her marriage to Philip initiated the Habsburg dynasty in Spain.

The Castilian version of her name is Juana. In the English-speaking world, she is usually known by the Latin form of her name, Joanna, however many do refer to her by her Spanish name as well. English equivalents of the name include Jane and Joan.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Marriage

3 Obsession with her husband

4 Princess of Asturias

5 Queen of Castile

5.1 Struggle for the crown

5.2 Philip's death

5.3 Father's regency

5.4 Co-reign with son

6 Imprisonment

6.1 Madness

7 Joanna in literature, art, music, film and other media

8 Issue

9 Ancestors

10 Biographies

11 References

12 Bibliography

13 External links


[edit] Early life

Joanna was born in the ancient-Visigothic city of Toledo. She was the third child and second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, probably two of the world's most powerful people at the time. She, like her sisters, was groomed from an early age to marry and expand her parents' influence. As an infanta, she was not expected to rule her parents' countries. Ever since she was a child Joanna was bright, and she received a careful, yet strong, education. Her childhood was sedate and overall passive, although there is reason to believe, due to letters written by her mother, that she showed signs of mental instability as an adolescent. In the famously strict Castilian court of her era, Joanna, as a student, always excelled in religious behavior, good manners, and in the art of dance and music. She was a skilled horse rider. Joanna mastered all of the Iberian Romance languages and also became fluent in French and Latin. Among her main tutors were the Dominican priest, Andrés de Miranda, her mother's good friend and prestigious educator, Beatriz Galindo, and the Queen herself, Isabella. The Queen tried to involve herself in her children's education as much as possible, but overall, her political duties kept her from doing so at times.

Joanna's environment was completely controlled by her parents, especially her mother. The household in which she lived included religious personnel (a confessor, a sexton, a beggar and chaplains), administrative officials (superintendents, waiters, a bookkeeper, a treasurer, and a secretary), personnel responsible for food (cooks, baker, confectioner, waiters, and tasters), personnel incharge of health and protection, and personnel of service (maids and Canarian slaves), meticulously selected by her parents. However, Joanna's brother was completely in charge of his own household.

[edit] Marriage

Joanna did not protest when, in 1496 at the age of sixteen, she was sent off by her parents to marry the Archduke Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and his first wife, Mary of Burgundy. Juana was married off by proxy in the city of Valladolid, where her parents were married. In August of that year, Joanna said farewell to her family in the port-town of Laredo, never to see her siblings again with the exception of Catalina, future Queen of England; she would, however, see her father again, although she did not know it as she didn't have plans to return to Spain again. Joanna's older sister, Isabella had been married off six years prior to Alfonso of Portugal.

Joanna began her journey to Flanders on 22 August. She and Philip met in Lier, just north of Brussels. It turned out that Philip's nickname was accurate, and with Joanna herself being quite a beauty, the two fell irrevocably in love with one another at first sight. They begged to be married the night of their first meeting, so they could consummate their marriage without any delay. Between 1498 and 1507 she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens. Arguably the most important one was Charles V in 1500.


The marriage contract of Joanna and Philip (1496).[edit] Obsession with her husband

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (December 2009) 

The early stages of Joanna and Philip's relationship were quite passionate, and the feeling was mutual. However, as time passed, the two began to realize how different their personalities were.[citation needed] Philip was threatened by his wife's loyalty to all things Spanish - especially her parents' politics. Juana did not like the way Philip bossed her around, and his dishonesty bothered her above all.[citation needed] Philip began looking to bed other women, which infuriated Joanna. She would throw temper tantrums over his fondness for other women.[citation needed] One lady-in-waiting had her long hair shorn by Joanna herself after she discovered she had been bedded by her husband; Joanna deposited the beautiful tresses on Philip's pillow as a kind of warning. She also indulged in love potions and spells to keep her husband faithful.[citation needed] Eventually, Joanna replaced all of her ladies-in-waiting, because they were too pretty, with less attractive ones.[citation needed]It was at this point that Joanna truly began to exhibit insanity, which ran in her family; her maternal grandmother, Isabel, was declared insane and locked away in Arévalo.


This portrait of Joanna was done in Flanders, ca 1500: it is a detail from the wings of the Last Judgement Triptych of Zierikzee, by the Master of Afflighem (Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium)[edit] Princess of Asturias

The deaths of her brother John, Prince of Asturias, eldest sister Isabella of Asturias, Queen of Portugal, and then Isabella's infant son Miguel, Prince of Asturias, made Joanna the heiress of the Spanish kingdoms. Her remaining siblings were Maria of Aragon and Catherine of Aragon, three and six years younger than Joanna. In 1502, the Castilian Cortes of Toro [2][3] recognized Joanna as legitimate heiress to the Castilian throne, and Philip as her legitimate consort. She was named Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally given to the heir of Castile.[4] Also in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Zaragoza, alleged oath to Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.[5][6]

Joanna was said to pine day and night for her husband while he was overseas, and when she eventually joined Philip in Flanders, her passionate jealousy and constant suspicion of him made her notorious, if not necessarily beloved, in the local court. In 1503, Joanna and Philip traveled to Spain for Joanna's swearing-in as heir to Castile. Expecting her fourth child, Joanna despaired when Philip suddenly decided to return to his own kingdom. She refused to eat and wept continuously, and was not comforted by the birth of a healthy son. One night, she ran out of the castle, and refused to come back inside despite the freezing weather. After spending thirty-six hours by the castle gates screaming, she was known as "Juana la Loca" by her people.[7]

[edit] Queen of Castile

[edit] Struggle for the crown

Upon the death of her mother, Isabella of Castile, in November 1504, Joanna became Queen regnant of Castile, and her husband de jure uxoris King. Joanna's father, Ferdinand, lost his title of 'King of Castile', although his wife's will permitted him to govern in Joanna's absence, or, if Joanna was unwilling to rule herself, until Charles reached the age of 20. Ferdinand refused to accept this: he minted Castilian coins in the name of "Ferdinand and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Aragon," and in early 1505, persuaded the Cortes that Joanna's "illness...is such that the said Queen Doña Juana our Lady cannot govern"; the Cortes then appointed Ferdinand as Joanna's guardian, and administrator and governor of the kingdom. However, Philip the Handsome was unwilling to accept any threat to his own chances of ruling Castile, and this way, he also coined coins in name of "Philip and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Archdukes of Austria, etc."[8] In response, Ferdinand embarked upon a pro-French policy, marrying Germaine de Foix, niece of Louis XII of France (and his own great-niece), in the hope that she would produce a son to inherit Aragon, and perhaps Castile.[9]

Ferdinand's remarriage merely strengthened support for Philip and Joanna in Castile, and in late 1505, the pair decided to travel to Castile. Leaving Flanders on 10 January 1506, their ships were wrecked on the English coast and the couple were guests of Henry VII at Windsor Castle. They were only able to leave on 21 April, by which time civil war was looming in Castile: Philip apparently considered landing in Andalusia and summoning the nobles to take up arms against Ferdinand. Instead, he and Joanna landed at La Coruña on 26 April, upon which the Castilian nobility abandoned Ferdinand en masse. Ferdinand met Philip at Villafáfila on 20 June, 1506, and handed over the government of Castile to his "most beloved children", promising to retire to Aragon. Philip and Ferdinand then signed a second treaty, agreeing Joanna's mental instability made her incapable of ruling, and promising to exclude her from government. Ferdinand then proceeded to repudiate the agreement the same afternoon, declaring Joanna should never be deprived of her rights as Queen Proprietress of Castile. A fortnight later, having come to no fresh agreement with Philip, and thus effectively retaining his right to interfere if he considered his daughter's rights to be infringed, he abandoned Castile, leaving Philip to govern in Joanna's stead.[10]


Joanna and her husband with their Spanish subjects[edit] Philip's death

By virtue of the agreement of Villafáfila, the procurators of the Cortes met in Valladolid on 9 July. On 12 July[11], they swore Philip and Juana together as kings, and their son Charles as their inheritor. [12] This arrangement did not last long. On 25 September 1506 Philip died suddenly of typhus fever in the city of Burgos; at the time, some suspected he was poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand, who was never too fond of him and never really wanted to share power with him. Joanna was pregnant with her sixth child. She made attempts to secure her rights to rule alone, in her own name; however her arrogance and coldness made some of the important people in the realm resent her, which along with the rumours of her mental instability and the unwillingness of the men around her to accept her rights doomed the endeavour. By 20 December 1506, she had quietly abandoned Burgos, heading for the village of Torquemada. By now, she was being characterized as "lost, without any sense", although among others her Secretary, Juan Lopez, declared her "more sane than her mother". She refused to trust Spanish women, even going so far as sending for a midwife from Flanders to assist in her delivery, and was characterised as refusing to abandon her dead husband's corpse. She would periodically have Philip's casket opened so that she might embrace his decaying body. The funeral train had to travel during the night only because Joanna said, " a widow who has lost the sun of her own soul should never expose herself to the light of day." One night, the procession came to rest at a convent, but Joanna didn't let any woman near her husband - even if they were nuns. She ordered the coffin be taken from the monastery and out to the open fields, where she slept beside it all night. Meanwhile, the country fell into disorder. Her heir, Charles, was a six-year old child being raised in his aunt's care in far-off Flanders; her father, Ferdinand, remained in his own dominions, allowing the crisis to reach a head. A regency council under Archbishop Cisneros was set up (against the Queen's orders) but it was unable to manage the growing public disorder; plague and famine devastated the kingdom, with supposedly half the population perishing of one or the other; and the Queen was unable to secure the funds she required to shore up her power. In the face of this, Ferdinand returned to Castile in July 1507: a coincidental remission of the plague and famine quieted the instability, but left an impression that the health of the Kingdom had been restored by the return of Ferdinand.[13]

[edit] Father's regency

Ferdinand and Joanna met at Hornillos on 30 July 1507; Ferdinand then constrained her to yield up power to himself. On 17 August she summoned three members of the royal council and ordered them to inform the grandees, in her name, of Ferdinand's return: "That they should go to receive his highness and serve him as [they would] her person and more." She refused to sign the instructions: a last gesture of defiance, and a statement that she did not as Queen regnant endorse the surrender of her own royal power. Nonetheless, she was thereafter Queen only in name, and all documents, though issued in her name, were signed with Ferdinand's signature, "I the King". He would be named administrator of the kingdom by the Cortes of Castile in 1510, although he would entrust the government mainly to Cisneros. He had Joanna confined in Tordesillas, near Valladolid, in February 1509, after having dismissed all of her faithful servants and appointing a small retinue faithful to him alone.[4] By this time, she would appear to have been almost completely mad: some accounts claim that she took her husband's corpse with her to Tordesillas, to keep it close to her.[10]

[edit] Co-reign with son


Joanna with two of her children (one of them being Charles V)Ferdinand died in 1516, an embittered man: his second marriage had failed to produce a male heir, leaving his daughter as his heiress. Ferdinand resented that Aragon and - in theory on the death of Joanna, in reality upon his own death - Castile would pass to this foreign grandchild, to whom he had transferred his hatred of Philip; instead, he nurtured hopes that his younger grandson and namesake, Ferdinand, who had been born and raised in Spain, could succeed, even naming Ferdinand as his heir in his will before being persuaded to revoke it and name Charles as his heir instead. When he died, Aragon and its associated crowns passed to Joanna,[14] being governed in his absence by Ferdinand's bastard son, Alonso de Aragon. Castile, still nominally subject to Joanna, continued to be governed by Cisneros due to the Queen's continuing insanity, although a group of nobles, led by the Duke of Infantado, attempted to proclaim the Infante Ferdinand as King of Castile. The attempt failed, and in October 1517, Charles arrived in Asturias. On 4 November, he and his sister Eleanor met Joanna at Tordesillas – there they secured from her the necessary authorization to allow Charles to rule as her co-King in Castile. Despite her acquiescence to his wishes, her imprisonment would continue; although the Castilian Cortes, meeting in Valladolid, would spite Charles by addressing him only as Su Alteza ("Your Highness") and reserving Majestad ("Majesty") for Joanna[15], no-one seriously considered rule by Joanna a real proposition.[16]

In 1520, the Revolt of the Comuneros against Charles and perceived foreign influence over Castile broke out. The rebel leaders demanded that Castile be governed in accordance with the supposed practices of the Catholic Kings; in an attempt to legitimize their rebellion, the rebels turned to Joanna. As theoretical sovereign monarch, if she gave written approval of the rebellion, it would be legalized and would triumph. In an attempt to prevent this, Don Antonio de Rojas, Bishop of Mallorca, led a delegation of royal councilors to Tordesillas, asking her to sign a document denouncing the Comuneros; she demurred, requesting that he present her specific provisions. Before this could be done, the Comuneros in turn stormed the city (which had been left practically undefended) and requested her support (prompting Adrian of Utrecht, the regent appointed by Charles, to declare that the emperor would lose Castile if she did so). Persuaded by Ochoa de Landa and her confessor, Fray Juan de Avila, she showed sympathy to the comuneros, but refused to sign: to do so, she was persuaded, would cause irreparable damage to her kingdom and to her son's rights. Since Charles inherited the Kingdom of Aragon, and its territories, and the Kingdom of Castile and Leon, and its territories, the two countries were officially unified into one: Spain. Charles was able to create the most powerful country in the world at the time by building on the achievements of his mother's parents, the Catholic Monarchs.

[edit] Imprisonment


The Capilla Real in Granada, where Joanna is buried alongside her parents, her husband, and her nephew Miguel.Charles repaid her wavering loyalty to him when he quelled the uprising, having her locked up for the rest of her life in a windowless room in the castle of Tordesillas. There, Joanna's condition degenerated further. She was convinced that the ladies of the household were plotting to kill her, and by willful preference was hungry and dirty. Her courtiers reported consistent difficulty getting her to eat, sleep, or change her clothes.[17] Charles wrote to her caretaker, "It seems to me that the best and most suitable thing for you to do is to make sure that no person speaks with Her Majesty, for no good could come from it."

Joanna kept hold of her youngest daughter, Catherine; Catherine was kept with her mother in her prison cell during her grandfather's time as regent. Nobody would dare take Catherine from her mad mother, so she had no choice but to stay with Joanna. Catherine had nothing to do all day, her only entertainment was to look out of the window, and two ladies-in-waiting would keep the mother and daughter company. Her older sister, Eleanor, brought about the creation of her own household within the castle their mother was virtually imprisoned in. In her final years, Joanna's physical state began to rapidly decline. Walking became more and more difficult for her. Joanna died on Good Friday, 12 April 1555 at age 75, after almost fifty years of imprisonment.[4] She is entombed in the Capilla Real of Granada, alongside her parents, her husband, and her nephew Miguel. Today, a statue of her stands in Tordesillas, and the quarters in which she was locked away can be viewed.

[edit] Madness

Most historians believe she suffered from schizophrenia and she was kept locked away and imprisoned. However, there is debate about her condition considering her symptoms were only apparent when she was being controlled or confined. Some historians argue she suffered from either manic depression or clinical depression, greatly worsened by the treatment she received from her husband, father, and son, all of whom wanted her out of the way in order to assume rulership for themselves. To legitimize the claims of her father and son to the throne, Joanna only nominally remained Queen regnant of Castile until her death.

[edit] Joanna in literature, art, music, film and other media


F.Pradilla Ortiz: Juana la Loca Depicts Queen Joanna in vigil over her husband's coffin.The figure of Queen Joanna attracted authors, composers, and artists of the romanticist movement, due to her characteristics of unrequited love, obsessive jealousy, and undying fidelity. Many later authors have followed this trend of portraying Joanna as a lovesick, and later griefstricken, woman, preferring to focus on her love for her husband than on her mental illness. An incomplete list of these works follows:

Felipe el Hermoso (1845) — Eusebio Asquerino and Gregorio Romero. A play in four acts.

La Locura de Amor (1855) — Manuel Tamayo y Baus. Play

Doña Juana la Loca (late 19th Cent.) — Emilio Serrano. Opera.

Juana la Loca (1877) — Francisco Pradilla. Painting (shown above). Currently in the Prado museum of Madrid, Spain.

Locura de amor (1948) — Juan de Orduña. Film.

La Loca (1979) — Gian Carlo Menotti. Opera.

Mariner by the playwright Don Nigro. Play.

Las Ruinas del Corazon (1999) — Eric Gamalinda. Poem.

Juana la Loca (2001) — directed by Vicente Aranda and starring Pilar López de Ayala as Joanna, was nominated for 12 Goya Awards, and was released in the US as Mad Love. Based on La Locura de Amor by Manuel Tamayo y Baus.

El Pergamino de la Seducción (2005) — Gioconda Belli. Novel in Spanish.

The Last Queen (2007) — C.W. Gortner. Novel in English and Spanish

The Bugle (2007-) TimesOnline podcast with John Oliver (comedian) and Andy Zaltzman. Joanna has been a long-time recurring figure, mainly in the 'Hotties from History' competition, in which she was chosen by John Oliver as his all-time favorite nominee in episode 59.

[edit] Issue

By Philip of Habsburg (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506; married in 1496)

Name Birth Death Notes

Eleanor 15 November 1498 25 February 1558 married firstly in 1518, Manuel I of Portugal and had issue; married secondly in 1530, Francis I of France and had no issue.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 24 February 1500 21 September 1558 married in 1526, Isabella of Portugal and had issue.

Isabella 18 July 1501 19 January 1526 married in 1515, Christian II of Denmark and had issue.

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 10 March 1503 25 July 1564 married in 1521, Anna of Bohemia and Hungary and had issue.

Mary 18 September 1505 18 October 1558 married in 1522, Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia and had no issue.

Catherine 14 January 1507 12 February 1578 married in 1525, John III of Portugal and had issue.

See also: Descendants of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon

[edit] Ancestors

Ancestors of Joanna of Castile and Aragon[show]


 16. John I of Castile (1358-1390) (=24) 
 
         

 8. Ferdinand I of Aragon (1380-1416)   
 
               

 17. Eleanor of Aragon (1358-1382) (=25) 
 
         

 4. John II of Aragon (1397-1479)   
 
                     

 18. Sancho of Alburquerque (1342-1375) 
 
         

 9. Eleanor of Alburquerque (1374-1435)   
 
               

 19. Infanta Beatriz of Portugal (c. 1347-1374) 
 
         

 2. Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516)   
 
                           

 20. Admiral Alonzo Henriques (?-1429)[19] 
 
         

 10. Frederick Henriques, Conde de Melgar (?-1473)[18]   
 
               

 21. Juana González[19] 
 
         

 5. Juana Enríquez (1425-1468)   
 
                     

 22. Diego Fernandez de Cordova (?-c. 1435)[20] 
 
         

 11. Mariana de Córdoba[18]   
 
               

 23. Inez de Toledo (?-c. 1453)[20] 
 
         

 1. Joanna of Castile and Aragon (1479-1555)   
 
                                 

 24. John I of Castile (1358-1390) (=16) 
 
         

 12. Henry III of Castile (1379-1406)   
 
               

 25. Eleanor of Aragon (1358-1382) (=17) 
 
         

 6. John II of Castile (1405-1454)   
 
                     

 26. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1340-1399) 
 
         

 13. Katherine of Lancaster (1372-1418)   
 
               

 27. Constance of Castile (1354-1394) 
 
         

 3. Isabella I of Castile (1451-1504)   
 
                           

 28. John I of Portugal (1357-1433) 
 
         

 14. Infante João of Portugal (1400-1442)   
 
               

 29. Philippa of Lancaster (1360-1415)[21] 
 
         

 7. Isabel of Portugal (1428-1496)   
 
                     

 30. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza (1370-1461) 
 
         

 15. Isabella of Braganza (1402-1445)[22]   
 
               

 31. Beatriz Pereira de Alvim (?-1420)[23] 
 
         

[edit] Biographies

Castilian and Leonese royalty

House of Trastámara


Henry II

Children include

  John I 
  Eleanor, Queen of Navarre 

John I

Children include

  Henry III 
  Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily 

Henry III and II of Leon

Children include

  John II 
  Maria, Queen of Aragon, Valencia, Sicily and Naples 

John II

Children include

  Henry IV 
  Isabella I 
  Alfonso, Prince of Asturias 

Henry IV and III of Leon

Children

  Joan, Queen of Portugal 

Isabella I with Ferdinand V

Children

  Isabella, Queen of Portugal 
  John, Prince of Asturias 
  Joanna the Mad 
  Maria, Queen of Portugal 
  Catherine, Queen of England 

Joanna


W. H. Prescott, Hist. of Ferdinand and Isabella (1854)

Rosier, Johanna die Wahnsinnige'(1890)

H. Tighe, A Queen of Unrest (1907).

R. Villa, La Reina doña Juana la Loca (1892)

Bethany Aram, Juana the Mad: Sovereignty and Dynasty in Renaissance Europe" (2005)

--------------------

Joanna of Castile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Juana of Castile)

Joanna (Spanish: Juana I de Castilla) (November 6, 1479 – April 12, 1555), called Joanna the Mad (Juana La Loca), was Queen regnant of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She was the second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Isabella of Castile, and was born at Toledo.

The Castilian version of her name was Juana. In Germanic countries, she is usually known by the Latin form of her name, Joanna. Other English equivalents of the name include Jane and Joan.

Life

In 1496 at Lier, just north of Brussels, Joanna was married to the Archduke Philip the Handsome, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Between 1498 and 1507 she gave birth to six children, two emperors and four queens. Arguably the most important one was Charles V in 1500.

The death of her only brother John, Prince of Asturias, her eldest sister Isabella of Asturias, Queen of Portugal, and then of the latter's infant son Miguel, Prince of Asturias, made Joanna the heiress of the Spanish kingdoms. Her only living siblings were Maria of Aragon and Catherine of Aragon, three and six years younger than Joanna. In 1502 the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognized Joanna as proprietary heiress to the Castilian throne, Charles as her successor, and Philip as her legitimate consort. She was then named Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally given to the heir of Castile.[1]

Joanna was said to pine day and night for her husband while he was overseas, and when she eventually joined Philip in Flanders, her passionate jealousy and constant suspicion of him made her notorious, if not necessarily beloved, in the local court.

Joanna

Upon the death of Isabella of Castile in November 1504, Joanna became Queen regnant of Castile, and her husband jure uxoris King; Joanna's father, Ferdinand, lost his title of 'King of Castile', although his wife's will permitted him to govern the country in Joanna's absence, or, if Joanna was unwilling to rule it herself, until Charles reached the age of 20. Ferdinand refused to accept this: he minted Castilian coins in the name of "Ferdinand and Juana, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Aragon", and in early 1505 persuaded the Cortes that Joanna's "illness...is such that the said Queen Doña Juana our Lady cannot govern"; the Cortes then appointed Ferdinand as Joanna's guardian, and as administrator and governor of the kingdom. However, Philip the Handsome was unwilling to accept any threat to his own chances of ruling Castile, and in response Ferdinand embarked upon a pro-French policy, marrying Germaine de Foix, the niece of Louis XII of France (and his own great-niece), in the hope that she would produce a son to inherit Aragon, and perhaps Castile. [2]

Ferdinand's remarriage merely strengthened support for Philip and Joanna in Castile, and in late 1505 the pair decided to travel to Castile. Leaving Flanders on 10 January 1506, their ships were wrecked on the English coast and the couple became guests of Henry VII at Windsor Castle. They were only able to leave on 21 April, by which time civil war was looming in Castile: Philip apparently considered landing in Andalusia and summoning the nobles to take up arms against Ferdinand. Instead, he and Joanna landed at Coruña on 26 April, upon which the Castilian nobility abandoned Ferdinand en masse. Ferdinand then met with Philip at Villafafila on 20 June 1506, and handed over the government of Castile to his "most beloved children", promising to retire to Aragon. Philip and Ferdinand then signed a second treaty, agreeing that Joanna's mental instability made her incapable of rule, and promising to exclude her from government. Ferdinand then proceeded to repudiate the agreement on the same afternoon, declaring that Joanna should never be deprived of her rights as Queen Proprietress of Castile. A fortnight later, having come to no fresh agreement with Philip, and thus effectively retaining his right to interfere if he considered his daughter's rights to be infringed, he abandoned Castile, leaving Philip to govern in Joanna's stead.[3]

This arrangement did not last long. On 25 September 1506 Philip died suddenly of typhus fever in Burgos. Joanna, pregnant with her sixth child, then made attempts to secure her rights to rule alone, in her own name; however, her arrogance and coldness towards important figures of the kingdom, the rumours of her mental instability and the unwillingness of the men around her to accept her rights doomed the endeavour. By 20 December 1506, she had quietly abandoned Burgos, heading for the village of Torquemada. By now, she was being characterised as "lost, without any sense", although her Secretary, Juan Lopez, declared her "more sane than her mother". She refused to trust Spanish women, even going so far as sending for a midwife from Flanders to assist in her delivery, and was characterised as refusing to abandon her dead husband's corpse. Meanwhile, the country fell into disorder. Her heir, Charles, was a six-year old child being raised in his aunt's care in far-off Flanders; her father, Ferdinand, remained in his own dominions, allowing the crisis to reach a head. A regency council under Archbishop Cisneros was set up (against the Queen's orders) but it was unable to manage the growing public disorder; plague and famine devastated the kingdom, with supposedly half the population perishing of one or the other; and the Queen was unable to secure the funds she required to shore up her power. In the face of this, Ferdinand returned to Castile in July 1507: a coincidental remission of the plague and famine quieted the instability, but left an impression that the health of the Kingdom had been restored by the return of Ferdinand.[4]

Ferdinand and Joanna met at Hornillos on 30 July 1507; Ferdinand then constrained her to yield up power to himself. On 17 August she summoned three members of the royal council and ordered them to inform the grandees, in her name, of Ferdinand's return: "That they should go to receive his highness and serve him as [they would] her person and more." She refused to sign the instructions: a last gesture of defiance, and a statement that she did not as Queen regnant endorse the surrender of her own royal power. Nonetheless, she was thereafter Queen only in name, and all documents, though issued in her name, were signed with Ferdinand's signature, "I the King". He would be named administrator of the kingdom by the Cortes of Castile in 1510, although he would entrust the government mainly to Cisneros. Joanna he would eventually install in Tordesillas, near Valladolid, in February 1509, after having dismissed all of her faithful servants and appointing a small retinue faithful to him alone. [5] By this time, she would appear to have been almost completely mad: some accounts claim that she took her husband's corpse with her to Tordesillas, to keep it close to her.[6]

Ferdinand would die in 1516, an embittered man: his second wife, Germaine, had failed to provide him with a male heir, leaving his eldest grandson, the Flemish-raised Charles of Ghent, as his heir. Ferdinand resented that Aragon and - in theory on the death of Joanna, in reality upon his own death - Castile would pass to this foreign grandchild, to whom he had transferred his hatred of Philip; instead, he nurtured hopes that his younger grandson and namesake, Ferdinand, who had been born and raised in Spain, could succeed, even naming Ferdinand as his heir in his will before being persuaded to revoke it and name Charles as his heir instead. When he died, Aragon - which based the succession upon a semi-salic convention, forbidding succession of females but allowing the succession of males descended through females - and its associated crowns thus passed not to Joanna but to Charles, being governed in his absence by Ferdinand's bastard son, Alonso de Aragon. Castile, still nominally subject to Joanna, continued to be governed by Cisneros due to the Queen's continuing insanity, although a group of nobles, led by the Duke of Infantado, attempted to proclaim the Infante Ferdinand as King of Castile. The attempt failed, and in October 1517, Charles arrived in Asturias. On 4 November, he and his sister Eleanor met Joanna at Tordesillas – there they secured from her the necessary authorization to allow Charles to rule as her co-King in Castile. Despite her acquiescence to his wishes, her imprisonment would continue; although the Castilian Cortes, meeting in Valladolid, would spite Charles by addressing him only as Su Alteza ("Your Highness") and reserving Magestad ("Majesty") for Joanna, no-one seriously considered rule by Joanna a real proposition.[7]

In 1520, the Revolt of the Comuneros (1520–1522), a revolt against the harsh royal control over Castile, broke out. The rebel leaders demanded that Castile be governed in accordance with the supposed practices of the Catholic Kings; in an attempt to legitimise their rebellion, the rebels turned to Joanna: as theoretical sovereign monarch, if she gave written approval of the rebellion, it would be legalised and would triumph. In an attempt to prevent this, Don Antonia de Rojas, Bishop of Mallorca, led a delegation of royal councilors to Tordesillas, asking her to sign a document denouncing the Comuneros; she demurred, requesting that he present her specific provisions. Before this could be done, the Comuneros in turn stormed the palace and requested her support (prompting Adrian of Utrecht, the regent appointed by Charles, to declare that the emperor would lose Castile if she did so). Persuaded by Ochoa de Landa and her confessor, Fray Juan de Avila, she showed sympathy to the comuneros, but refused to sign: to do so, she was persuaded, would cause irreparable damage to her kingdom and to her son's rights. Charles repaid her loyalty to him when he quelled the uprising, having her locked up for the rest of her life in a windowless room in the castle of Tordesillas. She died on Good Friday, April 12, 1555.[8]

Most historians believe she suffered from schizophrenia and she was kept locked away and imprisoned. Needed to legitimize the claims of her father and son to the throne, Joanna only nominally remained Queen regnant of Castile until her death.

She is entombed in the Capilla Real of Granada, alongside her parents, her husband, and her nephew Miguel.

--------------------

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johanna_von_Kastilien

Johanna (Kastilien)

aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie

(Weitergeleitet von Johanna von Kastilien)

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Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit Johanna der Wahnsinnigen. Zur Königin von Portugal siehe Johanna von Kastilien (Portugal).

Johanna von Kastilien

Bronzestatue in der Hofkirche zu Innsbruck, daneben ihr Vater

Johanna I., genannt Johanna die Wahnsinnige, (span. Juana I de Castilla bzw. Juana la Loca) (* 14. November 1479 in Toledo; † 12. April 1555 in Tordesillas) aus dem Haus Trastámara war von 1504 bis 1506 Königin, von 1506 bis 1555 nur mehr Titularkönigin von Kastilien und von 1516 bis 1555 auch Titularkönigin von Aragonien.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
   * 2 Nachkommen
   * 3 Vorfahren
   * 4 Nachwirken in Literatur, Musik und Film
   * 5 Literatur
   * 6 Weblinks
   * 7 Einzelnachweise

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Johanna als junge Frau

Sie war die Tochter der Katholischen Könige Isabella I. von Kastilien (1451–1504) und Ferdinand II. von Aragón (1452–1516).

Die junge Infantin fiel schon früh durch eine ungewöhnliche Ernsthaftigkeit und ein allgemein introvertiertes Verhalten auf. Sie wird von Zeitgenossen als sehr klein, sehr zart, mit bleicher Haut und großen dunklen Augen, als immer verschlossen und abweisend und äußerst schweigsam beschrieben. Gemeinsam mit ihren Geschwistern genoss sie eine ausgezeichnete Erziehung durch hervorragende Lehrer und vor allem durch Geistliche. Die religiösen Pflichten spielten eine zentrale Rolle in ihrem Leben, sie sprach fließend Latein. Musik war ihr Lieblingsfach und schon als Mädchen spielte sie sehr gut Gitarre.

Ihre Schwestern wurden Königinnen in England und Portugal: Katharina wurde mit Arthur Tudor - nach seinem Tod mit seinem Bruder Heinrich VIII. von England, Maria von Spanien mit Emanuel I. von Portugal verheiratet. Marias Enkelin Maria Manuela wurde die 1. Ehefrau von Johannas Enkel Philipp II..

Im Zuge einer Allianz mit dem Hause Habsburg wurde sie als 16-jährige mit Philipp dem Schönen (1478–1506) verlobt, den sie 1496 heiratete. Ihr Bruder sollte Philipps Schwester heiraten. Durch diese spanisch-habsburgische Doppelhochzeit sollte der Erzfeind Frankreich geographisch umzingelt werden. Als Philipp Johanna zum ersten Mal sah, bestand er darauf, sofort einen Priester kommen zu lassen, der sie augenblicklich trauen musste. Gleich darauf verschwand das Paar im Schlafzimmer. Johanna liebte angeblich ihren Ehemann mit großer Heftigkeit und Eifersucht. Zeitweise war sie bestrebt, jedes weibliche Wesen aus der Umgebung Philipps zu entfernen. Aus ihrer Ehe gingen sechs Kinder hervor.

1497 verstarb unerwartet ihr Bruder, der Thronfolger Johann (1478–1497). Die Witwe des Thronfolgers Johann, Margarete von Österreich, war zum Zeitpunkt seines Todes schwanger und brachte einen Sohn zur Welt, der jedoch tot geboren wurde. Die nächste in der Thronfolge war Ferdinands und Isabellas älteste Tochter Isabella, die mit dem portugiesischen König Manuel verheiratet war. Sie starb bei der Geburt ihres Sohnes Miguel, der nun der nächste Thronerbe war, jedoch mit anderthalb Jahren ebenfalls starb. Damit wurde Johanna Thronfolgerin. Nach dem Tod ihrer Mutter Isabella 1504 wurde sie Erbin der kastilischen Königswürde.

Nach dem frühen Tod ihres Gatten im Jahre 1506 verfiel Johanna der Sage nach dem Wahnsinn. Angeblich weigerte sie sich, den Sarg mit Philipps Leiche herauszugeben, den sie regelmäßig öffnete, um sich zu vergewissern, dass Philipp lediglich schlafe. Allerdings gibt es auch Aussagen, wonach sie den Sarg nur einmal geöffnet hatte, wie es von ihr erwartet wurde, um zu kontrollieren, dass der richtige Leichnam begraben werden sollte, und der Rest der künstlerischen Freiheit des Erzählers entsprang.

Schließlich wurde sie, angeblich wegen ihres Zustandes, unter der Obhut der Klosterfrauen des Klosters Santa Clara in der Festung von Tordesillas gefangengesetzt. Ob dies tatsächlich aufgrund ihrer psychischen Verfassung geschah oder aus machtpolitischen Gründen, ist Gegenstand der Forschung. Einsam starb Johanna im Jahre 1555 im (für die damalige Zeit ungewöhnlich hohen) Alter von 75 Jahren an den Folgen einer Verbrühung. Ihr Grab befindet sich im Dom von Granada, in der Capilla Real, der königlichen Kapelle.

Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Die drei ältesten Kinder Johannas - Karl, Eleonore und Isabella (von links)

∞ 20. Oktober 1496 Philipp I. von Kastilien, dem Schönen, aus dem Haus Habsburg

   * Eleonore von Kastilien (1498–1558), durch Heirat Königin von Portugal und Königin von Frankreich
        1. ∞ 1519 Manuel I. (1469 –1521) König von Portugal
        2. ∞ 1530 Franz I. (1494–1547) König von Frankreich
   * Karl V. (1500–1558) Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, König von Spanien ∞ Isabella von Portugal (1503–1539)
   * Isabella von Österreich (1501–1526) ∞ 1515 Christian II. (1481–1559) König von Dänemark
   * Ferdinand I. (1503–1564) Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, König von Böhmen und Ungarn ∞ 1521 Anna von Böhmen und Ungarn (1503–1547)
   * Maria von Kastilien (1505–1558), ∞ 1515 Ludwig II. (1506–1526) König von Böhmen und Ungarn
   * Katharina von Kastilien (1507–1578) ∞ 1525 Johann III. (1502–1557) König von Portugal
Nachwirken in Literatur, Musik und Film [Bearbeiten]

Die Lebensgeschichte von Johanna der Wahnsinnigen wurde in dem 1994 in deutsch erschienenen Roman Johanna die Wahnsinnige von Catherine Hermary-Vieille literarisch verarbeitet, sowie im 2005 erschienenen Roman der nicaraguanischen Schriftstellerin Gioconda Belli Das Manuskript der Verführung. Auch Jakob Wassermanns Erzählung Donna Johanna von Kastilien (1906) behandelt den Stoff.

Musikalisch beschäftigt sich Gian Carlo Menotti mit dem Stoff in seiner Oper La Loca (in den frühen Aufführungen: Juana la loca) aus dem Jahr 1979.

Im Jahr 2001 führte Vicente Aranda Regie bei der Verfilmung ihrer Lebensgeschichte. Originaltitel Juana la Loca mit Pilar López de Ayala (Goya-Preis 2002 für die beste Hauptdarstellerin)

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Thea Leitner: Habsburgs goldene Bräute: durch Mitgift zur Macht. München: Piper 2007. ISBN 3-492-23525-5
   * Manuel Fernández Alvarez: Johanna die Wahnsinnige 1479 -1555. Königin und Gefangene. München: Beck 2005. ISBN 3-406-52913-5
   * Gioconda Belli: Das Manuskript der Verführung. Wuppertal: Hammer 2005. ISBN 3-7795-0035-3
   * Johan Brouwer: Johanna die Wahnsinnige: Glanz und Elend einer spanischen Königin. Kreuzlingen [u.a.]: Hugendubel 2004. ISBN 3-424-01258-0

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

Commons Commons: Johanna von Kastilien – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

   * Literatur über Johanna (Kastilien) im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Datensatz zu Johanna (Kastilien) • PICA-Datensatz • Apper-Personensuche)
   * Johanna I. die Wahnsinnige, genealogie-mittelalter.de
   * Johanna die Wahnsinnige, FemBiographie
   * Johanna die Wahnsinnige GEO Epoche (Audiofile)

Einzelnachweise [Bearbeiten]

   * Constantin von Wurzbach: Johanna von Castilien, Gemalin Philipp´s. Nr. 120. In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich.  Bd 6. Verlag L. C. Zamarski, Wien 1856–1891, S. 288–290 (auf Wikisource).

Vorgängerin

Isabella I. und Ferdinand V.

Königin von Kastilien und León

1504-1555

1504–1506 mit ihrem Gemahl Philipp I.

1506-1516 regentschaft von Ferdinand V.

1516-1555 mit ihrem Sohn Karl I. Nachfolger

Karl I.

Vorgängerin

Ferdinand II.

Königin von Aragonien

1516-1555<

mit ihrem Sohn Karl I. Nachfolger

Karl I.

Normdaten: PND: 118557793 – weitere Informationen | LCCN: n85331278 | VIAF: 22933370 -------------------- Joanna I (Spanish: Juana I) (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555) was Queen regnant of Castile and Queen regnant of Aragon, in present day Spain. Joanna was the last monarch of the Iberian House of Trastámara, and her marriage to Philip of Burgundy (Philip the Handsome) initiated the Habsburg Dynasty rule in Spain.

Joanna was born in the ancient Visigothic city of Toledo, the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. She was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna was an intelligent child and student. In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator and member of the Queen's court Beatriz Galindo, and her mother, the Queen. She was accomplished in the religious studies, court etiquette, the arts of dance and music, and equestrian skills. Joanna mastered all of the Iberian Romance languages: Castilian, Leonese, Galician-Portuguese, and Catalan. She also was fluent in French and Latin. She was trained and educated to enter a significant marriage that through royal family alliances would expand the kingdoms' influence, power, security, and peace with other ruling powers. As an infanta she was not expected to be an heir to the throne of Castile or Aragon, although through deaths she later became so.

In 1496 Joanna, at the age of sixteen, was betrothed to Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy (titular), in the region of Flanders in the Low Countries. Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. The marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power. Joanna entered a proxy marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid, Castile Spain (her parents secretly married here in 1469). In August 1496 Joanna left from the port of Laredo in northern Spain on the Atlantic's Bay of Biscay. She would not see her mother or siblings again, except for her younger sister Catherine of Aragon in 1506, as the Queen of England. She would see her father Ferdinand II again, in his ruthless political efforts to prevent and rescind her and Philip's crowns. Joanna began her journey on 22 August 1496 to Flanders in the Low Countries, parts of present day the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, and Germany. The formal marriage took place on 20 October 1496 in Lier, north of present day Brussels. Between 1498 and 1507 she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.

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Juana I la Loca, reina nominal de Castilla's Timeline

1479
November 6, 1479
Toledo, Toledo, Castille La Mancha, Spain
1496
August 21, 1496
Age 16
Antwerp, Belgique
October 20, 1496
- October 20, 1496
Age 16
Bruges, West Flanders, Belgium
1498
November 15, 1498
Age 19
Leuven, Vlaams Brabant, Flemish Region, Belgium
1500
February 24, 1500
Age 20
Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Gewest, Belgium
1501
July 18, 1501
Age 21
Gent, Spanish Flanders
1503
March 10, 1503
Age 23
Alcala de Henares, Castellón, Espagna
1505
September 15, 1505
Age 25
Bruxelles, Nederlande
1507
January 14, 1507
Age 27
Torquemada, Palencia, Spain
1555
April 11, 1555
Age 75
Tordesillas, Valladolid, Castille and Leon, Spain